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Review from Lecture 22: Denition: A subgroup H of a group G is called a normal subgroup if aH = Ha for all a G. We denote this by H G.

Theorem 9.1: Normal Subgroup Test A subgroup H of G is normal in G i xHx1 H for all x G.

Denition: For H G, the set of left (or right) cosets of H in G is a group called the quotient group (or factor group) of G by H . We denote this group by G/H . Theorem 9.2: Let H G. The set G/H is a group under the operation (aH )(bH ) = abH .

Example 11: Let G = U (32) = {1, 3, 5, 7, . . . , 27, 29, 31}. Let H = U16(32) = {1, 17}. (17 1 (mod 16)) G/H is abelian of order 16/2 = 8. In Chapter 11, well learn about the Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Groups. This theorem tells us that an abelian group of order 8 must be isomorphic to Z8, Z4 Z2, or Z2 Z2 Z2. Which of these three direct products is isomorphic to G/H ?

We will determine the elements of G/H and their orders. 1H = {1, 17}, 3H = {3, 19}, 5H = {5, 21} 7H = {7, 23}, 9H = {9, 25}, 11H = {11, 27} 13H = {13, 29}, 15H = {15, 31}. We can rule out Z2 Z2 Z2, because (3H )2 = 9H , so |3H | 4. Now (7H )2 = (9H )2 = H , so these are two distinct elements with order 2. This rules out Z8, which has only one element of order 2. Therefore, U (32)/U16(32) Z4 Z2, which is isomorphic to U (16).

Theorem 9.3: Let G be a group with center Z (G). If G/Z (G) is cyclic, then G is Abelian. Proof: Let g G be such that gZ (G) generates G/Z (G). For any a, b G, let aZ (G) = (gZ (G))i = g iZ (G), and let bZ (G) = (gZ (G))j = g j Z (G).

Then a = g ix and b = g j y , x, y Z (G). Since x, y commute with everything, and g i commutes with g j , we see that ab = (g ix)(g j y ) = g i+j xy = (g j y )(g ix) = ba. Since the a, b were arbitrary, we have that G is abelian.

Theorem 9.4: For any group G, G/Z (G) Inn(G). Proof: Dene the map T : G/Z (G) Inn(G) via gZ (G) g . (Well use Gallians denition of inner automorphism: g (x) = gxg 1.) We need to show that T is a well-dened function, that is one-to-one, onto, and preserves the group operation.

To show that T is well-dened, suppose gZ (G) = hZ (G). Well show that both cosets map to the same inner automorphism. Now gZ (G) = hZ (G) implies h1g Z (G). Then for all x G, h1gx = xh1g . By multiplying on the left by h and on the right by g 1, we have gxg 1 = hxh1. Therefore g = h.

One-to-one: reverse the argument. g = h implies gZ (G) = hZ (G). Onto: by denition of T . For any g , the coset gZ (G) is a preimage under T . Group operation: T (gZ (G) hZ (G)) = T (ghZ (G)) = gh. T (gZ (G)) T (hZ (G)) = g h = gh. (Recall: g h(x) = g (hxh1) = (gh)x(gh)1.)

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Example 14: Consider D6. The center Z (D6) = {R0, R180} has order 2. Thus |D6/Z (D6)| = 12/2 = 6. By Theorem 7.2 (classication of groups of order 2p), we know Inn(D6) D3 or Z6. If Inn(D6) Z6, then D6 would have to be abelian. So Inn(D6) must be isomorphic to D3.

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Theorem 9.5: Cauchys Theorem (Abelian) Let G be a nite Abelian group and let p be a prime that divides the order of G. Then G has an element of order p. Proof: Apply strong induction on the order of G. This is clearly true for the |G| = 2. Assume that the theorem is true for all groups with fewer elements than G. We will show the theorem is true for G.

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G has elements of prime order. Choose any x G. Suppose |x| = m = qn, for q prime. Then |xn| = q . Let x be an element of prime order q . If q = p, then were done. Otherwise, consider the cyclic subgroup x , which is normal in G since G is abelian. The factor group G/ x is abelian, and has order |G|/q . Since p divides |G|/q , we can apply induction to get a y x G/H of order p. Now apply Exercise 57 to get an element of G of order p.

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Internal Direct Products Notation: for subgroups H, K < G, HK = {hk|h H, k K }. Denition: We say that G is the internal direct product of H and K and write G = H K if H, K G and G = HK and H K = {e}.

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Theorem 9.6 If a group G is the internal direct product of a nite number of subgroups H1, H2, . . . , Hn, then G is isomorphic to the external direct product of H1, H2, . . . , Hn.

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(page 194) Denition: A homomorphism from a group G1 to a group G2 is a mapping from G1 to G2 that preserves the group operation; that is, for all a, b G, (ab) = (a)(b).

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Homework Assignment 13 Reading Assignment Chapter 9: all Chapter 10: 194198 Homework Problems: Chapter 8: 29 Chapter 9: 15, 18, 31, 57, 58 Chapter 10: 1, 2, 3, 4

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