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Service Training

Meeting Guide 672 SESV1672-01 April 1997

TECHNICAL PRESENTATION

3408E/3412E HEUI FUEL SYSTEM


TO LUBE SYSTEM HEUI HYDRAULIC TEMPERATURE SENSOR OIL PRESSURE SENSOR COOL DOWN CIRCUIT
FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE

COLD START OIL RESERVOIR

OIL FILTER

HYDRAULIC SUPPLY PUMP GROUP

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR

FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE

OIL COOLER

PUMP CONTROL VALVE FUEL TRANSFER PUMP PRIMARY FUEL FILTER WATER SEPARATOR OIL SUMP

ECM

HEUI

LUBE OIL PUMP

SECONDARY FUEL FILTER

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE

FUEL TANK

3408E/3412E ENGINE CONTROLS


HYDRAULIC ELECTRONIC UNIT INJECTION (HEUI)

3408E/3412E ENGINE CONTROLS


HYDRAULIC ELECTRONIC UNIT INJECTION (HEUI) MEETING GUIDE 672 SLIDES AND SCRIPT
AUDIENCE
Level II - Service personnel who understand the principles of engine systems operation, diagnostic equipment, and procedures for testing and adjusting.

CONTENT
This presentation is designed to prepare a service technician to identify the components, explain their function, and service the 3408E/3412E Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injection (HEUI) engines in all current machine and industrial applications.

OBJECTIVES
After learning the information in this presentation, the serviceman will be able to: 1. locate and identify the major components in the 3400 HEUI system; 2. explain the functions of the major components in the 3400 HEUI system; 3. trace the flow of oil through the engine hydraulic system; 4. trace the flow of fuel through the fuel system; and 5. trace the flow of current through the engine electrical system.

PREREQUISITES
Interactive Video Course "Fundamentals of Mobile Hydraulics" Interactive Video Course "Fundamentals of Electrical Systems" Programmed Instruction Course "Basic Electricity" STMG 546 "Graphic Fluid Power Symbols" TEVR9001 TEVR9002 SEBV0534 SESV1546

Prior training in systems operation and testing and adjusting procedures for the 3408C/3412C engines should be completed before participating in this training session. Additionally, the participants should have PC skills and have completed introductory training in Windows software.

Estimated Time: 8 Hours Visuals: 138 (2 X 2) Slides Serviceman Handouts: 8 Drawings/Data Sheet Form: SESV1672-01 Date: 4/97
1997 Caterpillar Inc.

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SUPPLEMENTARY TRAINING MATERIAL


Video Tape "3408E/3412E HEUI Service Introduction" Brochure "Caterpillar 3408E and 3412E Engines" ESTMG "Introduction to Electronic Technician" Brochure "Caterpillar Electronic Technician" Wall Chart "HEUI Fuel System" (small) Wall Chart "HEUI Fuel System" (large) Wall Chart "HEUI Engine" Training Book "Easy Windows, 3.1 Edition" by Shelly O'Hara Available from: Prentice Hall Computer Publishing 0-88022-985-3 Attn: Order Dept. 201 W. 103rd St. Indianapolis, IN 46290 Reference Book "Field Guide to Microsoft Windows 95" by Stephen L. Nelson Available from: Microsoft Press International at Fax No. (206) 936-7329 Also available from bookstores Training Book "Windows 95 for Dummies" Published by IDG Books IDG Books World Wide Website: http://www.idgbooks.com Available from bookstores SEVN3550 LEDH6055 LEPV5155 NEHP5614 LEWH6116 LEWH6266 LEWH6740

RECOMMENDED HEUI TOOLING


Caterpillar Electronic Technician Single Use License Caterpillar Electronic Technician Annual Data Subscription (All Engines and Machines) Communication Adaptor PC to Communication Adaptor Cable Communication Adaptor to Machine Cable (combined ATA and CDL Data Link cable; replaces 7X1570 and 7X1412) Digital Multimeter (Fluke 87) Cable Probes Hydraulic Unit Injector Puller Hydraulic Unit Injector Sleeve Removal Wrench JERD2124 JERD2129 7X1700 7X1425 139-4166 9U7330 7X1710 131-3921 111-5051

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REFERENCES
Troubleshooting Manual "3408E Engine--631E - 637E Wheel Tractor-Scrapers" Troubleshooting Manual "3412E Engine--24H Motor Grader" Troubleshooting Manual "3408E Engine--834B/836 Wheel Tractors" Troubleshooting Manual "3408E/3412E Engines--D9R/D10R Track-type Tractors" Troubleshooting Manual "3408E/3412E Engines--988F/990 Wheel Loaders" Troubleshooting Manual "3408E/3412E Engines--769D - 775D Off-highway Trucks" Troubleshooting Manual "3408E/3412E Engines--Industrial Applications" Troubleshooting Manual "3408E/3412E Engines--651E - 657E Wheel Tractor-Scrapers" Disassembly and Assembly Manual "3408E/3412E Captive Engines" Disassembly and Assembly Manual "3408E/3412E Industrial and Marine Engines" Testing and Adjusting Manual "3408E/3412E Engines--Captive Engines" Testing and Adjusting Manual "3408E/3412E Engines--Industrial Engines" Electrical Schematic "3408E/3412E Captive Engines" Electrical Schematic "3408E/3412E Industrial Engines" Special Instruction "Using the ECAP" Special Instruction "Installing the 7X1180 ECAP Expansion Board" Tool Operating Manual "Using the Communication Adapter" Tool Operating Manual "Using the Machine Functions Service Program Module" Parts Manual "3408E Industrial Engine" SENR1037 SENR1038 SENR1052 SENR1054 SENR1060 SENR1062 SENR1065 SENR1076 SENR1013 SENR1063 SENR1018 SENR1033 SENR1026 SENR1064 SEHS8742 SEHS8833 SEHS9264 SEHS9343 SEBP2509

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................7 Overview ..........................................................................................................................8 Major Components ...........................................................................................................9 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM ................................................................................26 Fuel Injection .................................................................................................................29 Fuel Injection Control System .......................................................................................31 FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM .............................................................................................49 System Components .......................................................................................................51 System Operation ...........................................................................................................53 Hydraulic Unit Injector Operation .................................................................................56 Injector Operation Characteristics ..................................................................................61 Injector Components ......................................................................................................64 Injector Removal and Installation ..................................................................................68 Injection Sequence .........................................................................................................71 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM......................................................................................................82 Hydraulic Supply Pump Group ......................................................................................83 System Operation ...........................................................................................................93 SYSTEM POWER SUPPLIES ..........................................................................................105 ECM Power Supply .....................................................................................................106 Speed/Timing Sensor Power Supply ............................................................................108 Injector Power Supplies ..............................................................................................109 Analog Sensor Power Supply ......................................................................................110 Digital Sensor Power Supply .......................................................................................111 Pump Control Valve Power Supply .............................................................................112 ELECTRONIC SENSORS AND SYSTEMS ....................................................................114 Speed/Timing Sensors ..................................................................................................115 Analog Sensors and Circuits ........................................................................................117 Digital Sensors and Circuits .........................................................................................131 Engine Shutdown Systems ...........................................................................................135 Demand Fan Controls ..................................................................................................137 Ether Injection System .................................................................................................138 CAT Data Link .............................................................................................................139 Logged Events ..............................................................................................................141 MACHINE APPLICATIONS ............................................................................................144 D9R/D10R Track-type Tractors ...................................................................................145 988F/990 Series II Wheel Loaders ..............................................................................149 769C/771C/773B/775B Off-highway Trucks ..............................................................152 3408E/3412E HEUI Industrial Engines .......................................................................155 SLIDE LIST .......................................................................................................................158 SERVICEMAN'S HANDOUTS ........................................................................................160

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INSTRUCTOR NOTES

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3408E/3412E ENGINE CONTROLS


HYDRAULIC ELECTRONIC UNIT INJECTION (HEUI)

1997 Caterpillar Inc.

1 INTRODUCTION
Major topics

This presentation discusses the 3408E/3412E Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injection (HEUI) Engine Controls in all applications. The topics are sequenced as follows: - Introduction and Major Components - Electronic Control System - Fuel Injection System - Hydraulic System - System Power Supplies - Electronic Sensors and Systems - Machine Applications INSTRUCTOR NOTE: This presentation refers to and describes Electronic Technician (ET) as the programming tool for the 3408E/3412E engines. As new and more sophisticated electronic engine controls are now in use, the Electronic Control Analyzer Programmer (ECAP) is no longer adequate for all tasks (such as flash programming). The ET software, installed on a PC, is now the principle tool used in programming.

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2 Overview The 3408E/3412E engines equipped with the HEUI fuel system are available in construction equipment and industrial applications. Industrial engines are available in both 3408C/3412C (pump and line fuel system) and 3408E/3412E HEUI versions. Caterpillar machines powered by the 3408E/3412E engines which feature HEUI include:
HEUI applications

- 769D/771D/773D Off-highway Trucks - 988F/990 Series II Wheel Loaders - D9R/D10R Track-type Tractors - 631E/637E/651E/657E Wheel Tractor-Scrapers - 24H Motor Grader

System features

The HEUI engines have many features and benefits not possible with mechanical fuel systems. These features include a very clean exhaust, improved fuel consumption and cold starting, simplified maintenance with fewer moving parts, and reduced operating costs. The system has additional advantages which will be covered later in this presentation.

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3408E/3412E HEUI FUEL SYSTEM


TO LUBE SYSTEM HEUI HYDRAULIC TEMPERATURE SENSOR OIL PRESSURE SENSOR COOL DOWN CIRCUIT
FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE

COLD START OIL RESERVOIR

OIL FILTER

HYDRAULIC SUPPLY PUMP GROUP

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR

FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE

OIL COOLER

PUMP CONTROL VALVE FUEL TRANSFER PUMP PRIMARY FUEL FILTER WATER SEPARATOR OIL SUMP

ECM

HEUI

LUBE OIL PUMP

SECONDARY FUEL FILTER

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE

FUEL TANK

3 Major Components This schematic shows the various components in the HEUI fuel system. A detailed explanation of the system and the various components follows later in this presentation.
Electronically similar to EUI system

The electronic components in the HEUI fuel system are very similar to those used in other EUI systems. However, in the HEUI system, the injectors are not actuated by a camshaft. A high pressure hydraulic pump, which draws oil from the pressure side of the lubrication pump, raises the pressure to a maximum of 22800 kPa (3300 psi). The pressure is controlled by the Electronic Control Module (ECM). The hydraulic flow is directed to hydraulic actuators in each injector. The injectors are electronically signalled (as in the EUI system) to permit oil under high pressure to move a piston which then moves the fuel plunger.

Hydraulic pump raises pressure Hydraulic pressure controlled by ECM

Injectors electronically signalled

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4
Seven major component types: 1. Hydraulic supply pump group 2. ECM 3. Throttle control 4. Speed/timing sensor 5. Injector 6. Temperature sensor 7. Pressure sensor

This slide shows seven of the major types of components in the HEUI fuel system. Hydraulic Supply Pump Group (1) containing: - High pressure hydraulic pump - Pump control valve - Transfer pump ECM (2) Throttle Control (3) Speed/Timing Sensor (4) Injector (5) Temperature Sensor (6)

CAT Data Link and coolant flow switch (not shown)

Pressure Sensor (7) The CAT Data Link (not shown) provides a two-way communication path between the HEUI system and the remaining electronic circuits or systems on the machine. The CAT Data Link also allows the service tool to communicate with the engine electronic system. NOTE: Only one example of each sensor (pressure, temperature and speed/timing) is shown on the slide.

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22 2 2

5
3400 HEUI engine top view

The principal component in the HEUI system, the Electronic Control Module (1), is mounted on top of the right front valve cover. The ECM is the "heart" of the engine. The ECM performs engine governing, timing and fuel limiting. It also reads sensors and communicates to the instrument display system through the CAT Data Link. The Personality Module is used to program the ECM with all the rating information for a particular application. The Personality Module can be changed by direct replacement or can be flash programmed (reprogrammed) using a PC. The Personality Module Access Panel is located below the ECM. The Hydraulic Supply Pump Group (2) is mounted in the vee of the engine in the same position as the original fuel pump and governor for the 3408C/3412C engines. Flow from this pump supplies the actuating pressure for the injectors. Mounted on the rear of the pump is the fuel transfer pump. Among the visible components are the Wiring Harness and 40 Pin Connectors to the ECM. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The slides which follow show machine and industrial engines. The physical appearance and function of the HEUI machine and industrial engine components are very similar.

1. ECM--the "heart" of the system

Personality module access panel located below ECM

2. Hydraulic supply pump group

Wiring harness

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3 1 2 4

5 6

6
Engine upper left side view 1. Fuel temperature sensor 2. Atmospheric pressure sensor 3. Lubrication oil pressure sensor 4. Hydraulic temperature sensor 5. Machine interface connector 6. Ground bolt

This view from the upper left side of the engine shows the Fuel Temperature Sensor (1). The Atmospheric Pressure Sensor (2) is mounted on the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group mounting adapter. Mounted on the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group is the Lubrication Oil Pressure Sensor (3). The sensor is used by the ECM to generate a low oil pressure warning for the operator. Also mounted on the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group is the Hydraulic Temperature Sensor (4). This sensor is used by the ECM for viscosity compensation to maintain consistent fuel delivery and injector timing regardless of viscosity changes caused by varying hydraulic temperatures. Both sensors are threaded into the supply pump case. The 40 Pin Machine Interface Connector (5) is mounted behind the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group. This component makes the connection between the engine and machine wiring harnesses. A vital part of the wiring assembly is the Ground Bolt (6) mounted on the machine interface connector bracket. NOTE: Oil flow from the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group will be referred to as "hydraulic" to avoid confusion with the lubrication system.

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7
1. Timing calibration connector 2. Hydraulic pressure sensor 3. Injector connector

The Timing Calibration Connector (1) is located adjacent to the ECM. The Hydraulic (Injection Actuation) Pressure Sensor (2) is located between the valve cover bases in the right Fluid Supply Manifold. The Injector Connector (3) is one of four connectors on a 3408E. (Each connector supplies current to two injector solenoids.)

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8
Coolant temperature sensor (arrow)

The engine Coolant Temperature Sensor (arrow) is located in the front of the right cylinder head. This sensor is used with the ECM to control various functions. The following systems or circuits use the Temperature Sensor output to the ECM: The Vital Information Management System (VIMS) or Caterpillar Monitoring System Coolant Temperature Gauge over the CAT Data Link. The High Coolant Temperature Warning Alert Indicator LED and Gauge on the VIMS or Caterpillar Monitoring System panel. (The information is transmitted over the CAT Data Link.) The Engine Demand Fan Control, if installed, uses the sensor signal reference to provide the appropriate fan speed. The Cat Electronic Technician (ET) status screen coolant temperature indication.

Coolant flow switch (not visible)

The Coolant Flow Switch (not visible in this view) is mounted below the coolant temperature sensor at the inlet to the oil cooler.

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9
Secondary speed/timing sensor (arrow)

This view shows one of the Speed/Timing Sensors (arrow). A sensor is mounted on each side of the timing gear housing. This slide shows the secondary Speed/Timing Sensor. The primary Speed/Timing Sensor is located closest to the ECM. These sensors are used to calculate engine speed and crankshaft position for timing purposes. The sensors are self-adjusting, but special precautions are necessary during installation to prevent damage. (The precautions are described later in the presentation.) NOTE: The sensors maintain a zero clearance with the timing wheel.

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10
Timing wheel 50/50 size slot and tooth (arrow)

This view shows the Timing Wheel removed from the engine. Notice the wide 50/50 size slot and equal size tooth (arrow) cut in the wheel. The other 23 slots are 80/20 relative size. The 50/50 size tooth/slot is used by the ECM as a reference point for determining the position of the engine for fuel timing (fully explained later in the presentation). The Speed/Timing Sensor can identify this tooth because it creates a different signal than the other teeth. A timing mark, "H," on the reverse side of the timing wheel is used to time the wheel relative to the other timing gears and crankshaft TDC.

Timing mark

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11
Turbo inlet pressure sensor (arrow)

The Turbo Inlet Pressure Sensor (arrow) is mounted between the air filter and the turbocharger. Not all machines have this sensor installed. This sensor (if installed) is used in conjunction with the atmospheric pressure sensor to measure air filter restriction for engine protection purposes. The difference between the two pressure measurements is used as the filter differential pressure. The engine ECM uses this calculation to determine whether derating is necessary to protect the engine.

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12
Turbo outlet pressure sensor (arrow)

At the front of the engine in the right cylinder head is the Turbo Outlet (Boost) Pressure Sensor (arrow). This sensor is used with the ECM to control the air/fuel ratio electronically. This feature allows very precise smoke control, which was not possible with mechanically governed engines. The sensor also allows boost pressure to be read using the service tools.

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2 3 4

13
Identify components: 1. Atmospheric pressure sensor 2. Fuel temperature sensor 3. Primary speed/timing sensor 4. Secondary speed/timing sensor

The Atmospheric Pressure Sensor (1) is installed on the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group adapter and is vented to the atmosphere. This sensor has various functions which are fully described later in the presentation. A foam block below the sensor helps prevent the entry of dirt into the sensor. Briefly, the sensor performs the following functions: - Ambient pressure measurement for automatic altitude compensation and automatic air filter compensation. - Absolute pressure measurement for the fuel ratio control, ET, Caterpillar Monitoring System panel (gauge) pressure calculations. The Fuel Temperature Sensor (2) is used for automatic fuel temperature compensation. The Primary (3) and Secondary (4) Speed/Timing Sensors (discussed earlier) are located on the rear of the timing gear housing.

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1 2

3 4

14
1. Oil supply line

A number of components are mounted on the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group. The Oil Supply Line (1) from the oil gallery is a large diameter line for maximum delivery during cold operation. The hydraulic pump depends on the lubrication pump for the first stage of pressure increase. The Compensation Valve (2) is mounted at the rear of the pump. Below the compensation valve is the Pump Control Valve (3). This valve may also be referred to as the "injection actuation pressure control valve." This valve controls the angle of the swashplate, which varies the output of the pump. The Fuel Transfer Pump (4) is mounted at the rear of the Hydraulic Supply Pump and is driven by the main drive shaft which extends through the supply pump. Also visible in this slide are the transfer pump inlet and outlet fuel lines and the pressure and temperature sensors (discussed earlier).

2. Compensation valve 3. Pump control valve

4. Fuel transfer pump

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15
Lubrication oil pump

Mounted internally in the oil pan is the Lubrication Oil Pump. This pump supplies oil at approximately 400 kPa (65 psi) to the oil gallery for engine lubrication. Oil is also supplied to the hydraulic pump for injection actuation purposes. For this reason, the HEUI engine lubrication oil pump is larger than the pump in the previous engine to accommodate the increased needs of the lubrication and the hydraulic injection actuation systems.

Supplies oil to lubrication and hydraulic injection actuation systems

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16
Timing calibration sensor (arrow)

The Timing Calibration Sensor (arrow) is installed when required in the flywheel housing. This sensor (magnetic pickup) is installed in the hole normally reserved for the timing pin. (The pin is used to position the crankshaft with the No. 1 piston at top dead center.) NOTE: On some applications (i.e. some track-type tractors) where accessibility is limited, this sensor is permanently installed.

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2 1

17
1. Water separator and primary filter

The Water Separator (1), which also functions as a Primary Fuel Filter, is an important part of the fuel system. As with any high pressure fuel system with operating pressures at approximately 150000 kPa (22000 psi), fuel quality is important. Water in the fuel can cause corrosion of the plungers and barrels. Dirt can cause early hour wear on the same components. The water separator contains a 30 micron filter. The Priming Pump is mounted on the filter base.

2. Two micron secondary filter

For the same reason, the correct two micron Secondary Filter (2) must be used in the system. The clearance between the plunger and barrel is approximately 5 microns. Typically, the 3 to 8 micron abrasive material prematurely wears out the fuel system components. The Water Separator is serviced daily by draining the water. The Water Separator filter is serviced with a new element every 500 hours. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The high fuel pressures mentioned in this text are mandated by the need to meet environmental regulations for smoke and emissions. Also, to maintain good fuel consumption, high pressures are required. The HEUI system meets and surpasses those requirements.

Water separator service intervals

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

3408E/3412E HEUI SYSTEM


COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH 24 V KEY SWITCH

MACHINE HARNESS PUMP CONTROL VALVE HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR THROTTLE SENSOR

15 AMP BREAKER

MAIN POWER RELAY

ACCELERATOR PEDAL THROTTLE BACK-UP, ELEVATED LOW IDLE ENABLE, AND GROUND LEVEL SHUTDOWN (2) SWITCHES TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR FAN CONTROL VALVE

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR FAN SPEED SENSOR ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR CAT DATA LINK OIL PRESSURE SENSOR ELECTRONIC SERVICE TOOL EPTC II TRANSMISSION CONTROL HYDRAULIC TEMP. SENSOR AUTO RETARDER CONTROL FAN

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR COOLANT FLOW SWITCH INSTRUMENT PANEL

18
Engine component identification

This schematic identifies the external HEUI engine components (shown on the engine harness side of this schematic). The components shown on the left side of the diagram are mounted on the engine and those on the right are machine mounted. Notice that the turbo inlet pressure sensor is mounted on the machine. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: At this time, it is recommended that each component be located on the machine and the function of each reviewed with the students. A list of the components follows on the next page. Some additional (used/defective) components available for examination on a table will be helpful. An ECM with the Personality Module and various sensors can be examined at this time and used for troubleshooting exercises later.

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Electrical Components ECM 40 Pin Connectors Personality Module Timing Calibration Connector and Installation Location Hydraulic Pressure Sensor Hydraulic Temperature Sensor Primary Speed Timing Sensor Secondary Speed Timing Sensor Coolant Temperature Sensor Atmospheric Pressure Sensor Turbocharger Inlet Pressure Sensor Turbocharger Outlet Pressure Sensor Oil Pressure Sensor Fuel Temperature Sensor Coolant Flow Switch Machine Interface Connector Engine and Machine Ground bolts Data Link Connector Throttle Position Sensor Shutdown Switches Mechanical Components Hydraulic Supply Pump Group Pump Control Valve Compensation Valve Cold Start Reservoir Check Valves Fluid Manifold Water Separator/Primary Filter Secondary Filter Transfer Pump Pressure Regulator Valve Injector Jumper Tube Injector Oil Adaptor

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ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM

19 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM This section of the presentation explains the Electronic Control System including the following components: ECM Personality Module Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector Solenoids Timing Wheel Also covered are the following subsystems and related procedures: Timing control Fuel quantity control Speed control Cold modes Timing calibration

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20
ECM: - Governor - Fuel system computer - Injection pressure controller - Injection timing controller Same ECM used in all applications

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) functions as the governor and fuel system computer. The ECM receives all the signals from the sensors and energizes the injector solenoids to control timing and engine speed. The ECM is sealed except for access to the software which is contained in the Personality Module (next slide). This ECM is the second generation of Advanced Diesel Engine Management Systems and may be frequently referred to as "ADEM II." This ECM is used in all applications of the 3408E and 3412E engines. The ECM can also be moved from one application to another; however, a password is required to activate the ECM when new software is installed. NOTE: The ECM has an excellent record of reliability. Therefore, any problems in the system are most likely to be in the connectors and wiring harness. In other words, the ECM should typically be the last item in troubleshooting.

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21
Personality module contains software

The Personality Module (shown removed from the ECM) contains the software with all the fuel setting information (such as horsepower, torque rise and air/fuel ratio rates) which determines how the engine will perform. The Personality Module is installed on the lower face of the ECM, behind the access panel. At this time, two methods can be used to update the software:

Two methods to upgrade software

1. Flash Programming: Electronic reprogramming of the Personality Module software. (This method is preferred when updating the software.) 2. Remove and replace the Personality Module. (This method may be used if Flash Programming is not possible.) Upgrading the software is not a routine task, but might be performed for reasons of a product update, a performance improvement or a product problem repair.

ECM is sealed except for personality module

NOTE: The ECM is sealed and needs no routine adjustment or maintenance. The Personality Module is mounted within the ECM. Installation of the Personality Module is the only reason to enter the ECM. This operation would normally be performed during an ECM installation or a software update.

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22 Fuel Injection
Unit injectors Electrically signalled, hydraulically actuated

The 3400 HEUI unit injector is electrically similar to the 3500 electronic unit injector. The injector is controlled electrically by the ECM but is actuated hydraulically. The signal from the ECM controls the opening and closing of the solenoid valve. The solenoid valve controls the flow of high pressure hydraulic oil to the injector. This system enables the ECM to control fuel volume, timing and injection actuation pressure (hydraulic supply pump pressure).

The injector solenoids operate on 105 Volts direct current. Always remain clear of the injector area when the engine is running or electric shock may occur.

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HEUI INJECTOR TESTING METHODS

INJECTOR SOLENOID TEST CYLINDER CUT-OUT AUTOMATIC INJECTOR TEST

23 Three tests can be used to determine which cylinder or injector is malfunctioning:


Injector testing

INJECTOR SOLENOID TEST This test is performed while the engine is stopped. The injector solenoids can be tested automatically with the service tool using the Injector Solenoid Test. This function individually tests each solenoid in sequence and indicates if a short or an open circuit is present. CYLINDER CUT-OUT (Manual test) This test is performed while the engine is running at any speed. The 105 Volt pulse can be individually cut out to aid in troubleshooting misfire problems in the injector and the cylinder. AUTOMATIC INJECTOR TEST This test is performed with the service tool while the engine is running at any speed. The test makes a comparative evaluation of all injectors and numerically shows the results. The test enables an on-engine evaluation of the injectors. (This test cannot be performed using the ECAP.) A satisfactory test of all injector solenoids without any diagnostic messages indicates that a mechanical problem in the cylinder probably exists.

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HEUI CONTROL LOGIC


TIMING CONTROL
ENGINE SPEED FUEL QUANTITY TIMING FUEL RPM SELECT TIMING COLD MODE DEGREES BTDC DESIRED TIMING BTDC

CONVERT DESIRED TIMING

FUEL INJECTION TIMING WAVE FORM

HYDRAULIC OIL TEMPERATURE

24 Fuel Injection Control System


Fuel timing control

This diagram shows the timing control logic within the ECM. Engine speed, fuel quantity (which relates to load), and hydraulic oil temperature input signals are received by the timing control. The hydraulic temperature signal determines when the Cold Mode should be activated. These combined input signals determine the start of fuel injection. The timing control provides the optimum timing for all conditions. The benefits of a "smart" timing control are:

Inputs to timing control

Benefits of a "smart" timing control

- Reduced particulates and lower emissions - Improved fuel consumption while still maintaining performance - Extended engine life - Improved cold starting

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3408E/3412E ELECTRONIC GOVERNOR


HYDRAULIC OIL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE SENSORS ECM ELECTRONIC GOVERNOR FRC MAPS TORQUE MAPS

SHUTDOWNS TO PUMP CONTROL VALVE

INJECTION ACTUATION CONTROL

8 SIGNALS 7 TO FUEL 6 INJECTORS 5 4 3 2 1 SPEED/TIMING SIGNAL

FUEL INJECTION CONTROL

ENGINE RPM TDC

ENGINE CONTROL LOGIC

THROTTLE

ENGINE RPM TURBO OUTLET AND ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SENSORS

ENGINE RPM

TIMING WHEEL SPEED/TIMING SENSORS

25
Fuel quantity control Inputs to fuel quantity control

Four inputs control fuel quantity: 1. Engine speed 2. Injection actuation (hydraulic) pressure 3. Throttle position 4. Boost These signals are received by the electronic governor portion of the ECM. The governor then sends the desired fuel signal to the fuel injection and injection actuation controls. The fuel quantity control logic also receives signals from the fuel ratio and torque controls. Three variables determine fuel quantity and timing: - The start of injection determines engine timing. - The injection duration and injection actuation (hydraulic) pressure determine the quantity of fuel to be injected.

Start of injection determines timing Injection duration and injection actuation pressure determine fuel quantity

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

COMPONENT DIAGRAM

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH
24 V

MACHINE HARNESS PUMP CONTROL VALVE HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR THROTTLE SENSOR

MAIN KEY 15 AMP POWER RELAY SWITCH BREAKER

ACCELERATOR PEDAL THROTTLE BACK-UP, ELEVATED LOW IDLE ENABLE, AND GROUND LEVEL SHUTDOWN (2) SWITCHES TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR PROPORTIONAL VALVE

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR FAN SPEED SENSOR ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR CAT DATA LINK OIL PRESSURE SENSOR ELECTRONIC SERVICE TOOL EPTC II TRANSMISSION CONTROL HYDRAULIC TEMP. SENSOR AUTO RETARDER CONTROL FAN

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR COOLANT FLOW SWITCH INSTRUMENT PANEL

26
Speed/timing sensors

Two Speed/Timing Sensors are installed: a primary and a secondary. The Speed/Timing Sensors serve three functions in the system: 1. Engine speed measurement 2. Engine timing measurement 3. Cylinder and TDC location The Speed/Timing Sensors, which are mounted on the front housing below the timing gear wheel, are self-adjusting during installation and have zero clearance with the timing wheel.

Three functions of the speed/timing sensor

Sensor installation

The head is extended prior to installation. The action of screwing in the sensor pushes the head back into the body until the head contacts the timing wheel. This contact is only momentary while the engine is starting. After start-up, the head runs with zero clearance.

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SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

SPEED/TIMING SENSORS
P44 J44 OR BK WH A B C P2 J2

PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

ECM (3408E/3412 E) P20 J20 OR BK WH A B C 732-PK 996-GN 998-BR 999-WH F723-PK F724-PU 39 32 29 38 18 12 P1 J1 SECONDARY ENGINE SPEED +V TIMING DIGITAL RETURN PRIMARY ENGINE SPEED TIMING CAL + TIMING CAL -

TIMING CALIBRATION CONNECTOR

P26 1 2

27
Primary sensor

The Primary Speed/Timing Sensor (right side of engine) measures engine speed for governing, and crankshaft position for timing purposes and cylinder identification. The Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor (left side of engine) allows continuous operation if the primary sensor fails. A failure of the primary sensor will cause the ECM to automatically switch to the secondary sensor. Also, the check engine lamp will come on. The ECM supplies 12.5 1 Volts to the Primary and Secondary Speed/Timing Sensors. Connectors A and B transmit the common power supply to the sensors. The C connectors transmit separate signals from each sensor to the ECM for back-up purposes. NOTE: The Speed/Timing Sensors have a dedicated power supply. No other circuits should be spliced into this power supply.

Secondary sensor

Power supply

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28
Timing wheel

The Timing Wheel is an integral part of the drive gear for the pump. Timing marks are used to locate the wheel in the correct position relative to the crankshaft. This Timing Wheel is common to all 3408E/3412E engines. As previously stated, the Timing Wheel has a total of 24 teeth. 23 teeth are large with small spaces between them (80/20 relative size). The other tooth and space have equal dimensions (50/50 relative size). This configuration is used by the ECM to locate TDC on the No. 1 cylinder.

NOTICE
The head of the sensor MUST NOT be positioned in the timing wheel (wide) slot during installation. Incorrect positioning will cause damage to the sensor head.

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TIMING WHEEL
TDC SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR 3 REF 4 REF TDC SINGLE 50/50 TOOTH TDC CYLINDER No. 1 REF TDC REF TIMING CALIBRATION RANGE 10 PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

1 6

TDC TIMING WHEEL ROTATION REF 5 2

REF

TDC

TDC REF

7 TDC

REF

29 The Speed/Timing Sensors are positioned vertically over the teeth.


Sensors generate a PWM signal from timing wheel teeth

The teeth and sensors generate a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) output signal for the purpose of timing and a frequency modulated output signal for speed measurement. The Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor functions the same as the primary sensor. The Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor is used when the signal from the primary sensor is lost or distorted. If the secondary sensor is selected, it will continue in use until the engine is shut down and cranked. Then, the primary sensor will be selected. Unless the engine is cranking, the ECM will not switch from the secondary to the primary sensor. This feature prevents constant switching between sensors if an intermittent fault occurs. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: A description of PWM signals is provided later in this presentation (Sensors and Systems).

Failure modes

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CRANKING
TIMING GEAR TOOTH TABLE
TABLE PWM DUTY CYLINDER ENTRY REFERENCE CYCLE A B C D E F G H 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 50 % NONE IDENTIFIED

80/20 %

80/20 %

80/20 %

80/20 %

80/20 %

80/20 %

50/50%

TIMING WHEEL ROTATION

30
Cranking Timing wheel teeth and spacing

The Speed/Timing Sensor uses the timing wheel with the teeth arranged as shown to determine: - Top Dead Center No. 1 (When found, the cylinders can be identified.) - Engine speed The sequence of signals shown in the second column (duty cycle) is analyzed by the ECM. At this point, no fuel will be injected until certain conditions have been met. Unlike EUI engines, this engine does not rely on tooth configuration to prevent reverse rotation. The lubrication and the hydraulic pumps will not develop pressure during reverse rotation, and will not move the injectors to pump fuel. Therefore, the engine cannot run in reverse.

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AFTER PATTERN RECOGNITION


TIMING GEAR TOOTH TABLE
TABLE PWM DUTY CYLINDER CYCLE ENTRY REFERENCE A B C D E F G H 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 50 % NO CYL NO. 3 NO NO CYL NO. 4 NO NO CYL NO. 8 TIMING WHEEL ROTATION

CYL NO. 3 REFERENCE EDGE

CYL NO. 3 TDC

CYL NO. 4 REFERENCE EDGE

CYL NO. 4 TDC

CYL NO. 8 REFERENCE EDGE

31
After pattern recognition

During start-up, the sensor initially monitors the pulses created by the passing teeth and identifies the sequence as shown. After a complete rotation, the control can recognize the location of TDC from the pattern in the above illustration. During initial cranking, no fuel is injected until: The timing wheel has completed a full revolution. TDC for all cylinders is identified by the control. After the sensor has provided the necessary signals, the ECM is ready to start injection (if sufficient hydraulic pressure is available to the injectors). NOTE: The reference points in the illustration are positions on the timing wheel from which the control measures the point of injection and TDC.

Initial firing sequence

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TIMING GEAR TOOTH TABLE


TABLE PWM DUTY CYLINDER ENTRY CYCLE REFERENCE A B C D E F G H 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 80 % 50 % NO CYL NO. 3 NO NO CYL NO. 4 NO NO CYL NO. 8 TIMING WHEEL ROTATION

NORMAL OPERATION

62 BTDC (EEPROM) DES TIMING DELAY NO. 3 INJECTION

62 BTDC (EEPROM) DES TIMING DELAY NO. 4 INJECTION

ASSUMED TDC CYL NO. 4 (REFERENCE)

ASSUMED TDC CYL NO. 4 ACTUAL TDC (CALIBRATED)

CYL NO. 3 (REFERENCE)

CYL NO. 3 ACTUAL TDC (CALIBRATED)

32
Normal operation

During normal operation, the ECM can determine timing from the sequence reference point for each cylinder. The reference point is stored by the ECM after calibration is performed. Injection timing is calibrated by connecting a TDC probe to the service access connector on the engine harness, and by activating the calibration sequence with the Caterpillar ET service tool. The ECM raises the engine speed to 800 rpm (to optimize measurement accuracy), compares the actual No. 1 TDC location to the assumed cylinder No. 1 TDC location, and saves the offset in the EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory).

Signal pattern identifies TDC Conditions for injection

NOTE: The calibration offset range is limited to 10 crankshaft degrees. If the range is exceeded, the offset is set to zero (no calibration) and a calibration diagnostic message is generated.

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TIMING CALIBRATION SENSOR


SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR P44 J44 OR BK WH A B C P2 J2 PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR ECM (3408E/3412E) P20 J20 OR BK WH A B C 732-PK 996-GN 998-BR 999-WH F723-PK F724-PU 39 32 29 38 18 12 P1 J1 P26 1 2 TIMING CALIBRATION CONNECTOR SECONDARY ENGINE SPEED +V TIMING DIGITAL RETURN PRIMARY ENGINE SPEED TIMING CAL + TIMING CAL -

TIMING CALIBRATION SENSOR

33
Timing calibration sensor

The Timing Calibration Sensor (magnetic pickup) is installed in the flywheel housing during calibration. The connector is located above the ECM. (On some machines, i.e. D9R/D10R, the sensor is permanently installed.) Using the Caterpillar ET service tool, timing calibration is performed automatically for both sensors when selected on the appropriate screen. The desired engine speed is set to 800 rpm. This step is performed to avoid instability and ensures that no backlash is present in the timing gears during the calibration process.

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TIMING CALIBRATION
TIMING WHEEL

REFERENCE EDGE TO TDC DISTANCE REFERENCE EDGE ASSUMED CYL. NO. 1 TDC

ACTUAL CYL. NO. 1 TDC

-10 TIMING CALIBRATION SENSOR SIGNAL 10

+10

TIMING REFERENCE OFFSET

MAXIMUM TIMING REFERENCE OFFSET 10 DEGREES

34
Timing calibration

As the Speed/Timing Sensors use the timing wheel for a timing reference, timing calibration improves fuel injection accuracy by correcting for any slight tolerances between the crankshaft, timing gears and timing wheel. During calibration, the offset is logged in the control module EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory). The calibration offset range is limited to 10 crankshaft degrees. If timing is out of range, calibration is aborted. The previous value will be retained and a diagnostic message will be logged. Timing calibration is normally performed after the following procedures: 1. ECM replacement 2. Speed/timing sensor replacement 3. Timing wheel replacement

Nulls out small crankshaft to timing gear tolerances

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INJECTION CURRENT WAVEFORM


ONE CYCLE

CURRENT FLOW

PULL-IN PEAK CURRENT

HOLD-IN PEAK CURRENT

TIME (MILLISECONDS)

35 This illustration shows how the current increases initially to pull in the injection coil and close the poppet valve. Then, by rapidly chopping (pulsing) the 105 Volts on and off, current flow is maintained. The end of injection occurs when the current supply is cut off and hydraulic pressure drops. Therefore, fuel pressure drops rapidly in the injector.

Unit injector current flow

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: This waveform may be demonstrated with a 9U7330 Digital Multimeter (or equivalent) and a current probe.

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POPPET VALVE MOVEMENT

POPPET LIFT
CURRENT FLOW

CURRENT

TIME (MILLISECONDS)

36
Poppet valve movement

This diagram shows that the poppet valve will open just after the ECM energizes the solenoid. The poppet valve permits hydraulic oil to shift the injector intensifier piston which then moves the injector plunger.

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WAVEFORM AND RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS


INJECTION RATE POPPET LIFT
CURRENT FLOW

CURRENT

END OF INJECTION START OF INJECTION

DURATION

TIME (MILLISECONDS)

37
Timing relative to: 1. Injector current flow 2. Poppet valve movement 3. Injection rate

Here timing is graphically illustrated to show: 1. The ECM initiates the signal to the injector to start injection. 2. The injector solenoid opens the poppet valve. 3. The injection rate increases.

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FUEL SYSTEM COLD MODES Speed Control Fuel Limiting Injection Timing Injection Actuation Pressure Ether Injection

38
Fuel system limits

Just as the MUI engine had mechanical limits to determine maximum fuel delivery during full load, full torque and acceleration, the HEUI system also has electronic limits to protect the engine. These limits are: - Maximum Horsepower - Torque Limit (Determines torque rise characteristics) - Fuel Ratio Control (Limits fuel until sufficient boost is available) - Cold Mode Limit (Limits fuel with cold engine to control white smoke) - Cranking Limit (Limits fuel during cranking) An acceleration delay during start-up holds the engine at low idle for two seconds or until oil pressure reaches 140 kPa (20 psi).

Variable horsepower

Off-highway Trucks have a system which increases engine horsepower in direct drive only. This system protects the driveline from excessive torque in the lower gears. Off-highway Trucks also have a service tool programmable feature which is designed to lower shift points and the fuel limit to improve fuel consumption at the customer's request.

Economy Shift Mode

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FUEL SYSTEM COLD MODES Speed Control Fuel Limiting Injection Timing Injection Actuation Pressure Ether Injection

39
Cold modes

The HEUI fuel system is designed to modify the operational characteristics of the engine during cold operation. This modification is done to protect the environment, the engine and to improve the operational characteristics of the engine. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The various Cold Modes are tabulated in Serviceman's Handout No. 2. Discuss how these Cold Mode variations can change the engine characteristics, particularly during diagnostic operations. For example: - Injection actuation pressure will vary with engine temperature. - Engine speed may be raised in Cold Mode.

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FUEL SYSTEM DERATES Automatic Altitude Compensation Automatic Filter Compensation Engine Warning Derate

40
Fuel system derates

As the system limits fuel for every condition, derates are also built into the system for protection. These derates are individually covered later in the presentation, but are summarized here: - Automatic Altitude Compensation (Altitude derate) - Automatic Filter Compensation (Derates for air filter restriction if installed) - Engine Warning Derate (Derates for low oil pressure and high coolant temperature; not installed on all applications)

If a loss of boost sensor output occurs, the ECM assumes zero boost pressure. Although not strictly a derate, power is reduced by approximately 50 to 60%.
Power correction

- Fuel Temperature Compensation (Compensates up to 5% for power loss caused by hot fuel)

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INSTRUCTOR NOTE: This material will be reinforced if the following ET tasks are demonstrated. Review the material with questions following the tasks. The demonstration can be performed on an engine or machine with a laptop computer. The suggested topics are: Basic ET review (if required) Status screens with throttle switch status, desired engine speed, fuel position, injection actuation pressure, etc. Active diagnostic codes Logged diagnostic codes Events screen Configuration screen Timing calibration Injector solenoid test Cylinder cutout Automatic injector test

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FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

41 FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM This portion of the presentation describes the principles of operation of the HEUI Fuel Injection System as is used on the 3408E and 3412E engines. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The various color codes which will be used in this section of the presentation to identify flow and pressures are: Hydraulic and Lubrication Circuits Red Red and White Stripes Brown Green - High pressure oil - Reduced pressure oil - Lube oil pressure - Lube oil suction or return

Fuel Circuits Red Red and White Stripes Green - High pressure fuel - Fuel transfer pump pressure - Fuel suction or return

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3408E/3412E HEUI FUEL SYSTEM


TO LUBE SYSTEM HYDRAULIC TEMPERATURE SENSOR OIL PRESSURE SENSOR COOL DOWN CIRCUIT
FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE

HEUI

COLD START OIL RESERVOIR

OIL FILTER

HYDRAULIC SUPPLY PUMP GROUP

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR

FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE

OIL COOLER

PUMP CONTROL VALVE FUEL TRANSFER PUMP PRIMARY FUEL FILTER WATER SEPARATOR OIL SUMP

ECM

HEUI

LUBE OIL PUMP

SECONDARY FUEL FILTER

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE

FUEL TANK

42 Actuation of the fuel injection system is accomplished using hydraulics, rather than the conventional camshaft actuation commonly found on other diesel fuel systems. Hydraulic actuation offers several advantages compared to mechanical actuation, including the ability to make injection pressure independent of engine operating speed. This capability is especially advantageous in many respects, including transient engine response, cold starting, emissions and noise control. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The following schematics may appear identical in the black and white illustrations. However, the actual slides are colored differently.

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1 2

5 4

43 System Components
HEUI principle components:

To review, the 3400 HEUI hydraulic and fuel supply circuits contain the following major components: Hydraulic Supply Pump Group (1) including: - Hydraulic pump - Fuel transfer pump

1. Hydraulic supply pump group

2. ECM

- Pump control valve


3. Temperature sensor

Electronic Control Module (ECM) (2) Electronic Sensors (3 and 4) - Hydraulic temperature

4. Pressure sensor

- Hydraulic pressure Injectors (5)

5. Injector

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2 3

44
Hydraulic supply pump group: 1. Hydraulic pump

The following components are integrated into a single unit called the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group: - Hydraulic pump (1) - Pump control valve (2)

2. Pump control valve

- Transfer pump (3) This pump group is located in the vee of the engine and is in the same position as the fuel injection pump on earlier engines. Three fluid circuits are included in the system: low pressure oil, high pressure oil (hydraulic), and low pressure fuel supply. NOTE TO THE INSTRUCTOR: These components and circuits will be covered in detail later in the presentation.

3. Transfer pump

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3408E/3412E HEUI FUEL SYSTEM


TO LUBE SYSTEM

LOW PRESSURE OIL (HYDRAULIC) SUPPLY


HEUI HYDRAULIC TEMPERATURE SENSOR COLD START OIL RESERVOIR FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR COOL DOWN CIRCUIT

OIL FILTER

HYDRAULIC SUPPLY PUMP GROUP

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR

FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE

PUMP CONTROL VALVE OIL COOLER FUEL TRANSFER PUMP PRIMARY FUEL FILTER WATER SEPARATOR OIL SUMP

HEUI ECM

LUBE OIL PUMP

SECONDARY FUEL FILTER

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE

FUEL TANK

45 System Operation On a HEUI equipped engine, the lubrication pump has two functions:
Low pressure oil supply

1. Provides lubrication to the engine 2. Provides low pressure charge oil to the HEUI hydraulic pump The engine lubrication pump has been enlarged to provide the required increase in flow.

Cold start reservoir

The hydraulic pump has a Cold Start Oil Reservoir. This reservoir prevents the hydraulic pump from cavitating during initial engine cranking until the lubrication pump can supply adequate charge pressure. An oil pressure sensor is located in the Cold Start Oil Reservoir, which is the inlet to the hydraulic oil pump. The sensor monitors lubrication oil pressure. An oil temperature sensor is also installed in the reservoir. This sensor will be referred to as the "hydraulic temperature sensor" as it is used for this purpose.

Pressure sensor Temperature sensor

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3408E/3412E HEUI FUEL SYSTEM


TO LUBE SYSTEM

HIGH PRESSURE HYDRAULICS


HEUI HYDRAULIC TEMPERATURE SENSOR COLD START OIL RESERVOIR FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR COOL DOWN CIRCUIT

OIL FILTER

HYDRAULIC SUPPLY PUMP GROUP

FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE

PUMP CONTROL VALVE OIL COOLER FUEL TRANSFER PUMP LUBE OIL PUMP PRIMARY FUEL FILTER WATER SEPARATOR OIL SUMP

HEUI ECM

SECONDARY FUEL FILTER

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE

FUEL TANK

46 During normal operation conditions, oil is pressurized between 5000 and 21500 kPa (725 and 3100 psi) by the high pressure hydraulic pump to actuate the injectors. The level of hydraulic pressure is controlled by the ECM, which signals the pump control valve to upstroke the hydraulic pump. When the engine is running, high pressure oil is available to all injectors at all times. Oil from the high pressure pump enters the two oil supply passages. Reverse flow check valves are used to prevent pressure surges between the oil passages on opposite banks. The oil supply passages are connected hydraulically to the injectors by jumper tubes. Oil used by the injectors is released below the valve covers and drains back to the sump through the pushrod compartments.

High pressure actuates hydraulics

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3408E/3412E HEUI FUEL SYSTEM


TO LUBE SYSTEM LOW PRESSURE FUEL SUPPLY
HEUI HYDRAULIC TEMPERATURE SENSOR COLD START OIL RESERVOIR FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR COOL DOWN CIRCUIT

OIL FILTER

HYDRAULIC SUPPLY PUMP GROUP

FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE

PUMP CONTROL VALVE OIL COOLER FUEL TRANSFER PUMP PRIMARY FUEL FILTER WATER SEPARATOR OIL SUMP

HEUI ECM

LUBE OIL PUMP

SECONDARY FUEL FILTER (2 MICRON)

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE

FUEL TANK

47
Low pressure fuel supply

Fuel is drawn from the tank through the water separator and the hand priming pump by a gear-type transfer pump. The fuel is then directed through the Electronic Control Module (ECM) housing for cooling purposes. The fuel then flows through the secondary fuel filter. Next, the fuel enters the low pressure supply gallery located in the fluid supply manifolds on top of the cylinder heads. Any excess fuel not injected leaves the manifold. The flow is then combined into one line and passes through the pressure regulating valve, which is set between 310 and 415 kPa (45 and 60 psi). From the pressure regulating valve, the excess flow returns to the tank. The ratio of fuel between combustion and fuel returned to the tank is about 1:3 (i.e. four times the volume required for combustion is supplied to the system for combustion and injector cooling purposes). A fuel temperature sensor is installed in the fuel supply system to compensate for power losses caused by varying fuel temperatures.

Injector cooling

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INJECTOR FLUID FLOW


INJECTOR OIL ADAPTER

HIGH PRESSURE HYDRAULIC OIL INJECTOR CLAMP JUMPER TUBE

ROCKER ARM BASE INJECTOR LUBE OIL PASSAGE HIGH PRESSURE HYDRAULIC PASSAGE

FLUID SUPPLY MANIFOLD CYLINDER HEAD INJECTOR SLEEVE CYLINDER HEAD LOW PRESSURE FUEL SUPPLY

COOLANT CYLINDER BLOCK METAL WASHER

48 Hydraulic Unit Injector Operation


Fuel and oil flow

High pressure hydraulic oil is provided to each injector from the hydraulic supply passages through individual jumper tubes. Fuel is supplied to the injector by the low pressure supply passage located in the fluid manifolds (described on the next slide). Special "Viton" o-rings are used in the hydraulic joints between the injector and the fluid manifold. NOTE: This slide and the following slide depart from the color legend by using orange for high pressure oil to avoid confusion between the two fluids.

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INJECTOR FUEL SUPPLY


INJECTOR UPPER INJECTOR O-RING SEAL UPPER SLEEVE O-RING SEAL CYLINDER HEAD INJECTOR SLEEVE

FLUID SUPPLY MANIFOLD

LOWER SLEEVE O-RING SEAL

LOW PRESSURE FUEL SUPPLY

CYLINDER HEAD METAL-TO- METAL CONTACT

LOWER INJECTOR O-RING SEAL

49
Low pressure fuel supply to injector

Low pressure fuel is supplied to the inlet of the injector through a drilled passage located in each Fluid Supply Manifold. The fuel supply to each injector is sealed from the combustion chamber and the area below the valve cover by upper and lower o-ring seals between the injector and the cylinder head injector sleeve. Combustion chamber gases are prevented from entering the fuel supply passage by a metal-to-metal contact between the cylinder head injector sleeve and the injector. The cylinder head injector sleeve is threaded into the cylinder head. A metal washer is used to seal the lower end of the adapter to prevent leakage between the cooling system and the combustion chamber.

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50
Fluid supply manifold Supply passages: 1. Hydraulic 2. Lubrication 3. Fuel

The following passages are located in the Fluid Supply Manifold: - Hydraulic supply passage (1) - Lubrication supply passage (2) - Fuel supply passage (3) The fluid supply manifold is mounted on the cylinder head and carries injector actuation hydraulic oil under pressure through the jumper tubes to the injectors. Low pressure fuel and lubrication oil to the valve mechanism are also directed through the manifold. These passages are shown in the sectional view on the next slide.

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FLUID SUPPLY MANIFOLD

FUEL SEALS

CYLINDER HEAD INJECTOR SLEEVE

ROCKER ARM BASE

LOW PRESSURE FUEL SUPPLY PASSAGE

EXTRACTOR LUBRICATION OIL SPLINES PASSAGE

HIGH PRESSURE HYDRAULIC PASSAGE

51 This sectional view shows the various passages in the Fluid Supply Manifold.
Supply passages

- High pressure hydraulic supply passages - Low pressure fuel supply passages - Lubrication oil supply passages

Additional fuel for cooling

The fuel enters the front of the manifold and exits the rear. Cooling of the injectors is achieved by circulating a larger volume of fuel past the injectors than is required for combustion. Initially, fuel circulates around the outside of the injector sleeve and is contained between the sleeve and the fluid supply manifold by the upper and lower injector sleeve fuel seals.

Fuel seals

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1 2

52
Jumper tube and oil adaptor

The Jumper Tube (1) and Injector Oil Adaptor (2) direct hydraulic oil from the fluid manifold high pressure passage to the injector. A specific procedure to tighten the six bolts (for the Jumper Tube and Adaptor) must be followed when installing the jumper tube. This procedure follows later in the presentation.

NOTICE
Failure to follow the correct tightening procedure can result in low power complaints caused by internal hydraulic leaks. Also, internal strains on the injector caused by an improper tightening procedure can cause changes in internal injector clearances which can decrease performance and injector life.

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INJECTION CURRENT WAVEFORM


ONE CYCLE

CURRENT FLOW

PULL-IN PEAK CURRENT

HOLD-IN PEAK CURRENT

TIME (MILLISECONDS)

53
Injector current waveform

Injector Operation Characteristics The quantity of fuel delivered is controlled by varying the time the solenoid is energized. This period of time, called "duration," is calculated by the ECM to ensure delivery of the correct amount of fuel. Other inputs affect calculation of on-time, including (but not limited to) hydraulic supply pressure, oil temperature and mapped injector performance characteristics. Two current levels are generated in the wave form:

Two current levels

1. Pull-in current is higher to create a stronger magnetic field to attract the armature and lift the injector poppet valve off its seat against spring force. 2. Hold-in current is used to hold the armature and poppet off its seat. Lower current reduces heat in the solenoid and increases solenoid life. The injector performance map shows delivery as a function of on-time, pump pressure, and oil temperature, and is stored in the ECM memory.

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WAVEFORM AND RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS

INJECTION RATE POPPET LIFT


CURRENT FLOW

CURRENT

DURATION

1
START OF INJECTION

5
END OF INJECTION

TIME (MILLISECONDS)

54
Waveform and injector response

This slide shows that, as the ECM energizes the solenoid, the poppet valve movement follows. Then, the injector rate increases for the start of injection. The end of injection occurs as the rate drops toward zero. Therefore: Engine fuel timing is a function of the start of injection. Fuel quantity is a function of: - The duration of injection - Injection actuation (hydraulic) pressure

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Pull-in current

The ECM sends a higher current to the solenoid to create a strong magnetic field. This strong field is needed to create maximum pull on the armature, which is at its farthest distance from the solenoid. The poppet is normally held on its inlet seat by the poppet spring. The higher pull-in current attracts the armature and lifts the poppet off its inlet seat and toward the exhaust seat against the spring force. The ECM reduces the current level to hold-in current and the poppet is held on its exhaust seat. Injection starts after the exhaust seat closes and oil pressure pushes the intensifier piston and plunger down. The downward movement of the plunger pressurizes the fuel to approximately 31000 kPa (4500 psi) and the check valve lifts, allowing fuel to enter the cylinder. The time at which fuel leaves the tip is called the "start of injection." The rate at which fuel is injected is controlled by injection hydraulic pressure. Higher hydraulic pressure pushes the piston and plunger faster, causing a higher flow rate through the nozzle tip. When the ECM ends injection, it terminates the hold-in current which causes the magnetic field in the solenoid to collapse. The poppet spring then moves the poppet back to the inlet seat. As the poppet travels back to the inlet seat, hydraulic oil is shut off, and the downward travel of the piston and plunger reverses, filling the barrel for the next injection sequence. As pressure drops below the plunger and nozzle areas, the valve closing pressure, which is about 21000 kPa (3000 psi), causes this pressure to be retained in the nozzle for the next cycle.

Poppet lift - Blue line

Start of injection - Purple line

Injection rate - Purple line

End of injection

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: If a disassembled or a cutaway injector is available, it is recommended that the preceding sequence be reviewed using the actual components.

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55 Injector Components The 3408E/3412E unit injector has been designed to represent the state of the art in the industry. This section of the presentation will describe all the components and their functions. This slide shows a cutaway injector and the injector sleeve. Note the following major injector component groups:
Major components

- Valve body group with solenoid and poppet valve - Barrel group with intensifier piston and plunger - Nozzle group

Seals

The injector sleeve has four seal grooves. The two upper grooves have the seals which contain the fuel within the fluid manifold (shown in more detail later). The two lower seals contain the coolant below the cylinder upper deck. A metal washer seals the lower part of the sleeve and prevents coolant from entering the combustion chamber.

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VALVE BODY GROUP

BARREL GROUP

HEUI UNIT INJECTOR 3 MAIN GROUPS

NOZZLE GROUP

56 The injector consists of three basic groups which will be described in detail:
Three main groups

- Valve Body Group - Barrel Group - Nozzle Group

This view and those that follow show the exhaust port on the injector venting the return oil downward. This condition is a modification from the previous design which vented the oil upward. These injectors are interchangeable. However, the newer injector reduces the tendency of the engine to discharge oil mist from the breather.

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3408E/3412E HEUI INJECTOR


COMPONENTS

BODY

VALVE BODY GROUP


ADAPTER BOLT ARMATURE

SOLENOID ASSEMBLY

POPPET SEAL

SPRING SLEEVE SHIM SEAL

SPACER

SCREW

SCREW

INTENSIFIER PISTON RETAINER RING WASHER DOWEL BALL

BARREL GROUP NOZZLE GROUP


DOWEL LIFT SPACER DOWEL TIP CASE

PLUNGER

SPRING

SEAL

BARREL

BALL

STOP CHECK PLATE PLATE

STOP

STOP SPRING SLEEVE CHECK PIN

57
Injector components

The HEUI injector was designed with a minimum of component parts. The injector contains 35 part numbers. This exploded view shows all the components by assemblies as follows: The Valve Body Group contains the solenoid, armature and the poppet valve. This assembly directs the oil to the hydraulic intensifier piston which moves the fuel plunger. The Barrel Group contains the high pressure fuel plunger. The Nozzle Group contains the case, tip, check valve and nozzle. NOTE: Although the injector components are explained in this presentation, it should be noted that no individual parts of the injector are serviced. This injector is precision assembled by a machine, and replacing individual injector components would result in unacceptable performance problems or injector failures.

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SLEEVE VALVE VALVE BODY

SPACER ARMATURE

SOLENOID SHIM

BARREL

ADAPTER

PISTON

WASHER UPPER FUEL SEAL

UNIT INJECTOR COMPONENTS

PLUNGER FUEL INLET CHECK VALVE

PIN SLEEVE SPACER LOWER FUEL SEAL CHECK NOZZLE

58
Injector component parts

This slide shows the component parts in the three basic groups discussed previously. The valve body has three parts (body, adaptor and spacer) which are assembled with great precision. Any damage sustained in the valve body area during installation or removal will cause an injector failure.

NOTICE
The correct injector removal procedures and tooling specified in the service manual must always be used. Any leverage applied below the valve body can cause deformation of the poppet valve bore and possible injector failure.

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INJECTOR INSTALLATION
ALLEN SCREWS HORIZONTAL BOLTS INJECTOR CLAMP

JUMPER TUBE INJECTOR OIL ADAPTOR VERTICAL BOLTS

59 Injector Removal and Installation The correct procedures for injector removal and installation must be followed to avoid strain on the injector and hydraulic leaks in the jumper tube area. The three mating surfaces of the jumper tube, oil adaptor and injector must be aligned before final torque is applied. INSTRUCTOR NOTE : At this time, it is recommended that the injector removal and installation procedures be demonstrated. Emphasis should be placed on the use of the correct puller during removal (rather than a pry bar, which could result in injector damage). Also, disassemble a used injector to identify the various components shown on this slide.

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Injector assembly and installation

This portion of the assembly procedure ensures that all mating and sealing faces are flush and in complete contact before tightening the bolts. 1. Clean the faces of the injector and the injector sleeve and install new o-rings. 2. Lubricate the o-rings with oil and insert the injector in the injector sleeve. 3. Visually align the injector with the flat surface parallel to the centerline of the engine. 4. Position the injector clamp on the injector and tighten the bolt to 47 9 Nm (35 7 lb. ft.). 5. Install new seals on the jumper tube and rocker arm base. 6. Place the injector oil adaptor and jumper tube in position. 7. Install the allen screws and hex head bolts finger tight. If the injector oil adaptor was previously installed on the injector, loosen the allen screws.

The objective at this point in the procedure is to bring all the mating faces into complete contact and alignment before starting the final torque procedure. Failure to align the components will put a strain on the injector which will then distort the poppet valve and barrel bores. These components operate with a clearance of 5 microns because of the high injection and hydraulic pressures. Therefore, even a small amount of distortion will cause a seizure. Additionally, some misalignment could cause combustion gases to enter the supply system.

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Injector installation torque sequence

After all the mating surfaces are aligned, the torquing procedure can be performed: 1. Tighten the allen screws and hex head bolts finger tight or just sufficiently to bring the mating surfaces together and into alignment. 2. Apply an initial torque to the vertical hex head bolts of 5 3 Nm (4 2 lb. ft.). 3. Apply an initial torque to the horizontal hex head bolts of 5 3 Nm (4 2 lb. ft.). 4. Apply an initial torque to the allen screws of 1 0.2 Nm (10 2 lb. in.). 5. Final torque the vertical hex head bolts to 47 9 Nm (35 7 lb. ft.). 6. Final torque the horizontal hex head bolts to 47 9 Nm (35 7 lb. ft.). 7. Final torque the allen screws to 12 3 Nm (9 2 lb. ft.). 8. Check the system for leaks (crank with injection disabled). Then, check the hydraulic pressure (compare with desired pressure).

A number of possibilities for leaks can exist. Oil under high pressure may leak from the jumper tube joints or from the injector valve body exhaust port. Fuel could leak from the upper seal on the injector. Also, combustion gas can possibly leak from the base of the injector. If air has entered the fuel supply system, multiple injectors on one bank may malfunction. If the above procedure was not followed, air could enter past the lower o-ring seal. If this condition occurs, remove the injector and check for carbon below the lower o-ring seal. Replace the seal and perform the torque sequence. Air in the system may be detected by lightly touching the flexible return line and checking for extreme pulsations or pressure spikes felt through the line. As an alternative, install a sight glass in each return line, run the engine and check for air. Combustion gas leakage will usually affect the injector with the leak followed by the injectors downstream (toward the rear) of the leak. In conclusion, the system is reliable. However, failure to follow these procedures may cause malfunctions.

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VALVE BODY GROUP


SOLENOID DE-ENERGIZED
POPPET VALVE CLOSED

SOLENOID ENERGIZED
POPPET VALVE OPEN

POPPET VALVE

SOLENOID

ARMATURE

INLET VALVE SEAT

EXHAUST VALVE SEAT

POPPET SPRING

ARMATURE SCREW

60 Injection Sequence
Solenoid de-energized

When the solenoid is de-energized, the poppet valve is held on its inlet (left) seat by the poppet spring. The poppet valve is connected to the armature by the armature screw. When the poppet is closed, the inlet seat prevents high pressure oil from entering the injector. The exhaust poppet seat is open, connecting the intensifier piston cavity to the atmosphere. Based on input signals from the various electronic sensors, the ECM calculates the quantity and timing of fuel to be delivered by the injector to the combustion chamber. At the appropriate time, the ECM sends an electrical current to the injector solenoid. The solenoid develops a magnetic force which attracts the armature and shifts the poppet valve. The poppet valve moves against the spring force, opens the inlet seat and closes the exhaust (right) seat. Hydraulic pressure oil from the supply manifold is directed through the jumper tube to the top of the intensifier piston.

Solenoid energized

Oil flows to intensifier piston

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SUPPLY OIL

INTENSIFIER PISTON

BARREL GROUP
FUEL PRESSURE INCREASE
BARREL

PLUNGER

FUEL INLET CHECK VALVE REVERSE FLOW CHECK VALVE FUEL TO NOZZLE

FUEL FROM TRANSFER PUMP

61
Plunger moves down Pressurizes fuel below plunger

Supply oil flow from the poppet valve causes the intensifier piston and the fuel plunger to move downward. The displacement of the plunger pressurizes the fuel trapped between the plunger face and the nozzle check seat. NOTE: The intensifier piston has almost seven times the area of the fuel plunger. When the hydraulic circuit is supplying a pressure of 21000 kPa (3000 psi), approximately 145000 kPa (21000 psi) will be generated below the fuel plunger.

Pressure intensification

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NOZZLE GROUP

REVERSE FLOW CHECK VALVE

VIEW OF STOP PLATE & REVERSE FLOW CHECK VALVE

CHECK VALVE FUEL ATOMIZATION

62
Fuel atomization

When the trapped pressure exceeds the nozzle valve opening pressure (VOP), typically 31000 kPa (4500 psi), the check valve lifts, and fuel flows through the holes in the nozzle into the combustion chamber. At the end of injection, the nozzle check valve closes at approximately 21000 kPa (3000 psi). The reverse flow check valve is used to prevent combustion induced gas flow from entering the nozzle area. The nozzle of the injector is very similar to the EUI unit injector. Six orifices, each with a diameter of 0.252 mm (.010 in.), are arranged at an angle of 140 degrees.

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VALVE BODY GROUP


SOLENOID DE-ENERGIZED
POPPET VALVE

SOLENOID

ARMATURE

INLET VALVE SEAT EXHAUST VALVE SEAT

63
End of injection

Solenoid de-energized

The end of injection is accomplished by shutting off the current from the ECM to the injector solenoid. The resulting loss of magnetic force on the armature allows the return spring force to shift the poppet valve off the exhaust seat. The poppet returns to the inlet seat in the valve body, blocks the flow from the hydraulic oil supply, and simultaneously fully opens the exhaust valve seat. This action vents the injector internal hydraulic circuit below the valve cover.

Poppet valve closes

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SLEEVE VALVE

SPACER

ARMATURE SOLENOID BODY SHIM BARREL ADAPTER

PISTON

WASHER

UNIT INJECTOR
END OF INJECTION

PLUNGER BALL

PIN SLEEVE SPACER

CHECK NOZZLE

64
End of injection Intensifier piston moves up

When vented, the intensifier piston and fuel plunger are pushed upward by the plunger return spring force until the intensifier piston contacts the valve body. This upward displacement of the intensifier piston vents spent oil from the injector below the valve cover. Retraction of the fuel plunger decreases the pressure in the fuel chamber below the plunger, which permits the nozzle check valve to close when the pressure in the nozzle drops below the valve closing pressure (VCP) of approximately 21000 kPa (3000 psi).

Nozzle check valve closes

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BARREL

PISTON

WASHER

BARREL GROUP
REFILLING THE BARREL
PLUNGER FUEL INLET CHECK VALVE FUEL EDGE FILTER SPACER

PIN SLEEVE

NOZZLE CHECK VALVE

NOZZLE

65
Barrel refilling

As the plunger continues to retract, the pressure below the plunger decreases below the fuel supply gallery pressure. The fuel inlet check valve then opens, allowing fuel to pass through the edge filter (next slide) to the supply gallery to refill the injector for the next injection sequence.

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EDGE FILTER
FUEL INLET CHECK VALVE REVERSE FLOW CHECK VALVE FUEL INLET FUEL INLET

EDGE FILTER

66
Fuel edge filter

Note the location of the fuel edge filter. The edge filter is formed by two flat parallel surfaces that are approximately 130 microns apart. These surfaces trap and break down particles which might be big enough to plug the nozzle orifices.

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PRIME INJECTION RATE SHAPING

PRIME = PRE-INJECTION METERING

INJECTION RATE

START OF INJECTION

DURATION

TIME (MILLISECONDS)

67
Injection rate shaping

Low emission levels

Another feature used in the injector for 3408E/3412E applications is an injection rate shaping device. Rate shaping refers to tailoring the way fuel is delivered to the engine to obtain a desirable result. In the 3408E/3412E application, rate shaping reduces the quantity of fuel delivered to the combustion chamber during the ignition delay period (i.e. the time between the start of injection and start of combustion) to levels which produce low engine combustion noise and low emissions. The device used to create rate shaping is known as PRIME, an abbreviation for PRe-Injection MEtering. This device is basically a controlled spill port which serves to limit the amount of fuel delivered to the combustion chamber during the initial 25% displacement of the fuel plunger. This metering action produces the desired reduction of fuel delivery during the ignition delay period.

PRIME

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BARREL GROUP
OIL FLOW

PRIME RATE SHAPING

BARREL

PLUNGER

PRIME RATE SHAPING PASSAGE

SPILL PORT

CROSS SECTION OF PLUNGER


FUEL TO NOZZLE GROUP

START OF INJECTION

PRESSURE DROP

FINAL PRESSURE INCREASE

68
Injection rate shaping

This slide shows the three stages in PRIME rate shaping. 1. Injection pressure starts to increase and causes the initial movement of the plunger. 2. When the prime rate shaping passage on the plunger is passing the spill port in the barrel, pressure decreases below VCP as pressurized fuel leaks through the passage in the plunger into the spill port. At this time, nozzle flow momentarily decreases. 3. As the plunger continues downward, the PRIME rate passage passes the spill port and pressure will again increase, causing injection to resume. This feature reduces emissions, smoke and noise. It also provides a smoother combustion cycle and reduces wear on the cylinder components.

1. Start of injection

2. Pressure drop

3. Final increase

Benefits

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INTENSIFIER PISTON INTENSIFIER PISTON SEAL BARREL

BARREL GROUP
VENTING INTERNAL LEAKS

VENTING CHECK VALVE

69 During the normal injection cycle, the pressure of the oil supplied to the top of the intensifier piston can increase to 22800 kPa (3300 psi). A seal is installed to minimize leakage past the piston. Some oil which is necessary for lubrication of the intensifier piston may pass the seal and settle momentarily below the piston. Also, a small amount of fuel may leak past the plunger and barrel. This fuel will settle momentarily in the cavity below the intensifier piston. If the fluids which accumulate below the piston are not vented, a hydraulic lock could occur. As the piston moves down, the fuel is ejected past the barrel ball check valve to the low pressure inlet. The check valve then closes during the plunger and piston upstroke.

Internal leakage

Fluids are vented to pump inlet

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INJECTOR CHECK VALVES


FUEL INLET CHECK VALVE

BARREL GROUP
VENTING CHECK VALVE

NOZZLE GROUP

REVERSE FLOW CHECK VALVE

NOZZLE CHECK VALVE

FUEL ATOMIZATION

70
Injector check valves:

Four check valves are installed in the injector. Three check valves are installed in the Barrel Group and one is installed in the Nozzle Group. The Fuel Inlet Check Valve allows fuel to fill the barrel below the plunger, but closes as the plunger moves down and pressure increases. The Venting Check Valve vents fluids from below the intensifier piston. The Reverse Flow Check Valve prevents combustion gasses from flowing back through the injector from the nozzle. The Nozzle Check Valve controls valve opening pressure by preventing the flow of fuel through the nozzle holes until sufficient pressure is available to lift the valve from its seat.

- Fuel inlet

- Barrel

- Reverse flow

- Nozzle

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HYDRAULIC INJECTION PRESSURE CONTROL

INJECTION PRESSURE

HEUI

MECHANICALLY ACTUATED FUEL SYSTEM

IDLE

PEAK TORQUE

RATED

ENGINE SPEED

71 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Hydraulic pressure control

The desired hydraulic actuation pressure for fuel injection can be controlled independent of engine speed. Many combinations of on-time and hydraulic operating pressure exist which can result in a specific quantity of fuel per injector stroke being delivered to the combustion chamber. This characteristic is useful when tuning the engine to optimize performance, response, emissions, and other parameters. This feature makes the HEUI system superior; injection pressure can reach its maximum value regardless of engine speed. Maximum injection pressure is normally required at full torque speed. This characteristic contrasts with pump and line systems where pressure is proportional to engine speed.

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72 Hydraulic Supply Pump Group


Variable displacement piston pump

The 3408E/3412E Hydraulic Supply Pump Group is a variable displacement, axial piston pump similar to those used in many machine hydraulic systems. The pump features a nine piston rotating group and variable displacement control. The pump is driven by the engine timing gears at 1.167 times engine speed and produces 59 L/min. (15.5 gpm) at rated engine speed. Low pressure oil from the engine lubricating pump is supplied to the inlet of the pump Cold Start Oil Reservoir. The purpose of the reservoir is to keep the system primed during cool down. During cold starting conditions, this volume of oil helps to shorten start times. The lubrication system oil pressure and hydraulic temperature sensors are located in the reservoir.

Cold start oil reservoir

Serviceable parts

The Hydraulic Supply Pump Group contains the following serviceable parts: - Transfer Pump - Reverse Flow Check Valves - Pump Control Valve - Compensator Valve Block

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3 1

73
Hydraulic supply pump mounting adapter 1. Pump drive splines 2. Alignment bolt hole 3. Atmospheric pressure sensor location

The Hydraulic Supply Pump group is mounted on the adapter shown on the slide. The pump drive shaft engages in the drive splines (1). A large bolt is installed in the hole (2) in the adaptor base to provide good alignment between the adaptor and the engine block. Note the location of the Atmospheric Pressure Sensor (3) in the housing. The Atmospheric Pressure sensor is vented to the atmosphere below the housing. The housing contains a foam plug to prevent the entry of dirt into the sensor.

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PRIMING PORT

COMPENSATOR VALVE

HEUI PUMP

ORIFICE DRAIN PASSAGE RESERVOIR

VALVE BASE TRANSFER PUMP

SWASHPLATE

74
Pump priming

Priming the pump after replacement is extremely important to prevent slipper pad overheating. Pump failure or damage will occur due to lack of lubrication if the case is not filled during replacement. The priming port is located adjacent to the inlet tube (not shown) and is the rearmost of the two plugs. The front plug is the case drain passage and is vented over the pump drive gears. Therefore, the front plug cannot be used for priming. A .50 mm (.020 in.) orifice is located between the fill port line and the case drain line. This orifice allows a continuous flow from the case to the drain circuit for lubrication, cooling and venting of air from the reservoir. The procedure to prime the Hydraulic Supply Pump case is:

Priming port

Case drain orifice

Priming procedure

1. Remove the plug from the priming port. 2. Fill the compartment with oil and replace the plug. 3. Fill the reservoir with oil (if the machine is not equipped with pre-lube).

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75
Fuel transfer pump (arrow)

The fuel transfer pump (arrow) is driven by a coupling that connects the end of the high pressure supply pump drive shaft to the transfer pump input shaft. This gear pump has an integral relief valve set to open at 620 to 760 kPa (90 to 110 psi). This valve does not normally operate because the pressure regulating valve (next slide) is controlling the pressure. Fuel is drawn from the tank to the combined primary fuel filter/water separator. The fuel then passes through the ECM and the secondary fuel filter to the fluid manifold and the injectors.

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76
Pressure regulating valve

Fuel system pressure is controlled by the Pressure Regulating Valve. This valve regulates pressure between 310 to 415 kPa (45 to 60 psi). The valve is located downstream of the fluid manifold fuel passages and the injectors. Fuel which passes through the valve is returned to the fuel tank. The fuel lines from both fuel passages in the manifolds are joined at the regulating valve.

Fuel pressure test plug (arrow)

Fuel pressure can be checked by removing the plug (arrow) and connecting a gauge.

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COOL DOWN BYPASS CIRCUIT


TO LUBE SYSTEM .020 IN. ORIFICE HYDRAULIC TEMPERATURE SENSOR COLD START OIL RESERVOIR HEUI

DRAIN

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR COOL DOWN CIRCUIT

FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE


FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR

OIL FILTER

HYDRAULIC SUPPLY PUMP GROUP

FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE


PUMP CONTROL VALVE OIL COOLER FUEL TRANSFER PUMP PRIMARY FUEL FILTER WATER SEPARATOR OIL SUMP FUEL TANK

HEUI ECM

LUBE OIL PUMP

SECONDARY FUEL FILTER

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE

77
Cold start oil reservoir

The Cold Start Oil Reservoir is located above the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group. The Hydraulic (Oil) Temperature and Lube Oil Pressure Sensors are located at the top of the reservoir. When the engine is shut down and oil in the supply manifolds cools and contracts, oil from the reservoir flows through the cool down circuit to the manifolds. This design prevents the formation of air bubbles in the hydraulic supply manifolds during cooling to provide fast starting and smooth running. A 0.50 mm (.020 in.) drilled passage in the reservoir allows the air to be vented through the case drain after start-up.

Reverse flow check valves

The Reverse Flow Check Valves prevent hydraulic surges between the oil supply passages and are used to maintain stable pressures. The valves are shown on the next slide.

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78 This view shows the rear of the hydraulic supply pump with the aftercooler removed from the engine.
Reverse flow check valves (arrows)

The Reverse Flow Check Valves (arrows) are located at the rear of the pump group to the right of the transfer pump. The high pressure lines to the manifolds are connected to the check valves.

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REVERSE FLOW CHECK VALVE

SEAT
(END VIEW)

TO INJECTORS

FROM PUMP

FITTING

VALVE BLOCK

SPRING

CHECK

SEAT

79
Reverse flow check valve

The hydraulic supply pump group has two outlet ports, each connected by steel tubes to a hydraulic supply manifold. An integral reverse flow check valve is located in each outlet port. This view shows that pressure surges travelling back from the injectors toward the pump will cause the check valve to close and block any interference between the banks. In normal operation, the valve will oscillate at high frequency as it blocks the pressure surges. The valve check fits loosely on the shaft to allow oil flow from the reservoir during the cooling process. If the check valves were not in the system, pressure surges between the banks would cause erratic operation of the injectors by adversely affecting timing. The pressure surge causes the poppet valves to open prematurely. This condition would start fuel injection earlier than normal, thereby advancing the timing.

Check valves block pressure surges from injectors

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4 2 6 5 3

80
Pump components:

This cutaway view of the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group shows the following components: Cold Start Oil Reservoir (1) Swashplate (2) Swashplate Pivot (3) Displacement Control Piston (4) Pump Pistons (5, one of seven shown) Check Valves (6)

1. Cold start reservoir 2. Swashplate 3. Swashplate pivot 4. Displacement control piston 5. Pump piston 6. Check valves

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2 3 4

11 6

5 7

9 8 10

81
Valve components: 1. Compensator valve assembly 2. Pressure limiter spool 3. Load sensing spool 4. Check valve 5. Valve base Oil passages: 6. Oil supply from pump 7. Pressure limiter to case drain 8. To displacement control piston 9. Pump control valve to case drain Pump components: 10. Transfer pump drive and mounting 11. Pump control valve

This cutaway view shows the compensator valve assembly and the pump control valve. Note the following components which will be referred to in the presentation: Compensator Valve Assembly (1) Pressure Limiter Spool (2) Load Sensing Spool (3) Check Valve (4) Valve base (5) Oil Passages: Oil supply from pump (6) Pressure Limiter to Case Drain (7) To Displacement Control Piston (8) Pump Control Valve to Case Drain (9) Transfer Pump Drive and Mounting (10) Pump Control Valve (11)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The Compensator Valve is an emissions device and should not be adjusted.

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3408E/3412E HEUI FUEL SYSTEM


TO LUBE SYSTEM

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OPERATION


HEUI HYDRAULIC TEMPERATURE SENSOR COLD START OIL RESERVOIR OIL PRESSURE SENSOR COOL DOWN CIRCUIT FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR

OIL FILTER

HYDRAULIC SUPPLY PUMP GROUP

FLUID MANIFOLD HYDRAULIC PASSAGE PUMP CONTROL VALVE FUEL TRANSFER PUMP

ECM

HEUI

OIL COOLER

LUBE OIL PUMP

SECONDARY FUEL FILTER

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE

PRIMARY FUEL FILTER OIL SUMP FUEL TANK

82 System Operation
Hydraulic supply pump circuit

As stated earlier, the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group combines the functions of the high pressure oil pump, the fuel transfer pump, and the pump control valve into a single unit. The function of the Hydraulic Supply Pump Group is to provide the required oil flow at the desired pressure to operate the injectors, provide the supply of low pressure fuel required for refilling the injectors after each injection, and for ECM cooling. As the oil is supplied by the pump rotating group, the pressure is raised from the reservoir level of approximately 415 kPa (60 psi) to the pressure required for injector operation. Depending on the engine rating, the operating conditions, and the engine mapping characteristics, this pressure is controlled between 5000 and 22800 kPa (725 and 3300 psi).

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HEUI HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEM


START-UP
TO LUBE SYSTEM COLD START RESERVIOR TO LEFT OIL MANIFOLD TO RIGHT OIL MANIFOLD

DISPLACEMENT CONTROL PISTON

CHECK VALVE SUPPLY PUMP LOAD SENSING SPOOL

PRESSURE LIMITER SPOOL

SOLENOID (ENERGIZED)

OIL SUMP

PUMP CONTROL VALVE PUMP CASE DRAIN

83
Conditions during START-UP

The displacement of the pump is controlled to maintain the desired operating pressure at the flow rate required by the injectors. The displacement is regulated by an electro-hydraulic control. Displacement of the pump is varied by pivoting the swashplate from 0 degrees to a maximum angle of 15.5 degrees. When the engine is not running, the swashplate is at the maximum angle. During operation, the displacement control piston adjusts the swashplate position to meet the system flow demand. During initial cranking, the swashplate is at full displacement until the supply pressure increases to 6200 kPa (900 psi). The spring at the end of the load sensing spool regulates this pressure. Then, the specification programmed into the ECM for normal cranking will override this pressure. Until this point, the control valve solenoid is fully energized for the pressure increase.

Displacement varied by changing swashplate angle

Swashplate at full displacement during start-up Pump control valve solenoid energized

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COMPENSATOR ASSEMBLY
START-UP
PRESSURE LIMITER SPOOL ORIFICE PUMP CONTROL VALVE LOAD SENSING SPOOL

CHECK VALVE

FROM DISPLACEMENT CONTROL PISTON

DRAIN ORIFICE TO CASE DRAIN TO CASE DRAIN REVERSE FLOW CHECK VALVES

84
Compensator valve conditions during START-UP

During START-UP, pressure from the pump enters the compensator assembly. The Pump Control Valve is energized for quick pressure build-up. Pressure is felt at both ends of the Load Sensing Spool. The spool is shifted to the right and oil from the Displacement Control Piston is vented to case drain. The swashplate is at maximum angle. The drain orifice below the Pump Control Valve provides a small amount of restriction to improve valve stability.

Displacement control piston vented to case drain

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HEUI HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEM


DESTROKE
TO LUBE SYSTEM COLD START RESERVIOR TO LEFT OIL MANIFOLD DISPLACEMENT CONTROL PISTON TO RIGHT OIL MANIFOLD

CHECK VALVE SUPPLY PUMP LOAD SENSING SPOOL

PRESSURE LIMITER SPOOL

SOLENOID (DE-ENERGIZED)

OIL SUMP

PUMP CONTROL VALVE PUMP CASE DRAIN

85
Conditions during DESTROKE Pump control valve solenoid de-energized Pump control valve changes pump displacement

After the engine starts and pressure increases, the ECM will signal the control valve to match the actual with the desired pressure by momentarily de-energizing and then regulating the current flow to the pump control valve solenoid. The decrease in current applied to the pump control valve solenoid lowers the pressure required to initiate flow through the pump control valve. This lower cracking pressure on the pump control valve creates a force imbalance on the load sensing spool, causing the spool to move toward the spring end of the compensator. This spool motion connects the displacement control piston to pump output flow, allowing the swashplate to decrease the displacement of the pump. The decreased displacement lowers the pump output to the pressure level required by the ECM.

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COMPENSATOR ASSEMBLY
DESTROKE PRESSURE LIMITER SPOOL ORIFICE

PUMP CONTROL VALVE

LOAD SENSING SPOOL CHECK VALVE

DRAIN ORIFICE

TO DISPLACEMENT CONTROL PISTON TO CASE DRAIN

86
Compensator valve conditions during DESTROKE

During DESTROKE, the ECM momentarily de-energizes the Pump Control Valve causing a pressure drop in the spring chamber of the Load Sensing Spool. Unbalanced pressures force the spool to the left, allowing the oil to enter the Displacement Control Piston and move the swashplate toward minimum angle.

Displacement control piston pressurized

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HEUI HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEM


UPSTROKE
TO LUBE SYSTEM COLD START RESERVIOR TO LEFT OIL MANIFOLD TO RIGHT OIL MANIFOLD

DISPLACEMENT CONTROL PISTON

CHECK VALVE SUPPLY PUMP LOAD SENSING SPOOL

PRESSURE LIMITER SPOOL

SOLENOID (ENERGIZED)

OIL SUMP PUMP CONTROL VALVE PUMP CASE DRAIN

87
Conditions during UPSTROKE

As the load on the engine increases and higher pressure is required, the ECM will signal the control valve to increase pressure by increasing the current flow to the pump control valve solenoid. The increase in current applied to the pump control valve solenoid raises the pressure setting of the pump control valve. This higher pressure at the pump control valve creates a force imbalance on the load sensing spool, causing the spool to move toward the supply signal line end of the compensator. This spool motion vents the displacement control piston to case drain, allowing the spring to move the swashplate to increase the displacement of the pump. The increased displacement raises the pump output to the desired pressure level required by the ECM.

Pump control valve energized

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COMPENSATOR ASSEMBLY
UPSTROKE PRESSURE LIMITER SPOOL

PUMP CONTROL VALVE

ORIFICE LOAD SENSING SPOOL CHECK VALVE

DRAIN ORIFICE

FROM DISPLACEMENT CONTROL PISTON TO CASE DRAIN

88
Compensator valve positions during UPSTROKE

As the load is applied to the engine, the ECM increases current to the Pump Control Valve. Pressure is felt at both ends of the Load Sensing Spool. The spool moves to the right (due to spring force) and oil from the Displacement Control Piston is vented to case drain, which allows the swashplate to momentarily go to maximum angle and build pressure quickly.

Displacement control piston is drained

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HEUI HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEM


PRESSURE LIMITER OPERATION
TO LUBE SYSTEM COLD START RESERVIOR TO LEFT OIL MANIFOLD DISPLACEMENT CONTROL PISTON TO RIGHT OIL MANIFOLD

SUPPLY PUMP SOLENOID (DE-ENERGIZED) PLUGGED ORIFICE LOAD SENSING SPOOL

PRESSURE LIMITER SPOOL

OIL SUMP PUMP CONTROL VALVE PUMP CASE DRAIN

89
Pressure limiter operation

If the load sensing spool or pump control valve sticks or otherwise malfunctions to create higher than desired operating pressures, the maximum pressure limiter spool is utilized. In this schematic, a plugged orifice is simulated. (This example represents an actual condition which was caused by debris being introduced during a field replacement of the compensator valve.) The Pressure Limiter Spool directs pump outlet flow to the displacement control piston and reduces the stroke of the pump if the system pressure exceeds 25600 kPa (3700 psi).

Check engine lamp indicates the fault

During these conditions, the pump will develop 24800 to 25600 kPa (3600 to 3700 psi) maximum pressure, regardless of the desired hydraulic pressure. The Check Engine Lamp will be ON, indicating a fault. A Pump Control Valve Test will verify the control valve operation. This test enables the technician to manually ramp the pressure up and down using the ET service tool. This procedure will also be useful when evaluating the condition of the hydraulic system.

Pump control valve test

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COMPENSATOR ASSEMBLY
PRESSURE LIMITER OPERATION PRESSURE LIMITER SPOOL PUMP CONTROL VALVE ORIFICE

LOAD SENSING SPOOL CHECK VALVE

PLUGGED ORIFICE DRAIN ORIFICE

TO DISPLACEMENT CONTROL PISTON TO CASE DRAIN

90
Pressure limiter operation Pressure limiter directs pressure to control piston

If the supply pressure exceeds 25600 kPa (3700 psi), the force acts on the Pressure Limiter Spool and shifts it to the left. This movement compresses the spring and allows oil to unseat the check valve and pressurize the displacement control piston. The swashplate moves to minimum angle to decrease flow and limit system pressure.

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PUMP CONTROL VALVE


NO CURRENT FLOW
COIL ASSEMBLY POPPET VALVE ADAPTER SEAL SEAT CAGE FROM LOAD SENSING SPOOL VALVE

STOP

STATOR EDGE FILTER

SPRING RETAINER TO CASE DRAIN VALVE BLOCK

ARMATURE

SOLENOID

PIN

SHELL

RING

91
Pump control valve

The pump control valve is mounted on the compensator control assembly which contains the load sensing spool and the pressure limiter. In this slide, the pump control valve is open, allowing pressure to vent to case drain. Flow to and from the displacement control piston is determined by the compensator control assembly and the pump control valve. The compensator control assembly senses pump output pressure through a pilot pressure signal line. The pump control valve varies the pressure to the displacement control piston by varying the pressure on one end of the load sensing spool valve. The load sensing spool directs oil to and from the displacement control piston. The spool has a hole through its center, which allows pilot pressure to reach both ends of the spool. The spring force on the load sensing spool is adjusted at the factory. The pump will develop 5000 kPa (725 psi) with the pump control solenoid valve disconnected while cranking the engine with the injectors disabled.

Flow controlled by compensator and pump control valve

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PUMP CONTROL VALVE


HIGH CURRENT FLOW
COIL ASSEMBLY POPPET VALVE ADAPTER SEAL SEAT CAGE FROM LOAD SENSING SPOOL VALVE

STOP

STATOR EDGE FILTER

SPRING RETAINER VALVE BLOCK

ARMATURE

SOLENOID

PIN

SHELL

RING

CASE DRAIN

92
Pump control valve High current flow equals high pressure

The pressure level in the hydraulic operating supply is monitored by a hydraulic pressure sensor. When the hydraulic pressure is less than desired (as determined by the ECM), the current level applied to the pump control valve solenoid is increased. The increase in current to the solenoid raises the pressure required to initiate flow through the pump control valve. This higher cracking pressure for the pump control valve creates a force imbalance on the load sensing spool, causing the load sensing spool to move toward the supply signal line end of the spool. This spool motion vents the displacement control piston to pump case drain, allowing the swashplate to increase displacement of the pump. The increased displacement raises the hydraulic output to the rate required by the ECM for the injectors.

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INSTRUCTOR NOTE: To reinforce this presentation, the following tasks may be demonstrated on an engine: Hydraulic pump priming Remove and install a pump control valve and the compensator valve assembly. Check the following using the status screen: - Desired hydraulic pressure - System hydraulic oil pressure - System hydraulic oil temperature - Percentage current to pump control valve Using the ET Injection Actuation Pressure Test, check the pump and pump control valve operation, and check for correct pressures throughout the range. Physically check for leaks externally and internally below the valve covers (injectors must be disabled during cranking with the valve covers removed).

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HEUI SYSTEM POWER SUPPLIES


ECM: 24 VOLTS SPEED/TIMING SENSORS: 12.5 VOLTS INJECTORS: 105 VOLTS ANALOG SENSORS: 5 VOLTS DIGITAL SENSORS: 8 VOLTS PUMP CONTROL VALVE: 0 to 24 VOLTS

93 SYSTEM POWER SUPPLIES


Six system power supplies

The HEUI system has six power supplies with various voltages as shown. EXTERNAL POWER SUPPLY ECM power supply INTERNAL POWER SUPPLIES Speed/Timing Sensor power supply Injector power supply Analog Sensor power supply Digital Sensor power supply Pump Control Valve power supply 12.5 Volts 105 Volts 5 Volts 8 Volts 0 to 24 Volts 24 Volts

The power supplies are described in detail in the following section.

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3408E/3412E HEUI SYSTEM


8 OR 12 INJECTORS

ECM POWER SUPPLY COMPONENTS


ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH 24 V

MACHINE HARNESS PUMP CONTROL VALVE HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR THROTTLE SENSOR

15 AMP BREAKER

MAIN KEY POWER RELAY SWITCH

ACCELERATOR PEDAL THROTTLE BACK-UP, ELEVATED LOW IDLE ENABLE, AND GROUND LEVEL SHUTDOWN (2) SWITCHES TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR FAN CONTROL VALVE

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR FAN SPEED SENSOR ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR CAT DATA LINK OIL PRESSURE SENSOR HYDRAULIC TEMP. SENSOR ELECTRONIC SERVICE TOOL EPTC II TRANSMISSION CONTROL AUTO RETARDER CONTROL FAN

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR COOLANT FLOW SWITCH INSTRUMENT PANEL

94 ECM Power Supply


24-Volt power supply

The power supply to the ECM and the system is drawn from the 24-Volt machine battery. The principle components in this circuit are: - Battery - Key Start Switch - Main Power Relay - 15 Amp Breaker - Ground Bolt - ECM Connector (P1/JI) - Machine Interface Connector (J3/P3) If the supply voltage exceeds 32.5 Volts or is less than 9.0 Volts, a diagnostic code is logged. (See the Troubleshooting Guide for complete details on voltage event logging.) NOTE: The ground bolt is the only power supply component mounted on the engine.

Power supply components

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ECM POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT

DISCONNECT SWITCH BATTERY (-) 24 VOLTS DC (+)

ENGINE BLOCK GROUND BOLT P1 J1 229-BK-14 229-BK-14 150-RD-14 150-RD-14 113-OR ECM (3408E/3412E) (-) BATTERY (-) BATTERY (+) BATTERY (+) BATTERY KEY SWITCH ON

15 A CIRCUIT BREAKER 113-OR 10 AMP 112-PU

1 2 26
P3 J3

05 11 04 06 23

308-YL 117-RD 105-RD 200-BK

R C OFF S ON B ST KEY SWITCH

95
ECM power supply circuit

This schematic shows the principle components for a typical power supply circuit. Battery voltage is normally connected to the ECM. However, an input from the key start switch turns the ECM on. The machine wiring harness can be bypassed for troubleshooting purposes. These steps are described in the Troubleshooting Procedure. The supply Voltage may be checked using the ET Status Screen display. NOTE: The power supply cables are paired to reduce resistance.

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SPEED/TIMING SENSOR POWER SUPPLY 12.5 1 VOLTS


SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR (LH)

P44 J44 OR BK WH A B C P2 J2

PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR (RH)

ECM (3408E/3412E) P20 J20 OR BK WH A B C 732-PK 996-GN 998-BR 999-WH F723-PK F724-PU 39 32 29 38 18 12 P1 J1 SECONDARY ENGINE SPEED +V TIMING DIGITAL RETURN PRIMARY ENGINE SPEED TIMING CAL + TIMING CAL -

96 Speed/Timing Sensor Power Supply


12.5-Volt power supply

The Speed/Timing Sensors have a dedicated power supply. The ECM supplies 12.5 1 Volts to the Primary and Secondary Speed/Timing Sensors. Connectors A and B send the common power supply to the sensors. The C wires transmit separate signals to the ECM. This power supply is not battery voltage, but is generated and regulated within 1.0 volt by the ECM. A power supply failure at the ECM will cause both sensors to fail and the engine will shut down since the sensors share the common power supply.

NOTICE
Connecting another system or accessory to the Speed/Timing Sensor power supply can cause engine failure.

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INJECTOR WIRING SCHEMATIC


J52/P52 SOLENOID 1 SOLENOID 3 1 2 3 4 J56/P56 SOLENOID 2 SOLENOID 4 1 2 3 4 J53/P53 SOLENOID 5 SOLENOID 7 1 2 3 4 J57/P57 SOLENOID 6 SOLENOID 8 1 2 3 4 J54/P54 SOLENOID 9 SOLENOID 11 1 2 3 4 J58/P58 SOLENOID 10 SOLENOID 12 1 2 3 4 A710-GY F731-OR A712-BR F731-OR 18 33 12 SOLENOID 10 POWER SOLENOID 10/12 RETURN SOLENOID 12 POWER A709-OR F730-GY A711-PU F730-GY 37 27 31 SOLENOID 9 POWER SOLENOID 9/11 RETURN SOLENOID 11 POWER A706-GY F729-GN A708-BR F729-GN 28 21 22 SOLENOID 6 POWER SOLENOID 6/8 RETURN SOLENOID 8 POWER A705-BU F728-BR A707-PU F728-BR 32 17 38 SOLENOID 5 POWER SOLENOID 5/7 RETURN SOLENOID 7 POWER A702-PU F727-BU A704-GN F727-BU 40 11 34 SOLENOID 2 POWER SOLENOID 2/4 RETURN SOLENOID 4 POWER A701-GY F726-YL A703-BR F726-YL P2 J2 16 05 32 ECM (3408/3412E) SOLENOID 1 POWER SOLENOID 1/3 RETURN SOLENOID 3 POWER

97 Injector Power Supplies


105-Volt power supply

The injectors are supplied with power from the ECM at 105 Volts. For this reason, precautions must be observed when performing maintenance around the valve covers. On the 3412E, two separate power supplies are used for the injectors. If a failure occurs, only one bank of injectors could have failed. (On the 3408E, only one of the power supplies is used.) If an open or a short occurs in the injector circuit, the ECM will disable that injector. The ECM will periodically try to actuate that injector to determine if the fault is still present and will disconnect or reconnect the injector as appropriate.

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J21 P21

ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR

+V ANALOG ANALOG RETURN SIGNAL

A B C P22 J22 A B C P23 J23 A B C P25 J25

P1 J1 36 30

ECM (3408E/3412E HEUI) +V ANALOG SUPPLY ANALOG RETURN

ENGINE OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

+V ANALOG ANALOG RETURN SIGNAL

TURBO OUTLET PRESSURE SENSOR

+V ANALOG ANALOG RETURN SIGNAL

TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SENSOR

+V ANALOG ANALOG RETURN SIGNAL

A B C P27 J27 A B C P45 J45 A B C P43 J43 A B C P51 J51

ANALOG SENSOR POWER SUPPLY


5 0.2 VOLTS

+V ANALOG ANALOG RETURN SIGNAL

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR

+V ANALOG ANALOG RETURN SIGNAL

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

+V ANALOG ANALOG RETURN SIGNAL

HYDRAULIC OIL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

+V ANALOG ANALOG RETURN SIGNAL

A B C

98 Analog Sensor Power Supply


Provides power to all analog sensors

The Analog Sensor Power Supply provides power to all the analog sensors (pressure and temperature sensors). The ECM supplies 5.0 0.2 Volts DC (Analog Supply) through the J1/P1 connector to each sensor. A power supply failure will cause all analog sensors to appear to fail. The power supply is protected against short circuits, which means that a short in a sensor or a wiring harness will not cause damage to the ECM.

5-Volt power supply

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THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR


+V DIGITAL DIGITAL RETURN SIGNAL

J35 P35 A B C

P1 J1 29 35

ECM (3408E/3412E HEUI) + V DIGITAL SUPPLY - V DIGITAL RETURN

FAN SPEED SENSOR


+V DIGITAL DIGITAL RETURN SIGNAL

DIGITAL SENSOR POWER SUPPLY


P84 J84 A B C

8 0.5 VOLTS

99 Digital Sensor Power Supply


8-Volt power supply

The ECM supplies power at 8 0.5 Volts through the J1/P1 connector to the following circuits: - Throttle Position Sensor - Fan Speed Sensor (if installed) - Exhaust Temperature Sensor (may be installed on high performance industrial engines) The power supply is protected against short circuits, which means that a short in a sensor will not cause damage to the ECM.

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PUMP CONTROL VALVE POWER SUPPLY


0 to 24 VOLTS PWM 0 to 800 mAmps
PUMP CONTROL VALVE
SUPPLY RETURN

J46 P46 A B

P2 J2 29 35

ECM (3408E/3412E HEUI) + SUPPLY - RETURN

100 Pump Control Valve Power Supply The ECM supplies a PWM signal of 0 to 24 Volts (PWM) and 0 to 800 mA through the J2/P2 connector to the Pump Control Valve.
0 to 24 Volts digital power supply

The control valve and power supply can be tested on the engine using ET and the Hydraulic Injection Actuation Pressure Test. Using the test, the pressure can be adjusted manually with the ET service tool from minimum to maximum. Therefore, this function can be used to verify the operation of the control valve, the power supply from the ECM and the hydraulic system. When using the test, the pressure (expressed as a percentage of maximum) can be raised in increments of 1% up to 100%. The maximum value can only be reached when there is a leak in the system and the pump is at maximum displacement to make up for the pressure loss. Otherwise, the pressure may only reach a maximum of 49%. The minimum pressure is a function of the spring setting of the Compensator Valve. (This valve is an emission control and should not be adjusted.)

Injection actuation pressure test

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The service tool status screen can be used to show the percentage of the current being used. This measurement can be used in conjunction with the desired and actual hydraulic pressures to check the complete system operation. The Pump Control Valve uses a digital power supply because a PWM current is more easily regulated. Also, modulating the current at 500 Hz produces a vibrating effect on the poppet valve to prevent the valve from sticking. The poppet valve is kept in motion much like the rack in a hydra-mechanical governor.
Indicated voltages

NOTE: If the control valve voltage is read with an oscilloscope, it may show a peak of 24 Volts, while a Voltmeter may show up to 8 Volts rms. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The following exercises will reinforce the material introduced in the preceding slides and will allow questions to be answered. During this exercise, a demonstration on an engine or a Training Aid should be performed showing: Open circuit in the ECM power supply Status screen supply voltage reading Opens and shorts in the Speed/Timing sensor power supply Opens and shorts in the analog and digital power supplies Status screen pressure and temperature readings with a fault in the sensor power supply Hydraulic Injection Actuation Pressure Test showing the percentage of current to the control valve

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ELECTRONIC SENSORS AND SYSTEMS

101 ELECTRONIC SENSORS AND SYSTEMS This section of the presentation covers the electronic sensors and related circuits in the 3408E and 3412E HEUI fuel system.

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

102 Speed/Timing Sensors Two Speed/Timing Sensors are installed: a primary and a secondary. The Speed/Timing Sensors serve three basic functions in the system:
Three functions of the speed/timing sensor

- Engine speed detection - Engine timing detection - Cylinder and TDC identification

Self-adjusting zero gap sensor

The Speed/Timing Sensors, which are mounted on the front housing below the timing gear wheel, are self-adjusting during installation. This type of sensor does not have a typical fixed air gap. The sensor is not in direct contact with the timing wheel but does run with a zero clearance.

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Speed/timing sensor failure modes

If a primary sensor failure occurs, the secondary sensor will provide the back-up automatically. A momentary change of engine sound is all that will be noticed as the changeover takes place. If the fault in the primary sensor is corrected, then the ECM will continue to use the secondary sensor until the engine is shut down and restarted. A subsequent speed/timing sensor failure will cause an engine shutdown. The sensor may be functionally checked by cranking the engine and observing the service tool status screen for engine rpm. A failure of either sensor will be indicated by the active fault screen on the service tool. An intermittent failure will be shown in the logged fault screen. Because both sensors share a common power supply, a power supply failure at the ECM will cause both sensors to fail.

Sensor installation

The sensor head is extended prior to installation. The action of screwing in the sensor pushes the head back into the body after the head contacts the timing wheel. During installation, it is essential to check that the sensor head is not aligned with the wide slot in the timing wheel. If this condition occurs, the head will be severed when the engine is started, and some disassembly may be necessary to remove the debris. Also, the other sensor may be damaged by the debris.

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ANALOG SENSORS

Hydraulic pressure Coolant temperature Atmospheric pressure Turbocharger inlet pressure Turbocharger outlet pressure Lubrication oil pressure Hydraulic temperature Fuel temperature

103 Analog Sensors and Circuits The following analog sensors and circuits may be used in various applications: - Hydraulic Pressure Sensor - Coolant Temperature Sensor - Atmospheric Pressure Sensor - Turbocharger Inlet Pressure Sensor * - Turbocharger Outlet (Boost) Sensor - Lubrication Oil Pressure Sensor - Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensor - Fuel Temperature Sensor * Not all applications

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

104
Hydraulic pressure sensor Senses injector actuation pressure

The Hydraulic Pressure Sensor is located in the right side supply manifold and is used to measure injector actuation hydraulic pressure for the ECM. The ECM uses this pressure measurement to control the displacement of the Hydraulic Supply Pump (through the Pump Control Valve). The sensor has a range from 0 to 4.8 Volts output which corresponds to a pressure range of approximately 4000 to 33000 kPa (600 to 4800 psi). With the engine stopped, the default value when read with the service tool is 1800 kPa (260 psi).

System defaults

The ECM will not activate the injectors to start the engine if the pressure is reading below 4500 kPa (650 psi). A fault will be generated if the actual hydraulic pressure differs from the desired system pressure by more than 1000 kPa (145 psi) for more than half a second. NOTE: Always use a wrench (not vise grip pliers) for removal and installation of all sensors.

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

105
Coolant temperature sensor

The Coolant Temperature Sensor supplies the temperature signal for the following functions: - Caterpillar Monitoring System or VIMS instrument display - Caterpillar Monitoring System or VIMS warning lamps and alarm - Demand Control Fan (if so equipped) - ET or ECAP coolant temperature display - High coolant temperature event logged above 107C (225F) - Engine Warning Derate when 107C (225F) is exceeded or low oil pressure occurs (if so equipped) - Back-up sensor to the hydraulic oil temperature sensor for ether aid operation NOTE: All analog sensors use the common analog power supply of 5.0 0.2 Volts.

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR

106
Atmospheric pressure sensor Used to calculate gauge pressure

All pressure sensors (except hydraulic actuation) in the system measure absolute pressure and, therefore, require the atmospheric sensor to calculate gauge pressure. The sensors are used both individually (absolute pressure) in the case of atmospheric pressure, and as a pair to calculate oil and boost pressures (gauge pressures). All the pressure sensor outputs are matched to the Atmospheric Pressure Sensor output during calibration. Calibration can be accomplished using the ET service tool or by turning on the key start switch without starting the engine for five seconds to automatically calibrate the sensors. The Atmospheric Pressure Sensor performs four main functions: 1. Automatic Altitude Compensation (maximum derate 24%) 2. Automatic Filter Compensation (maximum derate 20%) 3. Part of pressure calculation for gauge pressure readings 4. Reference sensor for pressure sensor calibration A foam filter is installed below the sensor to prevent the entry of dirt.

Two methods used to calibrate sensors

Four main functions

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ENGINE POWER DERATING MAP


ACCORDING TO ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
100% 98% 96% 94% 92% 90% 88% 86% 84% 82% 80% 78% 76% 74% 72% 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 7,500 8,210 8,920 9,630

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IN kPa

107
Automatic altitude compensation

Atmospheric pressure measurement by the sensor provides an altitude reference for the purpose of Automatic Altitude Compensation. The graph shown here describes how derating on a typical 3408E/3412E starts at 7500 ft. and continues linearly to a maximum of 17000 ft. Other engines may start as low as 4000 ft. depending on the application. The advantage of the HEUI system is that the engine always operates at the correct derating setting at all altitudes. The system continually adjusts to the optimum setting regardless of altitude, so the engine will not exhibit a lack of power or have smoke problems during climbs or descents to different altitudes. NOTE: The HEUI system has an advantage over a mechanical fuel system which is derated in "altitude blocks" (i.e. 7500 ft., 10000 ft., 12500 ft.). HEUI derating is continuous and automatic. Therefore, a machine operating in the lower half of the block is not penalized with low power. Conversely, a machine operating in the upper half of the block will not overfuel with the HEUI system.

System continually adjusts to optimum power setting

ALTITUDE IN FEET

10,340 11,050 11,760 12,470 13,180 13,890 14,600 15,310 16,020 16,730 17,440

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR

ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR

108
Turbo inlet pressure sensor Sensors enable automatic air filter compensation

The Turbocharger Inlet Pressure Sensor is used with the Atmospheric Pressure Sensor to measure air filter restriction. These two sensors are used to enable the Automatic Air Filter Compensation function (if so equipped.) This sensor is also used as a back-up to the Atmospheric Pressure Sensor for Automatic Altitude Compensation.

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AUTOMATIC AIR FILTER COMPENSATION


TURBOCHARGER INLET PRESSURE SENSOR ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SENSOR

CAT

Filter differential pressure calculated with formula: Atmospheric sensor pressure - Turbo sensor pressure = P Fuel limited 2% per 4 inches H20 to max 20%

109
Automatic filter compensation

Automatic Filter Compensation means that the engine is protected against the effects of plugged filters. Derating is automatic as follows: - Air filter restriction (P) exceeds 6.25 kPa (30 in. of water) *

Derating starts above 30 in. P

- Engine power derating starts at the rate of 2% per 1 kPa of P - Maximum derate is 20% - Event is logged when air filter restriction (P) exceeds 6.25 kPa (30 in. of water) * * These specifications are typical examples. The actual values may vary depending on the application. Derating is retained at the maximum P until the key start switch is cycled off and on. NOTE: If only one filter is plugged, the ET service tool and Caterpillar Monitoring System will display the highest P of the two. Derating is also based on the highest P of the two.

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR

ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR

110
Turbo outlet pressure sensor

The Turbocharger Outlet Pressure Sensor measures absolute pressure downstream of the aftercooler. Boost (gauge) pressure can be read with the service tools. This measurement is a calculation using the Atmospheric Pressure and the Turbocharger Outlet Pressure Sensors. A failure of this sensor can cause the engine to derate as much as 60% when the ECM defaults to a zero boost condition.

Air/fuel ratio control

The function of the sensor is to enable the Air/Fuel Ratio Control which reduces smoke, emissions and maintains engine response during acceleration. The system utilizes boost pressure, atmospheric pressure and engine speed to control the air/fuel ratio. Engine fuel delivery is limited according to a map of gauge turbo outlet (boost) pressure and engine speed. The Air/Fuel Ratio Control setting is not adjustable in machine applications. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The pressure calculations and purposes of these calculations for all sensors are tabulated later in the presentation.

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR

ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

111
Oil pressure sensor

Two pressure sensors are used for the measurement of oil (gauge) pressure: - Oil Pressure Sensor - Atmospheric Pressure Sensor PRESSURE CALCULATIONS

Calculations are used to determine gauge pressure

MEASUREMENT Oil pressure

MEASURED BY

RESULT

[oil press (A) - atmospheric (A)] = oil pressure (GP)

These measurements are used to determine oil pressure for the ET service tool, Caterpillar Monitoring System and to alert the operator that an abnormal condition exists. The sensor operating range is 0 to 690 kPa (0 to 100 psi) (A). NOTE: (A) = absolute pressure

(GP) = gauge pressure

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PRESSURE CALCULATIONS

MEASUREMENT

MEASURED BY atmospheric sensor Atmospheric - turbo inlet turbo outlet - atmospheric turbo outlet sensor oil press - atmospheric

RESULT = ambient press (absolute) = filter pressure = boost (gauge press) = boost (absolute press) = oil press (gauge press)

1. Atmospheric pressure
2. Air filter differential 3. 4. 5. Boost Manifold press. absolute Oil pressure

These measurements are used to determine: 1. Automatic Altitude Compensation 2. Automatic Air Filter Compensation (and Restriction Indication) 3. ET Boost Measurement 4. Caterpillar Monitoring System Oil Pressure Indication (Lubrication) 5. Altitude

NOTE: pressure = differential pressure

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OIL PRESSURE MAP


340 320 300 280 49.3 46.4 43.5 40.6

OIL PRESSURE IN kPa

260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900

OIL PRESSURE IN PSI

37.7 34.8 31.9 29 26.1 23.2 20.3 17.4 14.5 11.6

8.7 2000

ENGINE RPM
kPa x 0.145 = PSI

112
Oil pressure map

Determines correct pressure for all rpm

Engine oil pressure varies with engine speed. As long as oil pressure increases above the upper line after the engine has been started and is running at low idle, the ECM reads adequate oil pressure. No faults are indicated and no logged event is generated. If the engine oil pressure decreases below the lower line, the following occurs: - An event is generated and logged in the permanent ECM memory. - A Category 3 Warning (alert indicator, action lamp and alarm) is generated on Caterpillar Monitoring System (if so equipped). - The engine is derated (if so equipped) to alert the operator. The two lines are sufficiently separated to prevent multiple alarms and events or a flickering lamp. This pressure separation is referred to as "hysteresis."

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR

TURBO OUTLET (BOOST) PRESS. SENSOR ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

HYDRAULIC TEMP. SENSOR

113
Hydraulic oil temperature sensor Enables automatic viscosity compensation

The Hydraulic (engine) Oil Temperature Sensor is used by the ECM to compensate for the effects of oil temperature on fuel injector timing and fuel delivery. This compensation provides consistent engine operation throughout a variety of operating conditions. Cold start protection with Cold Mode Timing is activated when the oil temperature decreases below a preset value of 60C (140F). The ether injection system uses this sensor as its temperature reference. NOTE: Without oil temperature monitoring, viscosity changes due to changes in oil temperature could cause unacceptable variations in engine performance (including exhaust emissions).

Ether aid temperature reference

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY CAM SPEED/TIMING SENSOR BACKUP CAM SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR

ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

HYDRAULIC TEMP SENSOR

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

114
Fuel temperature sensor Enables fuel temperature compensation

The ECM uses fuel temperature measurement to make corrections to the fuel rate to maintain power regardless of fuel temperature (within certain parameters). This feature is called "Fuel Temperature Compensation." The sensor output should be between 0.4 and 4.6 Volts.

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR

ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

HYDRAULIC TEMP. SENSOR

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

COOLANT FLOW SWITCH

115
Coolant flow switch

The Coolant Flow Switch is installed in the oil cooler inlet. The switch connects the coolant flow terminal at the ECM P1/J1 connector to the digital return (ground) at the same connector. This ground is common with all digital sensors. The switch contacts are normally open with no flow. This circuit is used to provide the operator with a warning if a failure in the coolant circuit causing no flow occurs. The function may be checked using the status screen which will show if flow is present. This function should be checked both with the engine running and stopped.

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DIGITAL SENSORS AND CIRCUITS Throttle Position Pump Control Valve Signal Exhaust Temperature

116 Digital Sensors and Circuits The following digital sensors and circuits may be used in the HEUI fuel system: - Throttle Position Sensor - Pump Control Valve Signal - Exhaust Temperature (not installed on machine engines at this time)

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR THROTTLE SENSOR ACCELERATOR PEDAL

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR

ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

HYDRAULIC TEMP. SENSOR

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

COOLANT FLOW SWITCH

117
Throttle position sensor

The Throttle Position Sensor provides engine speed control for the operator. At engine start-up, the engine rpm is set to low idle for two seconds to allow an increase of oil pressure before the engine is accelerated.

8-Volt digital sensor power supply Throttle functional check

The Throttle Position Sensor receives 8 Volts from the Digital Sensor Power Supply at the ECM. A functional check of the throttle control system can be performed by connecting ET and monitoring the throttle position on the status screen as the throttle is moved slowly in both directions. The status screen will show between 0 and 100% of throttle position. (This reading should not be confused with the duty cycle percentage.) NOTE: This system eliminates all mechanical linkage between the operator's engine speed controls and the governor (ECM).

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PULSE WIDTH MODULATED SIGNALS


10% ON DUTY = 10% CYCLE OFF 50% ON DUTY = 50% CYCLE OFF 1 CYCLE 90% ON DUTY = 90% CYCLE OFF DUTY CYCLE = PERCENT OF TIME ON VS PERCENT OF TIME OFF

118
Throttle position sensor signal

A Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal output is sent from the Throttle Position Sensor to the ECM. A PWM signal eliminates the possibility of an erroneous throttle signal due to a short causing a possible "run-away." If a signal problem occurs, the control defaults to a desired engine speed of low idle. If the ECM detects an out-of-normal range signal, the ECM ignores the Throttle Position Sensor signal and defaults to low idle. The sensor output is a constant frequency Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal to the ECM. For example, the Off-highway Truck sensor produces a duty cycle of 10 to 22% at the low idle position and 44 to 52% at the high idle position. The duty cycle can be read by the ECAP Service Tool and some digital multimeters. The percent of duty cycle is translated into a throttle position of 0 to 100% by the ECM, which can be read on the ET status screen. Other applications differ in PWM values for low and high idle. These values can be seen in the Troubleshooting Guide for the appropriate application.

Control defaults to low idle

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS PUMP CONTROL VALVE MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR THROTTLE SENSOR

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

ACCELERATOR PEDAL

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR

ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

HYDRAULIC TEMP. SENSOR

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

COOLANT FLOW SWITCH

119
Pump control valve

The Pump Control Valve is used to control the swashplate angle in the hydraulic pump. By varying the PWM signal from the ECM to the solenoid, the valve controls the volume of hydraulic flow to case drain (as previously explained). PWM signals for the Pump Control Valve are used to maintain precise control of current values. The frequency of the power supply creates constant valve movement which helps the valve to maintain stable pressures. The Pump Control Valve may also be referred to as the "Injection Actuation Pressure Control Valve."

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS PUMP CONTROL VALVE MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR THROTTLE SENSOR

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

ACCELERATOR PEDAL THROTTLE BACK-UP, ELEVATED LOW IDLE ENABLE, AND GROUND LEVEL SHUTDOWN (2) SWITCHES TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR

ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

HYDRAULIC TEMP. SENSOR

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

COOLANT FLOW SWITCH

120 Engine Shutdown Systems


Ground level shutdown switch

The Ground Level Shutdown Switch is connected to the ECM through the machine and engine wiring harnesses. The switch signals the ECM to cut electrical power to the injectors, but maintains power to the ECM. This feature also enables the engine to be cranked without starting for maintenance purposes. No other circuits may be connected to this system. The user defined shutdown may be used in conjunction with other circuits. Not all machines will have this feature installed.

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USER DEFINED SHUTDOWN

J3 USER SHUTDOWN DEVICE 12

P2 J2 1 ECM (3408E/3412E HEUI) USER SHUTDOWN

121
User defined shutdown input

The User Defined Shutdown feature (if installed) may be used to connect another device to the system to shut down the engine (such as a customer installed fire suppression system). When the shutdown input is grounded for one second, the engine will stop running. The input must be pulled down below 0.5 Volts before the ECM will recognize the shutdown signal. Operation of the User Defined Shutdown is logged as an event and can be shown on the ET status screen.

Safety feature

When installed on an Off-highway Truck, this feature is programmed to function only during the following conditions for safety reasons: - Parking brake is ENGAGED - Transmission is in NEUTRAL - Machine ground speed is at zero Not all machines will have this feature installed.

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS PUMP CONTROL VALVE MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR THROTTLE SENSOR

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

ACCELERATOR PEDAL THROTTLE BACK-UP, ELEVATED LOW IDLE ENABLE, AND GROUND LEVEL SHUTDOWN (2) SWITCHES TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR FAN CONTROL VALVE

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR FAN SPEED SENSOR FAN ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

HYDRAULIC TEMP. SENSOR

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

COOLANT FLOW SWITCH

122

Demand Fan Controls


Two thermostatic fan types: - Variable speed clutch - Hydraulic

Two types of thermostatic fans are used in 3408E/3412E machine applications. Some Off-highway Trucks, Track-type Tractors, Motor Graders and Paving Products are equipped with a variable speed fan drive clutch. Some Wheel Loaders are equipped with a hydraulic fan drive. Both systems use the ECM and the temperature sensor as the engine coolant temperature reference and both are controlled by the ECM. If an electrical failure of the systems occurs, the fans will go to maximum (100%) speed. The advantages of the systems are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Reduced fuel consumption in most conditions Reduced engine overcooling at low ambient temperatures Faster engine warm-up More engine power available at the flywheel Reduced noise

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ETHER INJECTION SYSTEM


P2 J2

ECM (3408E/E3412E)

ETHER SWITCH

J3

P3 F708-YL 998-BR 721-GY 710-BR

P1 J1

23 9 39 21
200-BK 200-BK + 308-YL 310-PK

28 29 19 40

ETHER SW LAMP DIGITAL RETURN ETHER REQUEST ETHER CONTROL

P37 J37 1 2

FROM CYLINDER

+24V

RELAY

ETHER START VALVE

TO ENGINE

123 Ether Injection System The ECM controls the use of ether for cold starting. The ECM uses inputs from the speed/timing and hydraulic oil temperature sensors to determine the need for ether. The coolant temperature sensor is used as a back-up for the hydraulic oil temperature sensor.
Ether injection parameters

The ECM cycles the ether for three seconds on and three seconds off. Actual flow is determined by engine speed and temperature. Ether injection is disabled when the oil temperature exceeds 10C (50F) or engine speed exceeds 1200 rpm. A manual mode allows ether injection when the above parameters permit. In the manual mode, a precise quantity of ether is injected. The ether injection status can be read on the ET status screen.

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SERVICE TOOL CONNECTOR

CAT DATA LINK


LAPTOP COMPUTER

CONTROL

SERVICE TOOL

CAT ELECTRONIC TECHNICIAN


7X1701 COMMUNICATION ADAPTER

VIMS

MAIN MODULE

ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

VIMS DISPLAY MODULES

124 CAT Data Link


CAT Data Link Link between various systems

The CAT Data Link is the communication link between the ECM, EPTC II, Caterpillar Monitoring System, ET Service Tool, PC based software and other onboard/off board microprocessor based systems. The CAT Data Link allows the various onboard systems to communicate with each other through a two wire connection. Up to 10 systems can be connected on a machine. The CAT Data Link is used for programming and troubleshooting the electronic modules used with Caterpillar service tools through the Service Tool Connector. The ET service tool is connected through the Service Tool Connector. If a Personality Module is not installed in the ECM, the service tool will not be able to communicate with the ECM.

Service tool connector

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988F/990 CAT DATA LINK CIRCUIT

POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE Cat Data Link + Cat Data Link 8 9 23 24

CMS Cat Data Link + Cat Data Link -

SERVICE TOOL CONNECTOR

J42 D E H J

P3 J3 7 6 31 32

893-GN 892-BR E794-YL E-793-BU

ECM P1 J1 9 Cat Data Link + 3 Cat Data Link 7 ATA Data Link + 1 ATA Data Link -

MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

125 The CAT Data Link is a two wire (twisted pair) electrical connection used for communication between electronic modules that use the CAT Data Link. The cables are twisted to reduce radio frequency interference. Typical systems connected by the data link are: - ECM - Caterpillar Monitoring System Modules - Caterpillar ET or ECAP Service Tools - Transmission Control Module The ECM communicates with the Caterpillar Monitoring System, Vital Information Management System (VIMS) or Computer Monitoring System (CMS) to share engine information such as engine speed, engine oil pressure, coolant temperature, filter restriction, and electronic system faults.
Two data link systems

Data link wires twisted to reduce RFI

Two Data link systems are used. The CAT Data Link circuit is used for normal diagnostic and programming functions and the ATA Data Link is used for flash programming.

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LOGGED EVENTS

High coolant temperature Loss of coolant flow Low (lube) oil pressure Abnormal hydraulic pressure Hydraulic system pressure fault User defined shutdown Air inlet restriction Engine overspeed Low fuel pressure
126 Logged Events

Logged events

Logged events as listed on the appropriate ET screen are conditions which are abnormal to the operation of the engine (for example: high temperature, low pressure or excessive engine speed). These conditions would not normally be caused by an electronic problem. Some of the parameters listed in this presentation are used in the ET events list. They are:

Event list

- High coolant temperature above 107C (225F) - Loss of coolant flow - Low (lubrication) oil pressure (according to the oil pressure map) - Abnormal injection actuation hydraulic pressure (low or high) - Injection actuation pressure system fault - User defined shutdown (if installed) - Air inlet restriction (if installed) - Engine overspeed histogram - Low fuel pressure (industrial engine only)

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All the parameters listed on the previous page can be read on the ET status screens (except for a hydraulic system fault). Events are not logged if an electronic fault is detected.
Passwords required to clear events

Passwords are required to clear events. This process would normally be performed during an engine overhaul. At other times, the events would be left as a record of the engine history prior to overhaul time.

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

HEUI SYSTEM
COMPONENT DIAGRAM
ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

ENGINE HARNESS

GROUND BOLT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

24 V

MACHINE HARNESS PUMP CONTROL VALVE HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR THROTTLE SENSOR

MAIN 15 AMP POWER RELAY BREAKER

KEY SWITCH

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS

ACCELERATOR PEDAL THROTTLE BACK-UP, ELEVATED LOW IDLE ENABLE, AND GROUND LEVEL SHUTDOWN (2) SWITCHES TURBO INLET PRESSURE SENSOR FAN CONTROL VALVE

COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR FAN SPEED SENSOR FAN ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR CAT DATA LINK OIL PRESSURE SENSOR SERVICE TOOL CONNECTOR EPTC II TRANSMISSION CONTROL HYDRAULIC TEMP SENSOR AUTO RETARDER CONTROL

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR INSTRUMENT PANEL COOLANT FLOW SWITCH

127 INSTRUCTOR NOTE: To reinforce this presentation, review the various sensor and component functions shown above. The following tasks can be demonstrated: Opens and shorts in analog and digital sensors Status screens with pressure and temperature readings Check switch status for all system switches Opens and shorts in throttle sensor (check operation with ET) Override fan speed control Identify connectors, trace sensor circuits and perform continuity checks Check for active and logged faults Check events and overspeed histogram

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MACHINE APPLICATIONS

128 MACHINE APPLICATIONS This section of the presentation covers the specific systems and related circuits in the 3408E/3412E HEUI fuel system in the following applications: - D9R/D10R Track-type Tractors - 988F/990 Series II Wheel Loaders - 769D/771B/773B/775B Off-highway Trucks - 3408E/3412E Industrial Engines

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DECELERATION POSITION SENSOR CIRCUIT


P2 J2

ECM (3408E/3412E)
DECEL POSITION

F702-GN

24
P1 J1

DECELERATION POSITION SENSOR


+V DIGITAL DIGITAL RETURN SIGNAL

P38 J38

A B C

A700-OR 998-BR

35 29

+V DIGITAL SUPPLY DIGITAL RETURN

129 D9R/D10R Track-type Tractors


Throttle deceleration sensor

The Throttle Deceleration Position Sensor works similarly to a throttle position sensor, but in reverse. The Track-type Tractor has a decelerator pedal which, when in the released position, is wide open (high idle) and, when fully depressed, is in the low idle position. This digital sensor is identical to a normal throttle position sensor, but is connected mechanically in reverse to function as described above. The sensor position (% throttle) can be read on the service tool status screen. The sensor functions in conjunction with the Throttle Switch.

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THROTTLE SWITCH CIRCUIT

THROTTLE SWITCH
P1 J1 F715-PU F718-BU F716-WH F717-YL 998-BR 2 20 8 14 29

ECM (3408E/3412E)

THROTTLE - LOW IDLE THROTTLE - H.I. PARITY THROTTLE - L.I. PARITY THROTTLE - HIGH IDLE DIGITAL RETURN

130
Throttle switch

The Throttle Switch is used in conjunction with the throttle deceleration position sensor to control engine speed. This momentary rocker switch replaces the throttle lever in the previous mechanical fuel system. When held in the forward position, the switch will cause the engine to go to high idle. If momentarily rocked to the rearward position, it will cause the engine to return to low idle. If the switch is held in the forward position for two seconds with the decelerator holding the rpm at the desired level, the engine speed will be set at that rpm. Subsequently moving the switch in either direction will move the engine to low or high idle. The switch position can be read on the service tool status screen.

Speed setting function

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CRANK WITHOUT INJECTION PLUG CIRCUIT

ECM (3408E/3412E) CRANK WITHOUT INJECTION PLUG PLUG "HHH" J24 P24 BK 3 2 1 720-GN 719-BR 998-BR
P1 J1

25 24 29

CRANK W/O INJECT (NO) CRANK W/O INJECT (NC) DIGITAL RETURN

PLUG "JJJ" BK

131
Crank without injection plug

The Crank Without Injection Plug is used to disable the injectors for maintenance purposes. The plug "HHH" must be replaced by the plug "JJJ" to enable the Crank Without Injection feature. One of the two plugs must be installed at all times or a diagnostic message will be generated. The plugs are installed close to the ECM in the engine compartment.

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MECHANICAL ENGINE FAN CONTROL CIRCUIT


ENGINE FAN SOLENOID VALVE
P41 J41 P2 J2

ECM (3408E/E3412E)
VARIABLE FAN CLUTCH PWM DR AND SOL RETURN ENGINE FAN SPEED

B C

F700-BU E799-BR F703-GY

19 7 25

ENGINE FAN SPEED SENSOR


+V DIGITAL DIGITAL RETURN SIGNAL

J84 P84

P1 J1

A B C

A700-OR 998-BR

35 29 13

+V DIGITAL SUPPLY DIGITAL RETURN A/C ON (INPUT FROM COMPRESSOR SWITCH)

132
Variable speed fan drive clutch

The cooling fans for some Off-highway Trucks, the D10R Track-type Tractor and the 24H Motor Grader are driven by a fan belt through a variable speed clutch which is controlled by the ECM. A solenoid valve varies the oil pressure to the clutch to control the fan speed. A digital speed sensor is used as a reference for fan speed and is mounted on the clutch. This sensor is powered from the digital power supply. The Coolant Temperature Sensor is used as a reference for fan control as engine temperature varies. The speed of the fan is a function of coolant temperature. Below 88C (190F), the fan rotates slowly. At 98C (208F), the fan speed is maximum. Between those temperatures, fan speed is modulated. The fan speed control can be overridden by the service tool for testing purposes. For safety reasons, the fan will rotate slowly when the engine is started cold. The engine fan will turn at minimum speed when the air conditioning compressor switch closes and sends a signal to the ECM.

Fan speed sensor

Coolant temperature sensor

AC fan control

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THROTTLE LOCK CIRCUIT


RIGHT BRAKE PEDAL SWITCH 998-BR 998-BR
J3 P3 P1 J1

ECM Throttle Lock RH Brake (NO) Throttle Lock RH Brake (NC) Digital Return Throttle Lock ON Lamp Throttle Lock Set/Declerate Throttle Lock Resume/Accelerate Throttle Lock ON/OFF

F722-OR F721-GY 998-BR F706-PU F717-YL F718-BU F719-BR

THROTTLE LOCK LAMP 998-BR

2 113-OR BATT+

13 19 29 27 14 20 24

THROTTLE LOCK SET/DECLERATION SW 998-BR THROTTLE LOCK RESUME/ACCLERATION SW 998-BR THROTTLE LOCK SW

133 988F/990 Series II Wheel Loaders


Throttle lock enable switch

The Throttle Lock permits the operator to maintain engine speed without having to hold the throttle down for long periods. A rocker switch enables the feature. The Throttle Lock Lamp indicates the status of the Throttle Lock. The lamp ON indicates the feature is active. NOTE: The Throttle Lock System functions similarly to an automotive speed control system, except that it controls engine speed while cruise control functions with ground speed.

Throttle lock lamp

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Set/deceleration switch

After the engine speed has been set by the throttle lock, the engine speed can be reduced 20 rpm by momentarily pressing the Set/Deceleration Switch. The engine speed can be lowered incrementally by 50 rpm per second while holding the switch down. The Resume/Acceleration Switch can be used to increase speed by 20 rpm by momentarily pressing the Resume/Acceleration Switch. The engine speed can be raised incrementally by 50 rpm per second while holding the switch down. Depressing the Right Brake Pedal Switch will disable the throttle lock. An invalid brake switch signal will also disable the throttle lock feature.

Resume/acceleration switch

Right brake pedal switch

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HYDRAULIC ENGINE FAN CONTROL CIRCUIT

HYDRAULIC FAN SOLENOID VALVE


P86 J86 2 1 F700-BU E799-BR P2 J2 19 07

ECM (3408E/E3412E)
HYDRAULIC FAN PWM DRIVE AND SOL RETURN

134
Fan driven by hydraulic motor

The 990 Series II Wheel Loader has an optional high ambient cooling fan which is driven by a hydraulic motor and controlled by the ECM. The Hydraulic Fan Solenoid Valve controls the supply of oil to the hydraulic motor to increase or decrease fan speed. The Coolant Temperature Sensor is used as a reference for fan control as engine temperature varies. Above 98C (208F), the fan speed is maximum. As the temperature decreases below 95C (203F), the fan speed is minimum. Fan speed will also change as hydraulic pump output varies with engine speed. The fan speed control can be overridden by the service tool for testing purposes. The fan speed will go to maximum if power to the control valve fails.

Hydraulic fan solenoid valve

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CATERPILLAR MONITORING SYSTEM

15 10 5 20 25 X100 0 MPH km/h 30

P
AUT

R
24 V

44

135 769C/771C/773B/775B Off-highway Trucks


Caterpillar Monitoring System

The Caterpillar Monitoring System is an electronic monitoring system used on some HEUI powered machines including Off-highway Trucks. It has a similar look to the VIMS and includes the following: - Message Center Module - Speedometer/Tachometer Module - Four Gauge Cluster Module - Action Lamp and Action Alarm This system receives information over the CAT Data Link. The display components show the operator the condition of machine systems and system diagnostic information. This system replaces the Electronic Monitoring System (EMS) on earlier trucks.

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136 An ECM controlled pre-lubrication system is installed on the 3400 HEUI engines in Off-highway Trucks.
Caterpillar Pre-Lubrication System

The pre-lubrication pump and motor are activated by the key start switch. The system uses existing sensors to determine the need for pre-lubrication. After oil pressure is determined, the Electronic Programmable Transmission Control (EPTC II) signals the starter motor to begin cranking. The purpose of the pre-lubrication system is to prime the lubrication system with oil prior to cranking the engine, fill the filters if they have been changed and, ultimately, to minimize wear on the engine bearings during cold starts.

Prelube components: 1. Prelube relay 2. Prelube motor 3. Prelube pump

This view shows the following components: - Prelube relay (1) - Prelube motor (2) - Prelube pump (3)

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This Caterpillar designed system should not be confused with other prelubrication systems. The Caterpillar Pre-Lubrication System is integrated into the machine electronic system utilizing existing hardware. To enable the Caterpillar Pre-Lubrication System, the system must be turned on using the electronic service tool. After the system has been enabled, any time the operator turns the key start switch to the start position, the sequence will be as follows: 1. The EPTC II will not normally engage the starter relays until the engine ECM senses 48 kPa (7 psi) from the oil pressure sensor. This information is transmitted over the CAT Data Link. If the CAT Data Link is inoperative, the EPTC II will signal the engine to start. 2. The engine will bypass the pre-lubrication cycle during any of the following conditions: - If the engine has been running within two minutes - Coolant temperature is higher than 70C (158F) - Engine oil temperature is higher than 54C (129F) - Torque converter temperature is higher than 65C (149F) 3. If the engine or torque convertor is cold, the engine ECM will turn on the signal relay in the cab. This relay signals the prelubrication relay on the chassis to initiate the sequence. 4. The chassis mounted pump draws oil from the oil pan and directs it to the oil gallery. When 48 kPa (7 psi) oil pressure (using the oil pressure signal from the oil pressure sensor) is reached or 60 seconds has elapsed, the EPTC II will terminate pre-lubrication and engage the starter. 5. If the system "times out" after 60 seconds, a pre-lubrication system fault will be recorded in the ECM. After the system has timed out, the engine should start regardless of oil pressure. A pre-lubrication fault should not cause a failure to start the engine.

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8 OR 12 INJECTORS

ADEM II ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE (ECM)

INDUSTRIAL 3408E/3412E HEUI SYSTEM


COMPONENT DIAGRAM
GROUND BOLT DISCONNECT SWITCH 24 V KEY SWITCH

15 AMP BREAKER PUMP CONTROL VALVE HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR PRIMARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR SECONDARY SPEED/TIMING SENSOR COOLANT TEMP. SENSOR
MACHINE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

MAIN POWER RELAY

TDC SERVICE PROBE ACCESS ENGINE HARNESS

PTO ENABLE/PTO UP/DOWN SWITCHES ENGINE SHUTDOWN SWITCH ETHER ENABLE/OVERRIDE SWITCH EMERGENCY STOP/VERIFY SWITCH USER DEFINED SHUTDOWN THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR FUEL PRESS. SENSOR COOLANT LEVEL SWITCH INLET AIR TEMP. SENSOR

TURBO OUTLET PRESS. SENSOR

MACHINE HARNESS

ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. SENSOR TO AIR SHUTOFF SOLENOID OIL PRESSURE SENSOR TO ETHER SOLENOID RELAY ALARM /WARNING LAMP DIAGNOSTIC LAMP FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR MAINTENANCE INDICATOR LAMP EMS PANEL SERVICE TOOL CONNECTOR DATA LINK

HYDRAULIC TEMP. SENSOR

137 3408E/3412E HEUI Industrial Engines Although these industrial engines are very similar to the machine engines, some electronic differences exist between the machine and the industrial engines. The industrial engine has some component and software differences. Some components have been deleted and replaced by others. For example, the coolant flow switch is deleted and a coolant level switch may be installed as an option. A sophisticated Engine Warning System can be programmed to provide different levels of warning, derating and shutdown. These customer programmable parameters can be tailored to the customer's requirements. A complete description of these parameters is provided in the appropriate Troubleshooting Guide.

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The component differences are: Switches PTO Enable and Up/Down Switch Idle/Rated Speed Switch Emergency Stop Verify Switch (for Air Shutoff Solenoid) Engine Shutdown Switch

Sensors and Switches Inlet Air Temperature Sensor (optional) Coolant Level Sensor (optional, replaces the Coolant Flow Switch) Fuel Pressure Sensor (optional)

Miscellaneous Components Air Shutoff Solenoid Alarm and Diagnostic and Maintenance Indicator Lamps Caterpillar Engine Monitoring System

Software features Engine Warning Derate and Shutdown for: High coolant temperature Low oil pressure Low coolant level PTO operation Programmable Low Idle, Top Engine Limit and High Idle Maintenance Indicator Programmable Ether Aid Engine Speed and Load Histogram Multiple Engine Ratings with a Personality Module Ramp Speed (engine acceleration rate in PTO mode) Power Trim

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3408E/3412E HEUI FUEL SYSTEM


TO LUBE SYSTEM HYDRAULIC OIL TEMPERATURE SENSOR COLD START OIL RESERVOIR OIL PRESSURE SENSOR COOL DOWN CIRCUIT FLUID MANIFOLD HEUI

OIL FILTER

HYDRAULIC SUPPLY PUMP GROUP

FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR

FLUID MANIFOLD

OIL COOLER

PUMP CONTROL VALVE FUEL TRANSFER PUMP


PRIMARY FUEL FILTER WATER SEPARATOR

ECM

HEUI

LUBE OIL PUMP

SECONDARY FUEL FILTER

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE

OIL SUMP

FUEL TANK

138 CONCLUSION The 3400 HEUI Engine control is a sophisticated system. However, like many modern electronic controls, it is user friendly and simpler to service than previous pump and line systems. The key to this simplicity is excellence in training. INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The circuits described in this presentation on the various HEUI applications can be demonstrated with the service tool. The following tasks can be performed: Opens and shorts in circuits Status screens to show speed control sensor and switch positions Override fan controls Pre-lubrication functional test Program industrial engine parameters

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SLIDE LIST
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. Title slide 3408 engine overview HEUI fuel system HEUI system major components 3408E engine top view 3408E engine upper left side view Timing calibration connector and hydraulic pressure sensor Coolant temperature sensor Secondary speed/timing sensor Timing wheel Turbo inlet sensor Turbo outlet sensor Identify components Lubrication oil pressure sensor Lubrication oil pump Timing calibration sensor Water separator Engine component identification Electronic control system ECM Personality module Injector Injector testing methods Timing control logic Electronic governor Component diagram Speed/timing sensors Timing wheel Speed/timing wheel Cranking After pattern recognition Normal operation Timing calibration sensor Timing calibration Injection current waveform Poppet valve movement Waveform and response characteristics Fuel system limits Fuel system cold modes Fuel system derates Fuel injection system HEUI fuel system System components Hydraulic supply pump group 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. HEUI fuel system--low pressure HEUI fuel system--high pressure HEUI fuel system--low pressure Injector--fuel and oil flow Injector fuel supply Fluid supply manifold (iron shot) Fluid supply manifold (sectional view) Jumper tube Injector current waveform Waveform and response Injector components HEUI unit injector--three main groups HEUI injector component parts Unit injector components Unit injector installation Valve body group Barrel group--fuel pressure Nozzle group Valve body group--solenoid de-energized Unit injector--end of injection Barrel group--refill Nozzle group--fuel edge filter Injection rate shaping graph Barrel prime rate shaping Barrel group--internal leaks Injector check valves Hydraulic injection pressure control Hydraulic supply pump group Hydraulic supply pump mounting adapter Hydraulic supply pump priming Fuel transfer pump Pressure regulating valve Cool down bypass circuit Reverse flow check valves (iron shot) Reverse flow check valve (sectional view) Hydraulic supply pump (cutaway front view) Hydraulic supply pump (cutaway side view) Fuel system--hydraulic system operation HEUI hydraulic control system--start-up Compensator assembly--start-up HEUI hydraulic control system--destroke Compensator valve--destroke HEUI hydraulic control system--upstroke Compensator valve--upstroke HEUI hydraulic control system--limiter

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SLIDE LIST
90. Compensator assembly--pressure limiter operation 91. Pump control valve--no current flow 92. Pump control valve--high current flow 93. HEUI system power supplies 94. Components diagram--power supply 95. ECM power supply circuit 96. Speed/timing sensor power supply 97. Injector wiring schematic 98. Analog sensor power supply 99. Digital sensor power supply 100. Pump control valve--power supply 101. Electronic sensors and systems 102. Speed/timing sensor 103. Analog sensor list 104. Hydraulic pressure sensor 105. Coolant temperature sensor 106. Atmospheric pressure sensor 107. Engine power derating map 108. Turbocharger inlet pressure sensor 109. Automatic filter compensation 110. Turbocharger outlet sensor 111. Oil pressure sensor 112. Oil pressure map 113. Hydraulic temperature sensor 114. Fuel temperature sensor 115. Coolant flow switch 116. Digital sensor list 117. Throttle position sensor 118. Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal 119. Pump control valve 120. Ground level shutdown switch 121. User defined shutdown input 122. Demand fan controls 123. Ether injection system 124. Cat Data Link diagram 125. Cat Data Link circuit 126. Logged events 127. System diagram 128. Machine applications 129. Deceleration position sensor circuit 130. Throttle switch circuit 131. Crank without injection plug circuit 132. Engine fan control circuit 133. Throttle lock circuit 134. Hydraulic engine fan control 135. 769C - 775B Dash 136. Pre-lubrication system 137. Industrial engine component diagram 138. HEUI fuel diagram

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Serviceman's Handout No. 1

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Serviceman's Handout No. 2

HEUI COLD MODES


COLD MODE TITLE PURPOSE TEMPERATURE TRIP POINTS
< 60C

SENSOR

Speed Control Elevated low idle

Faster warm up Engine protection

Oil temp.

Fuel Limiting Cranking limit

Improves starting by limiting fuel Prevents overfuelling during start-up Provides advertised power between these between these values regardless of fuel temperature changes

< 60C

Oil temp.

Fuel Temperature Compensation

30C to 90C

Fuel temp.

Injection Timing Oil Viscosity Compensation Cold Mode Timing

Compensates for variations due to viscosity changes with oil temperature Optimum timing for cold running also reduces white smoke

< 60C

Oil temp.

< 60C

Oil temp.

Injection Pressure Cold mode cranking hydraulic pressure Cold mode running hydraulic pressure Oil Viscosity Compensation

Optimum hydraulic pressure for cold starting Optimum hydraulic pressure for cold running Compensates for variations due to viscosity changes with oil temperature

< 60C

Oil/Coolant temp. Oil temp.

< 60C

All temperatures Oil temp.

Ether Injection Ether injection

Starting aid

< 10C

Oil temp.

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Serviceman's Handout No. 3

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Serviceman's Handout No. 4

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Serviceman's Handout No. 5

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Serviceman's Handout No. 6

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Serviceman's Handout No. 7

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Serviceman's Handout No. 8

How small is a Micron?


Human Hair 88 Micron .0035 Inch .0889 mm Magnified 2,000 times

1 Micron .00004 Inch .001 mm 2.5 Micron .0001 Inch .0025 mm 25 Micron .001 Inch .025 mm 5 Micron .0002 Inch .005 mm

25,400 Microns = 1 Inch

SESV1672-01
4/97

Printed in U.S.A.