MATERIAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING METALLURGY Model question with key PART- A (15 X 2 marks = 30 marks) Answer ALL Questions

. Each question carries 2 marks 1. Define (a) Crystalline solid and (b) Amorphous solid. 2. Give an example of an amorphous material that is not derived by melting. 3. Draw the [1 1 2] direction vector in cubic unit cell. 4. Define the term: Stress relaxation. 5. State Griffith’s theory. 6. Distinguish between elastic and plastic deformation. 7. What is an isothermal transformation in the solid state? 8. Define hardenability of a steel. 9. Name the three basic heat – treatment steps to strengthen a precipitation – hardenable alloy. 10. What is necking? 11. Define ‘True Stress’ and ‘True Strain’. 12. What do you mean by ‘Flexural Strength’? 13. Define the term: spherodizing. 14. What is the normalizing heat treatment for steels? 15. What are the advantages of martempering? PART – B (5 X 14 marks = 70 marks)
(Answer ALL questions. Each question carries 14 marks)

16. a) Calculate the atomic packing factor for the FCC structure. determined? What generalized notation is used to indicate them? [OR]

(6) (8)

b) How are miller indices for a crystallographic plane in a cubic unit cell

[OR] b) What are some of the limitations of plain – carbon steels for engineering designs? BaTiO3 and ferrites can be controlled using solid solution formation. (5) (9) c) Explain how the dielectric and magnetic properties of materials such as . [OR] c) Describe four major factors that affect the fatigue strength of metal. high temperature and indicate on it all three stages of creep. occur. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 100% martensite 50% martensite and 50% coarse pearlite. 50% martensite and 50% upper bianite.c) Describe and illustrate the following imperfections that can exist in crystal lattice: (i) Frenkel imperfection and (ii) Schottky imperfection 17. 18. Start with the steels in the austenitic condition at time = 0 and 850 °C. 100% fine pearlite. (8) (6) d) Draw a typical creep curve for a metal under constant load and at a relatively (7) (7) b) Describe two principal mechanisms whereby primary recrystallization can a) Draw time-temperature cooling paths for 1080 steel on an isothermal transformation diagram that will produce the following microstructures. 100% upper bianite and 100% lower bianite. a) Discuss the difference between the slip and twinning mechanism of plastic deformation of metals.

discuss the following: (i) R. Crystalline Solid: If the atoms (or) ions of a solid that has are arranged in a pattern that repeats itself in three dimension they form a solid that has long range order and is referred to as a Crystalline Solid Amorphous Solid: Materials with only shot-range ordered in their atomic structure are classified as amorphous Solid 2. What type of microstructure is produced after martempering this steel? (7) (7) (7) (7) (8) (6) 1. a) Compare the engineering stress and strain with the true stress and strain for the tensile test of a low-carbon steel that has the following test values: Load applied to specimen = 75 kN. .19. Draw a cooling curve for a martempered austenitized eutectoid plain –carbon steel by using an IT diagram. Moore reversed – bending fatigue machine (ii) Cyclic stresses 20.R. b) Discuss the major factors that affect the fatigue strength of a metal. a) Describe the tempering process for plain carbon steel. 3.5 mm Diameter of the specimen under 75 kN = 12 mm. [OR] b) With the help of suitable sketches. Initial specimen diameter = 12. b) What are the advantages and limitations of Austempering process? [OR] c) Describe the martempering process for a plain – carbon steel.

3. From the reciprocals of these intercepts. Clear fraction and determine the smallest set of whole number that are in the same ratio as the intercepts. Stress relaxation: Decrease in the stress for a material held under constant strain as a function of time . 7. 8. Packing Factor = for FCC Packing Factor = b. 13. 16 1. then removed. y. Is a heat treatment which the steel is heated in the austentic region and the cooled in still air Modified quenching process used for steel to minimize distortion and cracking that may develop during uneven cooling of the heat treated material. Choose a plane that does not pass through the origin at (0. Plastic deformation: Permanent deformation of a material when a load is applied. and z axes for a unit cube.0). 12. 14. The stress required to fracture a specimen in a bend test. 2. . 11. 15. 5.4. When the amount of a transformation of a particular temperature depends on the time permitted for the transformation Ease with which steel can form martensite Local deformation causing reduction in the cross-sectional area of a tensile specimen True Strain: The strain calculate using actual and not original dimension True Stress: The load divided by the actual cross sectional area of the specimen at the load. 4. 6.0. Determine the intercepts of the plane in terms of the crystallographic x. observed in visco elastic material Elastic deformation of the material that is recovered instantaneously when the applied load is removed. 1. 9. 10.

i)If a positive cation moves into a interstitial site in an ionic crystal. SLIP TWINNING In this process atoms moves over In this process a part of the each other atomic lattice is deformed so that it forms a mirror image of the undeformed lattice next to it The crystallographic plane of symmetry between the undeformed and deformed part of the metal lattice is called twinning plane. 3. 4. Occurs in a specific direction called slip direction Atoms move equal distance on one side of the slip Leaves serious of steps b. Stress concentration Surface roughness Surface condition Environment. 1. . d. a cation –anion divacancy is created that is known as schottky imperfection. a. a cation vacancy is created in the normal vacancy ion site. c. This vacancy is called frenkel imperfection. Occurs in a specific direction called twinning direction Atoms move distance proportional to their distance from twinning plane Leaves small but well defined region of crystal deformed The microstructure of the martempered steel is martensite. ii)When two oppositely charged ions are missing from an ionic crystk . 2.17 c.

Decreased distortion of the quenched material Disadvantage: 21.The need for a special molten salt bath 22.19 a. The steel is then subsequently reheated at a temperature below the eutectoid temperature to soften the martensite by transforming it to a structure of iron carbide particle in a matrix of ferrite. b) Advantage: 1. c. Holding the steel in the quenching medium until the temperature is uniform throughout and stopping this isothermal treatment before the austenite-to-bainite transformation begins Cooling at a rate to room temperature to prevent large temperature difference. 20 (x) . Area at start A0 = Area under load Ai Assuming no volume change during extension A0l0= AIlI (or) li/l0=A0/Ai Engineering stress = Engineering stress = True stress = True strain = ln b. c) (vii) (viii) (ix) Austenitizing the steel Quenching it in hot oil or molten salt at a temperature just slightly above the Ms temperature. page 283 and 285 fig GREEN BOOK a) The steel is first austenitized and the quenched at a rapid rate to produce martensite and to avoid the transformation of austentite to ferrite and cementite.The fact that the process can be used for only a limited number of steel. Improved ductility and impact resistance of certain steel over those values obtained by conventional quenching and tempering 2.

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