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Li m u

Trong nhng nm gn y, ngnh cng nghip truyn hnh c nhng


thnh tu to ln vi nhng tin b vt bc: l qu trnh chuyn i t cng
ngh analog sang cng ngh digital t cc khu trong cng on sn xut
chng trnh, truyn dn tn hiu (bng cc h thng vi ba, v tinh), cho n
cng on pht sng qung b.
Cng vi xu th pht trin ca ngnh cng nghip truyn hnh trn th gii,
trong nhng nm 1997 n nm 1998, i truyn hnh Vit Nam i su
nghin cu v ng dng cc cng on sn xut chng trnh, pht sng cng
ngh s qua v tinh (chng trnh VTV3). Cng trong thi gian h thng
truyn hnh s mt t ang trong giai on nghin cu, th nghim chn ra
tiu chun ph hp vi h thng truyn hnh ca Vit Nam.
n nm 2001, i truyn hnh Vit Nam chnh thc chn tiu chun
pht sng s mt t theo tiu chun Chu u (DVB-T), v cng t thi im
ny i truyn hnh Vit Nam s c mt qu trnh chuyn i t my pht hnh
tung t sang my pht hnh s, hoc l thay th dn bng my pht hnh s.
Vi s pht trin nh v bo ca truyn hnh k thut s nh vy, nhng
vn cn nhiu vn t ra trong qu trnh s ho.
Vi tham vng l cung cp nhng kin thc c bn nht v cng ngh
truyn hnh (c tng t v s) cho sinh vin ngnh TVT ( v c nhng ngi
yu thch cng ngh truyn hnh). Gio trnh s l nn tng kin thc sinh
vin tip cn v gii quyt nhng vn t ra trong cng cuc s ho truyn
hnh.
1
Phn I
C s k thut truyn hnh
Chng I
My thu hnh en trng
1-1. nh sng v mu sc
1.1.1 - nh sng v sng in t
nh sng v sng in t c nhiu tnh cht ging nhau nn n c mang
tn chung l bc x in t.
Cc bc x in t c di tn rng, t vi chc hez(Hz) n vi GHz
di tn c gi l ph in t.
nh sng thy c ch chim mt phn rt nh t 3,8.10
14
Hz n 7,8.10
14
Hz tng ng vi bc sng t 780nm n 380 nm.
(m)
f(Hz)
C(m/s)

tc nh sng 300.000 km/s
f: tn s sng in t (hz)
Ta c ph ca sng in t v nh sng thy c.
F(hz) 10
5
10
14
10
16
(m)
3000m
3m
30nm 0,3nm
Sng radio Hng ngoi Cc tm Tia X
Tia
760
nm
Cam Vng Lc Lam Chm Tm 380nm
ng vi mi mt mu sc s c mt bc sng khc nhau nh vy s c
mt tn s khc nhau.
nh sng trng l mt dng ca sng in t, c tng hp t cc mu
sc khc nhau mi mu c mt bc sng ring bit gi l nh sng n sc.
2
Hnh 1. 1
Truyn hnh en trng ch l truyn hnh n sc, khng phi l truyn
hnh mu v en trng ch c thng tin v sng ti ca hnh nh, nhng thng
tin ny thay i t ti (en) n sng (trng).
c tnh ca mt ngi
Mt ngi khng phi nhy cm vi tt c cc mu l nh nhau, m ng vi
mi mu sc n s c mt nhy khc nhau, hnh (1. 2) di y s minh ho
iu .
Qua hnh v ta thy: mt ngi nhy cm nht i vi mu xanh l cy l mu
c bc sng 550 Nm. V nhy cm gim dn mu c bc sng 400Nm
v bc sng 700Nm
nhy tng phn - Contrast
min
L
max
L
K


Trong L
max
l cng chi ln nht ca chi tit nh
L
min
l cng chi nh nht ca chi tit nh
nhy sng:
chnh lch ti thiu v chi gia 2 chi tit nh m mt c th phn tch
c.
L = L
0
-L
n
trong L
0
l chi ca chi tit nh
L
n
chi ca nn
nhy tng phn:
Ln
L

3
400 450 500 550 600 650 700

nhy
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Violet .................................................Red
Hnh 1. 2
Kh nng phn gii ca mt:
L kh nng mt c th phn bit c 2 chi tit A v B khi rt gn khong cch
gia chng m khi rt ngn na th mt khng phn bit c hai chi tit Av B
ny na.
Gc nhn nh nht:
L gc nh nht m mt ngi c th phn bit c hai chi tit A v B. Thc
t gc nhn nh nht l t 1 pht n 1,3 pht.
Qun tnh ca mt
Khi ta nhn mt vt nu vt t ngt mt i th hnh nh trong mt cha
mt i ngay m cn lu li trn vng mc khong 1s, hin tng gi l hin
tng lu nh trn vng mc. Nh vy m c th truyn hnh nh n mt mt
cch khng lin tc nhng mt vn cho l lin tc.
1.1.2 - Mu sc
a. Khi nim v mu sc:
Mu sc l nhng sng in t m mt thng c th phn bit c.
b. Cc thng s c trng cho mu sc:
chi
Sc thi- cm gic ch quan ca mt v c c trng bi bc sng.
bo ho mu: Mc nh sng trng ln vo nh sng n sc.
1.1.3 - L thuyt mu
a. Cu trc ca h thng th gic.
4
Vng mc cha cc phn t th cm ni lin vi bn cu no bng dy thn kinh
th gic.
Tm vng mc c cha cc t bo hnh que (khong 150.000.000 t bo) v cc
t bo hnh nn v ch c t bo hnh nn l cm nhn c mu sc v c
khong 6,5 triu t bo hnh nn tp trung hong im v cc vng ln cn.
b. Kh nng thch ng ca mt vi mu sc
5
Thu
tinh
dch
Vnh
mc
Hong
im
Thn kinh th
gic
Thu
knh
Gic mc
Mng
mt
Hnh 1. 3
Mt ch phn bit c mu sc tt nht khi nh ngay trc mt.
Mt khng th cm nhn ng thi nhiu chi tit v mu sc tinh vi.
c. L thuyt 3 mu.
Nu ta cng cc mu: , cam, vng, lc, lam, trm, tm vi cng mt nng
lng nh nhau th ta s c nh sng trng. Nhng theo thuyt 3 mu v th
gic th tt c cc mu u to thnh t 3 mu c bn l red (R), green (G),
blue (B) v c gi l 3 mu c bn.
d. Phng php trn mu
Hnh 1. 4 biu din s pha trn mu.
hnh thnh mu trng ta c th pha trn ba mu l R,B,G.
Khi trn mu vi mu xanh dng ta c mu vng.
Khi trn mu vi mu xanh dng ta c mu thm, cn gi l
mu Violet.
Khi trn hai mu xanh dng v mu xanh lc ta c mu xanh l m
cn gi l mu xanh da tri (Cyance).
1-2. Nguyn l truyn hnh nh trong truyn hnh mu.
1.2.1 - Nguyn l truyn hnh nh
truyn c mt bc nh t my pht n my thu ngi ta phi thc hin
theo nguyn tc sau:
- Chia bc nh thnh nhiu phn t nh (im nh: point picture v c khong
500 nghn phn t , hay l 500 nghn im nh) c bin chi trung bnh ca
tng phn t nh thnh cc tn hiu in tng ng.
6
B
G
R
Vng (Yellow)
thm
(Violet)
Lam (Cyance)
T
Hnh 1. 4
Red
Trng (White)
Xanh dng (Blue)
Xanh l
(Green)
- Truyn ln lt thng tin v chi trung bnh ca tng phn t nh t my
pht n my thu.
- my pht phi c qu trnh phn tch nh. Ngi ta dng tia in t qut trn
hnh nh theo quy lut nht nh v khi qut n u s chuyn i chi
trung bnh ca tng phn t nh thnh tn hiu in tng ng vi im nh
(phn t nh) .
- my thu: Thng tin v hnh nh my pht chuyn n s c a n
khng ch chm tia in t trong n hnh. Khi chm tia in t qut trn mn
hnh s lm cho tng im nh trn mn hnh pht sng. chi ca tng im
nh s t l vi cng ca chm tia in t.
m bo khi phc c hnh nh my thu ging nh pha u vo my
pht phi c 2 iu kin:
* Tc qut nh phi cao, sao cho m bo c 24 hnh/s.
* Quy lut qut my pht v my thu phi ging nhau. Nh vy ngoi thng
tin v chi ca hnh nh th my pht phi pht i mt tin tc v gc thi gian
c gi l tn hiu ng b Synchronous Signal ng b vic qut ca
chm tia in t my thu ging nh pha my pht.
1.2.2 - Nguyn l qut lin tc.
Quy lut qut lin tc ca tia in t trong truyn hnh ging nh quy lut
c mt trang sch v ch c iu khc l trong qu trnh qut t tri sang phi
th tia in t ng thi qut t trn xung di, khi n mp phi mn hnh th
tia in t ng thi qut t trn xung di, khi n mp phi mn hnh th tia
in t lp tc quay v bn tri, tip tc qut dng tip theo.
Qu trnh qut t tri qua phi l qu trnh qut thun v qu trnh ny
mang thng tin v hnh nh.
7
Quy lut c sch Quy lut qut lin tc
Qut thun(c data)
Qut ngc(khng data)
Hnh 1. 5
Qu trnh qut t phi qua tri l qu trnh qut ngc, qu trnh ny
khng mang thng tin v hnh nh nn ngi ta phi lm cho tia in t khng
xut hin trn mn nh do ta khng nhn thy c tia qut ngc.
Khi tia in t qut ht mt nh th tia in t mp pha di, bn
phi ca mn hnh n lp tc quay v v tr mp trn bn tri ca mn hnh v
bt u qut tip dng th nht ca nh th 2.
Tuy nhin phng php qut lin tc khng c dng trong truyn hnh
v khi qut nh th 2 th cng sng ca nh th nht gim nn mt cm
thy nhp nhy trn mn hnh v s gy ra cm gic kh chu cho ngi xem.
1.2.3 - Phng php qut xen dng
Mi mt nh c qut lm 2 ln. Mi ln qut s qut mt bn nh (2
bn nh bng 1 hnh nh. Two half opicture are make picture)
Ln 1: Qut cc dng chn: (2,4,6.. .. . hnh 1. 6 ) c gi l bn nh chn hay
mnh chn.
Tia in t bt u qut t mp trn bn tri v kt thc im gia mp di
ca mn hnh. Sau tia in t lp tc quay v im gia mp trn qut cc
dng l.
Ln 2: Qut cc dng l, hay cn gi l bn nh l (Hnh 1.7).
Khi qut mnh l th tia in t bt u xut pht t im gia mp trn mn
hnh v kt thc mp di pha phi ca mn hnh sau tia in t lp tc
quay v pha trn bn phi ca mn hnh tip tc qut cc mnh chn ca nh
tip theo.
8
2
4
n
1
3
5
Hnh 1. 6
Hnh 1. 7
Kt hp hai mnh qut ta c mt nh nh hnh (1. 8)
Trong truyn hnh ngi ta s dng 25 h/s to ra mt bc nh chuyn
ng, qut ht 25 h/s th tn s mnh l : f
mnh
= 25x2 bn nh = 50Hz.
Ch : cc nc M v Nht th f
Mnh
= 60Hz
1.2.4 - Xc nh s dng qut, s phn t nh
Xc nh s dng qut
Trong thc t th mn nh c kch thc mn hnh c t l 3 /4 hoc 4/6 v bng
thc nghim ngi ta chng minh c rng nu ngi ngi xem TV cch
TV mt khong L bng t (4-:-6) h l tt nht (vi h l chiu cao ca mn
hnh).
C l gc trng ln nht
9
Mnh chn Mnh l
Hnh 1. 8
- gc trng ln nht
- gc trng b nht

h
L
Hnh 1. 9
l gc trng b nht
Ta tnh nh sau:
6)h 2.(4
H
2L
h
2
tg

= (10-:-14)
0
Ta li c : gc trng nh nht ca mt l =1 t tnh c s dng qut N:
840 600
14 10

N
60
1



dng
Vi cc h thng truyn hnh khc nhau s c s la chn cc tiu chun truyn
hnh khc nhau.
Vit Nam theo tiu chun OIRT ly N = 625 dng
Tiu chun Nht - M (FCC ) ly N = 525 dng
Tiu chun HDTV(Hight Definition Television) truyn hnh c nt cao th
ngi ta chn N =1070 dng (cho FCC) or N = 2700 dng (cho OIRT)
Tn s qut dng
OIRT: f
H
= 25x625 = 15625 dng
FCC: f
H
= 525x30 = 15750 dng
Tn s qut mnh
OIRT: f
v
= 50Hz
FCC: F
v
= 60Hz
Tn s Video cc i:
Ta bit s phn t nh theo chiu dc l 625 s phn t nh theo chiu ngang
l (625x4)/3 tng s im nh l(giao im dng qut dc v ngang):
(625x625x4)/3=520.833 im nh.
Tn s Video cc i:
6,5(Mhz)
2
25 520833
videomax
f

Theo tiu chun OIRT chn f


video max
= 6 (Mhz)
FCC chn f
video max
= 4,2(Mhz)
1-3. Tn hiu th tn
1.3.1 - S hnh thnh tn hiu th tn
10
U
trng
: in p ng vi mc trng
U
en
: in p ng vi mc en
Vi bt k cnh quay no th in p ca tn hiu th tn cng bin i t:
U

U
trng
.
Tn s ca tn hiu Video (tn hiu th tn (f
video
))
Tn s ln nht khi ta truyn i mt hnh nh m hnh nh gm c en v
trng xen k nhau, mi tng ng vi mt im nh.
Khi tia in t qut qua 2 lin tip s to thnh mt chu k tn hiu th tn,
nh vy tn s ca tn hiu Video c sc nh nh sau:
6(MHz)
3.2
25 4
2
625
f

Vi h: OIRT chn f
video max
= 6 MHz
11
U
trng
U

Trng Xm en
t
Hnh 1. 10
en Trng
t
T
U
T
U

Hnh 1. 11
FCC chn f
video max
= 4,2MHz
Tn s Video min s hnh thnh khi ta truyn i mt cnh m cnh l mt
na en, mt na trng theo chiu ngang.
Mi mnh qut s to ra mt nh nh vy ta tm c tn s qut mnh nh sau:
f
mnh
= 50Hz hoc 60 Hz.
Khi ta truyn i cnh nn th f
video
= 0Hz tc l ta truyn i tn hiu DC.
1.3.2 - Dng sng v hnh dng ph ca tn hiu video (th tn)
Hnh dng ph ca F
VIDEO
th hin nh hnh (1. 12)
Ta
c
nhn xt rng ph tn hiu video gm cc nhm ph gin on hay cn gi l
ph vch bao gm.
Tn s mnh f
v
v cc hi ca f
V
Cc nhm tn s dng f
H
v hi ca f
H
Cc hi cng cao th bin cng nh v gia cc nhm ph c nhng khong
trng.
Dng sng ca tn hiu th tn: Tn hiu th tn thng c 2
loi l video cc tnh dng v Video cc tnh m, th hin nh hnh (1. 13)
Vi hnh 1. 13A l dng ca Video cc tnh dng, cn hnh 1. 13B l Video
cc tnh m.
12
U
f
f
v
2f
v
nf
v
f
H
2f
H
f
H
-f
v
f
H
+f
v
Hnh 1. 12





Hnh 1. 13
Mc trng
100%
Mc ng b
(0 3%)
Mc so
30%
Mc en
35%
Mc ng
b 100%
Mc so
75%
Mc en
70%
Mc trng
cc i 15%
Hnh 1. 13A
Hnh 1. 13B
1.3.3 - Tn hiu truyn hnh y
Hnh 1. 14 cho ta:
Thi gian qut ht mt dng l T
H
= 64s
Thi gian qut thun ca mt dng l : 59s
Thi gian qut ngc ca mt dng l : 5s
Xung ng b mnh (Vsync) c thi gian bng (2,5 n 3) T
H
Xung tt mnh c thi gian l (23 n 30)T
H
Nh vy tn hiu truyn hnh y cc tnh m bao gm:
Tn hiu th tn t mc trng (10 15)%% n mc en 70% , mc xo l 75%,
mc xung ng b l 100%.
Mc xung ng b mc 100% gm c xung ng b dng v xung ng b
mnh.
Hsync: xung ng b dng
Thi gian qut thun: T
T
= 59s
Thi gian qut ngc: T
N
= 5s
Thi gian mt dng qut hay gi l chu k qut dng T
H
= 64s
Vsync: xung ng b mnh
Thi gian ca xung xo mn hnh l 25T
H
Thi gian ca xung ng b mnh l (2,5- 3)T
H
Mc xo nm trn mc en m bo trong qu trnh qut ngc tia in t b
tt hon ton.
13

1T
H
Xung cn bng
trc
Xung ng b
mnh (2,5 3)T
H
Xung cn
bng sau
Xung tt mnh (23 -30)T
H
Hnh 14
1-4. Pht sng tn hiu truyn hnh
1.4.1 - S khi h thng pht tn hiu truyn hnh.
1.4.2 - iu ch tn hiu hnh, ting.
Tn hiu hnh c di tn t 0 -:- 6MHz cho (OIRT) v pht tn hiu ny
ngi ta tin hnh iu ch ( chuyn ph ln di tn siu cao tn) cho band
VHF c tn s t 48MHz n 230 MHz hoc band UHF c gii tn t (300
3000) Mhz v chia thnh nhiu knh sng.
i vi tn hiu hnh ngi ta tin hnh iu ch bin (AM) v thnh phn
ph ca tn hiu i ch bin gm 3 thnh phn:
Sng mang F
OV
Di bin tn trn: (F
OV
+F
ViDEO MIN
n F
OV
+F
ViDEO MAX
)
Di bin tn di: F
OV
+F
ViDEO MAX
n F
OV
+F
ViDEO MIN
)
Trong F
OV
: tn s mang tn hiu hnh (th tn)
F
ViDEO
tn s tn hiu hnh
14
AM K cng
sut hnh
OSC sng
mang hnh f
ov
FM
OSC sng
mang ting f
o a
K cng
sut ting
B lc
phn tch
Video
Audio
Ante
na
Hnh 1. 15
Ph ca tn hiu Video c o rng l: f
ov
-f
videomax
n f
ov
+f
video max
tc l bng:
2xf
videomax
= 6x2 = 12MHz (hnh 1. 16A).
tit kim tn ph v nng cao chn lc tn s ln cn th ngi ta ch pht
i thnh phn ph gm c sng mang f
ov
, ton b di bin tn trn v mt phn
di bin tn di hnh (1 .16B).
15
iu ch tn hiu ting
Tn hiu ting c iu ch FM vo sng mang f
oa
v cng nm trong di tn
s siu cao f
oa
>f
ov
tu thuc vo knh sng ang truyn.
f
oa
v f
ov
c iu ch v pht i trn mt knh theo phng thc hp sng
mang
do tn ph tn hiu ca mt knh truyn hnh c rng l 8MHz.
Vi h: OIRT khong cch gia f
ov
v f
oa
: 6,5 MHz
FCC khong cch gia f
ov
v f
oa
: 4,5 MHz
CCIR khong cch gia f
ov
v f
oa
: 5,5 MHz
rng knh ca mt knh truyn hnh
16
f
ov
6,5 MHz
8 MHz
f (MHz)
f
OA
Hnh 1. 17
f
ov
+f
video max
Bin
f
ov
+f
video min
f
ov
-f
video min
f
ov
-f
video Max
F
OV
F
Bin
F
OV
F
Bin tn trn v mt
phn bin tn di
Hnh 1. 16B
Hnh 1. 16A
OIRT: 8MHz
FCC: 6MHz
CCIR: 7MHz
Ch rng tn hiu VTTH c iu ch theo tng knh sng th :
dng cao tn ta c tn s mang ting > tn s mang hnh.
Sau khi i tn (thnh tn s trung tn) th tn s mang hnh > tn s mang
ting.
Thc hin phch hai tn s trung tn mang hnh v trung tn mang ting
ta c c tn s trung tn ting.
1.4.3 - Di thng v cu trc knh truyn hnh
Bng VHF (very hight frequency) 48300MHz (hnh 1. 18)
Knh sng
Chenal
Tn s mang hnh
Carry frequency
Di tn
(Range band)
1
49,75
48,5 56,5
2
59,25
866
3
77,25
7684
4
85,25
84 92
5
93,25
92 100
6
175,25
174182
7
183,25
182190
8
191,25
190198
9
199,25
198206
10
207,25
206214
11
215,25
214222
12
223,25
222230
Bng UHF (Untral hight frequency) c gii tn t (300960) MHz (hnh 1. 19)
Knh
sng
(Chenal)
Tn s mang hnh
(Carry frequency)
Di tn(MHz)
(Range band)
21
471,25
470478
22
479,25
478486
23
487,25
486494
24
495,25
494502
17
Hnh 1.18
25
503,25
502510
26
511,25
510518
27
519,25
518526
28
527,25
526534
29
535,25
534542
30
543,25
542550
31
551,25
550558
32
559,25
558566
33
567,25
566574
34
575,25
574582
35
583,25
582590
36
591,25
590v598
37
599,25
598606
38
607,25
606614
39
615,25
614622
40
623,25
622630
41
631,25
630638
42
639,25
638646
43
647,25
646654
44
655,25
654662
45
663,25
662670
46
671,25
670678
47
679,25
678686
48
687,25
6866994
49
695,25
694702
50
703,25
702710
51
711,25
710718
52
719,25
718726
53
727,25
726734
54
735,25
734742
55
743,25
742750
56
751,25
750758
57
759,25
758766
58
767,25
766774
59
775,25
774782
60
783,25
782790
61
791,25
790798
62
799,25
798806
18
63
807,25
806814
64
815,25
814822
65 823,25 822v830
66
831,25
830838
67
839,25
838846
68
847,25
846854
69
855,25
854 862
1.4.4 - Cc thng s ca cc h thng truyn hnh
Hin nay c 3 t chc truyn hnh quc t cng song song tn ti l :
OIRT: U ban pht thanh truyn hnh th gii (Oganiration international
radio and Television)
FCC: Hip hi truyn thng lin bang M-Nht (Federal Communication
Commission)
CCIR: U ban t vn v tuyn in quc t (c, Bc u -
Communication Commission International Radio)
Cc tiu chun c bn ca cc h thng truyn hnh
TT Cc tiu chun k thut OIRT CCIR FCC
1 S dng trong mt nh 625 625 525
2 S nh trong mt giy 25 25 30
3 F
H
(tn s dng) 15625 15625 15750
4 F
V
(tn s mnh) 50 50 60
5 iu ch tn hiu hnh AM AM AM
6 iu ch tn hiu ting FM FM FM
7 Phng php qut Xen dng Xen dng Xen dng
8 rng di tn hnh(MHz) 6,0 5 4,2
9 Khong cch f
OV
(MHz) v f
OA
6,5 5,5 4,5
10 rng mt knh truyn hnh 8(MHz) 7 6
11 Trung tn hnh (MHz) 38 38 45,75
12 Trung tn ting(MHz) 31,5 32,5 41,25
13 Trung tn ting 2 (MHz) 6,5 5,5 4,5
14 Mc ng b 100% 100% 100%
15 Mc xo 75% 75% 75%
16 Mc trng 10% 10% 10%
1-6. S khi my thu hnh en trng
1.6.1 - S khi
Khi knh: Tuner
K trung tn hnh:VIF
19
Tch sng hnh: Video Det
Khuych i trung tn ting 2: 2SIF Sound Inter medium Frequency
Tch sng FM: FM.Det Fgrequency Modulation Detection
Khuych i m tn: AF-AMP- Audio Fgrequency Amplfier
Khuych i th tn: Video-AMP Video Amplifier
Tch xung ng b: Sync Scp Synchronous Separate
Dao ng mnh: V.OSC Vertical oscilate
Dao ng dng: H.OSC Hozizontal oscilate
So pha: APC (Automatic Phase Comperator)
Khuych i cng sut dng: H.out
Khuych i cng sut mnh: V.out
in p i cao p cao p: HV- Hight Voltage
Bin p cao p : FBT Flyback Transformer
20

sp
K T.T
ting
Hn
bin
Tch
sng
ting
K cng
sut
Trn
tn
K trung
tn
VIDEO
DET
K th
tn
K
cao tn
Mch
vo
Vi
phn
So pha OSC
dng
Cng
sut dng
Tch
phn
OSC
mnh
CX
mnh
Tch
xung
ng b
Osc
agc
Chnh
lu cao
p
Hnh 1. 21
jocker
CRT
HV
Antena
1.6.2 - Nhim v cc khi
a. ng tn hiu
- Khi knh: (tuner) L ni nhn tn hiu ca sng mang f
OA
v f
OV
v n c
nhim v chn lc tn hiu cn thu a vo my v loi tr tn hiu khng cn
thit v c in p a vo ln nht th mch vo phi c kh nng phi hp
tr khng gia tr khng ca anten v tr khng ca tng khuych i cao tn
- Khuych i cao tn (RF AMP: radio frequency amplitude) khuych i tn
hiu ca knh cn thu nhm nng cao t s nhiu trn tp m (S/N - signal /
noise)
- B dao ng (oscillator): C nhim v to ra tn s ngoi sai f
ns
cung cp
cho tng trn tn, f
ns
phi lun n nh vi tng knh truyn hnh.
- Tng trn tn: Mixer
Cn gi l tng i tn n c nhim v bin i tn hiu thu c t mch vo
thnh mt tn hiu c nh gi l tn hiu trung tn (IF), trung tn ca my thu
tiu chun OIRT l 38MHz v gi l tn s trung tn hnh.
Vi phng thc f
tt
hnh = f
NS
- f
ov
b. Khi ng hnh
Tng khuych i trung tn
C nhim v khuych i tn hiu f
VIF
= 38MHz
F
SIF
= 31,5MHz
V chn lc v loi b tn s ca cc knh ln cn.
V tng khuych i lm vic hai tn s f
TTV
v f
TTA
nn ngi ta phi ngn nh
hng gia tn hiu hnh v ting bng cch gim h s khuych i cu f
TTA
so
vi f
TTV
t 10 n 20 ln.
Tng tch sng th tn (Video det)
C hai nhim v:
- Thc hin Tch sng AM ly ra tn s tn hiu video a ra khuych i th
tn
- Thc hin Tch sng phch ly tn s trung tn hai bng cch: f
TT2
= f
TTA
-
f
TTV
= 6,5 MHz a ti khi khuych i trung tn ting.
Tng khuych i th tn (Video Amp)
C nhim v khuych i tn hiu th tn t 0 n 6MHz ln a ti n
hnh. Trong tng khuych i th tn c nm iu chnh tng phn
(Conttrast) iu chnh in p tn hiu th tn.
21
n hnh CRT (Cathode Ray tube)
C nhim v Chuyn i tn hiu truyn hnh thnh nh quang hc trn mn
hnh, khi phc li hnh nh pha my thu ging nh hnh nh pha my
pht. iu chnh sng ca mn hnh tc l iu chnh thin p cho n hnh.
Mch AGC (Automatic Gain control)
Mch t ng iu chnh h s khuych i cho tng khuych i cao tn v
khuych i trung tn hnhth nht nhm lm n nh mc tn hiu truyn hnh
trc khi a vo n hnh v phn m thanh.
c. Khi ng ting
Khuych i trung tn ting (SIF Amp), C nhim v khuych i tn hiu
trung tn ting th f
SI
= 6,5 MHz. Trung tn ting c th coi nh trung tn th
hai ca my thu hnh. Ta c th ly tn hiu IF m thanh ngay sau khi tch
sng th tn hoc sau tng khuych i th tn.
B hn bin: (Limiter level)
C nhim v kh iu bin k sinh ca tn hiu hnh ln tn hiu ting iu tn.
Tng tch sng m thanh (Sound Detector) c nhim v tch sng iu tn
ly ra tn hiu m tn f
a
a vo phn khuych i m thanh.
Khuych i cng sut (Power amplifer) c nhim v khuych i tn hiu m
thanh a ra loa.
d. Khi phn tch xung ng b
Mch tch xung ng b (Synchronous separat), b c nhim v tch ly xung
ng b dng v xung ng b mnh khi tn hiu Video tng hp.
Mch tch phn
C nhim v tch ly xung ng b mnh iu khin b osc mnh. Sao cho
tn s osc ca b doa ng mnh (f
V
)ng bng tn s xung ng b mnh.
Mch vi phn
C nhim v tch ring xung ng b dng ra a vo mch so pha, ri
khng ch b dao ng dng sao cho b dao ng dng cho ra tn s v pha
ng nh tn s v pha ca i pht.
e. Khi qut mnh
Dao ng mnh: l b osc to ra f
V
= 50Hz v lm vic di s kim sot ca
xung ng b mnh.
Tng cng sut mnh, c nhim v khuych i xung qut mnh vi bin
ln (khong 200Vol PP) a vo khng ch cun li mnh.
22
f. Khi qut dng
C nhim v so snh tn s dao ng dng ti my thu vi xung ng b dng
n t i pht. to ra tn s qut dng F
H
c bin khong 1 Vol PP v
tn s bng 15625 Hz cho OIRT v 15735 cho FCC.
C nhim v to ra dng li tia c dng xung rng ca v cc mc in p khc
nhau nui n hnh ( HV, G
2
, G
3
.. ..) v cc b phn khc trong my thu
hnh.
g. Khi ngun
Cp in p cc khi ca my thu hnh cc khi ny lm vic bnh
thng.
1.6.3 - Nguyn l lm vic.
1-7. Cc ch tiu k thut ca my thu hnh
nh gi cht lng ca my thu ngi ta nh gi vo cc ch tiu k thut
sau:
* nhy: l mc tn hiu tnh bng V nh nht t u vo my thu cho
cht lng nh v ting bnh thng.
* chn lc:
L kh nng loi tr nhng tn s ln cn tn s nhiu, my phi c chn lc
tt tt c cc knh thu.
* H s tp m
Tp m do ni b my sinh ra, my c tp m it cht lng hnh v ting tt.
* di tn ngoi sai
Mi knh thu tng ng vi tn s f
ns
tht n nh v c sai s trong phm vi
cho php.
* Cng sut m tn: cng sut ra ca tn hiu ting
Mo hnh hc, mo phi tuyn, mo tn s
* Cng sut tiu th in
* Kch thc mn hnh.
* phn gii ca n hnh (c biu th bng s dng qut).
23
24
Chng ii
Nguyn l truyn hnh mu cc h truyn hnh mu c bn
2-1. Nguyn l truyn hnh mu
2.1.1 - H thng ph tn hiu mu c bn
Trn y l s khi ca h thng pht tn hiu mu c bn.
Mt thu knh thu nhn nh sng y mu sc thc t ca cnh vt c a
ti knh lng sc 1.
Knh lng sc 1 Phn chiu tia B v cho qua cc tia R, G
25
Khuych i B
iu ch f
B
Khuych i G
iu ch f
G
Khuych i R
iu ch f
R
+
My pht f
o v
n
quay B
n
quay G
n
quay R
B G R
1
2
3
4
Hnh 2. 1
Knh lng sc 3 phn chiu tia R v cho qua tia G
Knh lng sc 4 cho qua tia R
Knh lng sc 2 cho qua tia B.
C ba thnh phn R,G,B c a qua 3 knh lc mu (ng vi knh lc no th
s cho mu qua cn cc mu khc b hp th)
n quang in c nhim v bin i quang in bin, tc l bin i ba mu R,
G, B thnh cc tn hiu in tng ng l E
R
,E
G
,E
B
, ri cho qua b khuych i
R,G,B , ri vo b K iu ch bin f
R
, f
G
, f
B
sau ta c 3 tn hiu ny
nh sau.
Vi: D
R
l di ph ca tn hiu R
D
G
l di ph ca tn hiu G
D
B
l di ph ca tn hiu B
C ba tn hiu ny u c gii ph l 6 Mhz. Nu ta dnh thm khong cch gia
cc gii ph l 1MHz th gii thng (ph ca ton b tn hiu mu) s l:
D = 6MHz.3 + 1MHz=19MHz
Tn hiu ny u ra ca b (+) v a ti my pht. My pht c nhim v to
ra tn s sng mang hnh f
OV
v thc hin iu ch bin tn s sng mang f
OV
vi cc thnh phn tn hiu tng hp ca knh truyn hnh, ri a ti anten v
pht i.
2.1.2 - H thng thu tn hiu truyn hnh mu
Anten my thu nhn c tn hiu cn thu c tn s sng mang f
OV
qua
cc tng khuych i cao tn, i tn, khuych i trung tn v tch sng ta ly
c ra di tn ca c 3 tn hiu mu R, G, B.
Tn hiu ny c a ti b lc di ly ring ra tn s mang mu
iu ch f
R
, f
G
, f
B
ri a ra b tch sng ly ra 3 tn hiu R, G, B ring bit.
Ba tn hiu ny c khuych i v a ra iu ch ba Cathode n hnh mu
(hnh 2.2)
2.1.3 - u nhc im
H thng truyn hnh mu trn khng c ng truyn tn hiu chi Y
ring bit do khng p ng c kh nng thu chng trnh en trng.
Di thng ca tn hiu mu kh rng (19MHz) do khng ph hp vi tiu
chun truyn hnh en trng ang c sn.
Do vy thc hin c tnh kt hp gia h thng truyn hnh mu v truyn
hnh en trng ta phi to ra c ng truyn chi ring bit v nn di
26
thng ca tn hiu mu xung cn 6MHz ph hp vi di thng ca tn hiu
truyn hnh en trng.
2-2. Tnh kt hp vi T.H WB. S la chn tin tc truyn i trong truyn hnh mu.
2.2.1 - Truyn hnh mu ra i th truyn hnh en trng ang pht trin mnh
m. Hu ht lc cc my thu hnh l cc my en trng. Do vy yu cu t
ra l truyn hnh mu phi m bo c tnh kt hp vi truyn hnh en trng
nh sau:
My thu hnh en trng phi thu c hnh nh en trng t my pht hnh en
trng (WB), v phi thu c hnh nh en trng t my pht hnh mu.
My thu hnh mu th phi thu c hnh nh en trng t my pht hnh en
trng v phi thu c hnh nh mu t my pht hnh mu.
2.2.2 - S la chn cc tin tc truyn i trong truyn hnh mu.
* chi:
Ta bit c tnh ca mu sc l gm 2 yu t: Sc + chi
V vy khi chi ca mt im mu thay i th 3 mu c bn to nn im
mu cng thay i nhng t l gia chng khng i.
27
Lc
f
R
K R Tch
sng
R
Lc
f
a
K
G
Tch
sng
G
Lc
f
B
K
B
Tch
sng
B
K CT
i tn
K trung
tn
Tch
sng
Antena
R
G
B
f
R
f
a
f
B
Thu knh
n hnh
Hnh 2. 2
Scree
n
Da vo thc nghim v nhy ca mt vi mu sc ta xc nh c chi
Y (tn hiu chi Y chnh l tn hiu hnh trong truyn hnh en trng), Ta tnh
c Y theo 3 mu c bn nh sau:
Y=0,3R+0,59G+0,11B
Vi mu trng th: R = G = B = 1 Y = 1
Vi mu en: R = G = B = 0 Y = 0
Ch :
Y l chi hay Y l in p tn hiu chi U
Y
R l tn hiu mu hay R l in p tn hiu mu U
R
G l tn hiu mu lc hay l in p tn hiu mu lc U
G
B l tn hiu mu xanh dng hay in p tn hiu mu xanh dng U
B
.
*Tn hiu Hiu mu
m bo c tnh kt hp gia truyn hnh en trng v truyn hnh mu,
th trong h thng truyn hnh mu ngi ta truyn i thng tin v chi Y v
ng thi truyn i thng tin v mu sc.
tit kim bng tn truyn dn v n gin cho mch in ngi ta khng
truyn i ba thng tin v tn hiu mu c bn l R, G, B m ngi ta truyn i
hai tn hiu mu gi l hiu muv thng tin v chi Y.
Qua kho st v ph ca nh sng trng ngi ta chn 2 tn hiu hiu mu
cha nhiu thng tin nht l R-Y v B-Y. V ch cn hai hiu s mu v tn hiu
chi Y ta c th tm li c thnh phn tn hiu mu th ba l G -Y.
Tm li:
Truyn hnh mu s truyn i cc tin tc sau:
Tn hiu chi: Y = 0,30R + 0,59G + 0,11B
iu tn tn hiu m thanh: FM ting
ng b dng: H sync
ng b dng: V.sync
V 2 tin tc v mu sc.
Hiu s mu Th nht: R - Y
Hiu s mu Th hai: B - Y
2.2.3 - M ho v gii m tn hiu truyn hnh mu
a. Khi nim
chi Y c di tn:
0 4,2MHz vi FCC
0 5 MHz vi CCIR
28
0 6 MHz vi OIRT
Nh vy trong truyn hnh mu phi truyn i thm hai thng tin v tn hiu
mu l R-Y v B-Y mi thng tin hiu chim mt gii tn t (0 1,5 ) MHz.
V tnh tng thch vi truyn hnh en trng nn ta khng th m rng thm
di tn truyn dn.
V mi knh truyn hnh en trng c mt di tn xc nh nn khng th
ghp trc tip tn hiu hiu s mu vo di tn ca Y v nh vy cc tn hiu s
ln vo nhau v gy nhiu sang nhau.
Ta li nhn thy ph ca tn hiu chi Y vi cc nhm ph c tn s trung tm l
f
H
. v tn s cng cao th bin ph cng nh, gia cc nhm ph tn ti
nhng khong trng.
Vy ghp c tn hiu sc vo di tn ca tn hiu chi ngi ta tin hnh
iu ch tn hiu sc C vi mt sng mang ph l f
SC
(Frequency sub colour
carier)
Vi f
SC
c xc nh nh sau:
f
SC
= (n-1/2)f
H
ph ca tn hiu sc phi nm xen k vi ph ca tn hiu
chi.
F
SC
nm pha tn s cao ca Y nhng f
SC
nh hn f
max
ca Y.
Vi h NTSC chn:
f
CS
= 3,58MHz
Vi h Pal, Secam chn:
f
CS
= 4,43MHz
b. Mch M ho
Ba tn hiu mu c bn R,G,B t camera a n qua ma trn theo t l nht
nh, u ra ca Matix ta c:
Y = 0,3R + 0,59G + 0,11B
R-Y
29
Matrix
Mixer (+)
Osc f
s c
Video
colour
R
G
B
Y
R-y
B-y
(3,58 hoc 4,43) MHz
Hnh 2. 3
B-Y
Tn hiu Y i thng n b (+) cn hai tn hiu hiu mu R-Y, B-Y qua b
iu ch vi sng mang ph f
SC
sau nhp chung vi tn hiu Y b cng. Ti
u ra ca b (+) ta c tn hiu hnh mu tng hp sau tn hiu ny s c
a qua b iu bin vi sng mang f
OV
sau a n anten v pht i.
Vic la chn tn s sng mang ph v la chn cc phng thc iu ch tn
c. Mch Gii m
Tn hiu hnh mu tng hp sau tch sng hnh s c a n mch gii m,
mch in hnh thnh nh sau:
Tn hiu Y c a thng n mch ma trn.
Tn hiu sc (C) qua mch lc di v u ra ca mch lc di ta thu c tn
hiu sc C tn hiu ny li c a qua mch gii iu ch ly li 2 tn hiu
hiu mu R-Y, B-Y ri a vo mch ma trn, u ra ca mch ma trn s
thu li c 3 tn hiu mu c bn -R, -G, -B ri tip tc a n iu ch 3
Cathode ca n hnh mu.
2.4. H mu NTSC (National Television System Committee)
2.4.1 - Khi nim m u
H mu NTSC ra i nm 1954 ti M v c pht sng theo tiu chun FCC,
gm cc thng tin nh sau:
Y= 0,3R + 0,59G + 0,11B
H sync
V.sync
FM ting
30
Matrix
Fillter Decode
OSC
Video colour
C
Y
R-y
B-y
F
SC
-R
-G
-B
Hnh 2. 4
V truyn i hai tn hiu mu c tn gi l I v Q, vi:
I = 0,74(R-Y) - 0,27(B-Y) tr 123
0
so vi B-Y
Q = 0,48(R-Y) + 0,41(B-Y) tr 33
0
so vi B-Y
I c rng di tn l 1,5 Mhz
Q c rng di tn l 0,5MHz.
Hai tn hiu hiu mu c iu ch vung gc trn cng mt tn s mang
ph l f
SC
(theo chun FCC th f
SC
= 3,58Mhz, CCIR th f
SC
= 4,43 MHz).
Ngha l hai tn hiu I,Q cng c iu ch bin vo cng mt tn s sng
mang ph gi l f
SC
, v c hai tn hiu mu c dch i mt gc 33
0
so vi gc
pha ban u. Trong khi mt trong hai tn hiu mu l I c dch pha i mt
gc 90
0
so vi tn hiu kia.
Hnh v 2. 5 minh ho cho nhng iu va trnh by trn.
Hai tn hiu mu l I v Q cng c iu ch vo sng mang ph f
SC
nhng khi
truyn i li khng truyn f
SC
(v f
SC
khng mang thng tin) m ch truyn i hai
di bin tn trn v di, c gi l iu bin nn.
Phng php ny gi l truyn thng tin song bin trit tn s sng mang cn
nu ch truyn i bin ln trn gi l phng php truyn thng tin n bin trit
sng mang, th hin nh hnh v (2. 5).
31
Hnh 2. 5
E
I
E
Q
R-Y
B-Y
33
0
R
G
B
57
0
Tn hiu ng b mu.
Do tn s f
SC
b nn hon ton (tc l pha pht khng truyn F
FSC
sang pha thu),
v vy khi phc li tn s F
SC
ti my thu th pha pht phi truyn i tn
hiu ng b mu (hay cn gi l lo mu- color burst).
Tn hiu ng b mu c tn s ng bng tn s sng mang mu f
SC
c t
sn pha sau ca cc xung xo dng gm t 811 chu k c bin nh bng
0,9 chiu cao ca xung ng b hnh, hnh v 2. 6.
Ph ca tn hiu mu tng hp gm 2 tn hiu Y v C. C gm tn hiu I iu
bin vo tn s f
SC
truyn i ton b di bin tn di v ch mt phn di bin
tn trn, tn hiu Q cng iu bin vo f
SC
nhng dch pha i 90
0
v truyn i
c 2 bin tn trn v di.
32
E
Y
max 100%
C max 133%
(H + V) Sync
Burst (8- 12)T
C Min
-33%
Sync 40%
Burst t 20%
Blanking 0%
Hnh 2. 6
f
0
f
0
+f
max
f
0
f
0
+f
max
f
0
-f
max
f
0
+f
min
f
0
f
0
+f
max
f
0
+f
min
Tn hiu iu ch
song bin
Tn hiu C
n bin
Hnh 2. 5
2.4.2 - iu bin nn SAM (Suppress amptitude modulator)
C nhim v ly tn hiu sc iu ch bin vo sng mang ph f
SC
sau
thc hin nn tn s mang ph f
SC
( v F
SC
khng mang thng tin) v ch a ra
hai di bin tn trn v di bin tn di .
thc hin iu bin nn ngi ta thng dng mch iu bin cn bng nh
sau, hnh (2. 8).
Vi:
F
S
l tn s ca in p tn hiu cn iu ch
U
C
l in p ca ti tn ( in p ca sng mang)
33
Bin
I
m Qm
Y
3
2,38
0,5
1,5 Mhz
MHz
4,2 3,58
4,5
FM
Sound
Hnh 2. 7
Tr2
Tr1
SAM out
D3
D2
D4
D1
Uc
U
S
Hnh 2. 8
34
t
U
S
t
U
SA
M
t
U
C
Hnh 2.9
vedx
SAM l in p iu bin nn ly ra.
Ta gi s rng in p tn hiu cn iu ch U
S
v in p sng mang U
C
l
nhng sng hnh sin. Vi F
UC
>> F
US
Tc l tn s ca sng mang phi ln hn
nhiu ln tn s ca tn hiu cn iu ch.
Lc ny ta c th biu din s iu ch SAM nh hnh v (2. 9)
T hnh v 2. 9 ta thy c mi ln tn hiu iu ch U
S
i du th tn hiu iu
ch U
SAM
li o pha mt ln. V r rng rng sng SAM chnh l hnh nh ca
in p tn hiu b bm ra theo nhp ca ca in p sng mang cao tn.
Mt iu cn lu l s thng v tt ca cc Diode trong mch iu ch l do
bin ca in p ti tn quyt nh.
Mch iu bin cn bng dng TZT.
Mch iu bin cn bng dng 4 Diode trong thc t t c dng v cc Diode
ch thun tu lm nhim v ng ct nh nhng chuyn mch in t. Trong cc
Tivi mu thng dng mch iu bin nn dng TZT v ngoi kh nng iu
bin n cn kh nng khuych i bin , nn ngoi yu cu v iu ch th
u ra ta cn thu c mt sng SAM vi bin ph hp vi yu cu s dng.
mch in hnh (2 .10) gii thiu mch iu bin nn dng TZT thng dng
trong cc tivi mu gm cc b phn nh sau:
T
R1
l bin p dn tn hiu cn iu ch vo mch in, tn hiu y l tn hiu
hnh mu h NTSC , hoc h PAL.
T
R2
l bin p tn s cao dng ghp tn hiu sng mang vo trong mch iu
ch.
35
T1
T2
SAM
ou
t
Us
Uc
Tr
1
Tr
2
Tr
3
+V
Hnh 2. 10
T
R3
l bin p dn tn hiu iu bin nn ra ti.
T
1
,T
2
l hai TZT cng xut.
Vic gii thch nguyn l hot ng ca mch in cng tng t nh vic gii
thch mch in hnh (2. 8) v th thi gian hnh 2. 9.
Ta tm tt li nh sau:
- Khi m tn hiu vo (U
S
) bng khng th T
1
v T
2
hoc l cng kho hoc l
cng dn. Nn dng in chy qua s cp ca bin p T
R3
l ngc chiu nhau.
Bi vy dng in bn th cp ca bin p ny b trit tiu. Nh vy tn s sng
mang F
SC
khng lt ra ti c, hay ta ni rng sng mang b nn li cho n
khi bin bng khng.
- Khi c U
S
hai u vo (cc B) ca hai TZT th bin ca in p tn hiu
ny c truyn ra ti theo nhp ng ngt ca sng mang nn dng sng ca
n s b bm ra theo nhp ng ct tng t nh hnh (2.9). Cn ch rng
tn s sng mang cao tn phi ln hn tn s iu ch t nht l hai ln.
2.4.3 - Gii iu bin SAM.
u thu ta s nhn c SAM v s phi tch sng ra ly li tn hiu U
S
. Ta
khng th s dng cc mch tch sng thng thng tch c.
tch sng iu bin nn trc tin ta cn bin i sng SAM thnh sng iu
bin thng (AM), bng cch cng thm vo sng SAM mt sng hnh sin
thng thng vi gc pha trng vi gc pha ca sng SAM. Ri thc hin tch
sng iu bin thng thng.
Bn c cn ch rng c th tch sng c th th i pht phi pht i tin
tc v lo mu (Colour burst) thc hin ng pha cho mch dao ng to
sng sin ti my thu. Mch in c dng nh hnh 2. 11 sau:
Vi tn hiu iu bin nn SAM c a vo cun W
1
, cn sng hnh sin c
gc pha ca Burst mu c vo cun W
2
, hai tn hiu ny cng vi nhau
36
C
S.A.M
Carrier
sin Wave
W1
W2
W3
D
Signal Out
Hnh 2. 11
cun W
3
ta c c sng AM bnh thng ri thc hin tch sng AM bng
Diode D.
Dng sng th hin tng im c biu th nh hnh v 2. 12 di y:
2.4.4 - iu ch vung gc (Quadrature)
Sau khi iu bin nn E
I
v E
Q
tr thnh hai sng sin c tn s l F
SC
=
3,58Mhz, c bin l E
I
v E
Q
. By gi ta li nhp chung chng li vi nhau
v chng vn phn bit c, khng b trn ln vi nhau, ngi ta cho sng
mang ph iu ch E
I
sm pha ln 90
0
so vi pha ca E
Q
. Cch lm ny c gi
l iu ch vung gc hai tn hiu sc E
I
v E
Q
.
Hnh 2.13 m t cch thc nhp chung hai tn hiu E
I
v E
Q
. Trc tin mt
mch dao ng hnh sin tao ra sng mang ph 3,58 Mhz. Ngi ta lm sm
pha sng hnh sin ln 33
0
iu bin nn E
Q
, ri li lm sm pha ln 90
0
na
iu bin nn E
I
.
Sng iu bin nn E
I
hay ngi ta cn gi l C
1
l sng hnh sin 3,58Mhz, c
bin l E
I
v gc pha l 21
0
so vi gc pha 0
0
t mch dao ng a ra.
Tng t nh vy ta c C
2
c bin l E
Q
l sng hnh sin tn s l 3,58 Mhz
bin E
Q
gc pha 33
0
so vi gc 0
0
. Hai sng C
1
, C
2
lch pha nhau 90
0
c
nhp chung trong mt mch cng c mt sng sin duy nht l:

c th hn nh hnh v sau y.
37
+ =
SAM Wave
Carrier Wave AM Wave
Hnh 2.12
C = C
1
+ C
2
38
E
I
E
Q
C
1
C
2
C
2
Q
E
2
I
E +
C
2
C
1
C = C
1
+ C
2
C
+ SAM
SAM
+
OSC
3,58
Mc
+33
0
90
0
E
I
E
Q
0
0
C
1
C
2
E
Y
E
R
E
G
E
B
(A)
(B)
(C)
Hnh 2. 13
Hnh A l s khi ca h thng iu bin nn vung gc hai tn hiu mu
(C
1
,C
2
) vo mt sng mang F
SC
(3,58Mhz) u ra ta c tn hiu mu iu
bin nn vung gc.
Hnh B l th vector biu din qu trnh iu bin nn vung gc, cn hnh C
l th thi gian ca qu trnh ny.
2.4.5 - M ho h mu NTSC
S khi ca mch m ho h truyn hnh mu NTSC th hin nh hnh 2. 14
di y.
Ba tn hiu mu c bn R,G,B m ta cn gi l E
R
,E
G
,E
B
, c a n mch ma
trn theo mt t l nht nh chuyn i thnh mt tn hiu chi E
Y
c di
tn t 0 4,2 MHz v hai tn hiu mu, E
I
c gii tn 1,5 Mhz (thc t l 1,5
Mhz) v E
Q
c gii tn 0,5Mhz.
E
I
v E
Q
dc iu bin nn (SAM ) vi sng mang ph F
SC
= 3,58Mhz, c pha
ln lt lch 33
0
v 123
0
so vi gc pha 0
0
. Hai sng iu bin nn E
I
, E
Q
bay
gi gi l C
1
v C
2
. Sau c nhp chung c mt tn hu mu l C
(chng l nhng vector) duy nht. Ri sau la nhp chung E
Y
vi C. Tn hiu
39
Matrix
SAM
SAM
+ + +
Osc
F
SC
=3,5
8
+33
0
+90
0
180
0
Burst gate
Delay 0,7s
NTSC Color
Video
Hnh 2. 14
E
Y
E
Q
E
I
E
R
C
1
C
2
f
H
E
G
E
B
0
0
E
Y
mu C c i thng n b cng cn E
Y
th c lm chm 0,7 s ng pha
vi tn hiu mu C.
c th tch sng iu bin nn pha my thu pha i pht ngi ta truyn
i thm tin tc v gc pha ca sng mang mu ph. Thng tin ny c gi l
lo mu (Color burst), u tin F
SC
c gc pha 0
0
c o pha 180
0
a
vo cng lo (Burst gate). Cng ny bnh thng ng n ch m ra mi dng
mt ln khi m c xung F
H
ri vo thm sau ca xung ng b ngang. Khi cng
m ra c khong t 8 n 12 chu k sng hnh sin 3,58 Mhz c gc pha 180
0
i
xuyn qua cng, ri nhp chung vi tn hiu chi v nm gn ti thm sau ca
xung ng b ngang l thi gian khng c cc tin tc khc ca hnh nh.
u ra cui cng ta c c tn hiu hnh mu NTSC cha tng cng 7 thng
tin l E
Y
, FM
SOUND
, H
SYN
,V
SYN
, C
1
,C
2
, v Color burst.
Bn thng tin u l ca truyn hnh en trng. Tin tc v sng ti v F
M
ting nm bn trn mc Zero (mc BLK) c bin ti a l 100%, c phn
bit vi nhau bng tn s (ting c tn s l 4,5Mhz trong khi mc sng ti
c gii tn l t 0 n 4,2 Mhz. Hai tin tc ng b nm di mc zero c bin
40%. Phn bit vi nhau bng rng ca xung.
Hai thng tin v mu l E
I
v E
Q
nm trong sng iu bin nn vung gc c F
SC
= 3,58 Mhz. C bin v pha thay i tu theo im mu. Khi nhp chung vi
tn hiu chi bin ca n c th ln n ti a l +133% v thp nht l
-33%. Cch phn bit vi tn hiu chi l tn s, hai thng tin v nm chung
quanh tn s 3,58Mhz, gii hn v pha thp nht l (3,58 - 1,2 )Mhz =
2,38Mhz.
Tin tc cui cng, lo mu l tin tc cn thit tch sng SAM, c bin t
20% nm gn thm sau ca xung ng b ngang c lp vi 6 thng tin trn.
2.4.6 - Gii m mu h NTSC
Mch in b gii m mu h NTSC c s khi nh hnh v 2. 15 sau
y:
40

Tn hiu hnh mu c gii tn nm hon ton trong knh sng FCC c pht ra
khng gian ging nh vic lm vi truyn hnh en trng... V bt u ti
u ra ca mch tch sng hnh, ta thu c tn hiu truyn hnh mu h NTSC
trong c cha tng cng 7 tin tc. Bn tin tc ging nh ca truyn hnh en
trng l:
E
Y
, FM
Ting
, ng b dc, ng b ngang. S c tch ra dng vo cc mc
ch nh truyn hnh en trng. Cn li ba tin tc v mu gm C
1
, C
2
, v color
Burst c tch ra dng cho vic to hnh mu.
T tng tch sng hnh, ton b gii thng ca E
Y
c a ti mch Matirix
khi i qua mt dy tr 0,7 s ri cng vi hai tn hiu Sc E
I
v E
Q
trn ln
vi nhau ti matrix ny.
Ton b gii tn t 0 n 4,2 Mhz ng thi cng c a vo tng Burst gate
hay ta c th gi l Colour IF. y l mt tng khuych i c chn lc (Tuned
Amp), n ch khuych i khong tn s xung quanh sng mang 3,58Mhz, l tn
s b iu bin nn. Kt qu l u ra ta ch nhn c cc tin tc ca mu
sc m thi (gii tn t 2,38 n 4,2 Mhz).
Sng mang ph iu bin nn sau r lm hai ng i vo hai mch tch
sng iu bin nn ring ly li hai tn hiu sc E
I
v E
Q
a vo mch Matrix
cng vi tn hiu chi E
Y
. Mch Matrix s cng v tr cc in p theo mt
t l nht nh u ra ta c c - R, -B, -G khng ch ba Cathode n
CRT.
2.4.7 - Kt lun h mu NTSC
41
Burst
gate
OSC
F
SC
3,58
+33
0
+90
0
Det
I
Det
Q
Col
or
IF
M
A
T
R
I
X
I
m
Q
m
-R
-G
-B
E
Q
00,5MHz
E
I
01,5M
Y=(04,2)
MHz
Delay
0,7s
f
H
NTSC
Video
colour
CRT
Hnh 2.16
Truyn ng thi c hai tn hiu mu l E
I
v E
Q .
iu bin nn vung gc hai tn hiu mu l E
I
v E
Q
vo mt sng mang ph l
F
SC
= 3,58 Mhz.
Tn hiu mu NTSC cha tng cng 7 tin tc, bn tin tc u ging nh
truyn hnh en trng, ba tn hiu thm vo l E
I
, E
Q
, v lo mu.
Tin tc th 7 l tin tc v lo mu l tin tc v gc pha ca sng mang ph F
SC
dng cho vic tch sng iu bin nn tn hiu mu ti my thu.
2-5. H mu SECAM (OIRT)
2.5.1 - Khi nim
H mu SECAM (Sequential colour a Memory - ln lt c nh). Ra i ti
Php, chnh thc pht sng vo nm 1965 (knh sng 6,5 Mhz). Thc hin iu
tn hai tn hiu mu vo mt sng mang ph.
Hai tn hiu mu c gi l D
R
v D
B
khng c truyn i cng mt lc c hai
m ch truyn i mt trong hai, hoc D
R
hoc D
B

H mu NTSC dng phng php SAM vung gc, tuy rng c th truyn i
cng mt lc hai tn hiu mu trong mt sng mang ph nhng cc my thu hnh
mu ca h ny u phi s dng mt nm iu chnh mu c gi l nm
HUE.
Mt khc ngi ta cng nhn thy rng kh nng nhy cm i vi mu sc ca
mt l rt km. Hn na s khc bit v mu sc ca hai dng k cn nhau l
khng ng k.
Xut pht t nhng nhn xt trn Henry de France a ra phng php
truyn ln lt (sequential) tng dng mt, mt trong hai tn hiu mu cho mi
dng qut.
my thu, ti mi dng qut c hai tn hiu sc gip ti lp hai tin tc
mu ngi ta c th mn mt tn hiu sc cn li ca dng va qut, dng
chung cho dng ang qut (vn c sn mt tn hiu sc) .
C th l dng th N, truyn i R-Y chng hn th dng k tip, dng N+1
truyn i B-Y, dng k tip na li truyn i R-Y .. ri li B-Y. Dng th N+1
chng hn tn hiu sc nhn c l B- Y mun ti to li mu, c th mn
thm R - Y ca dng bn trn tc l dng N .
iu ny c th thc hin c bng cch dng mt dy tr (Delay line), m
thi gian gi tr tn hiu l 1H = mt dng qut tc l bng 64 s.
42
Nh vy ti mi dng qut lc no cng vn c hai tn hiu sc to li
hnh nh mu. Mt ca chnh dng ang pht, mt ca dng bn trn c gi
li.
Vo mi thi im, lc no cng ch c mt tn hiu sc c truyn i. V nh
vy c th s dng phng php iu tn sng mang ph thay cho phng php
iu bin nn vung gc, v khc phc c vic sai pha.
2.5.2 - M ho SECAM cn bn.
Hnh 2. 17 l s khi mt mch m ho SECAM c bn.
Mt chuyn mch S ng m theo nhp F
H
/ 2, hay ni khc i c mt dng ng
ln R-Y th dng tip theo li ng xung B-Y trong 1H = 64 s. Nh vy
mch iu tn lc no cng ch c hoc l R-Y hoc l B-Y ln lt c mt
dng thay i 1 ln. Tn s sng mang ph vn c ch l bi s l ca mt
na tn s ngang, hy vng c kh nng t kh tp m.
Sng F
MR
(iu tn R-Y) hoc F
MB
(iu tn ca B-Y) c nhp chung vi tn
hiu chi (E
Y
) c c tn hiu hnh mu SECAM. V phng din gii tn,
tn hiu ny vn nm trong knh sng OIRT tc l t 0 n 6,2 Mhz cho E
Y
, ti
6,5 mhz l tin tc ca m thanh c iu tn. Tn s sng mang ph lc
ngh l 4,43 Mhz. Hai tin tc v mu vo mi thi im lc no cng ch xut
hin hoc l F
MB
hoc l F
MR
nm chung quanh 4,43 Mhz vi bin l +25%
so vi 100% l bin ca tn hiu chi. Th hin nh hnh 2. 18 sau y.
43
FM
+
OSC
F
SC
= 443Mc
E
R
E
G
E
B
SECAM
COLOR
VIDEO
DL
F
H
/
2
E
B
-E
Y
S
E
R
-E
Y
E
Y
Hnh 2. 17
Cui cng l gii ph ca tn hiu truyn hnh mu SECAM th hin nh hnh 2.
19 sau y.
2.5.3 - Gia m SECAM cn bn
Vic gii m tn hiu mu h SECAM c tin hnh nh hnh v 2. 20 sau
y:
44
E
Y
max 100%
C max 125%
(H + V) Sync
C Min -25%
Sync 40%
Blanking 0%
Hnh 2. 18
Hnh 2. 19
E
Y
MHz
6,2
6,5
FM
Sound
4,43
25%
F
MR
or F
MB
SECAM
color Video
Color IF
Delay 1H
DET
F
BR
DET
F
MB
Matrix
Delay
0,7s
E
R
-E
Y
E
B
-E
Y
To
Cathode
colour Pix
tube
-E
Y
E
R
-E
Y
E
G
-E
Y
E
B
-E
Y
E
Y
F
H
/2
SW
Hnh 2. 20
Ton b gii tn ca tn hiu mu SECAM c chia lm hai ng:
ng tn hiu E
Y
c a thng n mch Matrix sau khi i qua dy tr 0,7s
ng th hai i qua khuych i trung tn mu lc ra khong tn s ca
sng mang ph iu tn (F
MR
hoc F
MB
) sau sng mang ph li r lm hai
ng:
Mt ng i thng n chuyn mch, mt ng i qua dy tr 64s ri mi
n chuyn mch. Nh vy ti chuynn mch nu ng i thng l F
MR
th
ng qua dy tr l F
MB
v ngc li v chuyn mch in t ng m theo
nhp F
H
/ 2, sao cho F
MR
v F
B
i vo ng vo ng tch sng ca n. u
vo ca mch Matrix ngoi E
Y
ra th lc no cng c c hai tn hiu E
R
E
Y
v
E
B
E
Y
. u ra ca matrix c cc tn hiu l - E
Y
, E
R
E
Y
, E
B
- E
Y
, E
G
- E
Y
c
a vo Matrix chi sc ti Cathode n hnh.
2.5.4 - Cc thiu st ca h SECAM.
Ta khng th chn c F
SC
= (2n + 1) F
H
/ 2 ( bi s l ca F
H
) loi b tp
m bi v tn s sng mang ph by gi lun lun thay i do b iu tn. Mt
khc ta bit rng hu ht cc cnh trong thin nhin hu ht c bo ho mu
rt km nn bin tn hiu mu nh ta li cng c vi h NTSC bin
sng mang ph rt nh (v b nn) v cnh trng th bin sng mang ph =
0. Do nhiu b hn ch ti a.
i vi h SECAM ta khng th lm th c v bin ca sng mang ca h
l lun lun khng thay i trong ch iu tn, bt chp tn hiu sc l bao
nhiu.
Bi vy nu ta bin ca F
MR
v F
MB
ln th n s gy nhiu cho E
Y
, cn
ngc li nu ta gim nh bin ca hai tn hiu mu th n s b E
Y
gy nhiu.
Cui cng ngi ta chn bin ca F
MR
v F
MB
= 25% ca E
Y
chp nhn
mt s xuyn nhiu va phi gia hai tn hiu ny.
2.5.5 - T s tn hiu trn nhiu
S xuyn nhiu cc mu h SECAM by gi l khng cn ng u, v
trong iu tn bin nhiu t l nghch vi qung di tn tc l t l nghch vi
vi bin ca tn hiu sc vn khng ng u. Mt bc nh c nhiu mu,
m mc nhiu mi mu l khc nhau, s gy kh chu hn cho ngi xem
hn l nhiu cao ng u tt c cc mu.
2.5.6 - Nhn dng mu
Vic gii m mu my thu ch t c kt qu khi m chuyn mch in t
hnh 2. 20 ng ng v tr F
MR
v F
MB
i vo ng ng tch sng ca n.
45
iu ny c ngha l h SECAM s phi truyn i thm cc tin tc v nhn dng
mu (Identfication) gip cho chuyn mch in t ng m c ng v tr.
2.5.7 - H SECAM IIB.
Hnh v 2. 21 m t ton b mch m ho SECAM IIIB.
Ba thng tin c bn v mu sc l E
R
, E
B
, E
G
c mt mch Matrix chuyn
i thnh mt tn hiu chi l E
Y
c gii tn t 0 n 6,2 Mhz v hai tn hiu
mu l -D
R
v D
B
c gii tn l 1,5 Mhz, sau ngi ta cho tin tc nhn dng
tng bn nh (vertical half identificatioln) nhp chung vo D
R
v D
B
. l 9
xung m hnh thang xut hin c mi bn nh mt ln trong thi gian xo dc.
Sau khi ra khi mch cng, tn hiu sc D
R
c o pha 180
0
thnh D
R

i vo mch tin nhn 2 v tin tc nhn dng tng bn nh s tr thnh xung
dng. Trong lc D
B
i thng vo mch tin nhn 3 vi cc xung nhn dng
tng bn nh nm trong n l xung m.
Sau khi ra khi mch tin nhn tn s cao D
R
v D
B
c a vo chuyn mch
SW
1
ng m theo nhp F
H
/2 chn hoc l D
R
hoc l D
B
ln lt cho tng
dng mt. Tip theo l mt mch lc thng thp (LPF) loi b cc thnh phn
tn s cao hn 1,5 Mhz l gii tn ca D
B
v D
R
. Mt mch hn bin tip theo
46
ALC
DL
F
H
/
2
+
E
R
E
G
E
B
+1
+ 2
180
0
Compar
ation
LPF
1,5
Mc
Limi
ter
SC
Invert
Bel
l
FM
+ 3
F
OR
F
OR
SECAM
Color
ViDEO
1H
9 pulsse
V. Ident
Hnh 2. 21
D
B
D
R
-D
R
1,5Mc
D
B
1,5Mc
E
Y
6,2Mc
0,7 s
SW1
2
3
1
SW
2
sau gii hn bin ca D
R
v D
B
khng cho vt qu t 1v gip cho s gii
hn qung di tn ca mch iu tn (FM) nm trong gii tn s nh sn.
Tn s sng mang ph a vo mch iu tn l F
OR
= 4,40625 Mc, hoc F
OB
=
4,2500Mc tu theo tn hiu sc a vo a vo mch iu tn l D
R
hay D
B
.
Nh vy chuyn mch SW
2
cng phi ng m theo nhp F
H
/2 v phi ng b
vi chuyn mch SW
1
.
Ra khi mch iu tn sng iu tn F
MR
v F
MB
c a vo mch o pha
sng mang ph (SUB Carrier Invert) kh tp m, sau c a qua mch
lc chung (Bell filter) tn s gia gii (4,286)Mhz xung. Cui cng
mch t chnh ALC (Auto Level Control), t ng gi mc ca F
MR
v F
MB
l
10% tn s 4,286 so vi mc cc i l 100% l mc ca E
Y
. thc hin
vic ny, t tn hiu E
Y
, ngi ta lc ra bin ca E
Y
ti tn s 4,286Mc v a
vo mch so snh.
(Comparator) vi bin ca F
MR
v bin ca F
MB
ra t sau lc chung.
Kt qu so snh l p sai s mt chiu a vo iu khin mch ALC.
Sau khi c F
MR
v F
MB
ngi ta nhp chung F
MR
v F
MB
vi tn hiu chi.
Dy tr 0,7s l to thnh mt Delay cho tn hiu chi E
Y
. Sau cng
mch ra ca b cng 3 ta c tn hiu hnh mu tng hp h SECAM, c dng
nh hnh v 2. 22 .
2.5.8 - Nhn dng hay ng b mu (Colour Identification Colour sync)
Tn hiu mu SECAM truiyn i ln lt c mt dng F
MR
th mt dng l F
MB
ri li F
MR
.... ti my thu s phi gi tr li tn hiu sc ca dng bn trn dng
47
E
Y
max
100%
C max 115%
(H + V)
Sync
C Min dng R
- 15%
Sync
- 40%
Burst
t
15%
E
Y
max
100%
C max 112%
C Min dng B
- 12%
Blanking
0%
Burst
t
12%
Hnh 2. 22
cho dng bn di. Hai mch tch sng F
M
ring bit, mt hot ng tn s
ngh F
OR
= 4,4062Mc tch sng F
MR
v mt hot ng tn s F
MB
=
4,2500Mc tch sng F
MB
. m bo chuyn mch in t hot ng ng
pha vi tn hiu F
MR
v F
MB
pht i th pha i pht phi truyn i thng tin
v nhn dng mu hay burst mu.
Ta li bit xung so Ver (Vertical Blanking) c thi gian tng cng l 20H (1H
= 64s), trong 5H l thuc bn nh trc. (bn nh chn chng hn) v 15 H
thuc bn nh sau (bn nh l chng hn). Xung ng b dc gm tng cng
7,5H, trong 5H l thuc bn nh trc cn 2,5H l thuc bn nh sau. Nh
vy cn li 20-7,5 = 12,5H , nm trong thi gian xo dc l thi gian cn
trng, khng to hnh.
Ngi ta li dng thi gian ny chn vo 9 xung m hnh thang nhn
dng dc c chu k mi xung l 1H. bn nh cc xung ny nm cc dng
7,9,11 ....v dng th 23. Tng t nh vy bn nh chn, cc xung ny nm
dng th 8,10,12.....n dng th 24. Hnh bt u c to li bn nh l l
dng th 31 v bn nh chn l dng th 32. Nh vy t trng thi gian xo
dc vn cn tha 3 dng khng c to hnh. l cc dng 25, 27, 29 bn nh
l v dng 26,28,30 bn nh chn.
Ta li bit tn hiu sc -D
R
= +1,9(E
R
-E
Y
) v xung nhn dng dc m c nhp
chung vi -D
R
. Nh vy pha ban u (pha ca E
R
-E
Y
v E
B
-E
Y
), tin tc nhn
dng dc lun lun nm di mc Zero cng vi cc tin tc ng b dc, ng
b ngang.
D
R
sau c o pha 180
0
; v tr thnh D
R
trong xung nhn dng dc
tr thnh dng, cn D
B
vn gi nguyn pha ban u vi xung nhn dng dc c
pha m. Tt c c a vo mch iu tn ln lt tng dng mt c F
MR
v
F
MB
. Trong F
MR
, nh vy tin tc nhn dng dc b lch v pha phi (Tn s
F
OR
ln hn tn s ngh) v trong F
MB
tin tc nhn dng dc b lch v pha tri
(tn s F
MB
nh hn tn s ngh).
Ti my thu, sau khi tch sng, nu khng c g sai st th ti Cathode n
CRT ta c -E
R
, -E
G
, -E
B
. Nh vy cc xung nhn dng dc s phi l cc
xung dng.
2.5.9 - Nhn dng ngang hay nhn dng tng dng mt (H. Ident or Line
Ident)
mi dng khi a vo iu tn vi sng mang ph ngi ta a c thi gian
thm sau ca xung ng b ngang vo. Mc ca thm sau l Zero Volt, do
48
dng ang truyn i D
R
(dng R), ti thi gian thm sau ny sng F
MR
s c tn
s chnh l tn s ngh F
OR
vi bin sc nh bi lc chung l t 15%.
Tng t nh vy dng B, trong thi gian thm sau xung ng b ngang l
F
OB
vi bin l t 12%. Chng c gi l lo mu (Colour burst) v l tin
tc nhn dng tng dng mt hnh v 2. 23.
Ti my thu mt tng gi l cng lo (Burst gate) s ch c m ra trong thi
gian thm sau trch ra tin tc lo mu. Sau mt tng tch sng F
M
hot
ng tn s ngh l F
OB
v (hoc l F
OR
) s thc hin tch sng lo mu ly
ra xung dng (hoc m) c tn s l F
H
/2 vi pha c xc nh bi chnh
dng ang truyn l dng R hoc dng B. Xung F
H
/2 ny c sa dng v trc
tip a vo iu khin chuyn mch in t gip F
MR
v F
MB
i ng ng
tch sng ca chng.
2.5.10 - Gii m SECAM (SECAM Decode)
Hnh 2. 24 m t ton b qu trnh gii m SECAM. Bt u t u ra ca tng
tch sng hnh, ton b gii tn ca E
Y
c khuych i hnh (Video amp)
a vo mt mch Matrix chi sc vi pha l -E
Y
. Vai tr ca dy tr 0,7 s l
to ra s ng pha gia tn hiu chi v tn hiu sc. Mt nhnh r ngang qua
lc chung xp b li vic nn F
MR
v F
MB
xung bi lc chung nga
trong qu trrnh m ho. Sau tng khuych i trung tn mu (Colour IF) s
lc ra khong tn s ca F
MR
v F
MB
v loi b tt c nhng tn s khng cn
thit khc.
u ra ca tng Colour IF li c r lm hai nhnh (hnh v 2.24)
49
(H + V)
Sync
dng R
- 40%
F
OR
t
15%
Blanking 0%
Thi gian thm sau
dng B
Hnh 2. 23
F
MR

F
MB

F
OR
t
12%
Mt i thng n chuyn mch cn gi l knh thng, mt i ngang qua dy tr
1H = 64s gi li tin tc ca dng trc, i n v cn li ca chuyn
mch (knh tr).
hai u vo ca chuyn mch, nh vy nu u trn (knh thng) l F
MR
ca
dng ang pht th u di (knh tr) l F
MB
ca dng bn trn. Ngc li nu
u bn trn l F
MB
th u di l F
MR
. Chuyn mch s ng m theo nhp F
H
/2
. V ta hy gi s rng pha ca ca xung nhp l ng th ng ra bn trn s
lun lun l F
MR
cn ng ra bn di s lun lun l F
MB
. Mt l ca dng
ang pht, mt l ca dng bn trn.
Hai tn hiu F
MR
v F
MB
sau c hn bin ri a vao hai mch tch sng
FM ring, mt hot ng tn s ngh 4,2500Mc cho tch sng F
MB
v mt
tn s ngh l 4,40625 cho F
MR
. Ta l hai mch tch sng FM ny ht ng
ngc pha vi nhau (biu din bng hai DIODE ngc nhau trn hnh v).
mch tch sng F
MR
, pha ca tn hiu sc c gi nguyn, trong lc m ch
tch sng F
MB
, pha ca tn hiu sc b o 180
0
. u ra ca hai mch tch sng
s l +D
R
v -D
B
, tip tc gii nhn nn bin tn s cao ca D
R
v D
B
xung, ly li bin ban u b sai i do qu trnh tin nhn trong lc m
ho. Sau li khuych i cng xut R-Y v B-Y c c E
R
- E
Y
v E
B
-
E
Y
.
Tip theo ta c c hiu s mu E
G
- E
Y
, bng cch ly 51% ca E
R
-E
Y
nhp
chung vi 18% (cng vi nhau) ca E
B
- E
Y
.
50
Y Amp
4,2
86
COLOR IF
DELAY LH
L.Ident
SWICHIN
G
gen
V.Ident
limiter
FMDET
B-Y
AMP
limiter
FMDET
R-Y
AMP
G-Y
AMP
+D
R
-D
B
-E
Y
E
R
-E
Y
E
G
- E
Y
E
B
-E
Y
Bell filter
Secam Color Video
Delay 0,7s
Y
+
C
M
A
T
R
I
X
CRT
-R
-B
-G
Hnh 2. 24
Nh vy u vo ca mch Matirix chi sc l ba hiu s mu v -E
Y
, chng
cng tuyn tnh vi nhau u ra ta c c ba tn hiu mu c bn vi cc
tnh m l : -E
R,
, -E
G
, -E
B
, a vo iu ch Cathode n CRT ti to li hnh
nh mu.
Lo mu ca tng dng c trch ra t tch sng FM ly ra xung F
H
/2 c
pha chun ng theo tng dng R hoc B (hnh 2. 25) , trc tip iu
khin mch to xung chuyn mch cho lun lun ng (khng ch c sai th sa
nh vic nhn dng tng bn nh m phn SECAM c s cp)
Kt lun v h SECAM
Truyn ln lt tng dng mt hai tn hiu sc D
R
v D
B
, c mt dng
truyn D
R
th mt dng truyn D
B
.
iu tn D
R
v D
B
vo hai sng mang ph ring bit vi F
OR
= 4,40625 v
F
OB
= 4,2500Mc. Khong tn s cha tin tc ca D
R
v D
B
l t 4,02 n
4,68Mc
Tn hiu SECAM c 8 tin tc gm 4 tin tc ca en trng v F
MR
,F
MB
(ch
xut hin hoc ci ny hoc ci kia). Tin tc th 7 l nhn dng dc v th 8 l
nhn dng ngang ch c s dng mt trong hai ti my thu.
Tin tc th 8 l lo mu l tin tc nhn dng ngang hay nhn dng
tng dng mt.
2-6. H mu PAL (Phase Alternative Line)
PAL phase alternative line Hay ta ni pha thay i theo tng dng. y l h
truyn hnh mu ra i ti ty c chnh thc pht sng vo nm 1966 trn knh
sng CCIR (5,5 Mc). Phng php m ho c th xem nh l NTSC ci tin, hai
tn hiu sc l U v V vn c iu bin nn vung gc vo mt sng mang
ph c chn l bi s l ca F
H
/2 (F
SC
= 4,43Mc) nhng mt trong hai tn hiu
sc (tn hiu V) by gi c o pha ln lt tng dng mt. Bng cch ny,
51
Burst
Gate
FM .F
OR
(F
OB
)
Shapping
SECAM Colour
Video
Xung m cng
F
OB
F
OR
F
OR
F
OB
2H
H H
F
H
/2
Hnh 2. 25
ti my thu tn hiu sc c t ng sa sai pha nu nh c sai, v nh vy
khc phc c nhc im ca h NTSC.
2.6.1 Cc khi nim c bn
Hai tn hiu sc c nh ngha l
U = 0,493 (E
B
E
Y
)
V = 0,877 (E
R
E
Y
)
Hai h s nn 0,493 v 0,877 ta thy h mu NTSC nhng PAL ngi ta
khng xoay h trc i 33
0
, gii tn ca U v V vn l t 0 n 1,5Mc. To
mu c nh nh hnh 2. 26.
2.6.2 M ho PAL cn bn
Hnh v 2. 27 sau y s m t y qu trnh m ho cc thng tin c
bn ca h PAL.
Pal vn s dng phng php iu bin nn vung gc nh NTSC, ch
thay i v gc pha ca sng mang ph.
Gc pha 0
0
c dng iu bin nn tn hiu sc U, ( NTSC l 33
0
).
52
Hnh 2. 26
M
V
U
M
Burst
+ 135
0
-V
V
Burst
-135
0
Gc pha -90
0
v +90
0
ln lt tng dng mt iu bin nn tn hiu sc V
thay v lun lun l 123
0
nh NTSC.
Pha ca lo mu l -135
0
v +135
0
ln lt tng dng mt tu theo dng ang
truyn i c pha ca V l -90
0
hay +90
0
(thay v lun lun l -180
0
nh
NTSC).
Gii ph v tn hiu Video tng hp c dng nh hnh v 2. 28 sau.
53
Matrix SAM 1
SAM 2
+
+ +
Osc
F
SC
=4,43
Burst gate
Delay 0,7s
PALColo
r Video
Hnh 2. 27
E
Y
U
V
E
R
C
1
C
2
E
G
E
B
0
0
+90
0
-
90
0
+135
0
-
135
0
F
H
0-1,5Mc
0-1,5Mc
F
H
/ 2
S1
S2
Burst
Ey
max
100%
C
MAX
133%
C
MIN
-33%
BLKG
0%
C
1
v C
2
M
C
6,5
F
M
Sound
E
Y
4,43 2,93
LV
0
C1
C2
Hnh 2. 28
2.6.3 Gii m PAL (Pal Decode)
Hnh 2.29 di y m t ton b hot ng ca mch gii m h PAL. Ton
b gii tn ca tn hiu chi (t 0 n 6,2 Mc) i thng n mch Matrix ngang
qua mt dy tr 0,7s. Tn hiu sc nm trong sng mang ph 4,43Mc c
iu bin nn vung gc c trch ra nh tng Clour IF.
Ti y sng iu bin nn vung gc r lm ba ng: ng mt c o
pha 180
0
ra im A trn hnh v, ng th hai i ngang qua dy tr 64s v
ra im B, ng th ba i trc tip n im C.
Ta ly tn hiu cc im Av B, B v C cng li vi nhau ta c kt qu nh
bng sau.
Dng n
Pht U,V
Dng n+1
Pht U,-V
Dng n +2
Pht U,V
Dng n+3
Pht U,-V
A -U, -V -U, +V
A + B = +2V
-U, -V
A + B = -2V
-U, +V
A + B = +2V B U, V U, -V U, V
54
-135
0
M
A
T
R
I
X
Delay 0,7s
Burst
gate
OSC
4,43 +135
0
+1
Det V Color IF
f
H
NTSC
Video
colour
180
0
Del.1h
+2
Det u
-135
0
Phas.comp Switching
Y
+
C
F
H
/2
B
A
C
t 2V
+2U
2V
2U
R-Y
Hnh 2. 29
B-Y
G-Y
E..SW
-R
-G
-B
B + C = +2U B + C = +2U B+C = +2U
C U, V U, -V
U, V U, -V
Quan st bng trn ta thy ti u ra ca b cng 1 (A + B) ta lun lun c t
2V, tc l c mt dng l + 2V th mt dng l -2V. Tng t nh vy ti u
ra ca b cng 2 ta lun c +2U. Hai mch tch sng iu bin nn vi cc pha
ca sng hnh sin l 4,43 Mc thch hp s gip ly li hai in p +2V v +2U,
a vo mch Matrix gip ti to li cc hiu s mu.
c th tch sng iu bin nn, pha ca sng mang ph a vo mch tch
sng V s ln lt phi c pha l t 90
0
tu theo sng iu bin nn c bin l
+2V hay -2V.
Pha ca sng mang ph a vo tch sng U s lun lun phi l 0
0
. Mun t
c iu ny, u tin tng Burst gate trch ra tin tc ca lo mu vi pha ln
lt l t135
0
cho mi dng (c mt dng + th mt dng -). Tip theo l hai
mch lm tr pha ca F
SC
i 135
0
v sm pha ca F
SC
ln 135
0
a vo mt
chuyn mch in t hot ng vi nhp F
H
/ 2 tng t nh chuyn mch in
t c SECAM.
Gi s dng ang truyn pht i l +V, th pha ca lo mu (hay pha ca thch
anh to F
SC
) s l +135
0
. Lc ny u vo ca tch sng V sng iu bin nn
c bin l -2V v pha l -90
0
.
ng thi u vo ca tch sng U sng iu bin nn s c bin l 2U v
pha l 0
0
.
Nh vy c hai v ca chuyn mch in t s phi ng ln trn, lc ny pha
ca ng tch sng U s l +135
0
v -135
0
nh vy tng ca chng l = 0
0
, v
pha ca tch sng V s l +135
0
+ 135
0
= +270
0
= -90
0
.
Tng t nh vy, n dng k tip, i pht truyn i U, -V, chuyn mch in
t s phi ng xung di v pha ca tch sng U s l : -135
0
+ 135
0
= 0
0
v
pha ca ca tch sng V s l -135
0
-135
0
= -270
0
=+90
0
.
chuyn mch in t hot ng ng vi nhp F
H
/ 2 lun lun ng v tr
nh yu cu va m t. Ta thc hin vic so pha ca lo mu (pha ca F
SC
pht
ra t thch anh 4,43) vi pha ca ng tch sng V sau khi lm chm bt i
-135
0
. Nu chuyn mch in t ng ng th pha chm li 135
0
ca
ng tch sng V s trng vi pha ca lo mu, in p ra ca mch so pha s
l 0Vol ,v khng c g sy ra.
55
Ngc li nu c sai pha th mt in p DC s xut hin sa sai pha ny
bng cch sa la tn s ca mch ng ct (SWITCHING) ca s .
2.6.4 Tm tt v h truyn hnh mu PAL
Va truyn ng thi va va truyn ln lt hai tn hiu sc l U v V, ng
thi v dng no cng c c U v V c truyn i. Ln lt v mt trong hai tn
hiu sc b o pha ln lt theo tng dng mt.
Thc hin iu bin nn vung gc hai tn hiu sc l U v V vo mt sng
mang ph, sng mang ph vn c chn l bi s l ca F
H
/ 2 v bng 4,43
Mc.
My thu t ng hiu chnh sai pha ca tn hiu sc, nu c bng cch em nhp
c hai tn hiu sc ca dng bn trn xung dng chung cho dng bn di.
Tn hiu mu PAL gm tng cng 7 tin tc, 4 tin tc u l ca truyn hnh en
trng, ba thng tin cn li l: tn hi sc U, V, v lo mu. Tn hiu sc v lo
mu l tn hiu kp (t V) v (t135
0
).
Tin tc v lo mu c pha ln lt l +135
0
v -135
0
cho mi dng c dng
va nhn dng, va tch sng iu bin nn.
2. 7 S khi ca my thu hnh mu (Colour TV)
56
AFT
Tch
sng
K TRUNG
TN SIF
Det FM
K m tn
K trung
tn hnh
Tch sng
hnh
K video
tng hp
Delay 0,7
+K
Khi chn
knh VHF
Khi chn
knh
UHF
Mch kh
t
Ngun
chnh lu
AGC
Khi mu
ng b
mu
Tch sng
ng b
Khi qut
dng
To dng in
ng quy
Chnh lu
cao p
Ma
trn
V
K
Khi qut
mnh
Mch
sa mo
gi
Mch
xo tia
ngc
Cun li tia
C cu ng quy
CRT
R
G
B
AC
IN
DC
Out
HV
To vide.amp
F
H
Hnh 2.30
Gii thch s khi.
Khi chn knh
Khi chn knh c nhim v chn lc ly knh cn thu v bin tn hiu thu c
thnh tn hiu trung tn bng cch ly f
NS
- f
TH
= f
TT
= ( f
IF
)
- Mch AFT (automatic fine tuning - mch t ng tinh chnh). Nhm n nh
tn s dao ng ngoi sai f
ns
n nh tn hiu thu ca knh tn hiu chi.
Mch tch sng phch: c nhim v bin trung tn ting 1 v trung tn ting 2
OIRT CCIR FCC
TT ting 1 31,5 32,5 41,25
TT ting 2 6,5 5,5 4,5
Mch khuych i trung tn ting SIF: (sound intermedium frequency) c nhim
v khuych i tn hiu in p trung tn ting th 2 ln ln.
Mch Det FM v khuych i m tn: c nhim v gii iu tn tn hiu ting
ri khuych i ln c cng sut ln a ra loa.
Mch khuych i trung tn hnh (VIF) Video Intermedium frequency: c
nhim v khuych i tn hiu trung tn hnh ln ln a vo mch tch
sng hnh.
Mch tch sng hnh: (Det Video), C nhim v gii iu bin tn hiu VIF tr
thnh tn hiu hnh tng hp (Y, C, f
V
, f
H
, Burst)
Mch khuych i Video tng hp (Video Amp), C nhim v khuych i in
p tn hiu hnh tng hp ln ln a n: chi, sc, ng b, AGC.
57
Mch Delay 0,7s v khuych i Y, C nhim v lm tr tn hiu chi cho
hnh nh en trng (chi) v hnh nh mu (sc) trng khp vi nhau v
khuych i in p tn hiu chi ln ln a vo mch ma trn chi sc.
Mch AGC (Automatic gain control: mch t ng iu chnh h s khuych
i), C nhim v nhn tn hiu t sau tch sng hnh kim tra xem ln
ca tn hiu c ln khng c n nh khng iu khin cho khi chn knh
v mch khuych i trung tn n nh tn hiu thu.
Khi mu: L mt trong nhng khi quan trng vo bc nht ca TV mu, n
nh hng rt ln n cht lng hnh nh ca truyn hnh mu. N c nhim
v sau:
Tch ly tn hiu C t tn hiu hnh tng hp. Khuych i tn hiu sc C n gi
tr cn thit.Kt hp vi xung ng b mu, sng mang mu gii iu ch v
ly ra tn hiu mu R-y v B-y a vo mch ma trn chi sc.Mch ma trn
v khuych i tn hiu R-G-B, Mch ma trn c nhim v ly tn hiu y, R-y,
B-y trn t l nht nh (cng hoc tr) c 3 tn hiu mu c bn R,G, B
sau 3 tn hiu ny c cc tnh (-) c khuych i vi bin v cng sut
ln a n iu ch 3 Katt n hnh.
- n hnh mu (CRT colour: Cathode ray tube colour), C nhim v bin tn
hiu in thnh tn hiu hnh nh.
- Khi ng b mu: (Burst gate) c nhim v tch ly tn hiu ng b mu
thc hin ng b, ng pha cng bc mch to sng mang ph trong my thu
hnh h NTSC v Pal, thc hin ng pha CMT trong my thu hnh h Secam
III B v Pal.T ng tt knh mu lc thu chng trnh en trng hoc lc thu
chng trnh truyn hnh khc h mu.
Khi tch v phn chia xung ng b: (sync sep) c nhim v tch ly xung
ng b dng v mnh ra khi tn hiu hnh tng hp v phn chia tn hiu iu
khin f
H
v f
V
vo cc tng qut dng v qut mnh.
Khi qut mnh, To ra tn hiu qut mnh ng b vi my pht v c bin
ln cung cp cho cun li mnh.
Khi qut dng, So pha, OSC, khuych i m, khuych i cng sut dng
+FBT c nhim v to ra cc tn hiu qut dng ng b vi my pht v
khuych i vi bin ln cung cp cho cun li dng, to ra in p
cao p HV cp cho Ant n hnh v mt s in p khc cp cho cc li
n hnh v mt s mch khc trong my thu hnh.
Mch to dng in ng quy: c nhim v to dng in c tn s dng v
dng in c tn s mnh vi bin v hnh dng nht nh cp cho c cu
58
hi t c t trn c n hnh. C cu hi t c tc dng hi t 3 mu R,G,B
trn mi phn t ca nh.
Mch sa mo gi: C nhim v sa xung qut dng v mch a ti cun
li dng v mnh sao cho hnh nh qut c tr li nh ban u m khng b
mo hnh hc.
Mch xo tia qut ngc ( Blanking): C nhim v xo tia qut ngc khi tia
in t thc hin qu trnh qut ngc khng mang thng tin.
Mch chnh lu ngun: C nhim v bin i in p li AC thnh cc mc
in p AC, DC m my cn s dng cho cc khi.
Mch n p: n p in p cp cho cc khi trong Tivi.
CPU: (Central Processor Unit), iu khin s hot ng ca ton b cc khi
trong Tivi. Ch : Vi mch ngun TV mu phi c n nh cao, gn phi
nh, khi c s c t bin trong my thu th khi ngun phi c ct di ra
khi cc khi.Phi c mch bo v qu p, qu dng v qu ti.....
PHN II
truyn hnh s
Chng I
s ho tn hiu truyn hnh
1.1 - khi nim truyn hnh s:
1- Khi qut chung
S dng phng php s to, lu tr v truyn tn hiu ca chng
trnh truyn hnh trn knh thng tin m ra mt kh nng c bit rng ri cho
cc thit b truyn hnh lm vic theo cc h truyn hnh c nghin cu
trc. Trong mt s ng dng, tn hiu s c thay th hon ton cho tn hiu
tng t v n c kh nng thc hin c cc chc nng m tn hiu tng t
hu nh khng th lm c hoc rt kh thc hin, nht l trong vic x l tn
hiu v lu tr.
So vi tn hiu tng t, tn hiu s cho php to, lu tr, ghi c nhiu
ln m khng lm gim cht lng nh. Tuy nhin, khng phi trong tt c cc
trng hp, tn hiu s u t c hiu qu cao hn so vi tn hiu tng t
(b lc l mt v d c th). Mc d vy, xu hng chung cho s pht trin
Cng nghip truyn hnh trn th gii nhm t c mt s thng nht chung,
59
l mt h thng truyn hnh hon ton k thut s c cht lng cao v d dng
phn phi trn knh thng tin. H truyn hnh k thut s v ang c pht
trin trn ton th gii, to nn mt cuc cch mng tht s trong Cng nghip
truyn hnh.
Nguyn l cu to ca h thng v cc thit b truyn hnh s c a
ra nh trn hnh 5.1 u vo ca thit b truyn hnh s s tip nhn tn hiu
truyn hnh tng t. B bin i tn hiu tng t thnh tn hiu s (A/D) s
bin i tn hiu truyn hnh tng t thnh tn hiu truyn hnh s, cc tham s
v c trng ca tn hiu ny c xc nh t h thng truyn hnh c la
chn. Tn hiu truyn hnh s ti u ra b bin i A/D c a ti b m ho
ngun, ti y tn hiu truyn hnh s c tc dng bt cao s c nn thnh
dng bt c tc thp hn ph hp cho tng ng dng. Dng bt ti u ra b
m ho ngun c a ti thit b pht (m ho knh thng tin v iu ch tn
hiu) truyn ti bn thu qua knh thng tin.
Khi truyn hnh qua knh thng tin, tn hiu truyn hnh s c m ho
knh. M ho knh m bo chng cc sai st cho tn hiu trong knh thng tin.
Thit b m ho knh phi hp c tnh ca tn hiu s vi knh thng tin. Khi
tn hiu truyn hnh s c truyn i theo knh thng tin, cc thit b bin i
trn c gi l b iu ch v b gii iu ch.
Khi nim m ho trong knh c ph bin khng nhng trong ng
thng tin m trong c mt s khu ca h thng truyn hnh s, v d nh my
ghi hnh s, b iu chnh khong cch thi gian s, gia cng tn hiu truyn
hnh s v.v.
60
Tn hiu
truyn hnh
tng t
Bin i
A/D
M ho
ngun
M ho
knh
iu
ch s
Knh
thng tin
Tn hiu
truyn hnh
tng t
Bin i
D/A
Gii m
ho
ngun
Gii m
ho
knh
Gii
iu ch
s
Thit b pht
Thit b thu
Hnh 5.1 S cu trc tng qut ca h thng truyn hnh s.
Ti bn thu, tn hiu truyn hnh s c bin i ngc li vi qu trnh
x l ti pha pht. Gii m tn hiu truyn hnh thc hin bin i tn hiu
truyn hnh s thnh tn hiu truyn hnh tng t. H thng truyn hnh s s
trc tip xc nh cu trc m ho v gii m tn hiu truyn hnh.
2- c im ca thit b truyn hnh s
Thit b truyn hnh s dng trong truyn chng trnh truyn hnh l
thit b nhiu knh. Ngoi tn hiu truyn hnh, cn c cc thng tin km theo
gm cc knh m thanh v cc thng tin ph, nh cc tn hiu in bo, thi
gian chun, tn s kim tra, hnh nh tnh. Tt c cc tn hiu ny c ghp vo
cc khong trng ca ng truyn nh b ghp knh.
Truyn tn hiu truyn hnh s c thc hin khi c s tng quan gia
cc knh tn hiu, thng tin ng b s c truyn i ng b cc tn hiu
.
kim tra tnh trng ca thit b truyn hnh s, s dng cc h thng o kim
tra tng t nh i vi h thng truyn hnh tng t, thng qua o kim tra
tn hiu chun. Sau y l mt s c im ca thit b truyn hnh s so vi
truyn hnh tng t.
a) Yu cu v bng tn
Yu cu v bng tn l s khc nhau r nht gia tn hiu truyn hnh s
v tn hiu truyn hnh tng t. Tn hiu truyn hnh s vn gn lin vi yu
cu bng tn rng hn. V d, i vi tn hiu video tng hp, yu cu tn s ly
mu bng bn ln tn s sng mang ph - h NTSC l 14,4 MH
Z
, nu thc hin
m ho vi nhng t m di 8 bt, tc dng bt s l 115,2 Mbt/s, khi
rng bng tn khong 58MH
Z
. Nu c thm cc bit sa li, yu cu bng tn s
phi tng thm na. Trong khi tn hiu tng t ch cn mt bng tn
4,25MH
Z
l .
Tuy nhin vi dng s, kh nng cho php gim tc rng tn s l rt
ln. Vi cc k thut nn bng tn, t l t c c th ln ti 100:1 hay hn
na (tt nhin cc mc nn ny c th gy nh hng xu cho cht lng
hnh nh). Cc tnh cht c bit ca tn hiu hnh nh nh s lp li, kh nng
d bo cng lm tng thm kh nng gim bng tn tn hiu.
b) T l tn hiu/tp m (Signal/Noise)
Mt trong nhng u im ln nht ca tn hiu s l kh nng chng
nhiu trong qu trnh x l ti cc khu truyn dn v ghi.
Nhiu tp m trong h thng tng t c tnh cht cng, t l S/N ca
ton b h thng l do tng cng cc ngun nhiu thnh phn gy ra, v vy lun
lun nh hn t l S/N ca khu c t l thp nht.
Vi tn hiu s, nhiu l cc bit li - v d xung "on" chuyn thnh "off".
Nhiu trong tn hiu s c khc phc nh cc mch sa li. Bng cc mch
61
ny c th khi phc li cc dng bit nh ban u. Khi c qu nhiu bit li, s
nh hng ca nhiu c lm gim bng cch che li. T l S/N ca h thng
s gim rt t hoc khng i cho n khi t l bit li BER (Bit error Rate) qu
lns, lm cho cc mch sa li v che li mt tc dng. Khi dng bit khng
cn c ngha tin tc. Trong khi , i vi cc h thng tng t khi c ngun
nhiu ln tn hiu vn c th s dng c (tt nhin cht lng km i rt
nhiu).
Tnh cht ny ca h thng s c bit c ch cho vic sn xut chng
trnh truyn hnh vi cc chc nng bin tp phc tp - cn nhiu ln c v ghi.
Ghi bng bng tn hiu s c s dng rng ri trong cc nm gy y. Vic
truyn tn hiu qua nhiu chng cng c thc hin rt thun li vi tn hiu s
m khng lm suy gim cht lng tn hiu hnh.
Tuy nhin, trong truyn hnh qung b, tn hiu s gp phi vn kh
khn khi thc hin kim tra cht lng cc im trn knh truyn. Ti y cn
phi s dng cc b bin i tng t - s. y l mt cng vic c khi lng
ln v phc tp.
c) Mo phi tuyn
Tn hiu s khng b nh hng bi mo phi tuyn trong qu trnh ghi v
truyn. Cng nh i vi t l S/N, tnh cht ny rt quan trng trong vic ghi -
c chng trnh nhiu ln, c bit i vi cc h thng truyn hnh nhy cm
vi cc mo khuych i vi sai nh h NTSC.
d) Chng ph (Aliasing)
Mt tn hiu truyn hnh s c ly mu theo c chiu thng ng v
chiu ngang, nn c kh nng xy ra chng ph theo c hai hng. Theo chiu
thng ng, chng ph trong hai h thng s v tng t nh nhau. ln ca
mo chng ph theo chiu ngang ph thuc vo cc thnh phn tn s vt qu
tn s ly mu gii hn Nyquist. ngn nga hin tng mo do chng ph
theo chiu ngang, c th thc hin bng cch s dng tn s ly mu ln hn hai
ln thnh phn tn s cao nht trong h thng tng t.
e) Gi thnh v phc tp
Mch s lun c cu trc phc tp hn cc mch tng t, khi mi xut
hin, gi thnh cc thit b s cao hn nhiu so vi cc thit b tng t. Thm
na vic thit lp, s dng v duy tr chng cn kh b ng i vi nhng ngi
lm chuyn mn. Tuy nhin, cc vn ny nhanh chng c thc hin d
dng nh s pht trin ca Cng nghip truyn thng s v Cng nghip my
tnh. Cc ngnh Cng nghip ny thc y s pht trin cc lc lng nng
ct trong lnh vc k thut s. Cc mch s tch hp c ln LSI (Large Scale
Integration) v rt ln VLST (Very Large Scale Integration) xut hin lm gim
gi thnh trang thit b s. Kt qu l nhiu h thng s ny c gi thnh r
hn h thng tng t cng chc nng.
f) X l tn hiu
62
Tn hiu s c th c chuyn i v x l tt cc chc nng m h
thng tng t khng lm c hoc gp nhiu kh khn. Sau khi bin i A/D,
tn hiu cn li mt chui cc s, bit "0" v "1", c th thao tc cc cng vic
phc tp m khng lm gim cht lng hnh nh. Kh nng ny c tng ln
nh vic lu tr cc bit trong b nh v c th c ra vi tc nhanh. Cc
cng vic tn hiu s c th thc hin d dng l: Sa li thi gian gc, chuyn
i tiu chun, dng hu k, gim rng bng tn v.v...
g) Khong cch gia cc trm truyn hnh ng knh
Tn hiu s cho php cc trm truyn hnh ng knh thc hin mt
khong cch gn nhau hn nhiu so vi h thng tng t m khng b nhiu.
Mt phn v tn hiu s t chu nh hng ca nhiu ng knh, mt phn l do
kh nng thay th xung xo v xung ng b bng cc t m - ni m trong h
thng truyn dn tng t gy ra nhiu ln nht.
Vic gim khong cch gia cc trm ng knh kt hp vi vic gim
bng tn tn hiu, to c hi cho nhiu trm pht hnh c th pht cc chng
trnh vi phn gii cao HDTV nh cc h truyn hnh hin nay.
h) Hiu ng bng ma (ghosts)
Hin tng ny xy ra trong h thng tng t do tn hiu truyn n
my thu theo nhiu ng. Vic trnh nhiu ng knh ca h thng s cng
lm gim i hin tng ny trong truyn hnh qung b.
Vi cc u im ca mnh, h thng truyn hnh s c thc hin
hu ht cc quc gia trn th gii. y l mt qu trnh tt yu, Truyn hnh Vit
Nam cng ang giai on chuyn tip. Vic nghin cu truyn hnh s v la
chn cc tiu chun cho truyn hnh Vit Nam ang c tin hnh.
Hin nay qu trnh s ho tn hiu truyn hnh Vit Nam l s thay th
dn cc cng on, trang thit b t tng t sang s. l qua trnh s ho
tng phn. Ri y truyn hnh s s thay th hon ton truyn hnh tng t,
to iu kin cho ngnh Cng nghip ny pht trin mnh m hn, kt hp vi
cc mng truyn thng khc, to thnh mt th gii thng tin s, phc v cho
con ngi mt cch hu hiu.
5.2 - bin i tn hiu tng t - s (a/d) v tn hiu s - tng t (d/a)
1- Ly mu tn hiu video
a) Ly mu
Ly mu tn hiu tng t l qu trnh gin on (ri rc ho) theo thi
gian bng tn s ly mu f
lm
kt qu cho ta mt chui cc mu. Ly mu l bc
u tin th hin tn hiu tng t sang s, v cc thi im ly mu chn s
ch ra to cc im o. Qu trnh bin i ny phi tng ng v mt tin
tc. C ngha l tn hiu sau khi ly mu phi mang thng tin ca dng tn
hiu vo. Bin tn hiu tng t c ly mu vi chu k T
lm
, thu c mt
chui cc xung hp vi tn s ly mu c tnh bng:
63
F u v
C u C v
f i j
i u i v
i i
( , )
( ) ( )
( , ) cos
( )
. cos
( )

+ +


4
2 1
16
2 1
16
0
7
0
7

;
Trong : f
sa
- Tn s ly mu
T - Chu k ly mu
Qu trnh ly mu tng ng vi mt qu trnh iu bin tn hiu (f
0
)
trn sng mang c tn s bng tn s ly mu (f
lm
). Qu trnh iu bin to ra
cc bin trn v bin di. Sng ly mu c dng hnh ch nht, ph ca n bao
gm thnh phn tn s ly mu v cc hi ca n (hnh 5.2)
- Thc t vic ly mu tn hiu da trn c s ca nh l Nyquist -
Shannon: "tn hiu x(t) lin tc theo thi gian c ph hn ch ct ti
c
hon
ton c xc nh bng mt dy cc gi tr tc thi ly cch nhau mt on T =
T
lm
(1/2f
e
) vi f
c
=
c
/2".
Hm x(t) xc nh trong khong (t
0
, t
0
+ ) s hon ton c xc nh t
cc mu ri rc x(kt) ca n theo biu thc:
x(t) =
( )
( )
x k t
t k t
t k t
k
( )
sin

(5 - 2)
Trong : k = 0, t 1, t 2, v.v...
V mt ton hc c th m rng v pha tn s m cho cc tr s m ca
k. Vi khong ly mu t nh hn hoc bng /
c
; t /
c'
; Trong
c
l
tn s cao nht trong ph ca hm x(t).
Tn hiu ly mu cha trong n ton b lng thng tin mang trong tn
hiu gc nu:
- Tn hiu gc c bng tn hu hn, tc l n khng c nhng phn t c
tn s nm ngoi mt tn s f
c
no .
64
f
th
-
f
th
2f
lm
+f
th
-
f
th
3f
lm
+f
th
-
f
th
4f
lm
+f
th
f
A
Hnh 5.2 Ph ca tn hiu ly mu
- Tn s ly mu phi bng hoc ln hn hai ln f
c'
tc l f
lm
2f
c'
Hnh 5.3 minh ho ph tn s ly mu l tng, khi tn hiu bng c bn
c di thng f
c
v tn s ly mu l 2f
c'
. Nh vy, di bin trn v bin di u
c di thng l f
c'
vi tn s ny, khng xut hin nhiu gia bng c bn v di
bn di.
- Hnh 5.4 minh ho trng hp ly mu vi tn s nh hn
2f
c'
. Mt phn di bin di ca tn hiu ly mu chng ln
ph ca tn hiu bng c bn (nguyn nhn gy nn hin
tng mo do chng ph).
-
65
Ph bng
c bn
Di bin
di
Di bin
trn
Di bin
di
Di bin
trn
Bin
Tn s
f
c
2f
sa
f
sa
=
2f
c Hnh 5.3 Ph tn s ly mu l tng
Ph bng
c bn
Di bin
di
Di bin
trn
Di bin
di
Di bin
trn
A
Trng ph
f
c
2f
sa
f
sa
<
2f
c
Hnh 5.4 Mo do chng ph
f
sa
-
f
c
f
sa
+
f
c
2f
sa
- f
c
f
Tn hiu video, do c cc c trng ring, nn ngoi vic tha mn nh
l ly mu Nyquist, qu trnh ly mu cn phi tho mn cc yu cu v cu trc
ly mu, tnh tng thch gia cc h thng v.v ... Qu trnh ny phi xc nh
c tn s ly mu, cu trc ly mu nhm t c ch tiu v cht lng nh,
tnh tng thch gia cc h truyn hnh, tc bit thch hp v mch thc hin
n gin.
i vi tiu chun tn s Nyquist, vic ly mu tn hiu video vi tn s
f
lm
< f
Ny
l nguyn nhn ca mo chng ph v lm gim phn gii theo chiu
ngang. Thnh phn tn s cao nht i vi cc h truyn hnh tng t l:
H PAL : f
c
= 5 MH
z
H NTSC : f
c
= 4,2 MH
z
Theo , tn s gii hn Nyquist:
H PAL : f
Ny
= 10 MH
z
H NTSC : f
Ny
= 8,4 MH
z
Cc gi tr 10MH
z
v 8,4 MH
z
l cc gi tr tn s ly mu b nht c th
c. Trong thc t, tn s ly mu tn hiu video cho cc h truyn hnh tng
ng s cao hn.
Mt trong nhng yu cu lm tng tn s tn hiu truyn hnh l tng
khong bo v cho mch lc thng thp trc khi ly mu. Mch lc ny l
thnh phn u tin ca b bin i A/D.
khng lm xut hin mo tn hiu tng t, mch lc thng thp ca
h thng loi b cc thnh phn gy chng ph tn hiu. Do cc mch lc khng
c c c trng l tng, c tnh mch lc ngoi di thng khng phi l suy
gim hon ton, nn s dng bng tn bo v cho php s dng cc mch lc
mang tnh thc t (Hnh 5.5)
Vic chn tn s ly mu ti u s khc nhau vi cc thnh phn tn hiu
khc nhau: Tn hiu chi, tn hiu mu c bn, tn hiu mu v tn hiu video
mu tng hp. Tn s ly mu cng ph thuc vo cc h thng truyn hnh
mu.
Tn hiu video tng hp c ly mu vi tn s bng bi s ca tn s
sng mang ph. Khi tn s ly mu bng 3f
sc'
, vi h NTSC c tn s ly mu l
66
-f
sa
-f
gh
f
gh
f
sa
0
f
Hnh 5.5 Bng tn bo v
10,7MH
z
, v h PAL l 13,3MH
z
. Khi tn s ly mu bng 4f
sc'
, vi h NTSC
tng ng c tn s ly mu l 14,3MH
z
, v h PAL l 17,7MH
z
. Tn s ly
mu cng cao, cng d dng cho vic s dng cc b lc trnh chng ph v b
lc ti to cng nh a li mt c tuyn tn s tt hn. K thut hin nay cho
php gim nh cc kh khn trong vic thit k cc b bin i A/D bng vic
s dng thit b ly mu tn s cao. i vi h SECAM, do s dng phng
php iu tn, nn qu trnh s ho tn hiu video khng thc hin ly mu tn
hiu tng hp. Tn hiu SECAM c m ho thnh tn hiu thnh phn, sau
c s ho ring bit. Cc tn hiu video thnh phn tng t c ly mu ti
tn s bng bi s ca tn s dng qut.
b) Cu trc ly mu
Tn hiu hnh nh t camera v tn hiu c hin th trn mn hnh cha
thng tin v ng b theo mnh v dng, l cc nh hai chiu. V vy khi
phc chnh xc hnh nh, tn s ly mu c lin quan n tn s dng. Cc kt
qu nghin cu cho thy tn s ly mu phi l bi ca tn s dng. Vi quan h
ny, im ly mu trn cc dng qut k nhau s thng hng vi nhau v trnh
c cc hiu ng mo ng bin gy ra.
Nh vy, vic ly mu khng nhng ph thuc theo thi gian m cn
ph thuc vo to cc im ly mu. V tr cc im ly mu hay cu trc ly
mu c xc nh theo thi gian, trn cc dng v cc mnh. Hm ly mu c
th bin i dng x
q
(t,x,y). Tn s ly mu ph hp vi cu trc ly mu s cho
php khi phc hnh nh tt nht. V vy tn s ly mu phi thch hp cho c
ba chiu t, x, y. Tuy nhin, trong cc cu trc ly mu ph bin, ta ch xt cc
mu c biu din bng hai i lng (x, y).
C ba dng lin kt v tr cc im ly mu c s dng ph bin cho
cu trc ly mu tn hiu video l cu trc trc giao, cu trc "quincunx" mnh
v "quincunx" dng.
+ Cu trc trc giao: Cc mu c sp xp (trn cc dng k nhau)
thng hng theo chiu ng. Cu trc ny l c nh theo mnh v theo hai nh
(hai mnh). Hnh 5.6
67
Dng 1, mnh 1
Dng 2, mnh 1
Dng 1, mnh 2
Dng 2, mnh 2
Hnh 5.6 Cu trc trc giao
Trong trng hp ny tn s ly tho mn nh l Nyquist v do cn
s dng tc bit rt ln.
+ Cu trc "quincunx" mnh: i vi cu trc quincunx mnh, cc
mu trn cc dng k nhau thuc mt mnh xp thng hng theo chiu ng
(trc giao), nhng cc mu thuc mnh mt li dch i mt na chu k ly mu
so vi cc mu ca mnh th hai (Hnh 5.7)
Phn b ph tn ca cc cu trc quincunx mnh rt c ngha i vi
mnh mt, n cho php lm gim tn s ly mu theo dng. Ph tn cu trc ni
trn ca mnh hai so vi ph mnh mt b ch v c th lng vi ph tn c
bn, gy ra mo cc chi tit nh (khi hnh nh c cc sc hoc cc ng
thng ng).
+ Cu trc "quincunx" dng
Cc mu trn cc dng k nhau ca mt mnh s lch nhau na chu k
ly mu, cn cc mu trn dng mt mnh so vi cc mu trn dng tip sau
(ca mnh sau) mt na chu k ly mu (Hnh 5.8)
68
Dng 1, mnh 1
Dng 2, mnh 1
Dng 1, mnh 2
Dng 2, mnh 2
Hnh 5.7 Cu trc quincunx mnh.
Dng 1, mnh 1
Dng 2, mnh 1
Dng 1, mnh 2
Dng 2, mnh 2
Hnh 5.8 Cu trc quincunx dng
y khng xy ra trng hp lng cc ph bin vi ph chnh v
khng b mo. iu cho php s dng tn s ly mu nh hn 25% tn s
Nyquist v tit kim c rng ph ca tn hiu s.
Tu theo cu trc ly mu, s xut hin loi mo nh c trng. Vi cu
trc trc giao, phn gii nh s gim. i vi cu trc "quincunx" mnh s
xut hin nhp nhy cc im nh. Ngc li vi cu trc "quincunx" dng s
xut hin cc vng trn theo chiu ngang (mo ng bin). Tm li, cu trc
trc giao cho cht lng nh cao nht v i vi mt ngi, th phn gii
gim d chu hn l hai loi mo nu trn.
2- Lng t ho
Bc tip theo trong qu trnh bin i A/D l lng t ho. Trong qu
trnh ny bin tn hiu c chia thnh cc mc - gi l mc lng t.
Khong cch gia hai mc k nhau gi l bc lng t. Cc mu c c t
qu trnh ly mu s c bin bng cc mc lng t.
Gi tr lng t Q c xc nh theo biu thc:
Q = 2
N
; (5.3)
Trong : N - s bit biu din mi mu.
Tn hiu s nhn c l mt gi tr xp x ca tn hiu ban u, nguyn
nhn do qu trnh lng t ho xc nh cc gi tr s ri rc cho mi mu. Hnh
5.9 cho thy, tt c cc gi tr bin nm trong phm v gii hn ca mt mc
lng t u c thit lp mt gi tr nh nhau - chnh l mc lng t Q.
C hai phng php lng t ho l: Lng t ho tuyn tnh c cc bc lng
t bng nhau v lng t ho phi tuyn c cc bc lngj t khc nhau.
Trong hu ht cc thit b video s cht lng studio, tt c cc mc
lng t u c bin bng nhau v qu trnh lng t ho c gi l lng
t ho ng u. y l qu trnh bin i t mt chui cc mu vi v hn bin
sang cc gi tr nht nh, v vy qu trnh ny gy ra sai s, gi l sai s
lng t. Sai s lng t l mt ngun nhiu khng th trnh khi trong h
thng s.
69
T T T T T T T T
Li lng
t
Thi gian
Khong ly mu
Q
n + 5
n + 4
n + 3
n + 1
n
n + 2
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Khong
lng t
Mc
lng t
Bin
Hnh 5.9 Qu trnh lng t ho v sai s lng t
Bin tn hiu video bin i theo thi gian. Cc gi tr lng t c th
cha sai s trong phm vi
1
2
Q
trong , Q l bc lng t.
Trong cc h thng s s dng 8 bit (v ln hn 8 bit) biu din mu,
sai s lng t c th c coi nh l mt ngun tn hiu khng mong mun
(nhiu) cng thm vo tn hiu trong qu trnh lng t.
Trong cc h thng s dng t hn 8 bit biu din mu, sai s lng t
s nh hng nghim trng n tn hiu ban u, lm mo dng sng, tng hiu
ng vin khng mong mun.
( ) ( ) ( ) t x t x t '
(5.4)
Trong : (t) - Sai s lng t
x(t) - Gi tr cc mu tn hiu trc khi lng t
x'(t) - Gi tr cc mu tn hiu sau khi lng t
Sai s (t) tu thuc vo tnh thng k ca ngun tn hiu vo v rng
cc bc lng t. C th xem (t) l mt loi nhiu do qu trnh lng t ho
gy ra - gi l mo lng t.
Trong lng t ho tuyn tnh v gi s rng cc li c phn b u,
cn bnh phng ca cc sai s lng t bng Q/ 12 . Gi tr nh - nh tn
hiu u ra ca b bin i D/A c cho bng 2
n
Q. Gi tr chnh xc ca n l
(2
n
- 1). T s gia cc gi tr bin i nh - nh v cn bnh phng sai s
lng t ca mt h thng quy nh cht lng nh khi phc v c tnh theo
biu thc:
70
( ) 8 , 10 02 , 6
12 2
log 20
10
+

,
_

n
Q
x Q
n
dB
Q
S
RMS
(5.5)
Trong biu thc trn, tn hiu tng t chim ton b thang lng t.
Vi h thng s s dng 8 bit m ho, theo l thuyt.
S/Q
rms
= 58,96 dB
Gi tr S/Q
rms
ph thuc vo mt s cc tham s sau:
- Gii hn gii thng ca ph tn hiu so vi f
c
nh hng n S/Q
rms
lm
tng S/Q
rms
ln vi h s 10log
10
(f
sa
/f
c
).
Thang lng t chim bi tn hiu video tch cc (100IRE). Gi tr
S/Q
rms
c tnh theo bin nh -nh tn hiu video (714 hay 700mV). Mt
tn hiu video tng hp vi sc mu chun 100% c bin nh - nh l 1,22V
v 1,2335V tng ng i vi cc h NTSC v PAL. Gi s rng tt c tn hiu
u c lng t, phn chi ca tn hiu (714 hay 700mV) theo ch chim
mt phn ca ton b thang lng t. T l tng ng s l 0,714/1,22 0,57
i vi h NTSC v PAL. Khi gi tr cc bc lng t s nh hn v gi tr
S/Q
rms
cng gim theo. Nu trn thang lng t, gi tr khong bo v c xc
nh chnh xc trong bin nh tn hiu video, gi tr S/Q
rms
cng gim theo
gi tr khong bo v.
T ta c cng thc xc nh S/Q
rms
c vit tng qut:
( )
S
Q
dB n
f
f
c
V
V V
RMS
sa
q
W B
+ +

_
,

_
,

6 02 108 10
2
20
10 10
, , log log

(5.6)
Trong : n - s bit biu din mu
f
sa
- tn s ly mu
f
c
- tn s cao nht ca tn hiu video
V
q
- mc in p ton b thang lng t
V
W
- mc trng
V
B
- mc en
V
W
- V
B
= 0,714 (NTSC) v 0,7 (PAL)
B qua gi tr khong bo v, t s S/Q
rms
i vi h NTSC vi di thng
4,2 MH
z
tn s ly mu 14,3 MH
z
, s dng 8 bit biu din mu, ta c:
S
Q
dB
RMS
56 62 ,
71
Do hn ch di thng 4,2MH
z
, t s S/Q
rms
tng (+ 2,31dB) l sai lch
gy ra bi vic gim s cc bc lng t (- 4,65dB). Nu tnh n c khong
bo v, t s S/Q
rms
gim khong 1dB.
T (5.6) c th suy ra mo lng t ph thuc vo s mc lng t. i
vi tn hiu video, mo lng t xut hin hai dng chnh: Hiu ng ng
vin v nhiu ht ngu nhin.
Hiu ng ng vin xut hin nhng vng c sng thay i chm
v u theo chiu ngang, khi c nhng sc vi sng c nh chia thnh
nhiu ng r nt theo chiu ng nh ng bin. Nu tng s mc lng t,
hiu ng ng vin s gim. i vi nh c nhiu chi tit - mo lng t phn
b ngu nhin th hiu ng ng vin xut hin t. Khi s dng t m 8 bit biu
din mu, hiu ng ng vin s gn nh khng cn nhn bit c na.
Nhiu ht ngu nhin xut hin vng nh rng v c sng ng u,
l dng nhiu cc ht ging nh sng m - kh nhn bit hn hiu ng ng
vin. Hin tng ny c th c s dng hiu chnh cht lng nh qua vic
bin i mo t dng ngu nhin.
Qu trnh hiu chnh c thc hin bng cch cng tn hiu c dng c
bit - tn hiu "dither" - vo tn hiu video (Hnh 5.10). y l qu rnh
"dithering". Tn hiu "dither" c nhiu dng khc nhau, thng thng l dng
xungch nht, tn s bng 1/2 tn s ly mu, bin bng 1/2 sng lng t.
72
Tn hiu ny tng gp i mc lng t ho vi cc nh c din rng
nhng khng gim cht lng ca nh c nhiu chi tit.
Phng php gii quyt hiu ng ng vin c hiu qu nht l cng
hai tn hiu "dither" tn hiu xung ch nht bin Q/2 v tn hiu ngu nhin
bin hiu dng < Q/3, vo tn hiu video. Vi phng php ny, mo lng
t s ch cn dng ngu nhin.
Trong s ho tn hiu video, thng ngun nhiu ngu nhin trong tn
hiu vo tng t c s dng nh tn hiu "dither", nh d cc loi nhiu lin
kt c loi b. Trong trng hp ny, vi 8 bit m ho, c th loi b c
hu ht cc tp m nhiu cho tn hiu video.
Khi lng t ho tn hiu video mu hon chnh, c th ly ti mu lm
nhiu ngu nhin. Mo xut hin trong trng hp ny l mo pha vi sai s v
mo khuch i vi sai s. Mo ny phc thuc tn hiu bin mu. Mo vi sai
s c lm gim bng cch gim bc lng t (tng ng vi tng s mc
lng t).
Xc nh khong ly mu trn thang lng t ng vai tr quan trng
trong vic m bo an ton ca tn hiu. Do tn hiu vo l khng n nh, cng
vi cc nhiu trong qu trnh sa, c trng ca cc mch lc khng phi l l
73
Mc lng t
a) Tn hiu khng sa
Mc lng t
b) Tn hiu c sa trc lc
thng thp
Mc lng t
c) Tn hiu c sa sau lc thng
thp
Hnh 5.10 Cng tn hiu "dither"
tng, nn qu trnh lng t ho tn hiu video cn s dng bin bo him, cc
mc cm ny cho php tn hiu video c an ton trc cc ngun nhiu.
Chng l cc khong trng pha trn gi tr cc i v pha di gi tr cc tiu
ca tn hiu video. Do nh hng mo mc en nh hn nh hng mo
mc trng, nn bin bo him ca mc trng ln hn mc en. Nh chng ta
bit, bin ca tn hiu tng t bin i trong phm vi nht nh, l gi
tr nh - nh (U
P - P
). Gi tr U
P - P
chun vi tn hiu sc mu 100% cho h
NTSC l 1,22V v cho h PAL l 1,2335V. Qu trnh chuyn i A/D khng
c lm mt thng tin, c th phc hi li tn hiu ban u mt cch trung
thc.
S cc bc lng t, theo , ln ca sai s lng t ph thuc vo
s bit biu din mu. Trong cc h thng s u tin, thng s dng 7 hoc 8
bit biudin mu, tng ng c 128 hay 256 mc lng t. Ngy nay, cc
thit b s tiu chun studio thng s dng 10 bit cho mt mu - hay 1024 mc
lng t.
3- M ho
a) Khi qut chung
M ho l khu cui cng ca b bin i A/D. M ho, theo quan im
thng k, l mt qu trnh bin i cu trc ngun m khng lm thay i tin
tc, mc ch l ci thin cc ch tiu k thut cho h thng truyn tin. D liu
sau m ho c u im: Tnh chng nhiu cao hn, tc hnh thnh tng
ng kh nng thng qua ca knh.
Qu trnh ny bin i cc mc tn hiu lng t ho thnh chui cc
bit "0", "1". di ca dy tn hiu nh phn ny, thut ng chuyn mn gi l
t m nh phn c tnh bng s lng cc con s "0" v "1", l mt trong
nhng ch tiu cht lng ca k thut s ho tn hiu. N phn nh s lng
mc sng, ti, mu sc ca hnh nh c ghi nhn v bin i. V nguyn tc
di ca t m nh phn cng ln th qu trnh bin i cng cht lng, ngha
l n c xem nh l " phn gii" ca qu trnh s ho. Tuy nhin phn
gii cng ch n mt gii hn nht nh l tho mn kh nng ca h
thng k thut hin nay, cng nh kh nng phn bit ca mt ngi xem.
phn gii tiu chun hin nay l 8bit/mu.
Cc m c s dng trong truyn hnh s c th c phn chia mt
cch quy c thnh 4 nhm, l:
+ Cc m m ho tn hiu truyn hnh
+ Cc m truyn c hiu qu cao theo knh thng tin
+ Cc m thun tin cho vic vic gii m v ng b bn thu
+ Cc m x l s tn hiu trong cc b phn khc nhau ca h thng
truyn hnh s.
Cc qu trnh m ho tn hiu truyn hnh truyn tin tc theo knh thng
tin, v qu trnh gii m tn hiu bn thu l c lp, thm ch khng phi hp vi
nhau. iu c ngha l cc m thch nghi cho vic biu din s ca tn hiu
truyn hnh c th khng thch hp cho vic truyn theo knh thng tin, cn cc
m thch hp cho vic m ho tn hiu truyn hnh v truyn chng nhiu theo
74
knh thng tin c th c gii m theo phng php rt phc tp. V vy trong
truyn hnh s thng dn ti vic gii quyt vn biu din m.
p ng m ho tn hiu truyn hnh v sau to li n bn thu,
ngi ta thng dng mt loi m, cn i vi vic truyn chng nhiu theo
knh thng tin th dng loi m khc. Trong cc trng hp ring i khi s
dng ng thng tin vi vic truyn c tnh cht xc thc cao nh ng dn
sng v cp quang hc, chng c th khng tip nhn cc s o c bit
chng sai s v dn n vic truyn chnh loi m m c s dng m
ho tn hiu truyn hnh. Khi chn cc m cho cc tn hiu ca thit b truyn
hnh s cn thit rng: Th nht l s lp m (cu trc ton hc) gm cc s cn
cho vic gii quyt cc bi ton t ra, th hai l cc phng php m ho v
gii m cc m c chn m c th thc hin c trong cc thit b. V cu
trc ton hc, cc m c chia thnh m khng chnh xc s cp v m hiu
chnh, ngha l sa cha sai s khi truyn. Trong cc khu truyn hnh s, m s
cp c s dng ch yu m ho tn hiu truyn hnh, ghi hnh t tnh, biu
din tn hiu thng tin ph v cc mc ch b xung khc. Cc m hiu chnh sai
s c s dng trong trng hp khi tn hiu s b mo sau khi c truyn
trn knh thng tin.
Vic truyn tn hiu truyn hnh s cn phi c thc hin vi tc
xc nh cao. Theo nguyn nhn ny th vic chn m hiu chnh c hiu qu rt
c ch n. Hin nay l thuyt v thc tin pht trin c kt qu tt cho
php s dng cc loi m m chng sa cha c sai s v cc m vng c
mt s u im. Trong phn ring cng phn ra cc m truyn hnh tng ng
vi cc tn hiu c s dng truyn dng s theo cp thng tin. Chng ta
cng kho st ring m cc m gi ngu nhin, s dng cc tnh cht v cc c
im ca n trong truyn hnh s bin i cu trc thng k ca tn hiu s,
o xc thc ca vic truyn v cc nhim v khc.
b) Cc c tnh c bn ca m
Qu trnh bin i rt nhiu cc im m lng t ho ca tn hiu
(trong c tn hiu truyn hnh) thnh t hp cc k hiu khc nhau gi l s
m ho, cn cc nhm k hiu thng tin cch im m ho gi l m.
Cc thut ng "m ho" v "m" c trng cho quy trnh ca vic i
chiu tn hiu truyn hnh c lng t ho xc nh cc nhm k hiu
m. ng thi trong h thng truyn hnh s, vic gia cng v truyn thng tin
c thc hin vi s gip ca cc tn hiu m mt hoc mt vitham s ca
n c iu ch ph hp vi m thng tin. i khi thng n gin ho, h
thng thut ng cc k hiu ca h thng s c gi l m, m trong trng
hp c bit i khi cc k hiu m l cc xung video.
Cc m m cc t hp ca n bao gm mt s cc k hiu nh nhau
c gi l cc m u n, cn cc m m cc t hp ca n bao gm mt s
cc k hiu khc nhau gi l m khng u n.
L thuyt m ho c hai hng nghin cu: Th nht l nghin cu cc
cu trc m m n nng cao chnh xc ca vic truyn theo knh thng tin c
75
nhiu (nh cc m chng sai s, cc m hiu chnh) v th hai l nghin cu cu
trc m trit tiu d ca tn hiu m ho trong knh khng nhiu. Hai
hng ny ng vai tr c bit trong truyn hnh s, v vic phi hp vi cc
phng php khc cho php gim v cn bn d ca tn hiu truyn hnh
(Xem chng 6).
S kho st mt cch chi tit cc cu trc v cc tnh cht ca m s
dng trong h thng truyn hnh s, a ra phn d liu m n mang li nhng
c tnh ng dng c bn. Nhng hin nay duy tr h tng thut ng c
s dng trong l thuyt m ho th chnh phng tin c trnh by mt
cch hp l tip sau cho ta mt vi nh ngha t l thuyt i s trong trng
hp hu hn.
H thng i s l mt tp hp m trong xc nh mt hay mt vi
php ton nh php nhn v php cng.
Trng l mt h thng i s m trong xc nh hai php ton c
bn (php nhn v php cng) v hai php ton ngc ca chng (php chia v
php tr).
Trng m trong cha ng mt s hu hn cc phn t q c gi
l trng Ga - lua v k hiu l GF(q).
Nu cc phn t ca trng l cc s nguyn theo modun ca cc s t
nhin p { }
012 1 , , ...., p
th gi l trng n gin. V d GF(2) trng nh phn
gm 2 phn t { }
0 1 ,
. Php cng trong trng nh phn c thc hin theo
modun 2 (php cng modun 2) v k hiu bng du .
S phn t ca trng Ga - lua xc nh m c s. M vi c s q = 2
gi l m c s 2, n c s dng rng ri trong cc h thng truyn hnh s.
Cc m vi c s ln hn 2 thng c s dng ch i vi vic tryn theo
ng thng tin. Trong truyn hnh s dng ph bin nht l cc m vi c s 2,
3, 4 v 8. Khi to nn cc m bi cc thit b m ho dng cc b ghi dch c
bn, cc t hp m c biu din mt cch thun tin di dng a thc f(x) t
mt bin x vi cc h s xc nh t trng GF(q) no y:
f(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x
2
+ a
2
x
2
+ .... + a
n
x
n
(5.7)
i vi trng nh phn, h s a
i
bng 0 hoc bng 1. Nh vy bc ca
a thc tng ng vi bc ln nht ca x trong s cc hng thc vi h s khc
khng. a thc m n khng th phn chia thnh a thc khc cp thp hn vi
cc h s thuc cng mt trng c gi l a thc bt kh quy. Trong l
thuyt m ho, cc thc bt kh quy ng vai tr lm cc hm pht v nh
gc (c s) ca n c th quy nh cc tham s lp rng ca m nhiu mc, bao
gm cc m tun hon v cc dng gi ngu nhin. S bc trong mt t hp m
c gi l trng s, cn t hp ton b cc t hp m c th c gi l bng t
m. i vi m u n th di bng t m bng { }
A
= q
n
, trong q l c
s m, cn n l trng s ca n.
Khi m ho hiu chnh, bng m xut x nh hn bng m knh, do vy
truyn thng tin i hi phi c phn t hp ton b cc t m ca knh. Cc
76
t hp m c s dng ny c gi l c cho php, cn phn cn li gi l
t hp m b cm. Nu bin i sai s sai t hp m cho php sang t hp cm
th chnh nhng sai s ny c pht hin khi gii m, cn khi cu trc m c
xc nh th n c sa cha. Kh nng s dng m pht hin v sa
cha sai s truyn c c trng bi khong cch m, n bng s bc m trong
cc t hp ny c phn bit vi t hp m khc.
d ca m c xc nh nh sau:
R
k
= 1 - log
2
N
P
/log
2
N
0
Trong : R
k
- d ca m
N
p
- s t hp m cho php
N
o
- s t hp m c th c
i vi cc a s cc m, phn k ca t hp k hiu c xc nh t n
k hiu t cc ng thng tin, cn phn r cn li l hiu chun. Do vy khi
c s m l 2 th:
R
k
= 1 - log
2
2
k
/log
2
2" = 1 - k/n = r/n (5.9)
Trong l thuyt m ho, phn k hiu thng tin trong t ma c gi l
tc truyn thng tin:
R = k/n = (n - r)/n = 1 - r/n (5.10)
Khi s dng cc m chng sai s, lun lun phi ch rng s tng ca
tch chng nhiu t c nh s gim tc truyn tin (nu nh khng chuyn
thnh c s m cao hn) v tn ti xc sut sai s ti hn (nh nht). Khi vt
qua xc sut ti hn th m lm mt tnh cht hiu chnh ca mnh. Cc tham s
l trng s. Trng s ca m c gi l s s mt (s n v - trong trng hp
chung l cc k hiu khc 0) trong t hp m c gi l vt qu. Ngha l
sai khc s s 1 v s 0 trong t hp m. Trng s c trng cho thnh phn
ph ca tn hiu tng ng vi m thng tin v kh nng ng b ca mi tn
hiu c truyn. Cc m vi trng s khng i, ngha l vi s s 1 nh nhau
trong mi t hp cho php, cng c s dng pht hin sai s.
Nh vy, phc v yu cu v ghi, truyn tn hiu video, m ho c
s dng trong cc trng hp:
+ M ho s cp: Dng to tn hiu s studio.
+ M bo v v sa sai: Tng kh nng chu ng ca tn hiu trong
knh c nhiu.
+ M truyn tuyn tnh: Tng kh nng truyn dn.
u tin tt c cc tn hiu video s c m ho s cp, sau m ho
chuyn i (transcode). M s cp l m c s m t hnh thnh m bo v.
M s cp c dng tn hiu nh phn lin tc, cc bit "0", "1" c th biu din
bng nhiu phng php khc nhau, c phn bit bng thi gian tn ti, cc
tnh, mc ph. Biu din cc bit c th l tuyt i hoc tng i.
77
M c cu trc tuyt i: S bin i cc bit km theo s bin i cch
biu din. Trong cc m dng tuyt i, s thay i ca cc tham s biu din
trong dy tn hiu (mc pha ca xung v cc tham s khc) xy ra ng thi vi
s thay i ca cc k hiu m, ngha l trong dng tuyt i, mi k hiu ca
m c k hiu tng ng vi tn hiu in c xc nh.
M c cu trc tng i: S bin i cc bit tng ng c th bin i
hoc khng bin i cch biu din. Trong cc m dng tng i, s thay i
ca cc tham s biu din dy tn hiu xy ra ch khi xut hin k hiu 1 (hay k
hi 0) trong dy thng tin. V d, nu ng sau k hiu 1 st k hu 0 th s
khng th khng xy ra s thay i trong tn hiu c truyn.
c) Cc m s cp
Cc m s cp ch yu c s dng m ho tn hiu truyn hnh, x
l s, trong cc thit b t hp studio ca trung tm truyn hnh s v.v...
+ NRZ (Non Return to Zero): Khng tr li mc khng
+ RZ (Return to Zero) : Tr li mc khng
+ BiPh (Bi Phase) : Hai pha
Bng t m ca m s cp cn phi tho mn iu kin q
n - 1
< N q
n
,
trong N l s mc lng t ca tn hiu truyn hnh c m ho.
iu kin ny dn n trng hp th nht l m s cp c th c d
no y, th hai l phn d ca t hp m lun lun nh hn mt na tng s
mc m ho. iu lin h vi ton b s mc lng t ca b A/D c th
khc vi gi tr mc bi ca c s m. i khi c ch d khng thuc tnh
cht c trng ca m s cp v thc t khng c s dng. Thng trong
truyn hnh s, c s ca m s cp bng 2, ngha l m ny l m nh phn.
Cc m s cp c phn thnh loi c trng s v loi khng c trng
s. Loi c trng s bao gm cc m m bn cnh mi bc ca t hp m ca n
c nhn bit mt h s trng s no . Khi m s bt k c dng a thc.
F q C Cq C q C q
N
N
i
i
i
N
( ) ..... + +

0 1 1
1
0
1
(5.11)
Trong : i - c s ca h thng m v s bc theo th t ca t hp m.
q
i
- trng s ca a thc
C
i
- h s tng ng vi bc ca a thc nhng s nguyn
theo modun q.
M trng s F(2) =
C
i
i
N i
2
1
0

, C
i
l 2 s t nhin (C
i
= 0 hoc 1), trong
h thng truyn hnh s n c s dng rt rng ri. Thuc v cc m khng
trng s l m phn x, trong s c m Gray. Trong cc m khng c trng
78
s, cc bc ca cc t hp m khng c trng s xc nh. Tnh cht c bn ca
m phn x l hai t hp bt k k nhau ch c phn bit bng 1 bc. V vy
khi b sai s, s to li ca t hp m s gi lm sai 1 bc. M Gray c khong
cch bng 1, t lm sai s thit b, kt hp vi vic pht hin sai s cc khi
thng tin c bc k nhau.
V vy m Gray c s dng rng ri trong vic m ho ma trn ca tn
hiu truyn hnh dng ng tia in cng nh khi truyn tn hiu truyn hnh s
bng phng php iu pha nhiu v tr tng i.
79
Khi truyn cc t hp m lin
tip ca tn hiu ny n tn hiu
khc c dng mt dy hai s ngu
nhin, cc k hiu ca n cn phi
c a ra bng cc phng php
khc nhau: Lu trng s v
phm v ca chng, phn bit s
ph thuc nhau v cc tnh, mc
hay l pha v.v...
Dng biu din ca cng mt
m s cp no c xc nh
bi dng ca tn hiu gi l dng
m. Hnh 5.11 a ra cc th
thi gian ca ca dy nh phn
10110100, trong m nh phn
c biu din theo cc dng
khc nhau. Thng thng cc m
c biu din di dng tuyt i
c bn xc nh nh sau.
Cc dng m NRZ l mt dy
xung c rng mi xung bng
thi gian chu k ng h:
U(t) = U(t) - U(t - T) (5.12)
Trong : T - thi gian chu k
ng h
Mc logic 0 ng vi mc
in p thp nht, cn mc logic1
ng vi mc in p cao nht. Ph tn hiu s trong NRZ bao gm ph tn rng
(t thnh phn mt chiu n thnh phn lp li symbol), trong nng lng
ln nht ca ph nm vng tn s thp (Hnh 5.12). Ngi ta chia m NRZ
thnh hai loi: NRZ gin on tch cc v NRZ gin on th ng (Ph thuc
vo mc in p ng vi mc tn hiu thp nht). NRZ gin on th ng:
Mc symbol 0 ng vi mc in p 0, cn NRZ gin on tch cc (NRZ - P):
N ng vi in p m (cng gi trk), in p m ng vi sumbol 1
80
1 0
0
1
0 1 0 0
T m:
M NRZ
M NRZ -
M
M NRZ - S
M NRZ - P
M RZ
M RZ - P
M RZ - U
M BiPh
M BiPh -
M
M BiPh - 5
Hnh 5.11 M s cp
Cc bin th ca NRZ l m NRZ - M (NRZ - Mark) hoc cn gi l
NRZ - 1 v m NRZ - S (NRZ - Space) hoc cn gi l NRZ - 0. Trong m NRZ
- M, mi s thay i v bin tn hiu ng vi mc logic 0 ng vi trng hp
khng c s thay i v bin . Ph tn hiu s ca m NRZ - M tng t nh
trongm NRZ. M NRZ - S l m b sung cho m NRZ - M, m NRZ - S c
mc logic 0 ng vi trng hp c s thay i bin tn hiu v mc logic 1,
nu bin tn hiu c nh. c im ca NRZ - S ging nh m NRZ - M.
Cc m dng RZ khc vi m NRZ l xung in p chiu 1 na hay c
phn phm v nhp T.
U(t) = U(t) - U(t - 0,5T) (5.13)
C xung: ng vi mc logic 1, cn khng c xung: ng vi mc logic 0.
Trong trng hp logic 1, bin tn hiu thay i hai ln, cn mc logic 0 th
bin tn hiu khng i. Ph tn hiu s trong m RZ bao gm bng tn s
rng t thnh phn mt chiu n tn s bng hai ln tn s xung ng h (rng
hn nhiu so vi ph tn hiu NRZ), trong nng lng cc i ca ph cng
ging nh NRZ vng tn s thp. y, ngi ta cng phn bit thnh hai loi
m RZ gin on tch cc (RZ - P) xung m c rng bng 1/2 hoc mt phn
thi gian xung ng h v bin bng bin xung dng ng vi mc logic
1. Mt bin th ca RZ gin on tch cc (RZ -U) l loi m m trong mc
logic 0 ng vi xung dng c bin nh hn xung ng vi mc logic1. i
vi m RZ c kh nng to li tn hiu ng h t chui tn hiu m thu c.
Cc m dng PiPh c to thnh nh cc cp xung ph RZ trong mi
phm vi nhp:
U(t) = U(t) - 2U(t - 0,5T) + U(t - T) (5.14)
Cc loi m xut pht t BiPh bao gm: BiPh - M (Bi - phase Mark)
hoc BiPh - 1 v BiPh - S (Bi - phase - space) hoc BiPh 0. Trong m BiPh - M
81
NRZ
BiPh
RZ
f
cl
2f
cl
3f
cl
f
cl
= Tn s chung
Mt ph
Hnh 5.12 Phn b nng lng ph
tn s ca cc m s cp.
(Cn gi l m dng iu tn xung hoc m Manchester I), mi bin i mc
trn tm chu k ng h ng vi mc logic1 v nu khng c s thay i mc,
th ng vi logic 0. M BiPh - S b sung cho m BiPh - M. Trong BiPh - S, mi
s thay i mc tm chu k ng h ng vi mc logic0, ngc li khng c
s thay i, th ta c mc logic 1. Tn hiu s trong cc m BiPh (hai pha) c
biu din bng chui xung lp li vi tn s tn hiu ng h.
pha thu d dng to li tn hiu ng h vi chui m ln lt. Ph tn
hiu trong m BiPh ging nh ph tn hiu iu tn c 2 tn s c bn
f
f
dh
1
1

v
f
f
dh
2
1
2

(trong f
dh
- tn s ng h) khng c thnh
phn mt chiu v cc thnh phn tn s thp. Ph ca n rng hn nhiu so vi
ph trong NRZ v nng lng ph c bn nm trong vng tn s cao.
Trong truyn hnh s, m NRZ thng c dng cho cc thit b studio
v thit b truyn cc thng tin ph trong tn hiu truyn hnh. M RZ c dng
trong mt s trng hp truyn tn hiu hnh s khong cch xa. M BiPh
dng trong qu trnh ghi tn hiu s trn bng t.
4- Chuyn i D/A
Chuyn i s - tng t (D/A) l qu trnh tm li tn hiu tng t t N s
hng (N bit) bit tn hiu s vi chnh xc l mt mc lng t (1 LSB).
ly c tn hiu tng t t tn hiu s, dng s nguyn tc nh hnh
5.13. Chuyn i s - tng t khng phi l php nghch o ca chuyn i
tng t - s, v khng th thc hin c php nghch o ca qu trnh lng
t ho.
Theo s ny th qu trnh chuyn i s - tng t l qu trnh tm li
tn hiu tng t c ly mu. Mch c bn ca D/A bao gm:
- Mch s (a hi loi D) vi nhim v to li tn hiu s u vo.
- Mch gii m s - tng t vi nhim v bin tn hiu s thnh tn hiu
ri rc tng ng di dng cc xung c bin thay i, hnh 5.14.
- Mch to xung ly mu v xung ng h (c nhim v to cc xung ly
mu v ng b cc qu trnh cn li trong D/A, ng b vi mch to cc xung
ging nhau).
82
Mch
logic
D/A Ly
mu
Lc thng
thp
>
Video
s
Video
tng
t
Xung ly
mu
Hnh 5.13 S khi mch bin i s - tng t
- Mch ly mu th cp, c nhim v kh nhiu (xut hin do chuyn
mch nhanh u ra ca mch D/A).
- Mch lc thng thp tch bng tn c bn ca tn hiu ly mu (ri
rc). B lc thng thp ng vai tr nh mt b ni suy, y tn hiu tng t
bin thin lin tc theo thi gian l tn hiu ni suy ca tn hiu ri rc theo thi
gian U
m
.
- Khuych i tn hiu video ra. Trong thc t, mch gii m s -
tngt thng lm vic bng cch cng in p (i khi cng dng). Mch gii
m c trng bao gm:
- Ngun in p hoc dng chun.
- Mng in tr thch hp.
83
T T T T T T T T
Li lng
t
Thi gian
Khong ly mu
Q
n + 5
n + 4
n + 3
n + 1
n
n + 2
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Khong
lng t
Mc
lng t
Bin
Hnh 5.14 Tn hiu ti u ra b bin i D/A
Chuyn mch, chuyn i trong cc thi khc thch hp vi chnh xc
cao v in p (hoc dng) chun u vo mng in tr. Tc hot ng
ca n phi ging nh tc lm vic ca mch m ho.
Hnh 5.14 v dng tn hiu u ra ca mt b bin i D/A, l mt chui
cc xung ch nht c bin bng bin cc tn hiu s, rng cc xung l T
= 1/f. Ph ca mt xung ch nht c rng T c cho bi hm s:
A(dB) = 20log
10
sinx
x

_
,

(5.15)
Trong : A - ph ca xung ch nht
x = fv/f
lm
f
v
- tn s tn hiu video
f
lm
- l tn s ly mu.
Ph ca mt xung ch nht vi rng T 1/f
s
v ph ca tn hiu ti u
ra ca b bin i D/A c v nh trn hnh 5.15 v 5.16
5.3 - tn hiu video s tng hp tiu chun 4f
sc
NTSC
1- Gii thiu chung
Tn hiu vi deo s tng hp thc cht l s chuyn i tn hiu video
tng t tng hp sang video s. Trong trng hp ly mu tn hiu video mu
tng hp, iu kin u tin l phi ch n ti tn mu (sng mang mu) f
sc'
,
khi chn tn s ly mu (f
lm
) c th xut hin cc trng hp sau:
a) f
lm
gp nhiu ln f
sc'
, v dc f
lm
= 2f
sc'
; f
lm
= 3f
sc
hoc f
lm
= 4f
sc
dng cho
h NTSC v PAL v hai h ny ch dng mt tn s f
sc
. H SECAM dng hai ti
tn mu, nn khng dng c mt tn s f
lm
cho cc tn hiu hiu s mu.
84
Bin
Thi
gian
2f
sa
f
sa
3f
sa
4f
sa
Sin(x)/x
Hnh 5.15 Tn hiu ti u ra b bin i
D/A
Bin
Tn s
f
gh
f
sa
Bng c
bn
Hnh 5.16 Ph tn hiu ti u ra b bin
i D/A
Bin
di
Bin trn
b) f
lm
khng c quan quan h trc tip vi f
sc
. Trong trng hp ny, s xut
hin (ngoi cc thnh phn tn hiu c ch) thm cc thnh phn tn hiu ph do lin
hp gia f
lm
v f
sc
hoc hi ca f
sc
trong ph tn hiu ly mu. c bit thnh phn tn
hiu (f
lm
- 2f
sc
) s gy mo tn hiu video (tng t) c khi phc li. Loi mo ny
c tn gi l mo iu ch cho (Intermodulation).
Cc thnh phn tn hiu iu ch cho c tn s nm trong knh mu s
to trn mn hnh cc "hnh ng mu", th hin rt r trong cc hnh nh c nn
ng mu v bo ho mu c nh( V d nh kim tra cc sc mu). n
nh cc hnh ng mu trn mn hnh ph thuc vo quan h gia f
sa
v cc tn
s qut dng v mnh. Mo iu ch cho s khng xut hin trong trng hp
ly mu v m ho ring tn hiu chi v cc tn hiu hiu s mu.
Nh vy, trnh mo gy ra do cc hi ca f
sc
trong ph ca tn hiu
ly mu - gi l mo iu ch cho - thng thng chn tn s ly mu bng bi
s ca tn s sng mang mu. iu ny, h NTSC, PAL do s dng sng
mang mu, nn vic chn gi tr tn s f
lm
ti u s n gin. Thng th f
lm
c chn bng hi bc ba tn s ti mu f
sc
+ f
lm
/PAL = 13,3085625MH
z
> 2f
c
/PAL; f
c
/PAL = 5 hoc 5,5 MH
z
.
+ f
lm
/NTSC = 10,738635 MH
z
> 2f
c
/NTSC; f
c
/NTSC = 4,2MH
z
Nu chn f
lm
= 4f
sc
th s cho cht lng hnh nh khi phc rt tt. Tuy
nhin n s lm tng tc bit tn hiu s, dn n lng ph di thng (W
(3/4C).
i vi h SECAM, tn s ly mu f
lm
khng th chn bng hai bc cao
ca ti mu f
sc'
, bi v h SECAM s dng iu tn. Vic chn f
lm
y c nhiu
kh khn hn.
Kt qu nghin cu ca cc chuyn gia trong lnh vc truyn hnh cho
thy; khi tn s ly mu tin n gn phm vi 13MH
z
, cht lng nh khi phc
s rt tt. Nu tn s mu nh hn 13MH
z
, cht lng nh gim r rt i vi
ly mu tn hiu video mu tng hp.
Trong mt thi gian di, rt nhiu cc khi nim, sn phm v cc thit
b in t c pht trin cho cc ng dng s. Cc thit b ny lm vic cc
tn s ly mu khc nhau, s bit biu din mu khc nhau, s mc lng t khc
nhau. Chng c pht trin phc v yu cu sn xut v c thit k ph hp
vi studio sn xut chng trnh vi tn hiu video tng hp tng t.
Xu hng pht trin cc studio hon ton k thut s yu cu chun ho
cng nghip cho cc thit b video s. Cc tiu chun video s tng hp c
xy dng hng ti mc tiu . Ph hp vi yu cu cng ngh, hai h
thng tiu chun s ho tn hiu video tng hp c pht trin rng ri.
l:
+ Tiu chun 4f
sc
NTSC.
+ Tiu chun 4f
sc
PAL
Tn hiu video tng hp tng t c ly mu ti tn s bng bn ln
tn s sng mang ph (4f
sc
). S bit biu din mu ng vai tr quan trng trong
85
vic xc nh cht lng nh v tnh kinh t ca thit b. Thng thng cc thit
b s dng 8 hoc 10bit.
Cc thit b truyn hnh s ti cc nc Bc M thng s dng c tn
s ly mu l 4f
sc'
, nht l i vi thit b ghi hnh s tng hp. Cc thit b ghi
hnh tng t tng hp c thay th bng thit b ghi hnh s, c cc u vo
v u ra l tn hiu tng t. Mt s cc nh sn xut pht trin loi thit b
trn tiu chun ny c tn l D2 v D3. Rt nhiu chng loi thit b cht lng
studio 4f
sc
xut hin. Ti Chu u, thit b theo tiu chun 4f
sc
khng phi lc
no cng c s dng. L do l h SECAM khng th thc hin c k thut
ny. Trong khi , xu hng s ho tn hiu thnh phn ngy cng thy r trong
tt c cc h truyn hnh. Thit b s thnh phn dn dn chim u th theo thi
gian.
2- Cc tham s c bn ca tiu chun 4f
sc
NTSC
Tiu chun 4f
sc
NTSC c xc nh trong SMPTE 244M gm cc tham
s ca tn hiu video tng hp theo h NTSC cng nh tnh cht kt ni song
song ca h thng. Chun SMPTE c m t trong bng 5.1
Bng 5.1 Tiu chun 4f
sc
NTSC
Tn hiu vo NTSC
S mu trn mt dng 910
S mu trn mt dng tch
cc
768
Tn s ly mu 4f
sc
= 14,32818MH
z
Cu trc ly mu Trc giao
Khong cch ly mu + 33
0
, + 123
0
, + 213
0
, +
303
0
M ho Lng t ho u
Thang lng t 8 hoc 10 bit
Tn s ly mu tn hiu bng bn ln tn s sng mang ph: f
lm
=
14,3181 MH
z
(thng vit 14,3MH
z
). ng b qu trnh ly mu c ly t tn
hiu ng b mu ca tn hiu video tng hp. Hnh 5.17 minh ho ph tn hiu
NTSC ly mu ti tn s bng bn ln tn s mang ph 4f
sc
.
Trong ph tn hiu trn, c mt khong cch h gia cc tn s 4,2 MH
z
- tn s ln nht ca NTSC c bn v tn s 7,16 MH
z
(tn s Nyquist). Vi
khong h ny, cc b lc chng nhiu v b lc ti to c c tuyn khng l
86
tng c php s dng. Tiu chun khng xc nh tnh cht ca cc b lc
chng nhiu v b lc ti to, v vy cc nh sn xut c th t do la chn cc
b lc, phc v cho mc ch kinh t v k thut.
87
3- Cu trc ly mu:
Tiu chun SMPTE ph hp vi cc tham s NTSC c bn, tc l m
ho tn hiu U
l
/U
Q
thay v cc tn tiu U
R - Y
/U
B - Y
. Tn hiu NTSC c bn cc tn
hiu U
l
v U
Q
c di thng khc nhau tng ng l 1,2 MHz v 0,5MHz.
Trn hnh 5.18 minh ho qu trnh ly mu theo tiu chun 4f
sc
NTSC,
theo , khong ly mu cn trng vi nh m v dng ca cc thnh phn
sng mang ph U
l
v U
Q
. Phn trn ca hnh c v cc thng tin tng ng v
tn hiu U
R - Y
v U
B - Y
.
88
Di thng mc
danh nh
Di thng cao
c th chp
nhn
Tn s
ly mu
f
sc
2f
sc
3f
sc
4f
sc
5f
sc
Tn s
3,58MHz
7,16MHz
Tn s
Nyquist
10,7MHz 14,3MHz
Hnh 5.17 Ph ca tn hiu ly mu chun 4f
sc
NTSC
Bin
R - Y B - Y
l
Q
180
0
90
0
0
0
180
0
Kho
mu
l
Q - l -Q
l
Q - l -Q
+
123
+ 33 +
303
+
213
+
123
+ 33 +
303
+
213
Hnh 5.18 Cc khong ly mu ti tn s 4f
sc

ca tn hiu tng t NTSC
Vi tn s ly mu l f
lm
= 14,3181 MHz, tn s qut dng l f
H
=
15734,25Hz, tng s mu thu c trn mt dng l: f
lm
/f
H
= 910 mu.
Trong : Dng video tch cc chim 768 mu. 142 mu cn li dnh
cho ng b dng tn hiu s.
Hnh 5.19 v s mu cho tn hiu NTSC c bn. im gia ca sng
xung ng b dng ca tn hiu video tng t nm gia hai mu s 784 v 785.
Mu u tin trong 910 mu tng ng vi mu u tin ca dng tch cc s v
c k hiu l mu s 0. Nh vy cc mu tng ng s c nh s t 0 n
909. Dng video s tch cc bao gm cc mu t 0 n 767.
4- Thang lng t v biu din thang lng t
Bng 5.2 lit k cc mc c ngha ca tn hiu NTSC tng t tng
hp vi sc mu chun 100/7,5/100/7,5 tng ng vi gi tr tn hiu video s
89
782
783
785 787
S mu
Sn xung ng
b
50%
25,6n
s
42,2n
s
142 mu
768 - 909
768 mu
0 n 767
Dng tch cc
Tn hiu xo dng
s
910 mu trn dng tn hiu
s
Hnh 5.19 Cc khong ly mu ti tn s 4f
sc
ca tn hiu tng
t NTSC
4f
sc
biu din di dng s HEX cho trng hp s dng 8 bit v 10 bit m
ho.
Hnh 5.20 v mi quan h ca tn hiu video tng t tng hp vi cc
gi tr mu 10bit i vi tn hiu chun 100/7,5/100/7,5.
Vi bit 10 biu din mu ta c c 1024 mc lng t t 0 n 1023
(hay t 000 n 3FF h HEX). Cc mc 000, 001, 002, 003 v 3FC, 3FD, 3FE,
3FF dng bo v v khng c php xut hin trong dng s. Cn li 1016
mc lng t tng ng t s 4 n 1019 biu din tn hiu video. nh ng
b c thit lp mc 16 (010 HEX). Mc tn hiu ln nht, tng ng vi
mu vng v mu xanh l, c thit lp gi tr 972 (3CC HEX). Cc khong
bo v bao gm t mc 4 n 16 (004 010) v t mc 972 n 1019 (3CC
3FB). Cc khong bo v chim khong 1dB, cho php tn hiu vo tng t
bin ng trong mt khong gii hn nht nh.
Bng 5.1 Tiu chun 4f
sc
NTSC
M ho 8 bit M ho 10 bit
Cc mc bo v FF 3CF, 3FD, 3FE, 3FF
Mc lng t ho cao nht FE 3FB
Mc nh tn hiu mu F3 3CC
Mc trng C8 320
Mc en 46 11A
Mc xo 3C 0F0
nh ng b 04 010
Mc lng t ho thp
nht
01 004
Cc mc bo v 00 000,001,002,003

90
Khong trng d phng
Mc lng
t cc i
100% mc
tn hiu mu
Khong trng d phng
Mc nh
xung ng
b
Mc lng
t thp nht
Mc thit lp
Mc xo
Mc lng t Mc
s
mV DEC
HEX
998,
1
994,
2
992,
9
934,
3
1023
1020
1019
972
3FF
3FC
3FB
3CC
Bin
bo v
-
205,
7
-
300,
7
-
302,
3
-
306,
1
16
4
3
0
010
004
003
000
Bin
bo v
53,5
7
0
282
240
11A
0F0
14,3 800
320
Hnh 5.20 Quan h gia cc mc tn hiu tng
t
v tn hiu s m ho 10 bit, h NTSC
Khong bo v lm gim gi tr t s S/Q
RMS
. Theo l thuyt, h s S/Q
RMS
c
tnh:
( )
S
Q
dB n
f
f
V
V V
RMS
lm
gh
q
W B
+ +

_
,

_
,

1
]
1
1
1
1
6 02 10 8 10
2
20
10 10
, , log log

Cho n = 10 bit biu din mu:


f
lm
= 14,32MHz
f
gh
= 4,2MHz
V
q
= 1,3042 V
V
W
- V
B
= 0,7143 V
Gi tr S/Q
RMS
tnh c bng:
S/Q
RMS
= 68,10dB
Trong h thng 8 bt, 254 trong 256 mc (01 n FE) c s dng
biu din gi tr lng t. Mc 00 v FF dng cho bo v v khng c php
c trong dng s. Gi tr S/Q
RMS
cho h thng 8 bit tnh c bng:
S/Q
RMS
= 56,06 dB
91
-
205,
7
-
300,
7
-
302,
3
-
306,
1
Dng 1
Dng 1
Khong xo
mnh tng t
Dng 9
Dng 1
Khong xo
mnh s
Dng 263
Dng 283
Khong xo
mnh tng t
Dng
272
Dng
262
Khong xo
mnh s
Dng 282
Dng 284
Mn tch cc tng t II
242.5 dng
Hnh 5.21 Quan h gia mnh tng t
v mnh s chun 4f
sc
NTSC
Mn tch cc tng t I
242.5 dng
5- Cu trc mnh s
Khong thi gian tch cc ca mnh s vt qu thi gian tch cc ca
mnh tng t. Mt chu k tch cc ca mnh s bt u trc v kt thc sau
chu k tch cc ca mnh tng t. Trong mt chu k quet NTSC gm 4 mnh,
cc khong xo mnh ca mnh I v III c tnh t dng 525, mu 768 n
dng 9 mu 767 v cc khong xo mnh ca mnh II v IV c tnh t dng
263, mu 313 n dng 272 v mu 767. Hnh 5.12 biu th mi quan h gia
khong xo mnh tn hiu video tng hp NTSC s v tng t.
Theo hnh 5.12, dng tch cc s vt qu dng tch cc tng t. Dng
tch cc s bt u trc v kt thc sau dng tch cc tng t. Nh vy,
khong xo dng tng t s nm trong dng s tch cc. iu ny lm gim
cc to bng v vin ca tn hiu tng t do nh hng ca tn hiu tn s
cao i vi cc b lc ti to, ng thi cng ph hp vi sng xung s c thi
gian nh. Khong xo dng s bt u t mu 768 n mu 909 trn tt c cc
dng khng thuc khong xo mnh.
92
ng b dng
Bt u
xo dng
767
Cui dng s tch
cc
Hnh 5.22 Quan h gia dng tng t v dng s chun
4f
sc
NTSC
Bt u dng s
tch cc
Hnh 5.22 minh ho v tr mt s mu c trng trong
khong xo dng
782
768
854
857 900909
000
787 849
864 893
Kt thc
xo dng
Pha sng mang ph v chun thi gian ng b dng trng nhau. Trong
tn hiu tng t NTSC, thi gian ng b dng bt u xc nh (mc 0) ti
im ct 0 ca burst mu. Quan h gia sng mang ph v tn s qut dng
trong h NTSC to ra hng ca im ct 0 thay i sau mi dng.
Xt hai khung mu lin tip A v B. Khung mu A gm hai mnh I v II,
khung mu B gm hai mnh 3 v mnh 4. Mnh I xc nh im ct 0 u tin
trn dng 10 c v tr dng. im ct 0 u tin ca burst trn dng 10
mnh III c v tr m. Nh vy, c sau mt lt qut 4 mnh theo th t,
im ct 0 u tin trn dng 10 s tr li c v tr dng.
Hnh 5.23 minh ho chi tit cu trc xo mnh v quan h gia 4 mnh
NTSC v hng ct 0 ca sng mang ph.
93
10 11 12 13
burst mu
mnh 1
10 11 12 13
burst mu
mnh 3
27
2
27
3
27
4
27
5
burst mu
mnh 2
27
2
27
3
27
4
27
5
burst mu
mnh 4
K
h
u
n
g

A
,

m

n
h

I

v


I
I
K
h
u
n
g

B
,

m

n
h

I
I
I

v


I
V
Burst mu bt u bng na chu k
dng
Burst mu bt u bng na chu k
m
Hnh 5.23 Chi tit cu trc khong xo mnh v pha ca burst
mu h NTSC
5.4 - tn hiu video s tng hp tiu chun 4f
sc
pal
1- Cc tham s c bn
Tn hiu tng t PAL v NTSC c nhiu iu tng ng, song tn hiu
s theo chun 4f
sc
ca hai h thng ny rt khc nhau. Bng 5.3 tng kt c
im ca tn hiu s h 4f
sc
PAL.
Tn s ly mu bng 4 ln tn s sng mang ph hay 17,734475MHz
(thng vit 17,73MHz). Tn hiu xung clock c ly t xung ng b mu
ca tn hiu video tng hp.
Bng 5.3 Tiu chun 4f
sc
PAL
Tn hiu vo PAL
S mu trn mt dng 1135
S mu trn mt dng tch
cc
948
Tn s ly mu 4f
sc
= 17,734475MHz
Khong cch ly mu + 45
0
, + 135
0
, + 225
0
, +
315
0
M ho Lng t ho u
Thang lng t 8 hoc 10 bit
Hnh 5.24 minh ho ph ly mu h 4f
sc
PAL. y c mt khong cch
gia cc tn s 5 MHz, tn s cao nht ca h PAL c bn, v tn s 8,86MHz
94
Di thng mc
danh nh
Di thng cao
c th chp
nhn
Tn s
ly mu
f
sc
2f
sc
3f
sc
4f
sc
5f
sc
Tn s
4,43MHz
8,86MHz
Tn s
Nyquist
13,29MHz 17,7MHz
Hnh 5.24 Ph ca tn hiu ly mu chun 4f
sc
PAL
Bin
(tn s Nyquist). Tiu chun khng xc nh tnh cht ca cc b lc chng
nhiu v b lc ti to, song cc nh sn xut thng s dng ti tn s cao.
Cng nh vi tn hiu 4f
sc
NTSC, cn ch n vn vt qu mc tn hiu
trong qu trnh chuyn i sang tn hiu s khi a trc tip vo cc thit b s
4f
sc
, theo to cc yu cu nghim ngt v gii hn di thng ca b lc ti
to. khc phc, ra v sn trc xung xo ca tn hiu s cn ph hp vi
tn hiu tng t.
2- Cu trc ly mu
Hnh 5.25 minh ho chi tit cu trc khong ly mnh ca h PAL. Pha
tn hiu ng b mu (burst mu) lin tc thay i gia hai gi tr + 135
0
v +
225
0
.
Sng mang ph h PAL c xc nh theo biu thc:
f
sc
= 285,75f
H
+ 25Hz = 4.433.618,75Hz
S chu k sng mang ph trn mt khung hnh (hai mnh) l:
f
f
lm
H

17734475
15625
1135 0064 ,
Tng s cc mu trn mt khung l:
1135,0064 x 625 = 709.379 mu
95
.
.
Khong ly mu
U + V -U + V U + V U + V
. .
+ 135
0
+ 45
0
+ 225
0
+ 315
0
Sng mang
ph chun
0
0
.
0.886V
Sng mang
ph chun
0.934V
Mc chi
0,62V
Hnh 5.26 Khong ly mu 4f
SC
tn hiu tng hp h
PAL
Qu trnh x l tn hiu yu cu mt s nguyn cc mu trn mi dng
qut. S mu c chn l 1135 mu trn mt dng. Kt qu l c 709.375 mu
trn mt khung hnh.
ph hp chnh xc vi s mu cn phi c, trn cc dng 313 v
dng 625 c cng thm mi dng mt mu. Nh vy trn mi dng qut
trong mnh tch cc c 1125 mu dng 313 v dng 625 thuc khong xo
mnh), trong dng tch cc chim 918 mu. Khong xo dng chim 187
mu cn li.
3- Thang lng t v biu din thang lng t
Bng 5.4 lit k cc mc c ngha ca tn hiu PAL tng t tng hp
vi tn hiu sc mu chun 100/0/100/0 tng ng vi gi tr tn hiu video s
4f
sc
biu din di dng s HEX cho trng hp lng t ho 8 bit v 10 bit.
Hnh 5.27 v mi quan h ca tn hiu video tng t tng hp PAL vi
cc gi tr mu 10 bit i vi tn hiu chun 100/0/100/0.
96
Bng 5.4 Gi tr cc mc c ngha ca tn hiu PAL, m ho 8 v
10 bit tn hiu sc mu 100/0/100/0
M ho 8 bit M ho 10 bit
Cc mc bo v FF 3CF, 3FD, 3FE, 3FF
Mc lng t ho cao
nht
FE 3FB
Mc nh tn hiu mu >>FE >>FB
Mc trng D3 34C
Mc xo 3C 100
nh ng b 04 016
Mc lng t ho thp
nht
01 004
Cc mc bo v 00 000,001,002,003

Hnh 5.27 biu din mi quan h ca tn hiu video tng t tng hp
PAL vi cc gi tr mu 10 bit i vi tn hiu chun 100/0/100/0. Vi lng t
97
100% mc
mu
Mc lng
t cc i
Khong trng an ton
Mc nh
xung ng
b
Mc xo
Mc lng t Mc
s
mV DEC
HEX
933,
5
1019 3FB
- 300
- 301.2
- 304.8
4
3
0
004
003
000
Bin
bo v
0
256
100
14,3 800
320
Hnh 5.27 Mi quan h gia ca tn hiu video tng t
tng hp PAL vi cc gi tr mu 10 bit i vi tn hiu
chun 100/0/100/0
908,
3
ho 10 bit ta c 1024 mc lng t (2
10
), t 0 n 1023 hay theo h Hex t 000
n 3FF. Cc mc 000, 001, 002, 003 v 3FC, 3FD, 3FE, 3FF c dng bo
v v khng c php xut hin trong dng s.
Cn li 1016 mc lng t tng ng t s 4 n 1019 (004 n 3FB
Hex) biu din tn hiu video. nh ng b c thit lp mc 4 (004
Hex). Khng nh trong h NTSC 4f
sc
, khng c khong phng v pha di, v
nh xung ng b l mc lng t thp nht ca tn hiu.
Mc cao nht ca tn hiu tng t c lng t ho l 908,3mV,
tng ng vi mc lng t 1019 hay 3FB (Hex). Mc tn hiu ny thp hn tn
hiu vng v xanh l trong thang sc mu 100/0/100/0, tng ng 933,5mV.
Nh vy s c mt khong bo v m ti nh ca tn hiu.
Hnh 5.27 ch ra rng tt c cc mu c la chn sao cho mu ca tn
hiu tng ng vi mu vng xut hin ti gi tr bin ln nht. Bin tn
hiu mu vng c ly mu l 886mV, tc l nm di mc lng t ho cao
nht 908,3mV. B bin i D/A theo cng c kh nng ti to li tn hiu
ban u chnh xc. Kt qu l thu c mt gi tr c li ca t s S/Q
RMS
vo
khong 0,5dB, m khng gy mo cho tn hiu. Theo l thuyt S/Q
RMS
c th
c tnh bi cng thc:
( )
S
Q
dB n
f
f
V
V V
RMS
lm
c
q
W B
+ +

_
,

_
,

1
]
1
1
1
1
6 02 10 8 10
2
20
10 10
, , log log

Cho cc gi tr ca cc bin trong biu thc trn l:


n = 10bit/mu
f
lm
= 17,72MHz
f
c
= 5MHz
V
q
= 1,2131V
V
W
- V
B
= 0,7V
Ta tnh c gi tr S/Q
RMS
:
S/Q
RMS
= 68,71dB
4- Cu trc mnh s
Khong thi gian tch cc ca mnh s vt qu thi gian tch cc ca
mnh tng t. Mt chu k tch ca mnh s bt u trc v kt thc sau chu
k tch cc ca mnh tng t. Trong mt chu k qut PAL gm 4 mnh, cc
98
khong xo mnh ca mnh I v III c tnh t dng 623, mu 382 n dng 5
mu 947 v cc khong xo mnh ca mnh II v IV c tnh t dng 310,
mu 948 n dng 317 mu 947. Hnh 5.28 biu th mi quan h gia khong
xo mnh tn hiu video PAL tng hp tng t v tn hiu video h 4f
sc
PAL.
Dng tch cc s vt qu dng tch cc tng t, dng tch cc s bt
u trc v kt thc sau dng tch cc tng t. Nh vy, khong xo dng
tng t s nm trong dng s tch cc. iu ny lm gim cc to bng v vin
ca tn hiu tng t do nh hng ca tn hiu tn s cao i vi cc b lc
ti to, ng thi cng ph hp vi sn xung s c thi gian nh. Khong xo
dng s bt u t mu 948 n mu 1134 trn tt c cc dng khng thuc
khong xo mnh. Hnh 5.29 minh ho v tr mt s mu c trng trong khong
xo dng.
99
Dng
625
Dng 23
Khong xo
mnh tng t
Dng 24
Khong xo
mnh s
Dng 310
Dng 336
Khong xo
mnh tng t
Dng
622
Dng
335
Dng 623
Dng 1
Mn tch cc tng t II
2287.5 dng
Hnh 5.28 Quan h gia mnh tng t
v mnh s chun 4f
sc
PAL
Dng 5
Dng
311
Dng
311
Khong xo
mnh s
Dng
623
Mn tch cc I
287.5 dng
5.5- tn hiu video s thnh phn:
1- Gii thiu chung
Trong h thng thnh phn tng t, thng tin c bin i thnh cc
tn hiu U
R
, U
G,
hoc U
Y,
U
R - Y
, U
B
-
Y
c bin lin tc, trong mt gii hn
nht nh. Suy gim trong h thng tng t ti u ra ca h thng bao gm
tng tt c cc suy gim ca tn hiu ti mi thnh phn ca h thng m tn hiu
i qua. iu nylm gii hn s cc tng c th c trong h thng truyn hnh,
sao cho tn hiu ti u thu chp nhn c. Cc yu t chnh lm nh hng
n tn hiu tng t l mo tuyn tnh, mo phi tuyn v.v... Cc suy hao ny c
th lm gim nh bng cc phng php k thut song khng th loi tr hon
ton c. Vic s dng tn hiu thnh phn ti studio cho php loi b c
nhng hiu ng khng mong mun nh trong tn hiu tng hp. Ngc li, thit
b thnh phn c gi thnh cao, phc tp.
Trong h thng s, cc suy hao ny c th c gim nh, nh qu trnh
bin i tn hiu A/D v D/A, tn hiu c gia cng, x l v phn phi theo
dng s, tn hiu ch c chuyn i sang tng t ng mt ln vo trc khi
truyn i trong khng trung bng sng VHF v UHF thng thng. Mc d tn
hiu tng hp c c nhng thun li, nht l v bng tn, song xu hng
100
ng b dng
Bt u
xo dng
947
Cui dng s tch
cc
Hnh 5.29 Quan h gia dng tng t v dng s chun
4f
sc
PAL
Bt u dng s
tch cc
958
948
10451025 11021134
000
962 1036
1067 1090
Kt thc
xo dng
953
957
chung trong sn xut chng trnh ti studio, trn cc ng truyn v phn phi
tn hiu qua v tinh cho cc studio lu ng, l s dng tn hiu thnh phn y
hoc c nn dng bit.
N lc chun ho ca Bc M v Chu u m kt qu l s ra i ca
tiu chun CCIR - 601, tiu chun m ho truyn hnh s ti studio. Tiu chun
ny ph hp vi c hai h truyn hnh c 525 v 625 dng qut, v l c cho
vic to ra cc tiu chun con. Ban u, chun ny xc nh 8 bit cho m ho tn
hiu video, tuy nhin, ngy nay, s bit xc nh cho m ho l 10 bit. C s ca
tn hiu m ho l cc tn hiu chi v hai tn hiu hiu mu, hoc l cc tn hiu
mu c bn (U
R
, U
G
, U
B
).
2- Cc chun ly mu
C nhiu tiu chun ly mu tn hiu video s thnh phn, im khc
nhau ch yu t l gia tn s ly mu v phng php ly mu tn hiu chi
v cc tn hiu mu, trong bao gm: Tiu chun 4: 4: 4; 4: 2: 2; 4: 2: 0; 4:
1: 1. Cc nh dng s video c nn ch ly mu cho cc dng tch cc ca
video. nm c ngha ca cc chun ly mu ta i tm hiu cc phng
thc ca tng chun.
a) Tiu chun 4: 4: 4
Mu tn hiu ch c ly i vi cc phn t tch cc ca tn hiu video.
Vi h PAL, mn hnh c chia lm 625 x 720 im (pixel).
Cc tn hiu chi (U
Y
), tn hiu hiu mu (C
R
, C
B
) c ly mu ti tt c
cc im ly mu trn dng tch cc ca tn hiu video. Cu trc ly mu l cu
trc trc giao, v tr ly mu nh hnh 5.30
Theo tiu chun 4: 4: 4 c kh nng khi cht phc lng hnh nh tt,
thun tin cho vic x l tn hiu. Cc t chc tiu chun quc t thng nht
101
im ly mu tn hiu chi
U
Y
im ly mu mu C
R
im ly mu mu lam C
B
Hnh 530. Tiu chun 4: 4: 4
v ch tiu tn s ly mu cho truyn hnh s theo tiu chun ny - vi tn gi l
CCIR - 601.
Vi chun 4: 4: 4 tc dng d liu (v d cho h PAL) c tnh nh
sau:
+ Khi ly mu 8 bit : (720 + 720 + 720) x 576 x 8 x 25 = 249 Mbit/s.
+ Khi ly mu 10 bit: (720 + 720 + 720) x 576 x 10 x 25 = 311Mbit/s
b) Tiu chun 4: 2: 2
Theo hnh 5.31 trn mt dng tch cc:
+ im u ly mu ton b ba tn hiu: Chi (U
Y
) v hiu mu (C
R
,C
B
).
+ im k tip ch ly mu tn hiu U
Y
, cn hai tn hiu hiu mu khng
ly mu. Khi gii m mu suy ra t mu ca im nh trc.
+ im sau na li ly mu c ba tn hiu U
Y
, C
R
,C
B
.
Tun t nh th, c bn ln ly mu U
Y
th c hai ln ly mu U
R
, hai
ln ly mu C
B
to nn c cu 4:2:2.
i vi h PAL tc dng d liu theo chun ny c tnh nh sau:
+ Khi ly mu 8 bit: (720 + 360 + 360) x 576 x 8 x 25 = 166 Mbit/s
+ Khi ly mu 10 bit: (720 + 360 + 360) x 576 x 10 x 25 = 207 Mbit/s
c) Tiu chun 4: 2: 0
Theo hnh 5.32 ly mu tn hiu U
Y
ti tt c cc im nh ca dng, cn
tn hiu mu th c cch mt im s ly mu cho tn hiu mu. Tn hiu mu
c ly xen k, nu hng chn ly mu cho tn hiu mu C
R
th hng l ly mu
cho tn hiu C
B
.
102
im ly mu tn hiu chi
U
Y
im ly mu mu C
R
im ly mu mu lam C
B
Hnh 531. Tiu chun 4: 2: 2
i vi h PAL tc dng d liu theo chun ny c tnh nh sau:
+ Khi ly mu 8 bit : (720 + 360) x 576 x 8 x 25 = 124,4 Mbit/s
+ Khi ly mu 10 bit: (720 + 360) x 576 x 10 x 25 = 155,5 Mbit/s
d) Tiu chun 4: 1: 1
Chun 4: 1: 1 trnh t ly mu nh hnh 5.33
- Trong im nh u mu U
Y
, C
R
, C
B
ba im nh tip sau ch ly
mu U
Y
khng ly mu ca tn hiu C
R
, C
B
. Khi gii m, mu ca ba im nh
sau phi suy t im nh u.
- Tun t nh th, c bn ln ly mu U
Y
, c mt ln ly mu C
R
, mt
ln ly mu C
B
y l c cu 4: 1: 1.
i vi h PAL tc dng d liu theo chun ny c tnh nh sau:
+ Khi ly mu 8 bit : (720 + 180 + 180) x 576 x 8 x 25 = 124,4 Mbit/s
+ Khi ly mu 10 bit: (720 + 180 + 180) x 576 x 10 x 25 = 155,5 Mbit/s
103
im ly mu tn hiu chi
U
Y
im ly mu mu C
R
im ly mu mu lam C
B
Hnh 532. Tiu chun 4: 2: 0
im ly mu tn hiu chi
U
Y
im ly mu mu C
R
im ly mu mu lam C
B
Hnh 533. Tiu chun 4: 1: 1
S "4" u mi chun biu th tn s ly mu tn hiu chi (f
lm
= 13,5MHz), tuy khng cn bng bn ln tn s sng mang nh trc (4f
sc
). Cc
con s khc biu th t l gia tn s ly mu tn hiu hiu mu so vi tn hiu
chi. 13,5MHz l tn s duy nht trong khong t 12MHz n 14MHz c gi tr
bng mt s nguyn ln tn s dng cho c hai tiu chun (525 v 625) v do
vy cho mt s nguyn ln s mu i vi c hai.
Vi tn s ly mu 13,5 MHz tn hiu video s khng cn b ph
thuc vo cc tiu chun khc nhau ca video tng t. Thit b trong cc trung
tm truyn hnh s s hon ton ging nhau cho c hai h thng, iu ny s to
thun li cho vic hp tc sn xut, trao i chng trnh gia cc t chc
truyn hnh.
3- Cc tn hiu m ho v tn s ly mu
Tn hiu c m ho bao gm tn hiu chi v hai tn hiu hiu mu.
l cc tn hiu c biu din U

'
Y
, C'
B
, C'
R
. Cc tn hiu hiu mu c xc
nh trn tiu chun ca CCIR 601.
104
0
5 6.7
5
10 13.
5
15 20 Tn s
(MHz)
Bin
0 3 6.7
5
10
5
Tn s
(MHz)
Bin
375
a)
b)
Hnh 5.34 Ph a) tn hiu chi ly mu ti tn s 13,5MHz
v
b) tn hiu mu ly mu ti tn s 6,75MHz
Tn s ly mu tn hiu chi c chn l 13,5MHz, theo s chu k
ly mu trn mt dng l s nguyn trong c hai h thng 525 v 625 dng. Tn
s ny c c t tn hiu video vo bng cch s dng dao ng iu khin
bng vng kho pha ti tn s 858xf
H
i vi tiu chun 525/60 v tn s 864xf
H
i vi tiu chun 625/50.
Hnh 5.34 a v ph ly mu 13,5MHz ca tn hiu choi. Trn hnh v c
mt khong h gia tn s 5,75MHz v tn s Nyquist (6,75MHz) dng hn
ch mc ca cc b lc trnh chng ph v b lc ti to. Tn hiu chi trn l
tn hiu qua b lc trnh chng ph v b lc ti to.
Tn s ly mu tn hiu hiu mu c ly t tn s ly mu tn hiu
chi qua b chia hai. Hnh 5.34B v ph ly mu 6,75MHz ca tn hiu hiu
mu. Trn hnh v c mt khong h gia tn s 2,75MHz v tn s Nyquist
(3,375MHz) dng hn ch mc ca cc b lc trnh chng ph v b lc ti
to.
Di thng ca cc knh tn hiu chi v tn hiu hiu mu c xc
nh bng tn s ly mu v b lc thng thp, ch cho qua mt tn hiu. Khi cho
qua nhiu tn hiu, trng hp nhiu thit b s thnh phn c kt ni s dng
cng vo ra tng t, s xut hin mo tuyn tnh lm gim bin ca c
tuyn tn s v c tuyn tr nhm.
4- Thang lng t v cc mc lng t
Cc mc tn hiu ca thnh phn tn hiu chi U'
Y
theo chun sc mu
100/0/100/0 v cc gi tr tng ng ca tn hiu s U
Y
biu din bng h HEX
c cho trong bng 5.5
Bng 5.5 Gi tr cc mc c ngha ca tn hiu tng t thnh
phn chi v tn hiu s thnh phn chi, m ho 8 v 10 bit tn
hiu sc mu 100/0/100/0
M ho 8 bit M ho 10 bit
Cc mc bo v FF 3FC, 3FD, 3FE, 3FF
Mc lng t ho cao
nht
FE 3FB
Mc trng EB 3AC
Mc xo 10 040
105
Mc lng t ho thp
nht
01 004
Cc mc bo v 00 000,001,002,003
Hnh 5.35 biu din cc mc tn hiu chi v cc gi tr mu biu din
bng 8 bit v 10 bit trong chun mu 100/0/100/0. Vi 10 bit biu din mu ta
c c 1024 mc lng t t 0 n 1023 (hay t 000 n 3FF h HEX). Cc
mc 000, 001, 002, 003 v 3FC, 3FD, 3FE, 3FF c dnh cho tn hiu chun
thi gian. Cn li 1016 mc lng t tng ng t s 4 n 1019 biu din
tn hiu chi.
Xung xo c thit lp mc 64 (040 HEX). nh trng c thit lp
ti mc 940 (hay 3AC h HEX). Cc khong phng v pha trn v pha di
bao gm t mc 4 n mc 64 (004 v 040) v t mc 940 n 1019 (3AC n
3FB). Phn ng b ca tn hiu chi khng c ly mu. Khong phng v
cho php mc tn hiu tng t c th thay i.
Theo l thuyt, S/Q
RMS
c th c tnh bng
106
Mc lng t Mc s
mV 8 bit
10 bit
D tr
Hnh 5.35 Quan h gia cc mc tn hiu tng t thnh
phn chi v tn hiu s thnh phn chi, m ho 8 v 10
bit
Mc lng t cao nht
nh trng
Khong bo v
Mc lng t thp
nht
Mc xo
Khong
bo v
DEC HEX DEC HEX
EB
940
3F
C
235
1023
1020
3F
B
3A
C
3FF
1019
FE
FF
254
255
700
763.1
3
763.9
766.3
D tr
00
0
004
0
-64
4
003
000
040
3
01
10
1
16
-51.1
-48.7
-47.9
0
( )
S
Q
dB n
f
f
V
V V
RMS
lm
gh
q
W B
+ +

_
,

_
,

1
]
1
1
1
1
6 02 10 8 10
2
20
10 10
, , log log

Cho n = 10 bit biu din mu:


f
lm
= 13,5MHz
f
gh
= 5,75MHz
V
q
= 0,8174 V
V
W
- V
B
= 0,7 V
Gi tr S/Q
RMS
tnh c bng:
S/Q
RMS
= 70,35dB
Trong trng hp dng m tuyn tnh 8 bit, thang lng t cha 2
8
=
256 (t 0 256) mc v c cc khong cch u nhau. i vi tn hiu chi
ngi ta ch s dng 220 mc. Cc mc cn li: 36 mc c dnh cho khong
bo v v tn hiu ng b.
Gi tr S/Q
RMS
tnh c bng:
S/Q
RMS
= 58,3dB
Bng 5.6 Gi tr cc mc c ngha ca tn hiu tng t v tn
hiu s thnh phn mu C
B
v C
R
m ho 8 v 10 bit tn hiu sc
mu 100/0/100/0
M ho 8 bit M ho 10 bit
Cc mc bo v FF 3FC, 3FD, 3FE, 3FF
Mc lng t ho cao
nht
FE 3FB
Mc dng cao nht F0 3C0
Mc xo 80 200
Mc m cao nht 10 040
Mc lng t ho thp
nht
01 004
Cc mc bo v 00 000,001,002,003
Cc mc tn hiu ca cc thnh phn tn hiu mu C'
B
v C'
R
theo chun
sc mu 100/0/100/0 v cc gi tr tng ng ca tn hiu s C'
B
v C'
R
biu din
bng h HEX c biu din trn bng 5.6 cho h thng 8 v 10 bit. Cc tn
hiu hiu mu l lng cc v nh vy chng cn phi dch chuyn 0,350mV
ph hp vi b chuyn i A/D, vn d yu cu tn hiu n cc.
Hnh 5.36 biu din cc mc tn hiu hiu mu v cc gi tr mu biu
din bng 8 bit v 10 bit trong chun mu 100/0/100/0.
107
Trong h thng s dng 10 bit biu din mu, c 1016 mc lng t t 4
n 1019 (hay t 004 n 3FB h HEX) biu din tn hiu mu C
B
v C
R
.
Xung xo c thit lp ti mc 512 (hay 200 h HEX). Mc dng cc i ca
tn hiu tng t c xc nh ti mc 960 hay 3C0 h HEX. Cc khong
phng v pha trn v pha di bao gm t mc 4 n mc 64 (004 n 040) v
t mc 940 n 1019 (3AC n 3FB). Phn ng b ca tn hiu chi khng
c ly mu. Khong phng v cho php mc tn hiu tng t c th thay i.
Cho n = 10 bit biu din mu:
f
lm
= 6,75MHz
f
gh
= 2,75MHz
V
q
= 0,7992 V
V
W
- V
B
= 0,7 V
Gi tr S/Q
RMS
tnh c bng:
S/Q
RMS
= 70,74dB
Trong h thng 8 bit gi tr S/Q
RMS
tnh c bng:
S/Q
RMS
= 58,7dB
108
109
Hnh 5.36 Quan h gia cc mc tn hiu tng t thnh
phn C
R
, C
B
v tn hiu s thnh phn C
R
, C
B
m ho 8 v
10 bit
D tr
Mc lng t cao nht
Mc dng nht
Khong bo v
Mc lng t thp
nht
Mc m
nht
Mc lng t Mc s
mV 8 bit
10 bit
DEC HEX DEC HEX
F0
960
3F
C
240
1023
1020
3F
B
3C
0
3FF
1019
FE
FF
254
255
+350.
0
+396.
1
+396.
9
+399.
2
D tr
00
0
004
0
-64
4
003
000
040
3
01
10
1
16
-400.0
-397.7
-396.9

-350.0
Khong
bo v
00
200 512 80 128
a)
D tr
Mc lng t cao nht
Mc dng nht
Khong bo v
Mc lng t thp
nht
Mc m
nht
Mc lng t Mc s
mV 8 bit
10 bit
DEC HEX DEC HEX
F0
960
3F
C
240
1023
1020
3F
B
3C
0
3FF
1019
FE
FF
254
255
+350.
0
+396.
1
+396.
9
+399.
2
D tr
00
0
004
0
-64
4
003
000
040
3
01
10
1
16
-400.0
-397.7
-396.9

-350.0
Khong
bo v
00
200 512 80 128
b)
Mc xo
110
5- Cu trc ly mu
Trong tiu chun s ho tn hiu thnh phn s dng cu trc ly mu
trc giao. Tn hiu video tng t c ly mu ti tn s bng bi s ca tn s
qut dng, to ra mt cu trc cc mu c xp ln lt theo cc dng v theo
cc mnh. Do tn s ly mu tn hiu chi bng hai ln tn s ly mu tn hiu
hiu mu, cho nn s mu ca tn hiu chi cng nhiu hn hai ln s mu ca
mi tn hiu hiu mu.
S cc mu tn hiu chi trn mt dng c tnh bng f
lm
/f
H
, trong f
lm
= 13,5MHz v f
H
l tn s qut dng. S cc mu ca tn hiu chi trn mt
dng theo tiu chun 525/60 c tnh bng 858, nh s t 0 n 857 v theo
tiu chun 625/50 l 864, nh s t 0 n 863.
111
Kt thc
dng
video s
tch cc
Chun
dng s
Bt u
dng
video s
tch cc
O
H
Dng s n
+ 1
Dng s n
Dng s tch cc
(720T)
Xo s
(144T)
132T
12T
7
1
8
7
1
9
7
2
0
7
3
4
7
3
5
7
3
6
7
3
7
7
1
8
8
5
6
8
5
7
01
234
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
3
5
9
3
6
0
3
6
7
3
6
8
3
6
9
4
2
8
012
. .
. . . . . . .
Ly mu tn
hiu chi
ng b mu
tn hiu chi
Ly mu tn
hiu hiu
mu
ng b mu
tn hiu hiu mu
Hnh 5.37 Mi quan h gia cc mu tn hiu video v xung
ngb dng trong h thng 525/60
112
Kt thc
dng
video s
tch cc
Chun
dng s
Bt u
dng
video s
tch cc
O
H
Dng s n
+ 1
Dng s n
Dng s tch cc
(720T)
Xung xo
(144T)
132T 12T
7
1
8
7
1
9
7
2
0
7
3
0
7
3
1
7
3
2
7
3
3
7
3
4
8
6
2
8
6
3
01
234
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
Ly mu tn
hiu chi
ng b mu
tn hiu chi
Ly mu tn
hiu hiu
mu
Hnh 5.38 Mi quan h gia cc mu tn hiu video v xung
ngb dng trong h thng 625/50
D liu
video s
Bt u
mnh
tng t
1
Bt u
mnh s 1
Xo mnh s (9 dng)
D liu
video s
V = 0
(Video)
V = 1
(D liu
ph)
V = 0
V = 1 F = 0
525 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 20
262 263 264 265 266 267 268 169 170 271 272 273
1
282
Bt u
mnh s 2
Xo mnh s (9 dng)
D liu
video s
V = 0
(Video)
V = 1
(D liu
ph)
V = 0
D liu
video s
Bt u
mnh
tng t
2
V = 1
F = 1
Hnh 5.39 Mi quan h gia cc mnh s v tng t h 525/60
Vi tn s ly mu tn hiu mu f
lm
= 6,75MHz, s cc mu ca tn hiu
hiu mu trn mt dng theo tiu chun 525/60 c tnh bng 429, nh s t 0
n 428 v theo tiu chun 625/50 l 4324, nh s t 0 n 359 ca mi tn
hiu hiu mu C
R
v C
B
trn mt dng tch cc cho c hai tiu chun. Khong
xo dng gm 138 mu, t mu s 720 n mu s 857 (tiu chun 525/60) v
144 mu t mu s 729 n mu s 863 (tiu chun 625/50).
Hnh 5.37 v 5.38 biu din mi quan h gia cc mu tn hiu video v
xung ng b dng trong c hai h thng.
Hnh 5.39 biu din mi quan h gia cc mnh s v tng t trong tiu
chun 525/60. V tr ca dng tch cc trong mnh s c sp xp sao cho qu
trnh x l tn hiu s khng thc hin theo tng na dng. Theo , mnh 1 c
262 dng v mnh 2 c 263 dng. Khong xo mnh bao gm 9 dng c hai
mnh.
Hnh 5.40 biu din mi quan h gia cc mnh s tng t trong tiu
chun 625/50. V tr ca dng tch cc trong mnh s c sp xp sao cho qu
trnh x l tn hiu s khng thc hin theo tng na dng. Theo , mnh 1 c
113
622 623 624 625 1 2
3
4 5 22 23
Xo mnh s (24 dng)
D liu
video s
V = 0
D liu
video s
V = 1
F = 1 bt u mnh s 1
Bt u mnh tng
t 1
309
310
312 313 314 315
316
317
318
335 336
Xo mnh s (254
dng)
D liu
video s
V = 0
D liu
video s
V = 1
F = 1 bt u mnh s 2
Bt u mnh tng
t 2
311
+ C hai mnh s c 288 dng tch cc.
+ Xung xo mnh s 1 gm 24 dng lin tip trn phn mnh
tch cc 1
+ Xung xo mnh s 2 gm 25 dng lin tip trn phn mnh
tch cc 1
Hnh 5.40 Mi quan h gia cc mnh s v mnh tng
t h 625/50
288 dng v mnh 2 c 263 dng. Khong xo mnh ca mnh 1 gm 24 dng
v mnh 2 l 25 dng.
114
5.6- ghp knh tn hiu video s thnh phn:
1- Ghp dng tn hiu s theo thi gian
Tu thuc vo cc ng dng, cc mu ca tn hiu chi v tn hiu hiu
mu c th c x l ring bit hoc c ghp theo thi gian. S mu tng
cng sau khi ghp trn mt dng l 1716 mu, nh s t 0 n 1715 (theo tiu
chun 525/60) v 1728 mu (theo tiu chun 625/50), nh s t 0 n 1727.
Dng s tch cc bao gm 720 mu tn hiu U
Y
v 360 mu tn hiu C
R
,
360 mu tn hiu C
B
i vi c hai tiu chun. Nh vy, dng s tch cc s bao
gm 1440 mu, c nh s t 0 n 1439. S cc t trong khong thi gian
xo s l 276, nh s t 1140 n 1715 (i vi chun 525/60) v 288, nh s
t 1440 n 1727 (i vi chun 625/50).
Hnh 5.41 minh ho s khi n gin ca mt b m ho ghp thi
gian c tc dng bit song song u ra l 27 Mword/s. Tn hiu s U
Y
c tc
13,5 Mword/s (thi gian ca mt mu l 74ns) v tn hiu C
R
, C
B
c tc l
6,75 Mword/s (tng ng thi gian ca mt mu l 148ns). Cc tn hiu ny
c a vo b trn, c d liu vo tun t theo tc 27 Mword/s. Trn
hnh v, s mu c bt u bng 1 thay v 0 cho cc mu tn hiu C
R
, C
B
l
v tr l so vi mu U
Y
1, 3, 5......
115
Mt t d liu video c chuyn ln dng s 27Mword/s theo th t
c truyn i l: C
B
, U
Y
, C
R
, U
Y
, C
B
....
Trong , b ba u tin (C
B
, U
Y
, C
R
) tng ng vi im cng ly mu
cc tn hiu U
y
v tn hiu C
R
, C
B
t tip theo ch bao gm mu U
Y
m thi. D
liu u tin ca mi dng video tch cc l C
B
.
2- Tn hiu chun thi gian
116
Clock
ADC
275MHz
CB1 CB2
CB3
U'
CB
U'
Y
148 ns
6,75Mw
/s
Mu CB
Y Y Y Y
Y
1 2 3 4
5
ADC
5,75MHz
74
ns
13,5Mw
/s
Bit 9
Bit 10
Clock
Mu Y
Bit 9
Bit 10
Clock
ADC
5275MHz
6,75Mw
/s
Bit 9
Bit 10
Clock
Mu CR
148
ns
CR1 CR2
CR3
U'
CR
Bit 9
Bit 0
Clock
27Mw/s
C
B
1
Y
1
C
R
1
Y
2
C
B
3
Y
3
C
R
3
Y
4
C
B
5
Y
5
C
R
5
x x x
37ns
Ghp
Hnh 5.41 s khi b m ho4:2:2 ghp knh
theo thi gian dng ra c tc 27 Word/s
Tiu chun s ho tn hiu thnh phn khng ly mu cc xung ng b.
ng b dng tn hiu video, ti u v cui mi dng s tch cc, mt tn
hiu chun thi gian c ghp vo cng vi dng s tng hp. Trong mi
khong xo dng c 8 t m dng lm chun thi gian.
V tr ca chng trn dng tn hiu ghp c minh ho trn hnh 5.42 v
5.43 cho hai tiu chun qut. Nh trn hnh 5.42, theo tiu chun 525/60, cc t
m nh s t 1440 n 1443 c dng truyn tn hiu chun thi gian
EAV. Cc t m nh s t 1712 n 1715 c dng truyn tn hiu chun
thi gian SAV.
Trn hnh 5.43 theo tiu chun 625/50, cc t m nh s t 1440 n
1443 c dng truyn tn hiu chun thi gian EAV, cc t m nh s t
1724 n 1727 c dng truyn tn hiu chun thi gian SAV. Cc t m
chun thi gian khng thay i trong khong xo mnh.
Mt tn hiu chun thi gian bao gm 4 t m c xp theo th t, biu
din trong h HEX nh sau:
3FF 000 000 XYZ
Ba t m u tin l cc t c nh. Gi tr cc t 3FF v 000 dng
xc nh thi gian bt u cho cc tn hiu EAV v SAV. XYZ l cc gi tr bin
i. Chng mang cc thng tin v: s mnh; v tr khong xo dng v v tr
khong xo mnh.
Bng 5.7 lit k cc gi tr nh phn ca 4 t m to nn EAV v SAV.
Gi tr nh phn ca t m u tin tng ng vi 3FF trong h Hex. Gi tr nh
phn ca t m th hai v th ba tng ng vi 000 trong h Hex.
T m th 4 c bit s 0 l 0, bit s 9 l 1. Cc bit 6, 7, 8 tng ng cho
cc gi tr F, V v H. Chng c xc nh nh sau:
F: Th t mnh:
+ F = 0 Thuc mnh 1
+ F = 1 Thuc mnh 2
V: V tr khong cch xo mnh
+ V = 0 Thuc mnh tch cc
+ V = 1 Thuc khong xo mnh
H: Xc nh khong xo dng
+ H = 0 Xc h SAV
117
+ H = 1 Xc nh EAV
Cc bit th 2, 3, 4, 5 dng sa li (02 bit) v bo v (02 bit), tng
ng nhn cc gi tr P0, P1, P2, P3 tu theo tnh trng ca F, V.
118
718 719 720 721 736 857 0 1 2
Tn hiu chi y
359 360 368 0 1

Tn hiu mu
C
B
359 360 368 0 1

Tn hiu mu
C
R
C
B
3
5
9Y

7
1
8
C
R
3
5
9Y

7
1
9
C
B
3
6
0Y

7
2
0
C
R
3
6
0Y

7
2
1
C
B
3
6
8Y

7
3
6
C
R
3
6
8Y

8
5
5
C
B
4
2
8Y

8
5
6
C
R
4
2
8Y

8
5
7
C
B

0
Y

0
C
R

0
Y

1
Thay th
bng TRS
Thay th
bng TRS
Dng s liu
ghp knh
1
4
3
6
1
4
3
7
1
4
3
8
1
4
3
9
1
4
4
0
1
4
4
1
1
4
4
2
1
4
4
3
1
7
1
1
1
7
1
2
1
7
1
3
1
7
1
4
1
7
1
5
012
EAV SAV
Dng s liu
ghp knh
v tn hiu
chun thi gian
C
B
3
5
9Y

7
1
8
C
R
3
5
9Y

7
1
9
C
B
3
6
0Y

7
2
0
C
R
3
6
0Y

7
2
1
Y

8
5
5
C
B
4
2
8Y

8
5
6
C
R
4
2
8Y

8
5
7
C
B

0
Y

0
C
R
0
Y

1
C
B
3
6
8Y

7
3
6
C
R
3
6
8
1
4
7
2
1
4
7
3
1
4
7
4
Tn hiu chun thi gian
Hnh 5.42 Chi tit khong xo dng theo tiu chun 525/60 trong
dng tn hiu ghp knh 4: 2: 2 v v tr tn hiu chn thi gian
Mu tn hiu chi cui
cng dng video tch cc
Cc mu trong khong
xo dng
Cc mu u tin trong
mt dng video tch cc Cc mu cui cng trong
mt dng video tch cc
119
Hnh 5.43 Chi tit khong xo dng theo tiu chun 625/50 trong dng
tn hiu ghp knh 4: 2: 2 v v tr tn hiu chn thi gian
- 719 720
721
732 863 0 1 2
Tn hiu chi y
359 360 366 0 1

Tn hiu mu
C
B
359 360 366 0 1

Tn hiu mu
C
R
C
B
3
5
9Y

7
1
8
C
R
3
5
9Y

7
1
9
C
B
3
6
0Y

7
2
0
C
R
3
6
0Y

7
2
1
C
B
3
6
6
Y
7
3
2
C
R
3
6
6Y

8
6
1
C
B
4
3
1Y

8
6
2
C
R
4
3
1
Y

8
6
3
C
B

0
Y

0
C
R

0
Y

1
Thay th
bng TRS
Thay th
bng TRS
Dng s liu
ghp knh
1
4
3
6
1
4
3
7
1
4
3
8
1
4
3
9
1
4
4
0
1
4
4
1
1
4
4
2
1
4
4
3
1
7
2
3
1
7
2
4
1
7
2
5
1
7
2
6
1
7
2
7
012
EAV SAV
Dng s liu
ghp knh
v tn hiu
chun thi gian
C
B
3
5
9Y

7
1
8
C
R
3
5
9Y

7
1
9
C
B
3
6
0Y

7
2
0
C
R
3
6
0Y

7
2
1
Y

8
6
1
C
B
4
3
1Y

8
6
2
C
R
4
3
1Y

8
5
7
C
B

0
Y

0
C
R
0
Y

1
C
B
3
6
6Y

7
3
2
C
R
3
6
6
1
4
7
2
1
4
7
3
1
4
7
4
Tn hiu chu thi gian
Mu tn hiu chi cui
cng dng video tch cc
Cc mu trong khong
xo dng
Cc mu u tin trong
mt dng video tch cc Cc mu cui cng trong
mt dng video tch cc
Hnh 5.43 Chi tit khong xo dng theo tiu chun 625/50 trong dng tn hiu ghp knh 4:2:2 v v tr tn hiu
chun thi gian
120
Khong thi gian bt u t EAV v kt thc ti SAVl khong xo
dng (hnh 5.42 v 5.43). Nh vy, mt khi d liu nh hn 268 t trong
chun 525/60 (hoc 280 t trong chun 625/50) c th c di truyn trong
khong thi gian xo dng s.
Bng 5.7 tn hiu chun thi gian theo tiu chun qut 525/60 v
625/50
(gi tr trong ngoc ch tn hiu TRS cho tiu chun 625/50)
Bit
T m 1440
v 1712
(1724)
T m 1441
v 1713
(1725)
T m 1442
v 1714
(1726)
T m 1443
v 1715
(1727)
9 1 0 0 1
8 1 0 0 F
7 1 0 0 V
6 1 0 0 H
5 1 0 0 P3
4 1 0 0 P2
3 1 0 0 P1
2 1 0 0 P0
1 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
Ti khong xo mnh c th truyn i mt khi d liu ln hn, n
1440 t trong phm vi bt u t SAV v kt thc ti EAV ca mi dng.
Trong thi gian xo mnh, ch cho php s dng t m 8bit. Trong
chun 525/60 cc d liu ph ch c th c truyn i trn cc dng s tch
cc t 1 n 19 v cc dng t 264 n 282, trn khng truyn tn hiu
video tch cc.
121
Tuy nhin, tn hiu video tch cc cng c th c truyn i trn
cc dng 10 n 19 hay 273 n 282, khi s khng th truyn c dng
tn iu ph trn cc dng ny na. Trong chun 625/50, cc dng 20 v 333
c s dng cho mc ch t kim tra ca thit b. Cc t m thuc khong
xo dng v xo mnh m khng truyn d liu ph phi c cc c im:
- T m tng ng vi mu Y c gi tr 040 Hex.
- T m tng ng vi mu C
R
, C
B
c ga tr 200 Hex.
3- D liu ph
C hai dng d liu ph l d liu ph theo dng v d liu ph theo
mnh. Khng nh tiu chun s ho tn hiu tng hp 4f
SC
, d liu ph ch
c truyn trn dng bt ni tip, trong s ho tn hiu thnh phn d liu
ph c th c truyn i trn bt k u trong dng s song song 4:2:2 ni
khng truyn tn hiu chun thi gian hoc tn hiu video tch cc.
a) D liu ph theo dng (HANC)
Trong khong thi gian xo dng cho php truyn d liu ph gm
10 bit. Mi khi d liu ny c cha 3 t m mang thng tin u (header):
000 3FF 3FF
ph hp vi thit b s dng 8 bit m ho, cc mc gi tr cn
c chuyn i trong phm vi 000 v 3FF m thi.
b) D liu ph theo mnh (VANC)
Trong tiu chun qut 525/60, d liu ph theo mnh ch c
truyn i trong khong tch cc ca cc dng t 1 n 13, 15 n 19, 264
n 276, 278 n 282. Dng 14 v 277 c dng cho m thi gian mnh s
v ch mc video. D liu ph theo mnh c dng 8 bit. Mi khi d liu
ny c cha 3 t m header:
000 3FF 3FF
ph hp vi thit b s dng 8 bit v 10 bit m ho, cc mc gi
tr cn c chuyn i trong phm vi 000 v 3FF.
5.7- ccir 601 - tiu chun truyn hnh s c bn
122
Vic la chn cc thng s c bn ca truyn hnh s c t ra t
nm 1972 thng qua cc t chc EBU, OIRT trn c s xem xt cc yu t:
+ Thun tin cho qu trnh sn xut, trao i chng trnh.
+ Tnh tng thch ca cc thit b video s
+ D dng trong vic x l tn hiu
Cc nguyn tc c quan tm khi la chn cc thng s l:
- Phng php bin i dng tn hiu video truyn hnh: l vic
s dng tn hiu video mu hon chnh; tn hiu video mu thnh phn; tn
hiu chi v thh phn tn hiu hiu mu; tn hiu video mu c bn. Thc t
nghin cu cho thy phng php bin i cc tn hiu video thnh phn cho
cht lng nh thu cao hn ti cng mt tn s ly mu v cng s bit biu
din mu.
Chn cc thng s ly mu tn hiu video: Cu trc ly mu v tn s
ly mu. Nh phn tch so vi cc cu trc ly mu khc, cu trc trc
giao cho cht lng nh cao nht v vy chng thng c s dng. i
vi tn s ly mu, t c cc yu cu v tn s Nyquist, s thun tin
trong trao i chng trnh, tn s ly mu tn hiu chi l 13,5MHz. Tn s
ly mu tn hiu hiu mu l 6,7MHz cho nh khi phc vi cht lng cao.
Vic ly mu quan tm n vic chn s mu trn mt dng tch cc - thi
gian mang thng tin hnh nh ca dng . Tiu chun truyn hnh s dng
720 mu cho tn hiu chi v 360 mu cho tn hiu hiu s mu.
Bng 5.8 Ch tiu truyn hnh s c bn
ST
T
Thng s H 525/60 H 625/50
1
+ Tn hiu c s
ho
Y, (R - Y) , (B - Y)
2
+ Tn s mu mi
dng
- Tn hiu chi:
- Mi tn hiu hiu
mu:
858
429
864
432
123
3 + Cu trc ly mu
Cu trc ly mu trc giao, c nh, lp li
theo dng, mnh
v nh
4
+ V tr cc mu cc
tn hiu thnh phn
Mu ca (R - Y), (B - Y) c ly ti cng mt
im vi cc mu Y l (1, 3, 5...) trn mi
dng
5
+ Tn s ly mu.
- Tn hiu chi:
- Tn hiu hiu mu:
13,5MHz
6,75 MHz
6
+ Phng thc m
ho
Lng t ho ng u i vi tt c cc
mc 8 bit/mu
7
+ S mu trn dng
tch cc:
- Tn hiu chi:
- Tn hiu hiu mu:
720
360
8
+ Khong cch t
im cui ca dng
s (thi gian tch cc)
n im bt u ca
mt dng s mi
16 ch k nhp 12 chu k nhp
9
+ Tng s mc:
+ Tn hiu chi:
- Mc en:
- Mc trng:
+ Tn hiu mu:
0 255 mc
220 mc
Mc 16
Mc 235
225 mc, i xng qua trc ti mc 128
10 + Tn hiu ng b
T m tng ng vi cc mc 0 v 255 tuyt
i ch dng cho tn hiu ng b. T mc 1
254 c th c s dng cho tn hiu video
- La chn loi iu ch PCM. Loi PCM tuyn tnh cho cht lg
nh cao nht. Qua nghin cu, s dng 8 bit tho mn cht lng nh khi
124
phc. S mc lng t cng ln, vic bin i tn hiu tng t sang dng
s cng chnh xc v cng t mo lng t.
Tiu chun truyn hnh s c bn c cc t chc EBU, OIRT
nghin cu, trao i v i n thng nht vi tn gi CCIR - 601. Tiu
chun ny ph hp cho c 2 h truyn hnh 525 v 625 cn c gi l tiu
chun 4: 2: 2. Cc thng s tiu chun truyn hnh s c bn c ch ra
trong bng 5.8
5.8 - tn hiu audio s
1- Khi qut v audio s
S dng cc thit b s x , ghi v truyn tn hiu audio cng
nh phi hp trong cc h thng video tng t cn phi c cc b bin i
A/D v D/A. X l tn hiu audio s c hiu qu cao khi b bin i A/D
khng lm suy gim cht lng tn hiu, thit b khng phc tp v tn hiu
c th c truyn i di cc nh dng ph hp.
Hin nay, cc thit b audio tiu chun nh thit b bin i, micro,
loa v cc thit b tng t. Nh vy cc tn hiu lin tc theo thi gian cn
c bin i sang tn hiu ri rc phc v cho qa trnh x l s tn hiu
audio.
Bin i A/D tn hiu audio cng bao gm cc giai on ly mu (ri
rc ho theo thi gian), lng t (ri rc ho theo bin ) v m ho.
Thi gian
Bin
Tn hiu audio ban
u
Thi gian
Cc xung ly mu
iu bin
Thi gian
Bin
Tn hiu audio ban
u
Hnh 5.44 Biu din tn hiu iubin xung trong min
thi gian
125
Qu trnh ly mu tng ng vi qu trnh iu bin tn hiu vi tn
hiu iu ch l cc xung c tn s xut hin bng tn s ly mu. iu bin
xung (PAM) l mt phng php c s dng nhiu trong bin i A/D tn
hiu audio. Phng php ny c biu din trong min thi gian trn hnh
5.44 trong min tn s trn hnh 5.45.
2- Biu din tn hiu
Cc mu thu c s c biu din bng mt m nh phn sau qu
trnh lng t ho biu din mu. Trong h thng tuyn tnh 4 bit, c th c
16 gi tr m ho mc bin tn hiu cho mi mu.
Trong v d trn hnh 5.46 mt sng dng hnh sin ban u c xc
nh bng cc mu ti v tr ly mu. Cc mu c lm trn ti mc gn
Ph tn hiu
audio ban u
Bin s
Tn s
f
gh
Ph tn s xung ly
mu
Tn s
f
gh
2f
lm
3f
lm
f
lm
- f
gh
Ph tn hiu
audio ly mu
Bin s
Tn s
f
gh
2f
lm
3f
lm
f
lm
f
lm
- f
gh
iu bin
Hnh 5.45 Biu din tn hiu iu bin xung trong min tn
s
126
nht tng ng. Sai s gia tn hiu ban u v cc mu sau khi lng t
ho gi l sai s lng t.
Tuy nhin trong thc t, cc gi tr nh phn khng biu din mt
cch trc tip nh trn hnh 5.46. Gi tr ca m thanh c biu din bng
dng s b hai. S nh phn bn tri (MSB) ch du ca bin tn hiu. V
d mt biu din tn hiu di dng nh phn trong h thng 20 bit, di bin
tn hiu c biu th t 7FFF n 8000.
Vi tn hiu c bin nh, s bt biu din tng ng s t v v vy
sai s lng t s nh hng cng nhiu n tn hiu. Sai s lng t c th
1/f
lm
Thi
gian
1111
1110
1100
1011
1010
1001
1000
0111
0110
0101
0100
0011
0010
0001
0000
Bin
a) Thi gian ly mu v cc
gi tr lng t
1/f
lm
Thi
gian
Bin
b) Cc mu thu c
Hnh 5.46 Biu din tn hiu vi 4 bit lng t
ho.
127
c gim nh bng cch tng s mc lng t. Cc h thng bin i A/D
c th s dng 16 hoc 20 bit biu din mu.
Mi gi tr mu sau khi lng t c m ho bng cc dng tn hiu
khc nhau ph thuc vo yu cu truyn v ghi tn hiu. Cc h thng m
ho hay s dng l iu ch xung m (PCM), iu ch rng xung
(PWM), iu xung m vi sai (DPCM)....
S khi tng qut b m ho v gii m PCM c v trn hnh
5.47. Tn s ly mu tn hiu audio theo tiu chun hin nay thng c
ly theo ba gi tr: Tn s 32 kHz: cho cc ng dng truyn dn; Tn s 44,1
kHz: p dng cho cc h ghi bng PAL vNTSC s dng b phi hp PCM
nghi v pht tn hiu audio s, tn s ny cng dng cho c tn hiu audio
ghi trong a quang hay bng ghi s (DAT); V tn s 48kHz l tn hiu
chun cho truyn thanh audio qung b.
3- c im b bin i A/D v D/A
C hai qu trnh bin i A/D v D/A u to ra sai s cho tn hiu
audio. Cc sai s ny khng qu ln khi xt chng mt cch c lp, song
vic s dng nhiu cc chuyn i A/D v D/A s to nn cc sai s tng
Lc thng
thp
Ly mu Lng t M ho
Tn hiu audio
tng t
Tn hiu PCM
Tn hiu PCM
Gii m Khi phc
mu
Lc, sa,
mo
Tn hiu audio
tng t
Hnh 5.47 S khi b m ho v gii m PCM
128
theo mc tng t hay cc nhm tn s, kt qu l nh hng nghim trng
n tn hiu audio. Cc sai s ny c th c chia ra lm hai loi:
- Sai s do lc thng thp: Tr nhm xut hin khi mt nhm cc tn
s xut hin tr hn mt nhm cc tn s khc trong ph tn hiu. Tr nhm
lm mo tn hiu ti to. Ngoi ra cc gn sng trong b lc trnh chng ph
v b lc ti to c th c tch lu v to ra cc sai s bin gy nh
hng n tn hiu tng t c to li.
- Sai s do bin i: Cc gi tr lng t xut hin sai s khi tn s
xung ly mu bin i, kt qu l v tr ly mu khng thc s chnh xc, cc
b bin i phi tuyn AD v DA cng c cc sai s dng ny.
4- M ho knh truyn
Nhm trnh cc sai s c th xy ra, c th s dng cc b lc c
tnh nng cao vi ng c tuyn bng phng v s dng ly mu vi
tnhiu s cao. Mt phng php khc l s dng cc m c tnh cht c
bit, l m NRZ (None Return to Zezo) v m BPM (BiPhase - Mark)
trong knh truyn.
M ho knh c s dng trong cc h thng ghi v truyn tn hiu
s phi hp cc tnh cht ca m v tnh cht ca qu trnh ghi, ca
ng truyn.
M ho knh bin i tn hiu ban u thnh dng dng bit c mt d
cao trong phm vi ca knh truyn. Cc thnh phn mt chiu v thnh phn
tn s thp khng c truyn i.
truyn tn hiu s khng c li trong knh truyn th yu cu mt
tc truyn tn hiu nh hn gii hn ng truyn ca knh thng tin.
Kh nng b mt thng tin s gim khi thi gian truyn hoc di thng knh
truyn tng ln. V vy m ho knh l cn thit t c hiu qu truyn
cao nht.
129
Cc knh truyn c cc c tnh truyn t khc nhau ti vng tn s
cao v tn s thp. M ho knh nh dng li ph ca tn hiu c truyn
sao cho sai s xut hin l nh nht.
Nhiu cc dng m ho thng tin c dng m ho thng tin s
trong cc ng dng khc nhau, tuy nhin yu cu ca dng m truyn l c
t khi phc c tn hiu ng b tt.
Cc tiu chun AES/EBU xc nh mi trng truyn l cc dy dn,
cho dung lng ng truyn cao theo tn hiu ni tip (tn hiu thu c t
b A/D l tn hiu song song, s c chuyn thnh tn hiu ni tip bng b
chuyn i song song - ni tip). Tn hiu clock c xc nh ti im bt
u trong qu trnh gii m. Dng bit theo tiu chun c m ho BPM. S
khi b bin i m truyn c v trn hnh 5.48.
c im ca cc m knh truyn:
- M NRZ: cc gi tr 0 v 1 c truyn i theo mc m v dng,
theo s truyn tn hiu ch xut hin khi bit s liu thay i. Trong mt
chui bit ging nhau, mc ca tn hiu khng tr v mc 0 gia cc bit.
130
M BPM: S thay i lun xut hin khi truyn bit 1 v khi bt u truyn
bit mi. Theo , s thay i hoc khng thay i mc tn hiu khi truyn 1
bit xc nh bit c truyn l bit 0 hay 1, hnh 5.49
c tnh ph ca tn hiu NRZ v BPM c v trn hnh 5.50. M NRZ c
nng lng ch yu tp trung vng tn s thp. M BPM c nng lng
thp hn, song yu cu di thng knh truyn ln hn. M BPM c nng
lng ph tp trung ti tn s tc c truyn bit. Bin ph bng 0 ti tn
s DC.
AD 16 bit B chuyn
ni tip
nh dng
t m
M BPM
Tn hiu audio
tng t
Tn hiu BPM
f
lm
= 14kHz
Bit ng b v
bit chc nng
Tn hiu PCM
1
0
1
1
0
1
.
.
.
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
.
.
.
1
1
1
1 0 1 . . . 1 0 1 1
0 1
1 1 1 . . . 0 0 1 0
1 1
T
lm
=
20,83s
MSB
LSB
LSB MSB
1,30
s
T
lm
=
20,83s
T ni tip 16 bit
T song song16
bit
Hnh 5.48 S khi b m ho AES/EBU v chuyn i song
song ni tip
131
5.9 - ghp dng tn hiu audio s
1- Cu trc dng audio s theo chun giao tip AES/EBU
- Tiu chun audio s AES/EBU l cc giao thc cho php cc thit
b s truyn v nhn tn hiu audio s.
Tn hiu
Clock
NRZ
BPM
Hnh 5.49 Dng sng tn hiu NRZ v
BPM
1
0.5
0
0.5/T 1/T 1.5/T 2/T
NRZ
BPM
Mt ph
Hnh 5.50 Dng sng tn hiu NRZ v BPM
132
Cu trc dng tn hiu audio s theo tiu chun c v nh trong
hnh 5.51. Cc khung s liu c to thnh t hai khung con A v B, cc
khung con phi hp s liu t cc ngun hay knh tn hiu audio, d liu
ph v tn hiu khc.
Cc khung audio c nhm thnh cc khi, mi khi bao gm192
khung. Mi mt khi c bt u bng mt c bo hiu (Z). Vi tn s ly
mu 48KHz, mt khung audio c thi gian l 20,38s. Nh vy, mt khi s
liu audio theo chun AES/EBU chim khong thi gian bng:
20,38s x 192 = 4000s
T ng b, bao gm 4 bit xc nh mt mu mi v mt khi
mi. C ba t ng b khc nhau c s dng l:
- T ng b Z: Th t bit ny ch bt u khung ca mt khi
m. T m ny to ra c Z.
- T m X: Ch bt u ca tt c cc khung cn li.
- T m Y: Ch v tr bt u ca tt c cc khung con B.
Sync si phu s liu audio V U C P Sync si phu s liu
audio V U C P
Khung con B Khung con A
Mt chu k mu = 1
khung
4 4
20 4
LS
B
MSB
T "Z"
T "X"
T "Y"
Z Knh A Y Knh B X Knh A Y
Knh B X
khung 0 khung 1
khung 190 khung 191
1 khi
audio
Hnh 5.51 Cu trc khung audio s theo chun
AES/EBU
133
Cc t m 4 bit ny khng c m ho ging nh cc bit cn li trong
khung. Th t cc bit c m ho biu din nh trn hnh 5.51. Cu trc
m ho cho php l gim thnh phn mt chiu trn ng truyn, phc hi
li tn hiu clock v xc nh khung con trong dng tn hiu.
Mi khung audio cha hai khung con, mi khung con c 32 bit. Mu
tn hiu audio c th c biu din bng 16, 20 hay 24 bit trong trng hp
4 bit d liu ph cng c m ho biu din mu. Xc lp bit trng thi ph
c ch ra trong cc bit trng thi knh. Cc bit s liu ph cng th mang
thng tin ca cc tng t ph. Trong thi gian 4 ms hay 192 khung c 4 x
192 = 768 c th to thnh 64 t m audio vi chnh xc 12 bit, dng s
ny tng ng tn s ly mu 16kHz. Mi mt khung audio c kh nng
mang mt knh s liu ph ring.
Mi khung con mang 4 bit chc nng:
- Bit V (Validity): Bit V c thit lp mc 0 nu s liu t mu
audio l ng v ph hp vi b bin i D/A.
Mt khung
audio
Sync si phu s liu audio V U C P Sync si phu s liu
audio V U C P
d liu knh ban u
d liu knh n
m a ch mu
m thi gian
nh dng knh s
liu U (ser) trong
trng thi knh
bit 0 bit 7
Byte 0
Byte
23
bit 0 bit 7
Byte
23
Mng bit U (ser)
(192 bit)
Mng bit C (hannel
status (192 bit)
(192 bit)
Hnh 5.52 Dng mnh nh s liu bit U v bit C
134
- Bit U (ser): Bit U trong mi khung con c truyn n mt mng
nh gm 28 hng nh trong hnh 5.52. Mng ny s cha 192 bit U t cng
mt ngun hay loi khung con audio bao gm trong mt khi s liu. nh
dng s liu c th s dng c ch ra trong trng thi knh, byte 1 t bit 4
n bit 7.
- Bit C (Channel): Tng t nh bit U, bit C trong mi khung con
c a n mng gm 28 hng. S liu trong mng ny xc nh ni dung
t m audio.
- Bit B (Parity): Xc nh trng thi chn l cho php kim tra li
trong dng bit. Mng trng thi knh xc nh ngha trong thng tin s liu
theo chun AES/EBU.
Chn s liu trong giao tip tn hiu audio s c minh ho trn
hnh 5.53. Cc knh tn hiu audio tng t vo c x l v chuyn thnh
s liu 16 n 20bit vi tn s ly mu l 48 kHz ph hp vi tiu chun
AES/EBU. Cc mu c m ho PCM tuyn tnh s dng s b hai.
B
chn
u vo
Gii m
AES/EB
U
Gii m
AES/EB
U
O
O
Tn hiu vo
AES/EBU
Lc s
A/D
20
bit
O
O
O
O
Hnh 5.53 Mch giao tip tn hiu audio vo vi 4
knh x l s
Tn hiu vo
tng t
135
Hnh 5.54 minh ho b gii m v tch knh tn hiu audio. Mt b
gii m BPM c dng bin i dng tn hiu ni tip BPM thnh dng
s liu. Sau d cc s liu audio t dng s ghp knh c tch ring thnh
hai dng s audio. Cc bit chc nng V, C, U, P cng c ly ra t cc
khung con iu khin qu trnh x l, ng b khung, to ra 192 bit trng
thi knh v khi.
2- ng b tn hiu audio s trong tn hiu truyn hnh
Trong tn hiu truyn hnh, tn hiu chun audio s cn c ng b
vi tn hiu chun video s m bo c cc tng quan gia tn hiu
audio v video cng nh cho php s dng cc tn hiu ny mt cch ring
theo yu cu x l tn hiu.
B
chuy
n
Lc Gii
BPM
A/D
20 bit
m
knh
1
m
knh
2
Knh
1
Knh
2
Tn hiu
AES/EBU
ng
b
s liu
Khi
phc
clock
Clock
Clock
Cc bit chc
nng
Hnh 5.54 B m hoa v tch knh tn hiu audio
136
Trong h thng 625/50, s cc mu tn hiu audio trong mt khung
video l xc nh (vi tn s ly mu 48kHz th s ly mu l 1920 mu).
Pha gia tn hiu audio v video c duy tr theo nh trn hnh 5.55. Tn
hiu audio c th c ng b vi tn hiu video bng cch ly ra tn hiu
chun 48 kHz t tn hiu chun video 625/50.
Quan h gia s cc mu audio trn mt khung video v tn s
khung hnh theo tiu chun ly mu audio khc nhau c minh ho trong
bng 5.10
Bng 5.10 Cc tn s ly mu v s mu audio trn mt khung
hnh
trong cc tiu chun
Tn s ly mu
(KHz)
Chun qut
29.97 khung
hnh/giy
Chun quet 25
khung
hnh/'giy
Chun qut 30
khung hnh/giy
A 1920 B 1920 A1 B1 A2 B2 A3 B3
A4 B4
Khung audio
Pha gii hn 5%
qu trnh pht v
25% cho qu
trnh thu
Dng 1 cc khung video
Chun tn
hiu
video
T ng b X hoc Z
Hnh 5.55 Quan h ng b tn hiu audio v video s
137
48 8008/5 1920/1 1600
44,1 147147/100 1764/1 1470
32 16016/15 1280/1 3200/3
Trong h thng 525/60, s cc mu audio trn mt khung video
khng phi l mt s nguyn (bng 8008/5) c tnh nh sau:
33366 67
20 8333
16016
. ,
,
,

s
s

mu
Trong 33.366,67 s l thi gian ca mt khung video v 20,8333 s l
thi gian ca mt khung audio. Theo c 05 khung video ta li thu c
mt s nguyn cc mu audio. Th t s cc mu tng ng trong 5 khung
video lin tip c bin i ln lt gia cc s 1602 v 1601 sao cho
trong 5 khung video ny s mu audio ng bng 8008.
138
Phn iii
k thut nn video s
6.1 - khi nim v nn tc dng bit
1- Khi qut chung
Trong tt c cc dng tn hiu th tn hiu truyn hnh chim di tn
ln nht cho mt knh thng tin. Tn hiu video s thnh phn (s ho 8 bit)
c tc bit bng 216 Mbit/s. Di ph cn thit truyn tn hiu ny phi
c b rng khng di (43/4) x 216 = 162 MHz. Trong studio, truyn tn
hiu bng cp, jc ni cht lng cao v vi khong cch ngn vic nn di
tn ch mang tnh kinh t, vic truyn tn hiu c th thc hin m khng cn
nn. Song s rt kh khn, thm ch khng th thc hin c vic truyn tn
hiu video s qua v tinh vi rng di tn mt knh 27 MHz hoc qua h
thng truyn hnh qung b trn mt t vi tiu chun 7 -8 MHz cho mt
knh truyn hnh tiu chun. Do vy, nn tn hiu video l cng on khng
th thiu khc phc c nhng kh khn trn.
Nn v c bn l mt qu trnh trong lng s liu (data) biu
din thng tin ca mt nh hoc nhiu nh c gim bt bng cch loi b
nhng s liu d tha trong tn hiu video. Cc chui nh truyn hnh c
139
nhiu phn nh ging nhau. Vy tn hiu truyn hnh c cha d liu d
tha, ta c th b qua m khng lm mt thng tin hnh nh. l cc phn
xo dng, xo mnh, vng nh tnh hoc chuyn ng rt chm, vng nh
nn ging nhau, m cc phn t lin tip ging nhau hoc khc nhau rt
t. Thng th chuyn ng trong nh truyn hnh c th c d bo, do
ch cn truyn cc thng tin v chuyn ng. Cc phn t ln cn trong nh
thng ging nhau, do ch cn truyn cc thng tin bin i. Cc h
thng nn s dng c tnh ny ca tn hiu video v cc c trng ca mt
ngi (l km nhy vi sai s trong hnh nh c nhiu chi tit v cc phn t
chuyn ng). Qu trnh sau nn nh l dn nh to li nh gc hoc mt
xp x nh gc.
S pht trin ca k thut s v vic s dng cng ngh s vo k
thut truyn hnh lm cho khi nim "nn video" tr thnh ti nng hi
trong nhng nm gn y. Tht ra khi nim nn video c t nhng nm
1950 cng vi s ra i ca cc h truyn hnh mu. l nn rng bng
tn bng k thut tng t. y ba tn hiu thnh phn mu (R, G, B) vi
tng b rng di thng 15 MHz c nn trong mt tn hiu video mu
tng hp duy nht vi b rng di thng bng 5 MHz. Di thng tn c
gim ba ln, hay ni mt cch khc, h s nn bng 3: 1.
Nn video trong nhng nm 1950 c thc hin bng cng ngh
tng t vi t s nn thp. Ngy nay, cng ngh nn t c nhng
thnh tu cao hn bng vic chuyn i tn hiu video t tng t sang s.
Cng ngh nn s i hi nng lc tnh ton nhanh, song vi s pht trin
ca cng ngh thng tin, nht l t khi Shannon trnh by quan nim xc
sut v thng tin v cch biu din truyn v nn chng, th iu ny
khng cn l tr ngi v nn nh cng tr nn quan trng.
140
T nhng nm 1980, cc nh khoa hc t c nhng thnh tu
quan trng trong vic nn tn hiu video v audio. C rt nhiu hng sn
xut thit b nn, nhng u da trn hai nh dng nn rt ph in l JPEG
v MPEG.
2- M hnh nn nh
u tin ca b m ho video, tn hiu video c trnh by di
dng thun tin nn c hiu qu nht. im ct yu l phi xc nh ci g
c m ho. S biu din c th cha nhiu mu thng tin m t tn hiu
hn l chnh tn hiu, nhng hu ht cc thng tin quan trng ch tp trung
mt phn nh vo s m t ny. Trong cch biu din c hiu qu, ch c
phn nh d liu l cn thit truyn cho vic ti to li tn hiu video.
Hot ng th hai ca m ho l lng t ho, gip ri rc ho thng
tin c biu din. truyn tn hiu video qua mt knh s, nhng thng
tin biudin c lng t ho thnh mt s hu hn cc mc.
Hot ng th ba l gn cc t m. Cc t m ny l mt chui bit
dng biu din cc mc lng t ho. Cc qu trnh s ngc li trong b
gii m video.
Biu
din
thun
li
Ln
g t
ho
Gn
t
m
Gii
L.T.H
Biu
din
thun
li
Gii
t
m
X
l
kn
h
M ho video Gii m video
Ngun
Video
khi
phc
Hnh 6.1 M hnh h thng nn video
141
Mi hot ng c gng loi b phn d tha trong tn hiu video v
tn dng s gii hn ca h thng nhn ca mt ngi. Nh b i cc phn
t d tha, cc thng tin ging nhau hoc c lin quan n nhau s khng
c truyn i. Nhng thng tin b i m khng nh hng n vic nhn,
cng s khng c truyn di
3- D tha thng tin trong tn hiu video
Nn s liu l qu trnh gim lng s liu cn thit biu din
cng mt lng thng tin cho trc. Cn pi phn bit gia s liu v thng
tin. Thc t s liu v thng tin khng ng ngha vi nhau. S liu (v do
tn hiu) ch l phng tin dng truyn ti thng tin. Cng mt lng
thng tin cho trc c th biu din bng cc lng s liu khc nhau. V
d, nu hai ngi khc nhau dng s t khc nhau k cng mt cu
truyn, s c hai version khc nhau ca cu truyn v mt c cha s liu
khng ch yu; n bao gm s liu hoc t khng c thng tin thch hp ln
xc nh bit. l do n cha d tha s liu.
d tha s liu l vn trung tm trong nn nh s. nh gi
cho qu trnh thc hin gii thut nn l t l nn (C
N
) c xc nh nh
sau: Nu N
1
v N
2
l lng s liu trong hai tp hp s liu cng c dng
biu din mt lng thng tin cho trc th d s liu tng i R
D
ca tp hp s liu th nht so vi tp hp s liu th hai c th c nh
ngha nh sau:
R
D
= 1 - l/C
N
(6.1)
Trong :
C
N
= N
1
/N
2
(6.2)
142
Trong trng hp N
1
= N
2
th C
N
= v R
D
= 0, c ngha l so vi tp
s liu th hai th tp s liu th nht khng cha s liu d tha. Khi N
2
<<
N
1
th C
V
tin ti v cng v R
D
tin ti mt, c ngha l d tha s liu
tng i ca tp s liu th nht l kh ln hay tp s liu th hai c nn
kh nh.
y c s kt hp gia t l nn v cht lng hnh nh. T l nn
cng cao s lm gim cht lng hnh nh v ngc li. Cht lng v qu
trnh nn c th thay i tu theo c im ca hnh nh ngun v ni dung
nh. nh gi cht lng nh c ngh tnh s bit cho mt im trong
nh nn (N
b
). N c xc nh l tng s bit nh nn chia cho tng s
im:
N
b
= S bit nn/S im (6.3)
Ta tm hiu hai loi d tha trong nh s l d tha thng k v d
tha do cm nhn sinh l ca mt ngi.
a) D tha thng k
Hu nh tt c cc nh u cha cc thng tin trng lp. Trong cc
h thng khng s dng k thut nn, cc thng tin trng lp ny c lp i
lp li trong dng tn hiu to li nhng vng hnh nh trng nhau trong
ton b bc nh, v to ra s d tha thng tin. S d tha thng tin ny
khng ch tn ti trong phm vi mt bc nh (gi l d tha theo khng
gian), m cn c trong cc bc nh lin nhau trong chui cc bc nh to
thnh khung cnh truyn hnh (gi l d tha theo thi gian). V d, khung
cnh mt bu tri xanh s to ra rt nhiu im nh mang thng tin nh
nhau, v chng ch c m ho mt ln ti b m ho, ri sau c gii
m ti nhng v tr cn thit ti u thu to li khung cnh ny. Qu trnh
143
xc nh gi tr im nh trng hp trong mt khung hnh c gi l qu
trnh gii tng quan d liu. Bin i cosin ri rc l mt qu trnh nh th,
trong bin i ny, hu ht nng lng c mt khi cc im nh c tp
trung vo cc phn t c h s bin i thp nht ( 6.4)
b) D tha do cm nhn sinh l ca mt ngi
Cc gi tr mu c s ho trong mt bc nh khng hon ton
ng nht vi h thng cm nhn ca mt ngi. Khi h thng cm nhn
nh sng khng nhn thy mt li no , li ny s khng lm nh hng
n cht lng nh ti to. Nh vy, c th ct bt hoc thm ch loi b
mt s mu m khng lm gim kh nng thu c nh trung thc ca
ngi xem. Thc nghim cho thy rng trong nh truyn hnh cha nhiu
cc thng tin c th loi b i nh th.
4- Sai lch bnh phng trung bnh
Mt nh gi thng k khc c th nh gi cho nhiu gii thut nn
l sai lch bnh phng trung bnh so vi nh gc RMS (Root Mean Square)
c tnh bi biu thc:
RMS
n
X X
i
n
i i

_
,

1
1
2
'
Trong : RMS - sai lch bnh phng trung bnh;
X
i
- gi tr im nh ban u
X'
i
- gi tr im nh sau khi gii nn
n - tng s im nh trong mt nh
RMS ch ra s khc nhau thng k gia nh ban u v nh sau khi
nn. a s trng hp khi nn cht lng ca nh nn l tt vi RMS thp.
144
Tuy nhin, trong mt s trng hp c th xy ra l cht lng nh nn vi
RMS cao tt hn nh nn vi RMS thp hn.
6.2 - l thuyt thng tin - entropy
Lng thng tin cha ng trong mt chi tit hnh nh t l nghch
vi kh nng xut hin ca n. Ni mt cch khc, mt s kin t xy ra s
cha ng nhiu thng tin hn mt s kin c nhiu kh nng xut hin.
i vi hnh nh, lng thng tin ca mt hnh nh bng tng s lng
thng tin ca tng phn t (pixel) nh.
entropy o gi tr thng tin trung bnh cha ng trong mt bc nh
v theo , entropy cng xc nh lng thng tin trung bnh nh nht biu
din bi mi gi tr nh phn qua qu trnh m ho, bo ton c kh
nng khi phc nh tt. Theo l thuyt, di trung bnh ca mt t m
(cng tng ng vi tc bit thu c) qua mt phng php nn
khng th no nh hn entropy ca bc nh, mt s thng tin ca bc nh s
b mt.
Theo quan im ca l thuyt thng tin, lng thng tin ca tng
phn t nh c nh ngha l logarit c s hai ca nghch o xc sut
xut hin ca phn t nh :

,
_

,
_


i
i
x P
x P
i
x l
2
log
1
2
log ) (
Trong : l(x
i
) - lng thng tin ca phn t nh x
i
(c tnh bng bit).
P(x
i
) - xc sut xut hin ca phn t nh x
i
.
Nu mt hnh nh c biu th bng cc phn t x
1
, x
2
, x
3
.... Xc
sut xut hin ca tng phn t tng ng s l P(x
1
), P(x
2
), P(x
3
)....
145
Bit c lng tin tc ca tng phn t nh cha , cn cn phi
bit c lng tin tc bnh qun ca c tp hp cc phn t nh ca hnh
nh. Lng tin tc bnh qun y ngi ta gi l entropy, c biu din
bng biu thc bnh qun thng k sau: Gi lng thng tin trung bnh ca
hnh nh H(x) (entropy ca hnh nh), ta c.
( ) H x P x l x P x P x
i
i l
N
i i
i l
N
i

_
,

_
,

_
,

_
,


log
2
(6.6)
di trung bnh ca mt t m l gi tr trung bnh thng k ca tt
c cc t m trong b m. C.E. Shannon ch ra rng " di trung bnh
ca mt t m khng th no nh hn entropy ca ngun s liu c m
ho". Do vy, entropy ca hnh nh l mt gi tr c ngha quan trng, bi
n xc nh s lng bit trung bnh ti thiu cn thit biu din mt phn
t nh.
Trong cng ngh nn khng tn hao, entropy l gii hn di ca t
s bit/pixel. Nu tn hiu video c nn vi t s bit/phn t nh hn
entropy, hnh nh s b mt thng tin v qu trnh nn s c tn hao.
V d: Xt hai block nh trn hnh 6.1, mi block c 8 x8 = 64 phn
t nh. Block nh 1 bao gm 63 phn t c gi tr "0" v mt phn t c gi
tr "1". Block nh 2 bao gm 32 phn t c gi tr "0" v 32 phn t c gi
tr "1".
Theo (6.6) ta c entropy ca block nh 1 bng:
( ) H x
1 2 2
63
64
63
64
1
64
1
64
0116 log log ,
bit/phn t
146
Entropy ca block nh 2 bng:
( ) H x
2 2 2
32
64
32
64
32
64
32
64
10 log log ,
bit/phn t.
Nh vy, s lng bit trung bnh ti thiu cn thit truyn mt
phn t nh i vi block nh 1 bng 0,116bit/phn t v i vi block nh
2 bng 1 bit/phn t, tc l bock nh 2 cha lng thng tin nhiu hn bock
nh 1.
6.3 - cc phng php nn video
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0
1 0 1 0 1 0
0 1
1 1 0 1 0 1
1 0
0 1 0 0 1 1
0 0
1 0 0 0 1 0
1 1
0 0 1 0 1 1
1 1
0 1 0 1 1 1
0 1
0 1 0 0 0 1
0 0
Hnh 6.2 Lng thng tin trong nh
147
Cc h thng nn s liu l s phi hp ca rt nhiu cc k thut x
l nhm gim tc bit ca tn hiu s m vn m bo cht lng nh ph
hp vi mt ng dng nht nh.
Nhiu cc k thut nn mt v khng mt thng tin (loss/lossless
data reduction techniques) c pht trin trong nhiu nm qua. Ch c
mt s t trong chng c th p dng cho nn video s.
1- Nn khng mt thng tin
Nn khng mt thng tin cho php phc hi li ng tn hiu ban u
sau khi gii nn. y l mt qu trnh m ho c tnh thun nghch. H s
nn ph thuc vo chi tit nh c nn. H s nn ca phng php nn khng
mt thng tin nh hn 2:1. Cc k thut nn khng mt thng tin nh di y.
a) M ho vi di (ca t m) thay i (VLC)
Phng php ny cn c gi l m ho Huffman v m ho
entropy, da trn kh nng xut hin ca cc gi tr bin trng hp trong
mt bc nh v thit lp mt t m ngn cho cc gi tr c tn sut xut hin
cao nht v t m di cho cc gi tr cn li. Khi thc hin gii nn, cc
thit lp cao nht v t m di cho cc gi tr cn li. Khi thc hin gii nn,
cc thit lp m trng hp s c s dng to li gi tr tn hiu ban u.
M ho v gii m Huffman c th c thc hin mt cch d dng bng
cch s dng cc bng tm kim.
b) M ho vi di (ca t m) ng (RLC)
Phng php ny da trn s lp li ca cng gi tr mu to ra
cc m c bit biu din s bt u v kt thc ca gi tr c lp li. Ch
cc mu c gi tr khc khng mi c m ho. S mu c gi tr bng
khng s c truyn di dc theo cng dng qut. Cui cng, cc chui 0
c to ra bng qu trnh gii tng quan nh phng php DCT hay
DPCM.
c) S dng khong xo dng v mnh
148
Vng thng tin xo c loi b khi dng tn hiu truyn i
vng thng tin tch cc ca nh. Theo phng php , thng tin xo dng
v xo mnh s khng c ghi gi v truyn i. Chng c thay bng cc
d liu ng b ngn hn tu theo cc ng dng.
d) Bin i cosin ri rc (DCT)
Qu trnh DCT thun v nghch c coi l khng mt thng tin nu
di t m h s l 13 hoc 14 bng tn i vi dng video s s dng 8
bit biu din mu. Nu di t m h s ca php bin i DCT nh hn,
qu trnh ny tr nn c mt thng tin.
2- Nn c mt thng tin
Nn c mt thng tin s dng hai hoc nhiu hn cc k thut x l
nhm t c mt s biu din m ho thun li tn hiu hnh nh. Nn c
mt thng tin t c h s nn cao hn so vi phng php nn khng
mt thng tin, vo c 2:1 n 100: 1. Sau khi nn, mt s thng tin s b mt
v cht lng nh b suy hao do qu trnh lm trn v loi b gi tr trong
phm vi khung hnh hay gia cc khung hnh. Suy hao cht lng nh s
khng trm trng, khi k thut nn nm trong gii hn ca s cm nhn, ca
mt ngi. H s nn c th thay i theo chi tit nh v cho php to ra
dng bit c tc khng i, phc v cho cc ng dng lu tr v truyn
dn. Tc dng s liu t c trong h thng nn c mt thng tin ph
thuc vo yu cu cht lng nh cn c.
Cc k thut nn c mt thng tin nh di y.
a) Ly mu con (Subsampling)
y l mt phng php nn rt c hiu qu, song phn gii ca
nh sau khi gii nn gim so vi nh ban u. V vy, k thut ly mu con
khng p dng cho tn hiu chi. Phng php ly mu con tn hiu mu,
149
chng hn nh cu rc ly mu 4: 2 : 0 hay 4 : 1 : 1 c dng trong ng
dng ghi, trong khi cu trc 4 : 2 : 0 c s dng trong cc dng dng sn
xut v truyn dn chng trnh MPEG.
b) iu xung m vi sai (DPCM)
L mt phng php m ho d on, thay v truyn i ton b cc
mu, k thut ny ch m ho v truyn i s khc nhau gia cc gi tr mu.
Gi tr sai lch c cng vo gi tr mu c gii m trong qu trnh
gii nn to li gi tr mu cn thit.
Qu trnh DPCM lm gim lng entropy ca tn hiu ban u. Tt
c cc gi tr sai lch gia cc mu tp trung quanh gi tr 0 v trong cc nh
s xut hin cc vng u c kh nng cao. Vi cc nh c chi tit cao,
cc gi tr sai lch ln gia cc mu c th c lng t ho th (bng
lng t ho tuyn tnh), do cm nhn ca mt ngi gim theo chi tit
ca nh. Cc phng php nn kt hp s dng lng t ho th cc gi tr
sai lch v k thut m ho VLC cho cc tn hiu thu c.
Nhm trnh cc li cc th xut hin trong khi truyn, mt mu y
c gi i theo chu k nht nh, cho php cp nht c cc gi tr
chnh xc. M ho DPCM cng s dng thm cc k thut d on v lng
t ho thch nghi hon thin thm k thut nn ny.
c) Lng t ho v m ho VLC cc h s DCT
Phi hp ba k thut ny cho php biu din mt khi cc im nh
bng mt s t cc bit, do to c mt hiu qu nn rt cao.
6.4 - qu trnh bin i cosin ri rc
Bin i cosin ri rc (DCT) x l cc gi tr d liu ca khi cc
im nh di mt khi cc h s trong min tn s. Hnh 6.3 minh ho qu
trnh m ho DCT mt chiu gm 8 im nh biu din tn hiu chi trong
tiu chun ly mu 4 : 2 : 2.
150
Hnh 6.3 a minh ho bin biu din ca 8 im nh tng ng.
Mc trung bnh thnh phn mt chiu v s bin i im chi cho trn hnh
6.3 b v c. Ph tn trong hnh 6.3d minh ho s thay i bin dc theo 8
bit ny v trong phm vi di tn s t 0 n f
lm
/2 = 6,75. M ho DCT thc
hin chia di ph ny thnh 8 di bng nh hn, tng ng vi mi di bng
tn c mt h s c trng cho nng lng ca tn hiu trong di bng tn
. Hnh 6.3e, v f minh ho cc bng tn chi ring r v gi tr h s tng
ng ca chng.
Gi tr u tin bn tri c trng cho mc gi tr thnh phn mt
chiu ca tn hiu - gi l h s DC. T trai sang pi, cc h s ln lt biu
din dc thnh phn tn s cao hn trong tn hiu ban u. Cc h s ny
c gi l h s AC. Trong mt bc nh, khong trng d tha rt ln, v
vy rt nhiu trong hu ht cc h s AC nhn gi tr 0 hoc gn 0.
t c mc gii tng quan ni dung bc nh cao hn, c th
s dng php bin i DCT hai chiu cho khi 8 x 8 gi tr cc im chi.
Cc khi 8 x 8 h s DCT c to thnh vi h s trn cng bn tri l h
s Dc biu din mc trung bnh mt chiu ca tn hiu trong khi 8 x 8 im
chi tng ng. Mt v d m ho DCt hai chiu cho khi 8 x 8 im chi
c minh ho trong hnh 6.4.
Qu trnh m ho DCT thun cho khi 8 x 8 c xc nh nh sau:
F u v
C u C v
f i j
i u i v
i i
( , )
( ) ( )
( , ) cos
( )
. cos
( )

+ +


4
2 1
16
2 1
16
0
7
0
7


(6.7)
Trong f(i,j) - cc mu ban u trong khi 8 x 8 im chi
F (u, v) - cc h s bin i DCT khi 8 x 8
151
u - tn s chun ho theo chiu ngan (0 < u < 7)
v - tn s chun ho theo chiu ng (0 < u < 7)
C(u), C(v) nhn gi tr 1/ 2 vi u, v = 0
C(u), C(v) = 1 nhn gi tr u, v = 1, 2,....... 7
152
Bin
im chi
8 im chi lin nhau trn 1
dng
98 92 95 80 75 82
68 50
98
0
Thi
gian
a) Bin chi ca 8 im nh
lin tip trn mt dng
Thi
gian
0
Mc trung
bnh DC
b) Mc trung bnh DC ca khi 8
im nh
0
Nng lng
F
S
/2
Bin i gi tr
im chi
0
c) Bin i bin so vi mc
trung bnh
Thi
gian
d) Ph khi 8 x 8 im chi
Tn s
0
Nng lng
F
S
/2
Tn s
e) Phn chi cc di ph
Nng lng
591 106 - 18 28 - 34 14
18 3
0
Tn s
f) Gi tr h s DCT
123
Cc h s AC
H s DC
Hnh 6.3 Minh ho qu trnh m ho DCT mt chiu
98 92 95 80 75 82
68 50
98
0
Thi
gian
a) Bin chi ca 8 im nh
lin tip trn mt dng
153
98 92 95 80 75 82
68 50
97 91 94 79 74 81
67 49
95 89 92 77 72 79
65 47
93 87 90 75 70 77
63 45
91 85 88 73 68 75
31 43
89 83 86 71 66 73
59 41
87 81 84 69 64 71
57 39
85 79 82 67 62 69
55 37
Gi tr cc im nh ca khi 8
x 8
98
0
Thi
gian
Bin
im chi
Dng 1
85
0
Thi
gian
Bin
im chi
Dng 8
T
h

i

g
i
a
n

h

n
g

t
h

n
g

n
g
B
i

m

c
h

i
9
8
0
D

n
g

1
T
h

i

g
i
a
n

h

n
g

t
h

n
g

n
g
B
i

m

c
h

i
8
5
0
D

n
g

8
Nng lng
0
Tn
s
u
u
591 106 -18 28 - 34 14
18 3
35 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
- 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
-1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
- 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
v
Gi tr cc h s sau bin i
DCT
N

n
g

l

n
g
0
T

n

s

v
Hnh 6.4 Minh ho qu trnh m ho DCT hai chiu
154
Vi h s u tin, cc tn s chun ho u v v u bng 0. Do ,
h s DC ny c tnh bng:
F f j k
k j
( , ) ( , ) 0 0
1
8
0
7
0
7



(6.8)
Biu th ny xc nh tng tt c cc gi tr im nh trong khi 8 x
8 v chia cho 8. Kt qu ca biu thc tng ng 8 ln gi tr trung bnh
cc im nh trong khi c bin i.
Khi bin i DCT p dng cho cc tn hiu video s thnh phn U
Y
,
C
R
, C
B
, cc tn hiu mu C
R
, C
B
c bin cc i l t 128 (gi tr nh phn)
trong h thng s dng 8 bit biu din mu v tn hiu chi U
Y
c bin t
0 n 255.
Hnh 6.4 Minh ho qu trnh m ho DCT hai chiu
98 92 95 80 75 82
68 50
97 91 94 79 74 81
67 49
95 89 92 77 72 79
65 47
93 87 90 75 70 77
63 45
91 85 88 73 68 75
31 43
89 83 86 71 66 73
59 41
87 81 84 69 64 71
57 39
85 79 82 67 62 69
55 37
591 106 -18 28 - 34 14
18 3
35 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
- 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
-1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
- 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
7
7
u
0
v
7
7
j
0
v
Bin i DCT
a) Khi 8 x 8 cc im chi f(j,k) b) Khi cc h s DCT tng
ng F(u,v)
40 10 - 2 2 -1 0
0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
16 11 10 16 24 40
51 61
12 12 14 19 26 58
60 55
14 13 16 24 40 57
69 56
14 17 22 29 51 87
80 62
18 22 37 56 68 109
103 77
24 35 55 64 81 104
113 92
49 64 78 87 103 121
120 101
72 92 95 98 112 100
103 99
7
7
0
v
7
7
0
v
c) Cc h s DCT lng t ho
v chun ho F
q
(u,v)
d) Bng trng s Q(u,v)
Hnh 6.5 To khi DCT 8 x 8 ( v d 1)
155
n gin cho vic thit k cc b m ho DCT, tn hiu chi U
Y
c dch xung mc ngang bng vi mc tn hiu C
R
, C
B
. Khi gii mc,
mc 128 s c cng vo thu c tn hiu chi U
Y
ban u.
Nh vy, mt b bin i A/D 8 bit s c s dng to ra cc
khi tn hiu chi U
Y
, vi gi tr mc nh phn t - 128 n + 127. Do ,
gi r cc h s DC ca khi bin i DCT tng ng t - 1024 n + 1016.
Vi cc h s AC, u v v thay i t 1 n 7, C(u), C(v) = 1, c gi
tr cc i trong phm vi t 1020, ph thuc vo biu thc bin i DCT
thun.
Ma trn 8 x 8 cc h s DCT thu c c h s DC ln, c trng
cho gi tr trung bnh ca thnh phn 1 chiu ca khi 8 x 8 (trong v d trn
hnh 6.4, gi tr DC bng 591) v rt nhiu cc h s AC c gi tr nh, biu
din cho cc thnh phn tn s cao theo hng ngang v hng thng ng.
Cc h s AC theo chiu ngang thng ln hn cc h s AC theo chiu
thng ng.
Hnh 6.5 minh ho qu trnh bin i DCt u tin cho mt khi cc
im nh chi. Cc gi tr c nh mc - 128 ph hp vi mc tn
hiu mu.
Theo nguyn l chung, s bin i chi tit gia cc im nh theo
mt hng no trong khi cc im nh - hoc l hng ngang, thng
ng hay theo ng cho - cng ln th tng ng theo hng ny, cc h
s bin i DCT cng ln.
40 10 - 2 2 -1 0
0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
16 11 10 16 24 40
51 61
12 12 14 19 26 58
60 55
14 13 16 24 40 57
69 56
14 17 22 29 51 87
80 62
18 22 37 56 68 109
103 77
24 35 55 64 81 104
113 92
49 64 78 87 103 121
120 101
72 92 95 98 112 100
103 99
156
Hnh 6.6 minh ho mt v d khc ca bin i DCT mt khi gm
cc im nh en v trng xen k tng ng c gi tr nh phn l 0 va 255.
Sau khi dch chuyn mc - 128 thu c gi tr l cc im ln lt thay i
gia - 128 v + 127. Khi cc im nh ny l khi c s bin i ln nht
gia cc im nh v cng c h s DCT ln nht. Mc d c nhiu h s
tn s bng 0, gi tr ca cc h s tn s cao ng vai tr quan trng trong
vic to li hnh nh khi bin i ngc DCT.
Trong v d trn hnh 6.6, nu loi b tt c cc h s AC v ch gi
li h s DC th sau khi bin i ngc DCT, khi im nh thu c l mt
mng mu xm c gi tr trung bnh biu din bi h s DC. Thc t th mt
mng gm cc trng n xen k (dng bn c) cng s cho ta cm gic
nh mt mng mu xm khi kch thc cc v gc nhn nm mt gii
hn nht nh.
Theo nguyn l , ta c th s dng b lc thng thp bng cch
loi b cc h s thnh phn tn s cao tng ng trc khi bin i ngc
DCT. Hnh 6.7 v 6.8 minh ho cc biu din ba chiu ca cc khi im
chi ban u v cc h s DCT sau khi bin i trong hai v d trn.
Qu trnh bin i DCT thc hin trn y c gii m thit trong
iu kin mc gi tr nh phn biu din tn hiu chi U
Y
t 0 n 255 sau b
bin i A/D vi tn hiu chi c mc bin t 0 n 700mV. Tuy nhin,
tiu chun s ho tn hiu video thnh phn xc nh mc gi tr nh phn tn
hiu chi t 16 n 235 tng ng biu din cho tn hiu vi bin t 0
n 700mV. iu ny cho php s dng cc gi tr cn li hai u nh
khong bo v.
157
Qu trnh bin i DCT khng gim tc dng s liu v c tnh
cht o ngc. Nghch o ca php bin i cosin ri rc l php bin i
ngc DCT (Inverse DCT), ti to li chnh xc cc gi tr im nh ban
u, nu cc h s DCT c gia nguyn.
127 -128 127 -128 127 -128
127 - 128
-128 127 - 128 127 -128 127
-128 127
127 -128 127 -128 127 -128
127 - 128
-128 127 - 128 127 -128 127
-128 127
127 -128 127 -128 127 -128
127 - 128
-128 127 - 128 127 -128 127
-128 127
127 -128 127 -128 127 -128
127 - 128
-128 127 - 128 127 -128 127
-128 127
- 5 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 33 0 39 0 58
0 166
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 39 0 46 0 69
0 196
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 58 0 69 0 103
0 294
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 166 0 196 0 294
0 837
7
7
u
0
v
7
7
j
0
k
Bin i DCT
a) Khi 8 x 8 cc im chi f(j,k) b) Khi cc h s DCT tng
ng F(u,v)
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 3 0 2 0 1
0 3
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 2 0 2 0 1
0 3
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 1 0 1 0 1
0 3
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 3 0 3 0 3
0 8
16 11 10 16 24 40
51 61
12 12 14 19 26 58
60 55
14 13 16 24 40 57
69 56
14 17 22 29 51 87
80 62
18 22 37 56 68 109
103 77
24 35 55 64 81 104
113 92
49 64 78 87 103 121
120 101
72 92 95 98 112 100
103 99
7
7
0
v
7
7
0
v
c) Cc h s DCT lng t ho
v chun ho F
q
(u,v)
d) Bng trng s Q(u,v)
Hnh 6.6 To khi DCT 8 x 8 ( v d 2 nh dng bn
c)
158
Kh nng nn dng s liu t c khi phi hp vic lng t ho
v cc k thut m ho hiu qu, v d nh VLC. Bin i DCT c s
dng gii tng quan s liu ban u, tp trung lng nng lng ln,
ri rc, cha trong mt khi cc im nh - vo trong mt s t cc thnh
phn tn s c truyn v to ra cc gi tr 0 hoc gn 0 m cc gi tr ny
s khng c lu tr hay truyn i. Kch thc khi im nh s dng
m ho DCT c la chn gia kh nng nn nng lng hiu qu - yu
cu vng im nh ln, v s cc php tnh thi gian thc cn thit s dng
trong php bin i DCT - yu cu mt vng im nh nh. Kch thc khi
im nh c la chn l 8 x 8.
6-5 - mt s m dng trong k thut nn
1- M RLC
S lin tip lp i lp li cc im nh trong nh s xut hin l do
s tng quan gia cc im nh, c bit i vi nh 2 mc (bi - level
images). T s lp i lp li ny, mt phng php nn c xy dng
trn c s s dng s ln lp ca cc im nh v phng php ny c goi
l RLC - Run Length Coding. RLC tch chui cc gi tr ging nhau v biu
din nh l mt tng. Khi gin gi tr ny to li s ln biu din tng. K
thut ny ch c th p dng cho cc chui symbols tuyn tnh. Do , khi p
dng cho s liu nh hai chiu, hnh nh c tch thnh mt chui cc
dng qut.
Ta c hai cch m ho RLC:
a) To ra nhng t m cho mi di chy v kt hp vi symbol
ngun.
159
b) S dng mt s di chy v 1 symbol ngun nu nh symbol
ngun khng phi l mt s hay mt k t c bit chi ra cho mi
symbol ngun.
K thut RLC c dung cho cc h s lng t ho tt hn l dng
trc tip cho s liu nh. Hai v d v nh s v ktqu m ho RLC ca n
c th hin trn hnh 6.9a v 6.9b.
Mt loi ci bin ca m RLC l m c di thay i VLC
(Variable Length Code), dng biu din cc gi tr symbols cng nh
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$$$$$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$**$$$$$$$$$$
$$$$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$**$$$$$$$$
$$$$
$$$$$$$$$****$$$$$$
$$$$
$$$$$$$$$****$$$$$$
$$$$
$$$$$$$$$****$$$$$$
$$$$
$$$$$$$$$****$$$$$$
$$$$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$**$$$$$$$$
$$$$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$**$$$$$$$$$$
$$$$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$$$$$
000001111100000000000000
000000
000000111110000000000000
000000
000000011111000000000000
000000
000000001111100000000000
000000
000000000111110000000000
000000
000000000011111000000000
000000
000000000001111100000000
000000
000000000000111110000000
000000
30$
14$2*14$
12$2*22*12$
10$2*62*10$
10$2*62*10
10$2*62*10
10$2*62*10
12$2*22*12$
14$2*14$
30$
Digital image RLC
4w5b17
5w5b16
6w5b15
7w5b14
8w5b13
9w5b12
10w5b11
11w5b10
Digital image RLC
a)
b)
Hnh 6.9 Cc v d m RLC
160
di chy. Cch thc hin l tnh phn b xc xut ca cc di chy v cc
gi r symbols. y l s kt hp ca RLC vi m ho thng k.
RLC khng thch hp trc tip cho cc nh t nhin c tng nh lin
tc c m ho bng mt qu trnh s ho tuyn tnh, l do l v RLC phi
nn tp s liu c cc bc chy tng i ln ging nhau. nh c tng nh
lin tc cha thng tin c tn s khng gian thp, vic thay i cc vng
rng c lm y bng cc gi tr pixel ging nhau l tng i nh.
Nu nh x cc gi tr pixel ln bng m Gray v dng RLC theo bit
trn c s mt phng - mt phng, ta c th t c cc t s nn. RLC t
n khng cho cc mc nn c ngha.
RLC c dng kt hp vi cc k thut khc nh cc chun nn
JPEG, MPEG s cho kt qu nn tt. RLC c dng cho cc h s lng t
ho tt hn l dng trc tip cho s liu nh.
2- M Shannon - Fano
Theo l thuyt thng tin ca Shannon th t l nn tt nht m chng
ta c th t c chnh l entropy ngun. Vo cui nhng nm 40, Shannon
v Fano tm ra mt phng php nn mi m da trn xc sut xut hin
ca nhng symbol ngun bn trong mt lng thng tin. V c bn th
phng php ny s dng nhng t m c di thay i m ho cc
symbol ngun thng qua xc sut ca chng. Vi nhng symbol c xc sut
xut hin cng ln th t m dng m ho chng cng ngn.
Cc bc m Shannon - Fano:
a) Bc 1: Sp xp cc symbol ngun vi xc sut xut hin ca
chng theo th t gim dn.
161
b) Bc 2: Chia tp sp xp thnh hai phn sao cho tng xc
sut xut hin ca cc symbol mi phn xp x nhau.
c) Bc 3: M s dng bit 0 m ho cho cc symbol trong phn
1 v bit 1 m ho cho cc symbol trong phn 2.
d) Bc 4: Quay tr li bc 2 v tip tc lm cho ti khi mi phn
chia ch cn li 1 symbol.
V d: Ta c mt nh s c 8 symbol (S
0
S
1
S
2
.... S
7
) vi xc sut
xut hin ln lt l (0,1; 0,19; 0,21; 0,3; 0,05; 0,07; 0,03). Cc symbol ny
c sp xp theo th t xc sut gim dn v c chia, m ho theo hnh
6.10
Phng php Shannon - Fano l phng php nn thnh cng u
tin vi di trung bnh ca t m C
l
c th t c trong khong H < C
l
<
H + l (Trong H l lng entropy ca ngun tin).
3- M Huffman
0,3 0,51 0,3
0,21 0,21 0
0,19
0,1
0,07
0,05
0,05
0,03
0,49
1
0,29
0
0,2
1
00
1
0,19
0,1
0,12
0
0.08
0
1
0,07
0,05
0,05
0,03
1
0
1
0
1
01
100
101
1100
1101
1110
1111
S
3
S
2
S
1
S
0
S
6
S
5
S
4
S
7
Hnh 6.10 V d m Shannon - Fano
162
Cng theo l thuyt thng tin ca Shannon, chng ta bit rng vi
mi ngun tin c a ra, tn ti mt cch m ho m c th m ho vi
di trung bnh ca t m gn vi lng entropy ca ngun tin nh mong
mun. Vi phng php m ho Shannon - Fano trn th chng ta c
di trung bnh ca t m gii hn trn bi H + 1. Tuy nhin i khi
phng php m ho Shannon - Fano cng to ra nhng t m c di hn
m symbol ngun c th c v iu ny dn ti di trung bnh ca t m
tng ln. Vo nm 1952 D.A. Huffman pht trin mt k thut m ho
mi m c th to ra di trung bnh ca t m ngn nht i vi tp
symbol ngun v kt hp vi xc sut ca chng.
M Huffman thuc loi m entropy hoc m thng k. T tng
chnh l dng VLC (Variable Length Coding), s dng t bit m cc gi
tr hay xy ra (xc sut xut hin cao) v nhiu bit m cc gi tr t xy ra
(xc sut xut hin thp). T tc bit s gim mt cch ng k.
di trung bnh ngn nht m phng php m Huffman t c
cho tt c cc symbol ngun chnh xc ti lu tha ca 1/2. Ni tm li, n
c th cho di trung bnh ca t m Huffman gii hn trn bi
H + P +
log
log
2
e
e

1
]
1
1
= H + P + 0,086.
Trong H l lng entropy ngun, P l xc sut ca tt c cc
symbol nh ngun.
Cc bc m ho Huffman:
163
a) Bc 1: Lit k cc xc sut ca cc symbol ngun, v to ra cc
tp mt bng cch cho nhng xc sut ny thnh cc nhnh ca cy nh
phn.
b) Bc 2: Ly 2 nt vi xc sut nh nht t tp nt v tro ra 1 xc
sut mi bng tng xc sut ca xc sut .
c) Bc 3: To ra mt nt m vi cc xc sut mi, v nh du 1
cho nt con trn v 0 cho nt con di.
d) Bc 4: To tip tp nt bng cch thay th 2 nt vi xc sut
nh nht cho nt mi. Nu tp nt ch cha 1 nt th kt thc, ngc li th
ta quay li bc 2.
T ta c b m s c thit lp bng cch dng mt tp hp data
v nh gi xc sut ca mi s kin. S ti u c th t c bng cch
thit k mt bng m ring bit cho mi phn t c m ho. Nhng iu
ny s lm tng s bng m.
Mun lp c bng m cn tnh xc sut xut hin mi phn t nh
trong tp m. Da vo xy dng mt cy khng cn bng (tc gm mt
s nhnh khng di bng nhau). Mc khng cn bng ca cy ph thuc
vo xc sut xut hin ca cc phn t. Mt cy c xy dng nh vy gi
l cy m Huffman.
.
. .
. .
.
.
Nt nhnh (2)
Nt nhnh (4)
Nt gc (8)
Nt l
Nt l
Nt l
Nt l
c (1)
b (2)
a (4)
1
1
1
d (1)
0
0
0
Hnh 6.11 Cy m Huffman
164
Cy m Huffman l mt cy nh phn c cc nhnh c gn cho gi
tr 0 hoc 1. Gc ca cy c gi l nt mc, cn cc im r nhnh c
gi l cc nt nhnh. im kt thc ca mt nhnh c gi l nt l. Mi
nt l c gn tng ng vi mt phn t cn m ho. Hnh 6.11 l v d
v mt cy m Hunffman c xy dng cho mt chui d liu cn pht i
aaaabbcd.
T mt nt nhnh, khi r thnh hai nhnh mi th nhnh bn tri
c gn cho gi tr 0 v nhnh bn phi c gn cho gi tr 1 (vic gn
ny c th lm ngc li). T m ca mt symbol c xc nh bng cch
i t gc n nt l tng ng vi symbol . Cc bit ca cc t m c
tp hp t cc gi tr tng ng ca nhnh phai i qua.
T m tngng vi cc symbol a, b, c, d ln lt c cho trong
bng 6.1. Theo bng 6.1 ta thy pht i chui d liu aaaabbcd chcn:
4 x 1 + 2 x 2 + 1 x 3 + 1 x 3 = 14 bit
Bng 6.1 M ho vi di t m thay i
Phn t S ln xut
hin
Xc sut T m Chiu di t
m
a 4 0,5 1 1
b 2 0,25 01 2
c 1 0,125 001 3
d 1 0,125 000 3
165
Hay s bit trung bnh/phn t = 14/8 = 17,5 bit/phn t.
thy c hiu qu ca m Huffman, ta tnh s lng bit trung
bnh cn thit biu th mi phn t nh i vi m ho nh phn thng
thng, bng 6.2. Theo bng 6.2 s lng bit cn pht i l 8 x2 = 16 bit,
hay s bit trung bnh/phn t = 16/8 = 2 bit.
Bng 6.2 M ho vi di t m c nh
Phn t S ln xut
hin
Xc sut T m Chiu di t
m
a 4 0,5 00 2
b 2 0,25 01 2
c 1 0,125 10 2
d 1 0,125 11 2
Nh vy, trong v d n gin ny, m ho vi di t m ho thay
i tit kim c: (1 - 1,75/2) x 100% = 12,5% dung lng bit cn thit
biu th v truyn ti thng tin m khng h b tn hao.
Ni chung, m ho Huffman t hiu sut thp khi xc sut xut hin
cc phn t gn nhau. Ngc li, n t hiu sut cao khi xc sut xut hin
cc phn t chnh lch nhau ln. Trn thc t m Huffman c pht trin
trn mt tp nh, nhng sau c p dng ln cc nh khc, mi nh c
phn b xc sut symbol ring ca n. Do , m Huffman khng cn thit
cho ti u bt c nh c bit no. Mc d vy m Huffman l mt trong
nhng k thut nn quan trng m chng ta s gp mt s ng dng trong
JPEG v cc chun nn khc.
a) V d v phng php xy dng cy m Huffman
166
xy dng cy m Huffman, cn thng tin lin quan n tn s
xut hin ca tng phn t. Chng hn v d trn, chng ta xut pht t
cc thng tin v tn s xut hin sau: a xut hin 4 ln, b xut hin 2 ln, c
v d xut hin 1 ln.
Cc phn t c sp xp thnh mt ct theo trt t gim dn ca tn
s xut hin nh hnh 6.12. Mi phn t s c gn mt nt l. Tn s xut
hin ca k t ta gi l trng lng ca nt l tng ng. Hai nt l cui
danh sch ta gi l c(1) v d(1) hp thnh mt nt nhnh bng mt nhnh 0
v mt nhnh 1. Nt nhnh s c trng lng bng tng trng lng ca
hai nt l thnh phn (2). Mt ct mi c to ra gm nt nhnh mi v
cc nt l cn li trong ct th nht cng c sp xp theo trt t gim dn
ca trng lng. Th tc c lp li cho n khi ch cn mt nt chnh
l nt gc.
a ra t m ca mt phn t, chng ta xut pht t nt l tng
ng vi phn t v i ngc ln theo cc nhnh n c nt gc. Khi
i qua mt nhnh cn tch lu li gi tr ca nhnh (0 hoc 1). o ngc
trt t ca cc bit tch lu c chnh l t m cn tm. Chng hn vi phn
t a, t nt l n nt gc ch i qua mt nhnh 1, do t m ca n l 1.
i vi phn t c, t nt l n gc phi i qua ba nhnh: nhnh 1, nhnh 0
v nhnh 0, do t m ca n s l 001.
b) Gii m theo cy m Huffman
Bi v cc t m c di khc nhau, cho nn bn thu phi gii m lung bit
nhn c tng bit mt. Cc t m Huffman c mt tnh cht gi l tnh
"prefix", ngha l khng c mt t m ngn hn no trung vi phn u ca
mt t m di hn. Chng hn, v d trn, a c t m l 1 v cc t m ca
b, c, d khng c t m no bt u bng 1.
. .
.
.
. .
.
Nt gc
(8)
(2)
c (1)
b (2)
a (4)
1
1
1
d (1)
0
Hnh 6.12 Th tc xy dng cy m
Huffman
.
b (2)
0
0
a (4) a (4)
.
.
(4)
167
Nh vo tnh cht prefix, vic gii m bn thu tr nn n gin, l xut
pht t nt gc v ln lt i theo cc nhnh tng ng vi bit nhn c
cho n khi n c mt nt l (ngha l nhn c mt t m hp
l). Gi s, vi cy m trn m lung bit nhn c l: 1000001011001 th
n s c gii m nh trn hnh 6.13
6.6 - nn trong nh
1- Nguyn l nn trong nh
Nn trong nh l loi nn nhm gim bt thng tin d tha trong min
khng gian. Nn trong nh s dng c hai qu trnh c tn hao v khng tn
hao gim bt d liu trong mt nh. Qu trnh ny khng s dng thng
tin ca nh trc v sau nh ang xt.
Thut ng "nh" y cn hiu mt cch chnh xc, bi l trong k thut
nn nh cho php s dng hoc mnh (field) hoc nh (frame) nh mt nh
gc. Nu k thut nn dng mnh th nn trong nh s to ra hai nh trong
mi nh. V vy, khi bn v nn thut ng "nh" khng lun lun ng
ngha vi thut ng nh trong lnh vc truyn hnh. Hnh 6.14 l s
nguyn l qu trnh nn trong nh.
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1
a d c
b a c
Thi
gian
Hnh 6.13 V d gii m theo cy m
Huffman
Ngun
nh
Tin
x l
DCT
thut
Lng
t ho
M
ho
entrop
y
Mch
trn
Khuy
ch
i
m
Tn
hiu
nh
nn
Bng lng t
iu khin tc bit
Hnh 6.14 Nn trong nh (intra Frame
Compression)
168
Trong s nguyn l ta thy s dng phng php bin i DCT. Phng
php chuyn i ti u cho m chuyn v l phng php m t c bnh
phng ca li trong qu trnh xy dng li nh vi mt s bit cho l nh
nht. Ngi ta nghin cu v thy rng phng php chuyn i ti u l
chuyn i KL (Karhunen - Loeve), chuyn i ny thng qua mt ma trn
chuyn i lm gim trt t tng quan ca mt qu trnh x l ngu nhin
lin tip di dng ng cho. Nhng khi s dng phng php chuyn
i KL s gp vn l chuyn i KL khng c mt thut ton bin i
nhanh tng qut, hay ni cch khc l n khng thng dng cho tt c cc
ng dng ca vic nn nh s.
Do phng php chuyn i ti u khng thng dung, ngi ta
nghin cu v a ra phng php chuyn i gn ti u thay th. Nhng
phng php chuyn i nh vy c s dng cho vic nn nh s,
nhng phng php thng dng nht l bin i DCT (Discrete Cosine
Transfrom). Bin i DCT c a vo nm 1974 v t ti nay c
rt nhiu thut ton bin i nhanh cho vic tnh ton DCT v ta s xem xt
di y.
2- Tin x l
Trc khi thc hin bin i DCT, c nh c chia thnh cc khi
ln ring bit khng chng nhau (MB - Macro Block). Mi MB bao gm 4
block cc mu tn hiu chi (U
Y
) v 2; 4 hoc 8 block cc mu tn hiu hiu
s mu (C
R
, C
B
), hnh 6.15. S cc block ca tn hiu hiu mu ph thuc
vo tiu chun ca tn hiu video. Tt c cc block c cng kch thc v
mi block l mt ma trn im nh 8 x8 c ly t mt nh mn hnh theo
169
chiu t tri sang phi, t trn xung di. Kch thc block l 8 x 8 c
chn bi hai l do sau:
a) Th nht, l vic nghin cu ch ra rng hm hip phng sai
(Covariance) suy gim rt nhanh khi khong cch t pixel m hm hip
phng sai c nh ngha vt qu 8. Chnh v vy m phng php nn
s dng loi b cc thng tin d tha v khng gian khng cn quan tm ti
cc khi pixel c kch thc ln hn 8 x 8.
b) Th hai, l s tin li cho vic tnh ton v thit k mch cng.
Ni chung, c mc nn ln phc tp v tnh ton s tng nu kch thc
block tng.
V d v vic chia thnh cc block ca hnh nh i vi h PAL. Phn tch
cc ca tn hiu video vi phn gii 576 x 720 s c chia lm 72 x 90
block. V nh vy s c 36 x 45 MB nu tiu chun ly mu l 4: 2: 0 hoc
4: 1 : 1.
0
1
2
3
4 5
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
4
8
6
10
5
9
7
11
a) 4: 2 : 0 (4: 1 :
1)
b) 4: 2 : 2 c) 4: 4 : 4
Hnh 6.15 Cu to ca Macro Block
Hnh 6.16 Cu trc cc block tn hiu chi (qut
lin tc)
Hnh 6.17 Cu trc cc block tn hiu chi (qut
xen k)
170
Cu trc ca MB cng ph thuc vo loi qut nh. Nu qut lin tc
th cc block bao gm cc mu t cc dng lin tc (lc ny l nn theo nh
- frame), hnh 6.16. Ngc li, trong trng hp qut xen k, trong mt
block ch c cc mu ca mt na nh (nn theo mnh - fied), hnh 6.17.
Tm li vic chia hnh nh thnh cc nh con (block MB) s thc s
c ngha cho bc chuyn v tip theo.
3- Lng t ho khi DCT
Qu trnh lng t ho khi DCT ng vai tr quan trng trong thit
k h thng nn video v n nh hng trc tip n vic cho li cht lng
nh khi phc tt hay xu. Cc m bin i sao cho cht lng hnh nh do
mt ngi cm nhn tt, ph thuc vo cc thnh phn tn s v s bin i
chi tit nh tng vng trong min khng gian. Phng php lng t ho
thch nghi s dng cc trng s lng t thu c, c xc nh bng ba
yu t bao gm: Cc trng s tn s, cc tham s chuyn ng c th nhn
bit v cc tham s trng thi m (hnh 6.18)
171
Chc nng c bn ca b lng t ho l thc hin chia mi h s
DCT cho mt s ln hn 1 to ra cc s c gi tr 0 hoc gn bng 0 sao
cho c th c lm trn b qua trong qu trnh m ho tip theo. Cc h s
c nng lng thp, c trng cho s bin i t gia cc im nh c th
Hnh 6.18 Qu trnh nn nh bng phng php DCT
98 92 95 80 75 82
68 50
97 91 94 79 74 81
67 49
95 89 92 77 72 79
65 47
93 87 90 75 70 77
63 45
91 85 88 73 68 75
31 43
89 83 86 71 66 73
59 41
87 81 84 69 64 71
57 39
85 79 82 67 62 69
55 37
Khi 8 x 8 cc im
chi
591 106 -18 28 - 34 14
18 3
35 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
-1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
-1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
-1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
Cc h s bin i
DCT
40 10 - 2 2 -1 0
0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
Khi DCT c
lng t
25
0. 10
0. 3
2. 2
0. 2
7. -1
EOB
1110
11001
1011
1010

01
11
11111000
01
01
01
11111001
0
101
0
DCT Lng
t ho
Qut
zic - zc
RLC VLC B m
Bng
Huffman
Bng
trng s
M
DPCM
h s DC
H s
cn bng

Xc nh khi
iu khin m
Y
C
R
C
B
nh dng khi
v cu trc khi
Phn lp nng
lng khi
La chn tc
dng bit ra
Dng tn
hiu nn
172
loi b m khng gy nh hng n s cm th cht lng nh ti to li
mt ngi.
Lng t ho l qu trnh lm mt thng tin v to ra cc hiu ng
gi. Nhm t c mt h thng nn khng nh hng nhiu n cht
lng nh, rt nhiu cc yu t s cn c tnh n trong mt thit k, ph
thuc vo cc ng dng, tnh hiu qu, phc tp v gi thnh v.v....
Yu t u tin tnh n c tnh cm th ca mt ngi c tng
qut trong mt bng (chng hn nh bng cc khi DCT cho tn hiu Y v
C
R
, C
B
dng trong chun nn JPEG). Thnh phn C v cc thnh phn tn s
thp l cc thng s c ngha nht ca khi im nh ban u. H s DC
s c lng t vi chnh xc 12 bit nhm trnh cc nhiu xut hin
gia cc khi im nh. Trong khi cc h s tng ng vi thnh phn tn
s cao ch c lng t vi chnh xc 2 bit - do kh nng cm nhn ca
mt ngi gim tn s cao. Theo , cc h s chia trong bng lng t c
gi tr nh i vi h s DC v cc thnh phn tn s thp; gi tr cao hn
cho cc h s tng ng thnh phn tn s cao.
Trong hnh 6.18 h s bng lng t ho thun c xc nh theo
biu thc:
F
q
(u,v) =
F u v
Q u v
( , )
( , )

1
]
1
1
= gi tr nguyn gn nht
[ ]
F u v Q u v
Q u v
( , ) ( , ) /
( , )
+

1
]
1
1
2

(6.9)
Trong hnh 6.19 gi tr khi xc nh cho php cc gi tr tn hiu
chi v tn hiu mu c lng t khc nhau. Nhiu lng t i vi tn
hiu mu kh nhn thy hn i vi tn hiu chi, cho nn c th thc hin
lng t ho th tn hiu mu.
173
Bng lng t c a vo b lng t vi cc gi tr trng s ph
thuc vo v tr h s trong khi DCT.
Cc nh cng chi tit th h s thnh phn tn s cao cng ln, v c
th dn n trn b m nu cc h s trong bng lng t tng ng qu
thp. Mt thng tin hi tip v trng thi b m cho php iu khin mt h
s cn bng qua ti u trng thi ca b m. H s cn bng ny ch a
vo cc thnh phn AC m thi. H s cn bng l mt hng s trong mt
cu trc khi c bn cha ng hai khi mu v mt s thay i cc khi
ph thuc vo cu trc ly mu ca nh ban u.
Vi mt cu trc khi gm 4 khi im chi, cc chi tit nh c th
c tp trung nng lng cao vo mt trong 4 khi, s to ra lng t ho
th cng nh xut hin li lng t ln v cc hin tng nhiu khng mong
Hnh 6.19 Cc bng lng t cho tn hiu chi v tn
hiu mu theo chun JPEG
17 18 24 47 99 99
99 99
18 21 26 66 99 99
99 99
24 26 66 99 99 99
99 99
47 66 99 99 99 99
99 99
99 99 99 99 99 99
99 99
99 99 99 99 99 99
99 99
99 99 99 99 99 99
99 99
99 99 99 99 99 99
99 99
7
7
0
k
Bng trng s (theo chun JPEG
cho mu tn hiu chi )
i
16 11 10 16 24 40
51 61
12 12 14 19 26 58
60 55
14 13 16 24 40 57
69 56
14 17 22 29 51 87
80 62
18 22 37 56 68 109
103 77
24 35 55 64 81 104
113 92
49 64 78 87 103 121
120 101
72 92 95 98 112 100
103 99
7
7
0
k
Bng trng s (theo chun JPEG
cho mu tn hiu mu)
j
174
mun trong cc khi cn li. trnh hin tng ny, nng lng cha
trong khi c th c nh gi bng cch xem xt h s AC c ngha
trong tt c cc khi v chia thnh cc mc iu khin b lng t.
4- M ho entropy
Lng t ho biu din ri rc d liu c truyn. Gn t m l ly
nhng gi tr lng t ho v to ra mt lung bit truyn. Tht ra lng t
ho v gn t m c s tng quan gn gi v khng cn tch bit r rng.
Ni mt cch khc, lin kt ti u ca lng t ho v gn t m l
x l c phi tuyn cao. Mt b lng t ho tuyn tnh vi mt bc
nhy thch hp c chn ring cho mi phn t c m ho, tip theo l
mt b m ho entropy ph hp c th cho kt qu gn ti u.
Gi tr cc lng t ho c th ch biu din nh cc t m c di
c nh hay ng u, tc l cc gi tr lng t ho biu din bng cng
mt s bit. Tuy nhin hiu qu ca vic m ho khng cao. ci tin hiu
qu ngi ta dng m ho entropy. M ho entropy dng nhng c tnh
thng k ca tn hiu c m ho. Mt tn hiu, y l gi tr pixel hoc
cc h s chuyn v, c cha mt lng thng tin (entropy) tu theo nhng
xc sut ca nhng gi tr hay s kin khc nhau xut hin. V d nhng t
m no t xy ra hn s c nhiu thng tin hn t m hay xy ra.
Khi dng m ho entropy c hai vn t ra: Th nht, m ho
entropy lm tng phc tp v yu cu b nh hn so vi m di c
nh. Th hai, m ho entropy gn lin vi tnh khng n nh ca tn hiu
video s lm tc bit thay i theo thi gian. Do , cn mt c cu iu
khin b m khi m ho ngun tc bit bin i c ghp vi knh tc
bit hng.
B m ho entropy c thc hin cho d tha thng k c hu
trong cc phn t c m ho truyn. S d tha chnh l phn b xc
sut khng ng u trn gi tr ca mi phn t. Phn b xc sut cng lch
lc khi phn phn b u th hiu sut cng tng nh m ho entropy. M
Huffman l mt trong nhng s c s dng ph bin. Ngoi ra trong
m ho entropy cn s dng m RLC (Run Length Code) s cho hiu sut
nn rt cao.
175
m ho entropy cc h s c lng t ho C'(u, v), trc ht
cn bin i mng hai chiu ca cc h s C'(u, v) thnh chui s mt chiu
bng cch qut zig - zag.
Lc u, chui s l cc h s khc 0, sau s l mt chui cc s 0
lin tip. Vic x l 64 h s ca khi 8 x 8 pixel bng cch qut zig -zag
(hnh 6.20) lm tng ti a chui cc gi tr 0 v do vy lm tng hiu qu
nn khi dng RLC.
K thut RLC c dng cho cc h s lng t ho tt hn l dng
trc tip cho s liu nh. Trong qu trnh qut zig - zag trn, RLC s c
thc thi. C th y, RLC thc cht l vic thay th cc h s c gi tr 0
bng s lng cc ch s 0 xut hin.
Hnh 6.20 Qut zig -zag cc h s lng t
ho DCT
176
Ta ly mt v d v RLC, hnh 6.21. Trong v d ny, chui mt
chiu cc h s DCT sau khi qut zig - zag vi cc gi tr ging nhau s
c gom li vi nhau bng RLC. Lc ny, chui mt chiu c cc on
chui di c dng gi tr l cacsymbol c dng: < chiu di chui 0, gi tr>.
y gi tr 10 khng c gi tr 0 no trc c biu din bng
<0, 10>: Gi tr - 2 c hai gi tr 0 ng trc c biu din bng <2, -2>
v.v.... Ring mt du c bit l End of Block (EOB) c dng nh du
v tr bt u ca chui cc s 0 lin tip.
Trong v d ny, ta c mt chui 49 t m vi ga tr 0. Nh vy ch
xt ring + 49 t m gi tr 0 c nn xung ch cn 3 t m. iu ny
chng t hiu sut nn rt cao ca t m RLC. Tt nhin y l qu trnh
nn khng tn hao.
Cc t m vi di thay i RLC c tn sut xut hin cao sau
c m hobng cc m ngn, v cc t m RLC c tn xut xut hin thp
tng ng c m ho bng cc t m di. Qu trnh ny c gi l qu
trnh m ho vi di t m thay i (VLC).
Bng 6-5 minh ho cc phn nhm cc h s AC, v bng 6-6 l mt
v d v bng m Huffman tng ng cho cc nhm ny. T m ngn bo
hiu kt thc khi (EOB) cho bit tt c cc h s cn li trong khi mang
gi tr 0.
177
Ti liu tham kho
TING VIT
1. Nguyn Kim Sch(2001), Truyn hnh s v multimedia, NXB Khoa hc k
thut
2. Ng ThI Tr (2005), DVB-T v ng dng trong truyn hnh s mt t,
NXB Bu in.
3. V c L, Hong Tin , Nguyn l truyn hnh, NXB Khoa hc k
thut.
TING ANH
4. ATSC (1999), Modulation and Coding Requirements for Digital TV (DTV)
Application Over satellite, ATSC document A/80.
5. DVB (1997), Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for 12/12
GHz satelleta services, DVB - EN 300 421
6. DVB (1999), Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for
Digital Satellite News Gathering (DSNG) and other contribution
applications by satellite, DVB, EN 301 210.
7. Maral G.,Bousquet M. (1993), Satellite Communications System, John
Wiley & Sons Ltd, England
8. Michael Robin, Michel Poulin (1998), Digital Television Fundamentals, Mc
Graw Hill
10. ITU-T Reports S series
11. ITU-T Reports P series
12. Stephen G. Wilson (1996), Digital Modulation and coding, Department
178
of Electrical engineering university of Virginia.
13. Websites of ITU, DVB, Satellite Companies.
179