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# 5.

Solution of Discretized Equations

In the last two chapters, we have seen the principles underlying the discretization of the governing equations using schemes of the desired accuracy and stability behaviour. The result of the discretization of an equation is a system of coupled, often non-linear, algebraic equations. In this chapter, we will look at methods available to solve these discretized equations. Before discussing the details of the algebraic equation solvers, let us first examine the nature of the discretized equations by taking the example of generic scalar transport equation: d(rhophi)/dt + del.(rhouphi) = del.(gamma delphi) + Sphi (1)

where phi is the scalar and the other terms and variables have the usual significance. In principle, the following discussion can be extended to the solution of simultaneous solution of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. However, several additionals issues have to be considered before this is possible and a full discussion of this, i.e., the simultaneous solution of all the governing equations, is postponed to the next chapter. Consideration of the the generic scalar equation (1) is sufficient for the present purpose of studying the techniques for the solution of the discretized equations. Without much loss of generality, we restrict our attention to a two-dimensional case in cartesian coordinate system with constant properties and no source terms. For this case, equation (1) can be written as d(rhophi)/dt + d/dx(urho phi) + d/dy(vrhophi) = gamma (d2phi/dx2 + d2phi/dy2) (2) Considering a rectangular grid (Figure 1) with uniform spacing of dx and dy in the x- and ydirections and using a first order upwind scheme (assuming u and v to be positive) for the advection term, central scheme for the diffusion term and a first order implicit scheme for the time derivative, the discretized equation corresponding to equation (2) can be written as 1/dt( phiijn+1 – phiijn) + u/dx( phiijn+1 – phi-1jn+1) + v/dy(phiijn+1 – phiij-1n+1) = gamma[(phhi+1jn+1 – 2phiijn+1 + phii-1jn+1)/dx^2 + (phiij+1n+1 – 2phhijn+1 + phiij-1n+1)/dy^2] (3) The above equation can be rearranged to cast it in the following form: aijphijn+1 + ai-1jphii-1jn+1 + ai+1jphii+1jn+1 + aij-1phiij-1n+1 + aiij+1phiij+1n+1 = bij (4) where ai-1j = ai+1j = aij-1 =

(5)

aij+1 = aij = bij = Considering a 5 x 5 grid with Dirichlet boundary conditions on a cartesian grid shown in Figure 2, for each time step, we have the following nine unknowns: phi22, phi32, phi42, phi23, phi33, phi43, phi24, phi34 and phi44. Correspondingly, we will have nine algebraic equations of the form of (4). Listing these in the above “lexicographic” order, i.e., in a permution involving (ijk), going through all the possible values of I while keeping before changing j and k and continuing this way until all the permutations are over, results in the following set of algebraic equations: (6) which can be put in matrix form as [A] [phi] = [b] where the A, phi and b are given by (8) Equations of the form (7) have to be solved at each time step in order to obtain the values of phiij. Before we address the question of how to solve these equations, a number of remarks are in order. In general, the flow may be characterized by a number of variables, e.g., laminar, newtonian, incompressible, non-reacting, isothermal two-dimensional flow requires the specification of u, v and p to completely characterize the flow field. A number of additional variables are required for the description of turbulent reacting flows as will be seen in Chapter 8. Each such variable will have a set of equations of the form (7). Often, these equations are coupled and the coefficients aij are non-linear and unknown (as they may involve variables which have not yet been solved for). In the general case, these are linearized and solved iteratively using methods to be discussed in Chapter 6. The process of linearization results in a set of equations of the form of equation (7) for each variable with constant (estimated) coefficients (which are regularly updated in the iterative scheme). These have to be repeatedly solved in order to arrive at the desired solution. Therefore, an efficient method for the solution of the linear algebraic equations is necessary in order to keep the computational requirements to within reasonable limits. In the present chapter, we discuss various options for doing so. It is pertinent, at this stage, to consider the general features of the set of equations we wish to solve. The number of equations in the set is equal to the number of grid points at which the variable is to be evaluated. For a typical CFD problem, the number of grid points is very large and can be of the order of 10000 to 1000000 or even higher for complicated three(7)

This diagonal structure of the coefficient matrix is not in general present in an unstrucutred mesh. Iterative methods. are based on producing a succession of approximate solutions which leads to the exact solution after an infinite number of steps. involves five nodal points and correspondingly. For a problem with 10000 grid points. For example. These are the general features of the set of linear algebraic equations which we need to solve. iterative methods take account account of the sparseness of the coefficient matrix while direct methods. Finally. Two large classes of methods are available for the resolution of these linear algebraic equations: direct and iterative methods.e. phiij is expressed in terms of its four neighbours and the “computational molecule”. iterative methods are invariably used to solve the linearized algebraic equations in CFD problems. many techniques used for accelerating the . Direct methods are based on a finite number of arithmetic operations leading to the exact solution of a linear algebraic system except for roundoff errors that are inevitable in a computed solution. the coefficient matrix A is generally very sparse.e. this is certianly a desirable feature and special care is taken in the discretization and linearization process to ensure this in its weak form. Schemes with a 19-node computational molecule have been proposed. see Figure 3. the non-zero coefficeints could therefore be 190000 which is considerably less than the general case in which all the 10000 x 10000 = 108 coefficients would be non-zero. Hence speed of solution and memory requirements are important considerations in choosing an efficient method. For all these reasons. each equation will have only a few non-zero coefficients. more number of nodes may be involved. The number of these diagonals depends on the terms present in the governing partial differential equation and the discretization and linearization schemes used to obtain the linearized algebraic equations. in the example considered.. Also. Hence. When this is the case. the coefficient matrix usually exhibits the diagonal dominance feature. i. do not do so. the number of arithmetic operations required to solve the equation using a direct method can be very high. If schemes of higher order accuracy are used. on the other hand. However. except in special cases. that diagonal dominance is present for at leat one of the set of equations while for the others the magnitude of the diagonal element is at least equal to the sum of the magnitudes of the off-diagonal elements. Thus. Another general feature of the equations is the sparseness of the coefficient matrix A. the non-zero coefficients may lie in the case of strucutred grids along certain diagonals as is evident from equation (8). Since the value of a variable phiij is typically expressed in terms of its immediate neighbours. due to round-off and other considerations (such as the need to update the coefficient matrix A to account for non-linearity). the set of equations we are dealing with is very large. Also. i. While this is not a requirement for the general case.dimensional flows. the algebraic equations contain at most five non-zero coefficients. This implies that each of the equations of (7) may contain up to 19 non-zero coefficients. the magnitude of the diagonal element is greater than the sum of the magnitudes of the off-diagonal elements. In practice. a finitely accurate solution is sought. and it is often much larger than that required by an iterative method to achieve a given level of accuracy. or if a threedimensional case is considered in a non-orthogonal coordinate system.

when multigrid methods or coupled solution methods are used. These are followed in Section 5.4 by multigrid methods. we discuss both direct and iterative methods. for the system of three equations given by 2 phi + 3 phi2 + 4 phi3 = 5 6 phi1 + 7 phi2 + 8 phi3 = 9 10 phi1 + 13 phi2 + 14 phi3 = 12 phi1. The basic methods of each class are discussed in Sections 5. both iterative and direct methods may be used in the overall scheme of solution.1 Cramer's rule This is one of the most elementary methods and is often taught in school-level algebra courses.convergence rate of iterative methods are based on approximations derived from direct methods.1 Direct Methods 5.1 and 5.3 by more advanced iterative methods and in Section 5.2. phi2 and phi3 are given by |5 3 4| phi1 = | 9 7 8 | | 12 13 14 | |2 3 4| |6 7 8| | 10 13 14| / = |2 5 4| phi1 = | 6 9 8 | | 10 12 14 | / |2 3 4| |6 7 8| | 10 13 14| = |2 3 5| |2 3 4| . respectively. 5. Also. For a system of equations described as sum over I of (aijphi I ) = bi the solution for phii can be obtained as phi I = |Ai| / |A| (10) (9) where the matrix Ai is obtained by replacing the ith column by the column vector bi.1. Thus. In view of this.

..e...... = cn (11) The objective of the forward elimination is to transform the coefficient matrix {aij} into an upper triangular array by eliminating some of the unknowns from of the equations by algebraic operations. This ultimately results in a coefficient matrix in the form of an upper triangular matrix which is readily solved in the second part using a process known as back substitution....... an1u1 + an2u2 + . This procedure is continued until u1 is eliminated from all the equations except the first one....... etc. This results in a .... .......... Consider the set of equations given by a11u1 + a12u2 + .. it is very inefficient when the size of the matrix is large..... symmetry and sparseness. Hence extreme caution should be exercised in using Cramer’s rule in CFD computations..... In the first part..phi1 = | 6 7 9 | | 10 13 12 | / |6 7 8| | 10 13 14| = While this method is elementary and yields a solution for any non-singular matrix A.. This can be initiated by choosing the first equation as the "pivot" equation and using it to eliminate the u1 term from each equation.. These steps are explained below... = c1 a21u1 + a22u2 + .. the system of n equations and n variables is systematically and successively reduced to a smaller system containing a smaller number of variables by a process known as forward elimination... 5.. = c2 . For the solution of 20 equations.. the number of required is of the order of 5 x 1019 which increases to 8 x 1033 for a system of only 30 equations..... This is done by multiplying the first equation by a21/a11 and substracting it from the second equation. for large n. The method consists of two parts.. Gaussian elimination method is a very useful and efficient way of solving a general system of algebraic equations..... Thus........ Multiplying the pivot equation by a31/a11 and subtracting it from the third equation eliminates u1 from the third equation. ..1.. The number of arithmetic operations required to obtain the solution varies as (n+1)!.......2 Gaussian elimination In contrast to the Cramer’s rule......... one which does not have any structural simplifications such as bandedness..... where n is the number of unknowns (or equations)........... Even the fastest computer on the earth would require billions of years to get a solution in this case involving the equivalent of 30 grid points.. the number of arithmetic operations for 10 equations is of the order of 4 x 107 and can be obtained in a fraction of a second using a Gigaflop personal computer..... i......

....... there is no possibilty of getting an approximate solution involving fewer number of arithmetic operations.. Of the two steps......... = c’2 . This process is repeated until all the variables are obtained..... for large n.. unlike in the case of iterative methods.... ... and only full solution.. the forward elimination step is the most consuming and requires about n3/3 arithmetic operations for large n.system of equations in which the first equation remains unchanged and the subsequent (n-1) equations form a subset with modified coefficients (as compared to the original aij) in which u1 does not appear: a11u1 + a12u2 + .... Since this equation contains only one variable.................. Thus.. The back substitution process consists of solving the set of equations given by (13) by successive substituion starting from the bottommost equation... .... the equation immediately above it can be solved by subsituting the value of un into it......... the total number of arithmetic operations required to solve a linear system of n equations by Gaussian elimination varies as n3 which is significantly less than the (n+1)! operations required by Cramer’s rule................ un.... a”n-1n-1un-1 + a”n-1nun a”nnun = c1 = c'2 = c”3 = c”n-1 = c”n (13) This completes the forward elimination process. = c1 a’22u2 + a’23u3 + .. a’22u2 + a'23u3 + ...... is possible at the end of the back substitution process..... Also.. = c’n (12) Now. it does not take advantage of the sparseness of the matrix. This feature of lack of an intermediate.... The back substitution process requires only about n2/2 arithmeticoperations........ a”33u3 + a”34u4 + ...... The third equation in the altered system is then used as the next pivot equation and the process is continued until only an upper triangular form remains: a11u1 + a12u2 + .... a’n2u2 + a’n3u3 + ............ While Gaussian elimination is the most efficient method for full matrices without any specific structure.... Knowing un...... .. it can be readily calculated as un = c”n/ a”nn........ Thus............. full solution. the first equation of this subset is used as pivot to eliminate u2 from all the equations below it.. approximation solution is shared by all direct methods and is a disadvantage when solving a set of non-linear algebraic equations as the coefficient matrix needs to be updated repeatedly in an overall iterative scheme as the Newton-Raphson .... namely.

[x1 |_| x2 |_| x3 |_| Y] = [b1 |_| b2|_| b3 |_| I] which is a compact notation for the following system of equations: A. It is also particularly attractive when solving for a number of right hand side vectors [b] in equation (7). However. the computed solution. not at the time of solving equation (14) to solve for an additional right hand side vector b4.1.. is susceptible to accumulation of round-off errors and a proper pivoting strategy is required to reduce this. i. the matrix A is written as the product of a lower (L) and an upper (U) triangular matrix. Here.1. variables are eliminated from rows both above and below the pivot equation. when done using finite-precision arithmetic. Finally. may be affected by round-off error. A number of pivoting strategies have been discussed in Marion (19??) although accumulation of round-off error may not pose a major problem in CFD-related situations as the coefficient matrix is very sparse. Gauss-Jordon elimination can be used to find the inverse of the coefficient matrix efficiently.x2 = b2 Ax3 = b3 and A. In LU decomposition. 5. A-1.e. i. x4. [A] = [L] [U] or aij = sum over k of (lik ukj). which however may not be a hazard in CFD-related problems as the coefficient matrix A is usually sparse and the resulting round-off error is therefore smaller than in solving full matrices. Such decomposition is . for large systems that are not sparse. This eliminates the back substitution process. Gauss-Jordon method can be used to simultaneously solve the following sets of equations: [A] .. i.e. no computational advantage is gained as the number of arithmetic operations required for the elimination process is about three times higher than that required for the Gaussian elimination method. The resulting coefficient matrix is a diagonal matrix containing non-zero elements only along the diagonal. Thus.. Pivoting strategy is also required to eliminate the possibility of zero-diagonal element as this will lead to a division by zero.e. Since computations are usually done with finite-precision arithmetic. 5. The computed A-1 can be used later.3 Gauss-Jordon elimination A variant of the Gaussian elimination method is the Gauss-Jordan elimination method. Gaussian elimination.4 LU decomposition LU decomposition is one of several factorization techniques used to decompose the coefficient matrix A into a product of two matrices so that the resulting equation is easier to solve. to solve A.Y = I (14) where I is the identity matrix and Y is obviously the inverse of A.method.e. x1 = b1 A.x4 = b4 as x4 = A-1b4 at very little additional cost. i..

respectively. known as Crout’s decomposition. This can be seen readily by writing the decomposition in terms of the elements as | | | | | | | = | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | (16) | | Since aij = sum (lik ukj).e. The key to the overall computational efficiency lies in the effort required to find the elements of [L] and [U]. This makes the number of remaining unknowns equal to the number of available equations which can be solved rather trivially by rearranging the equations in a certain order. i. …. results if the N diagonal elements of L. the LU decomposition is not unique. … N . the elements of L and U matrices. 2. An efficient algorithm.possible for any non-singular square matrix.e... i. the LU decomposition renders the solution of (7) easy. 2.. let us examine the simplification of the solution resulting from this factorization. are set to unity. 2. N. Before we discuss the algorithm for this decomposition. the matrix equation [A] [phi] = [b] can be written as [L][U][phi] = [b] which can be solved in two steps as [L] [y] = [b] [U][phi] = [y] (15a) (15b) (14) (7) Solution of equations (15a) and (15b) can be obtained easily by forward and backward substitution. i. equation (16) gives N2 equations. are N2+N. lii. where N is the number of rows (or columns) in matrix A.sum(k = 1 to I-1) of (likukj) for I = 1. =2.sum(k = 1to j-1 of (likukj) for I = j+1. j • lij = 1/ujj(aij. N For each j = 1. For a given non-singular matrix A. solve for (17) • uij = aij . …. while the number of unknowns. …. With the LU decomposition. The Crout’s algorithm for finding the the lij and uij can be summarized as follows: • • Set lii = 1 for k = 1.e. the method of finding lij an uij for a given aij. Thus.

2 above. namely.5 Cholesky Decomposition This is a special form of the LU decomposition for matrices which are symmetric and positive definte. While LU decomposition is rarely used on its own in large CFD problems. the number of arithmetic operations to perform the LU decomposition is N3/3. A sufficient condition for positive definiteness is the Scarborough condition of general diagonal dominance. A variation of the Crout’s decomposition is the Doolittle decomposition where the diagonal elements of the upper triangular matrix are all set to unity and the rest of uij (I=/j) and lij are found by an algorithm similar to that in equation (17). the LU decompositon can be performed as (21) A = LLT requiring half the number of arithmetic operations and without any pivoting. 5. Thus. of equation (7). It can be shown that this procedure is equivalent to the forward elimination step of the Gaussian elimination method described in section 5. Noting that Lij = LjiT. b. then Aij = Aji (18) and if it is positive definite. each of which would take about n2/2 number of arithmetic operations. However.v >0 (19) which is the equivalent of saying that all the eigenvalues of A are real and posiitive. I+2 .1.5 and Lji = 1/Lii(aij-sumover k = 1 to I-1(LikLjk) for j = I+1. then for all non-zero vectors v.1. If matrix A is symmetric. for large N. the algorithm for Cholesky decomposition can be written as Lii = (aii – sum over k = 1 to I-1 of (Lik^2))^0. The principal advantage of the LU decomposition method lies in the fact that the LU decomposition step does not require manupulation of the right hand side vector.Pivoting is necessary to avoid division by zero (which can be achieved by basic pivoting) as well as to reduce round-off error (which can be achieved by partial pivoting involving row-wise permutations of the matrix A). v. an approximate or incomplete form of it is used to accelerate the convergence of some iterative methods. Thus. as will be discussed below. |aii| >= sum over j = 1 to N but j=/I of (|aij| for all I = sum over j= 1 to N but j=/I of (|aij|) for at least one I (20) For matrices which satisfy conditions (18) and (19). … N (22) . the Gaussian elimination and the LU decomposition are nearly equivalent in terms of the number of the number of arithmetic operations required to obtaine the solution. the final solution solution is obtained by a forward substitution step followed by a back substitution step.A.

The standard LU decomposition of T then produces an L and U matrices which are bidiagonal.6 Direct Methods for Banded Matrices Banded coefficient matrices often result in using CFD problems based on structured mesh algorithms. banded matrices.di-1xi Substituting the above expression for xi-1 into (25) and rearranging. Denoting the superdiagonal elements of U. pentadiagonal and block tridiagonal systems. we examine the specialized algorithms for three such banded matrices: tridiagonal. I-1 = ci. banded matrices often permit simplification of the general elimination/ decomposition techniques described above to such an extent that very efficient solution methods may be found for simple. 5. Ui. Ui. I+1 = bi. but not uncommon. In addition to allowing for more efficient storage of the coefficients (wherein the non-zero values of the coefficient matrix are not usually stored). namely. we have xi + bi/(ai-ci*di-1) xi+1 = (si-yi-1*ci)/(ai-ci*di-1) (27) .. we have xi = yi . equation (24) implies conversion of the ith equation of the tridiagonal system of equation (23).I = 1 for all i. xi-1 = y-1 . Consider the set of algebraic equations represented by Tx = s (23) where T is an n x n tridiagonal matrix with elements Ti. This process can be simplified to produce an equivalent upper bidaigonal matrix of the form Ux = y (24) where the diagonal elements of U are all unity. This is done as follows. Here.dixi+1 Thus.I+1 by di.I = ai and Ti. Ti. namely. cixi-1 + aixi + bixi+1 = si (25) to be expressed as xi + dixi+1 = yi (26) where the coefficients di and yi are yet to be determined. i.1. the Cholesky decomposition is not used itself as a solution scheme but an incomplete version of it is used in conjugate gradient methods to be described later in this chapter. Solving (26) for xi.e.Since the conditions of symmetry and positive definiteness of A are not satisfied in many cases dealing with fluid flow problems.

I = 1. N-2.Comparing equations (26) and (27). In a number of cases. i. involving a simplification of the Gaussian elimination procedure. It can be seen that the resulting matrix equation. can be solved readily by back-substitution. for the first row. the tridiagonal matrix can be converted into an upper bidiagonal matrix as shown schematically in Figure 5. The above procedure. of the bidiagonal system (24) using the following formulae: d1 = b1/a1 and y1 = s1/a1 di+1 = bi+1/(ai+1-ci+1di) | yi+1 = (si+1 –ci+1yi)/(ai+1-ci+1di) | for I = 1 to N-1 (29) and Step II: Solve the bidiagonal system (24) by back-substitution: xN = yN and xi = yi-dixi+1 for I = N-1. the elements ai. encapsulated in equations (29) and (30). we have d1 = b1/a1 and y1 = s1/a1. It can be summarized as follows: Step I : Determine the coefficients. In such cases. It can be shown that this possibility does not arise if the matrix T is diagonally dominant.. to solve the tridiagonal system given by equation (23) is known as the Thomas algorithm or the tridiagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA). di and yi.. the Thomas algorithm provides a very efficient method for solving the set of linear equations. we get the following recurrence relations to determine di and yi: di = bi/(ai-ci*di-1) yi = (si-ci*yi-1)/(ai-ci*di-1) (28) Also. which is usually the case in many applications. Ux=y. Using equation (28). …2.1 (30) The Thomas algorithm.XXX.e. No pivoting strategy is incoporated in the Thomas algorithm and it may fail therefore if a division by zero is encountered. bi and ci of the matrix T in equation (23) may not be scalars but may themselves be matrices (Anderson et al. 1984) and equation (23) may take the following form: | [B1] [C1] |[A2} [B2] | [A3] | |[X1]| | |[X2]| | |[X3]| |[Y1] |[Y2]| = |[Y3]| (31) [C2} [B3] [C3] . is very efficient and the number of arithmetic operations required for solution of equation (23) varies as N (compared to ~N3 for Gaussian elimination and LU decompostion techniques).

Pi. Matrix of the form of the coefficient matrix in equation (31) are called block-tridiagonal matrix. Pi. [C] . i.e. and then to an upper tridiagonal system Tx = s’’ (37) .. [X] and [Y] are square matrices.I-1 = di. Let these non-zero elements be represented by five row vectors as Pi. it has non-zero elements only along five adjacent diagonals.| | | [AN | | | | | | [BN] | |[XN]| | | | | |[YN]| where [A].I-1).I). the matrix inversion steps in equation (32) may be performed without explicitly evaluating the inverse. for example. Pi. N-1 If the sub-matrices [A]. Thus.I = ai. The Thomas algorithm for scalar coefficients can be used to solve block-tridiagonal matrices also. (I. (I.I-2=ei.I+2=ci (35) The pentadiagonal system given by equation (34) can be converted first to a quadradiagonal system Qx = s’ (36) where Q contains non-zero elements in (I. are large. [B] etc. the Thomas algorithm for block-tridiagonal systems can be written as d1 = a1-1b1 y1 = ai-1s1 di+1 = (ai+1-ci+1di)-1(bi+1) | yi+1 = (ai+1 –ci+1di)-1(zi+1-ci+1yi) | and the back substitution step is given by xN = yN xi = yi-dixi+1 (33a) (33b) (32a) (32b) (32c) (32d) for I = 1. The Thomas algorithm for tridiagonal matrices can be extended to the solution of pentadiagonal systems. I+2). Consider the set of equations Px = s (34) where P is a pentadiagonal matrix. I+1) and (I. [B].I+1=bi. Pi. The only modification required is that the division by the scalar coefficient should be replaced by multiplication with the inverse of the corresponding matrix. by solving a1d1=b1 instead of as given in equation (32a).

1 (42) Similar to the Thomas algorithm.I+2) which can be solved by backsubstitution. Qi. N-3. is given below: Step I : Find the elements of Q and s’ using the following formulae: a1’ = a1 d2’ = d2 and for I = 2 to N-1. These details are not given but the resulting pentadiagonal matrix algorithm (PDMA) for the solution of the pentadiagonal system of equation (34).I+2 = ci’’ (38) (39) The procedure adopted for the tridiagonal system can be extended to obtain recurrence relations to determine the elements of Q.c’I*(ei+1/d’I) = di+1 . Ti.where T contains non-zero elements in (I. Even more efficient methods such as cyclic reduction methods are available for specialized matrices . the pentadiagonal scheme given above is a special version of Gaussian elimination procedure in which arithmetic operations involving the zero elements of the coefficient matrix are pruned out leaving a compact and efficient scheme.I+1 = bi’. Ti.I-1 = di’.s’I*(ei+1/d’I) (40) Step II: Find the elements of T and s’’ using the following formulae: b’’1 = b’1/a’1 c’’1 = c’1/a’1 s’’1 = s’1/a’1 b’’I+1 = (b’I+1-d’I+1*c’’I)/(a’I+1-d’I+1*b’’I) c’’I+1 = c’I+1/(a’I+1-d’I+1*b’’I) (41) s’’I+1 = (s’I+1 -d’I+1*s’I)/ (a’I+1-d’I+1*b’’I) for I = 1 to N-1 Step III: Find xi by modified backward substitution using the following formulae: xN = s’’N xN-1 = s’’N-1 .b’’N-1*xN xi = s’’I . Qi. (I.I = ai’. Qi.I+1) and (I.I).I = ai’’. involving three steps.I+1 = bi’’. …. ci’ a’I+1 b’I+1 d’I+1 s’I+1 b1’ = b1 a2’ = a2 c1’ = c1 b2’ = b2 s1’ = s1 s2’ = s2 = ci = ai+1 .b’’I*xi+1 . Denoting the elements of the matrices Q and T in a manner analogous to that given for P in equation (35) as Qi.b’I*(ei+1/d’I) = bi+1 . s’ and s’’.c’’I*xi+2 and for I = N-2.a’I*(ei+1/d’I) = si+1 . T. I+2 = ci’ Ti.

however. (For non-linear algebraic equations additional considerations arise but the choice of the initial vector. k>=0 is produced from the formula xk+1 = Pxk + q k >=0 (44) The iterative method is said to be convergent if lim k-> inf (xk) = x for every initial vector x0 (45) Whether or not an iterative method converges depends on the choice of the matrix P. as illustrated in Figure 5. If there are zero diagonal elements in between. 5. This method is discussed later.(Pozrikidis. an iterative method for the linear algebraic equation (7) is characterized by the construction of P and q. the rate of convergence is not necessarily the same. by the conditions for convergence of the sequence (44) and by the rate of convergence. known as iteration matrix. the alternating direction implicit (ADI) method can be used which makes use of the TDMA scheme to solve equations implicitly in one direction at a time. the implementation of an iterative scheme is rather simple compared to the direct methods so much so that Gauss. Starting with an arbitrary initial vector x0. is also important. Equation (43) is solved by the method of successive approximations. 1998) but these are not discussed here. for linear problems. a sequence of vectors xk.2 Basic Iterative Methods Iterative methods adopt a completely different approach to the solution of the set of linear algebraic equations. the discretization of the transient heat conduction equation in two-dimensions results in a penta-diagonal system but one in which the diagonals are not adjacent to each other. are adjacent to each other. Xxx. x0. in 1823. Even for convergent methods. also known as Picard’s method. It should be noted that the TDMA and PDMA schemes given above are valid only when the three or five diagonals. The PDMA scheme cannot be used to solve this system.) Thus. in equation (43). For such cases. Once these are determined. Specifically. respectively. Instead of solving the original equation Ax = b they solve x = Px + q (7) (43) where the matrix P and the vector q are constructed from A and b in equation (7). was supposed to have . this is not the case. and thus has limited application in CFD-related problems. then the above schemes may not work.

Some of these and other characteristics—both advantageous and disadvantageous in comparison with direct methods—are dicussed below for three classical iterative methods.. although the inverse of the matrix may not be explicitly computed in practice) readily. 5. In practice. it is not necessary to solve the equations even to machine accuracy. triangular matrices can be solved efficiently by forward or back-substitution. i. The indirect method can be pursued while half asleep or while thinking about other things”.2. M-1 is not computed and the iterative scheme derived from equation (47) is written as Mxk+1 = Nxk + b (48) We can now discuss the above-mentioned three classical schemes in this framework. systems in which the coefficeint matrix is diagonal.e. there is a practical limit—the machine accuracy or round-off error-. the successive overrelaxation (SOR) method. we obtain (M-N)x = b Mx = Nx + b x = M-1Nx + M-1b or or (47) which is in the form of equation (43) with P = M-1N and q = M-1b. namely. at least not when you have more than two unknowns. All the three methods involve splitting of the matrix A into two matrices as A=M-N (46) where M is an easily invertible matrix.1 Jacobi Method In the Jacobi method. when the algebraic equations are solved in a CFD context involving non-linear equations. the Jacobi method.. in such a way that the diagonal elements of the coefficient matrix A are not zero and . However.written in reference to the iterative method (see Axelsson. if necessary. of diagonal or triangular or block diagonal or block triangular structure. Finally. i. 1994) “I recommend this modus operandi. We first discuss how the iteration matrix P is constructed from the coefficient matrix A in each case and follow this up by an analysis of its convergence behaviour. Substituting the above splitting into equation (7). the Gauss-Seidel method and the relaxation or more specifically. This advantage of simplicity is negated by the theoretical limit infinite number of iterations needed to get the exact solution. the set of equations comprising equation (7) are reordered.to the accuracy that can be attained when solving equations using modern computers and it is sufficient to undertake only a finite number of iterations to achieve this for any converging iterative methods.e. can be solved (“inverted”. you will hardly eliminate anymore. It is noted that diagonal systems.

2. -an-1..-a2n-1xn-1k -a1nxnk . one iteration of the Jacobi scheme for the linear system given by equation (7) takes the following form: a11x1k+1 = -a12x2k a22x2k+1 = -a21x1k . Denoting the iteration index k by a superscript.M is taken as a diagonal matrix containing all the diagonal elements of A.b1 -a2nxnk .3x3k …. M=D N = E+F resulting in the iteration scheme Dx= (E+F)x + b x = D-1(E+F) + D-1b = D-1(D-A) + D-1b x = (I-D-1A)x + D-1b (50) (51) or or (52) The implementation of the Jacobi scheme follows the iterative formula Dxk+1 = (E+F)xk + b (53) and. the matrices M and N of equation (46) are taken as . Thus. and F such that Dij Eij Fij = aij deltaij = -aij if I < j or 0 otherwise = -aij if I > j and 0 otherwise (49) and then A can be written as A=D-E-F In the Jacobi method. is quite simple to solve. D. namely.-a1n-1xn-1k -a23x3k …….2x2k an.nxn-1k . an-1n-1xn-1k+1= -an-1.ax1k -an-1.bn Its convergence behaviour will be analyzed later in the section. 5.a13x3k …….b2 (54) -an-1. due to the diagonal form of D.2 Gauss-Seidel Method In the Gauss-Seidel method.nxnj+1 = -an1x1k -an2x2k . if the matrix A is split into three matrices. ..bn-1 -an3x3k………-an-1. E.nxnk.

nxnj+1 = -an1x1k+1 -an2x2k+1 -an3x3k+1………-an-1. In the context of solution of linear algebraic equations. (xk+1 . If w <1.3 Successive Over-relaxation (SOR) Method The rate of convergence of either the Jacobi method or the Gauss-Seidel method can be changed by a simple technique known as relaxation in which the value of the variable at k+1th iteration is taken as xk+1 = xk + w*dxk (60) where dxk is the estimated improvement in xk. and that too under certain other conditions. When applied to the Jacobi method.3x3k+1 ….M = D-E N=F (55) where D. one iteration of the Gauss-Seidel scheme for the linear system given by equation (7) takes the following form: a11x1k+1 = -a12x2k .2x2k+1 -an-1. 1989) that convergence is possible only for 0 < w < 2.nxnk.b2 . then equation (60) leads to under-relaxation and if w > 1.e.xk) where xk+1 is the value estimated by Jacobi/Gauss-Seidel method using equation (54) or (59). -an-1.nxn-1k .bn 5. over-relaxation is often used to improve the convergence rate resulting in the method known as successive over-relaxation (SOR).ax1k+1 -an-1. The resulting iteration scheme is (D-E)x= Fx + b or x = (D-E)-1Fx + (D-E)-1b (56) The implementation of the Gauss-Seidel scheme follows the iterative formula (D-E)xk+1 = Fxk + b (57) Although equation (57) appears to be more complicated than the corresponding Jacobi formula given by equation (53).. then to over-relaxation.-a2n-1xn-1k -a2nxnk .. it can be rearranged to give the following equally simple formula: Dxk+1 = Exk+1 + Fxk + b (58) which allows sequential evaluation of xi in a form very similar to that of the Jacobi method. .2. It can be shown (Cliaret. the splitting of the matrix A corresponds to . Denoting the iteration index k by a superscript as before.a13x3k ……. i. Underrelaxation is often used to solve non-linear algebraic equations where divergence is often a real possibility.b1 a22x2k+1 = -a21x1k+1 -a23x3k ……. E and F are given by equation (49) as above.-a1n-1xn-1k -a1nxnk . (59) an-1n-1xn-1k+1= -an-1.bn-1 an.

bn} It can be seen that the implementation of the successive over-relaxation technique requires little extra overhead in per-iteration work while significant speed-up of convergence rate (up to an order of magnitude) can be obtained with an optimum value of the relaxation parameter.+a2nxnk . one iteration of the Gauss-Seidel scheme with SOR for the linear system given by equation (7) takes the following form: a11x1k+1 a22x2k+1 .bn} When SOR is applied to the Gauss-Seidel method.+ a1nxnk .w{a11x1k + a12x2k + a13x3k + ……. An essential difference between the Jacobi and the Gauss-Seidel methods lies in the order in which the values of xi are found using equations (54) and (59).w{an1x1k+1 +an2x2k+1 + an3x3k+1 + ………+annxnk .b1} = a22x2k .b2} (63) = annxnk .w{a21x1k + a22x2k + a23x3k +1…….nxnk+1 = a11x1k .nxnj+1 = a11x1k . an. an. the order of the solution of equations (54) does not matter. one iteration of the Jacobi scheme with SOR for the linear system given by equation (7) takes the following form: a11x1k+1 a22x2k+1 .w{a21x1k+1 + a22x2k + a23x3k +1……. the optimum value is not known a priori in many cases and may have to be estimated on a trial and error basis in the initial stages of the computation. and may be computed even . as will be shown later.w{an1x1k +an2x2k + an3x3k + ………+annxnk . wopt. the splitting of the matrix A corresponds to M = D/w -E N = (1-w)/w D + F resulting in the iteration scheme (D/w-E) x= [(1-w)/w D+F]x + b x =(D/w-E)-1[(1-w)/wD +F]x + (D/w-E)-1b (64) or (65) Denoting the iteration index k by a superscript.M = D/w N = (1-w)/w D + E + F resulting in the iteration scheme (D/w) x= [(1-w)/w D+ E+F]x + b x =(D/w)-1[(1-w)/wD + E+F]x + (D/w)-1b (61) or (62) Denoting the iteration index k by a superscript.+a2nxnk .b2} (66) = annxnk . In the Jacobi method.w{a11x1k + a12x2k + a13x3k + ……. However.+ a1nxnk . respectively.b1} = a22x2k .

E consists of {A21.xx where the original n x n system of linear equations is decomposed into a 4 x 4 system of equations consisting of elements Apq. E. The corresponding iterative scheme is then called block-Jacobi or blockGauss-Seidel scheme.w{A11x1k + A12x2k + A13x3k + A14x4k . each of the above four equations themselves represents a further set of linear equations to be solved either by direct or iterative methods.. A42. A44}.2. In such a case. 5. F. the term “successive over-relaxation (SOR)” method is usually applied in the context of a Gauss-Seidel SOR scheme (for example. each of which is a scalar.e.w{A41x1k + A42x2k + A43x3k + A44x4k . the matrix A can still be split into D. I = 1 to N. Consider the block-decomposition of the matrix A shown in Figure 5. for example. on p. 1989. i. A block-Gauss-Seidel method with SOR for this 4 x 4 system can be written readily as A11x1k+1 = A11x1k . Axelsson. A23. Thus. . If this is split into matrices D. A13. The Jacobi or Gauss-Seidel iterative schemes are then applicable according to this block decompostion.b3} A44x4k+1 = A11x1k . as will be discussed in the next chapter. corresponding to the value of a variable at a grid point. the evaluation of successive xi has to be done in a prescribed order due to the substitution of the latest values of known values and thus it is termed as successive iteration method. 1994). A43} and F of {A12. 169 of Ciarlet).xx (Fig. A32. the iterative schemes are called point methods.b4} (67) where xi and bi themselves are vectors. A34. A24. This kind of situation often arises in the coupled solution of Navier-Stokes equations. then D consists of the submatrices {A11. A31. A22.b1} A22x2k+1 = A22x2k .in parallel. E and F each of which may consist of further sub-matrices. Hence the Jacobi method is also known as simultaneous iteration method. one converges if the other does and that the latter method converges twice as fast. These methods can be readily extended to the case when the coefficient matrix has a block structure such as the block tridiagonal structure given by equation (31). In this case. A41. A33. point Jacobi method and point GaussSeidel method with SOR. 5. Thus. In the Gauss-Seidel method. see Cliarlet. A14.w{A31x1k + A32x2k + A33x3k + A34x4k .4 Block Iterative Methods The above iterative methods have been applied to the evaluation of xi.3 Convergence Analysis of the Classical Iterative Schemes It is often thought that the convergence of Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel schemes goes together. An example of such decomposition is shown in Figure 5.b2} A33x3k+1 = A11x1k .w{A21x1k + A22x2k + A23x3k + A24x4k .

1.9. A necessary and sufficient condition (Axelsson. .0. The convergence behaviour of the SOR scheme is summarized in Table 5.2 where the calculated values are shown for Jacobi with SOR and Gauss-Seidel with SOR for the SOR parameter values of w = 1.3}. The Jacobi with SOR is also found to diverge for this example.0.0}.05. The solution obtained using the Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel schemes for this case is shown in Table 5. The Gauss-Seidel scheme with SOR exhibits a more complicated behaviour and the iteration values are summarized in Table 5. It can be seen that the Jacobi method converges quickly while the Gauss-Seidel method diverges rapidly. is less than unity. the scheme diverges. corresponding to under-relaxation. appears to make the convergence faster while for the last value of 1. P. 1.2. The first value. Consider now a second example: 2x1 – x2 + x3 = 3 x1 + x2 +x3 = 6 x1 + x2 – 2x3 = -3 (69) Again.3 for an initial guess of xi = {0. 1. that the correct solution is xi = {1. We can see that while the Gauss-Seidel method diverges rapidly in all the cases.14. the Jacobi scheme diverges but the Gauss-Seidel scheme converges.4 for relaxation parameter values of 0.75. the set of three simultaneous linear algebraic equations given by x1 + 2x2 –2x3 = -2 x1 + x2 + x3 = 6 2x1 + 2x2 + x3 = 9 (68) It can be shown.3}.0}is shown in Table 5.1. increasing the value of the relaxation parameter appears to worsen the convergence behaviour.2. 1994) for convergence for an iterative scheme of the form given by equation (43) xk+1 = Pxk + q k>=0 (43) for non-singular algebriac equations given by equation (7) Ax = b (7) is that the spectral radius of the iteration matrix.. The solution obtained using Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel schemes with an initial guess of xi = {0. Consider.10 and 1. 1. Also. Thus. Similar results are obtained for other initial guesses.25.75 and 1. it can be shown that the correct solution is xi = {1.e. i. using any direct method.14. the Jacobi method converges eventually in all cases although it goes through large negative and/ or positive values before converging in some cases.We dispel this notion by considering the following examples suggested by Ciarlet (1989).5. For this case. firstly. the convergence behaviour of these classical schemes can be more complicated than what appears to be the case.

the larger the convergence factor and the faster the rate of convergence. we have em = Pm e0 (77) where e0 is in the initial error vector. by the largest eigenvalue of P. at the end of m recursive applications. the condition that the spectral radius of the corresponding iteration matrix be less than unity is satisfied. in all the cases. or by one order (factor of ten) for every . i. It can be seen that. the smaller the spectral radius.rho(P) < 1 for convergence The spectral radius of a matrix P is the non-negative number defined by rho(P) = max {|lambdai|}. e. The asymptotic rate of convergence is proportional to –ln[rho(P)].x (75) where x~ is the exact solution of (7). The rate at which the error decreases is governed.. i. la2 and la3 and the spectral radius is therefore rho(Pjaboi1) = |la3| = < 1 (73) showing that condition given by (71) is satisfied. asmptotically as n -> inf.5. the average convergence factor (per step for m steps) depends on the spectral radius. 1 <=I<=n where lambdai are the eigenvalues of the square matix Pn x n.e. the iteration matrix is given by PGS1 = (74) the eigenvalues of which are la1. Similarly.e. the error decreases by a factor of e every 1/(-ln [rhoP]) number of iterations. The spectral radius for this matrix is therefore |la3| = la3 >1. la2 and la3. for large m. by its spectral radius. Thus. for the Gauss-Seidel scheme for the same example. Hence the Gauss-Seidel scheme diverged. in the solution of equation (44) as e = x~ . (70) (71) For the system of equations in the first example (equation 68). the error propagation from iteration to iteration can be written as ek+1 = Pek (76) Thus. Defining the error. the iteration matix for the Jacobi method is given by Pjacobi1 = (72) The three eigenvalues of this matrix are la1.. If the spectral radius of P < 1. then em->0 as m -> inf leading to a converged solution. The iteration matrix and the corresponding spectral radius for the other cases in examples 1 and 2 are listed in Table 5.

for example. and take values from 1 to (M-1). the spectral radius of the Jacobi iteration matrix can be approximated as rho(PJ) ≈ 1. The spectral radius of the Jacobi iteration matrix is given by the highest eigenvalue.and y-direction. respectively.and y-directions.2. This compares favourably with an 1/3N3 variation for the Gaussian elimination scheme discussed earlier for large values of N. the eigenvalues of the iteration matrix are given by (see. thus.a] x [0.3/(-ln[rhoP]) number of iterations. Each equation of the Jacobi iteration requires 5 arithmetic operations. Consider the simple case of the Laplace equation in the square [0.pi^2/M^2 (83) (82) . lambdaGS = 1/4[cos(lpi/M)+cos(mpi/M)]^2 (81) Hence the spectral radius of the iteration matrix for the Gauss-Seidel method for the Laplace equation is given by rho(PGS) = cos^2 (pi/M) which can be approximated for large M as rho(PGS) ≈ 1. For the Gauss-Seidel method.pi^2/2M^2 (80) The asymptotic convergence rate for the Jacobi scheme for the Laplace equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions is (2M^2/pi^2) or 0.(sin2(lpi/2M) + sin^2(mpi/2M)]=1/2[cos(lpi/M)+cos(mpi/M)] (78) where l and m correspond to the grid indices in the x.466N iterations to reduce the error by one order where N is the number of equations (Mx M) being solved simultaneously. If this square is divided into a uniform mesh of M x M subrectangles. it can be shown that the corresponding eigenvalues of the amplification matrix are equal to the square of the eigenvalues of the Jacobi method. and thus the total number of arithmetic operations required to reduce error by four orders of magnitude for the Jacobi scheme is 9N^2. 1988) lambdaJac = 1. for l = m = 1 in equation (78) and is therefore rho(PJ) = cos (pi/M) (79) For large M. Hirsch. that is.a] in the x. then for a five-point Jacobi scheme.

w. For the specific case of the Laplace equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. the eigenvalues of the corresponding iteration matrix are related by lambdaGSSOR = 1-w + w* lambda(Pjac) * lambdaGSSOR^0. the Gauss-Seidel method converges twice as fast as the Jacobi method for this problem. for the JSOR method is given by wopt.5N2. the total number of arithmetic operations required to reduce the error by four orders of magnitude will be 4. For example. when A is symmetric and positive definite.5 (87) The optimal relaxation factor. The optimum value of the overrelaxation parameter. the minimum and maximum eigenvalues are given by lambdamax = -lambdamin = cos (pi/M) and the optimal relaxation occurs for w = 1 corresponding to the Jacobi method without SOR itself! For the point Gauss-Seidel method with SOR. the eigenvalues of the iteration matrix are related by lambda(PJSOR) = (1-w) + wlambda(PJ) (85) where lambda(PJ) are the eigenvalues of the pure Jacobi iteration matrix. The convergence rate for these methods will depend strongly on the overreelaxation factor and is greatly improved near the optimal relaxation factor. The above results of the relative convergence of the Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods for the Laplace (and Poisson) equation can be generalized to the case where the coefficient matrix A is symmetric and positive definite. For the Jacobi method with SOR. which corresponds to the minimum spectral radius of the iteration matrix. wopt. the SOR method would converge provided the overrelaxation factor satisfied the relation 0 < w < 2/ [1+ rho(P) ] (84) where rho (P) is the spectral radius of the iteration matrix of the pure Jacobi or Gauss-Seidel method (i.Thus.. It can be shown (Hirsch. is given by .JSOR = 2/[2-(lambdamin + lambdamax) (86) where lambdamin and lambdamax are the minimum and the maximum values of the iteration matrix corresponding to the pure Jacobi method.e. 1988) that for such matrices. without overrelaxation).

convergence would be slower on finer grids and a larger number of iterations would be required to reduce the error by a given factor. compared to N^2 variation for the pure GS method. Such detailed analysis of the properties of iterative schemes is possible for symmetric matrices. for large M and in the asymptotic limit.5 and that the total number of arithmetic operations required to reduce error by a decade varies as N^1. 12.3 of Hirsch) depending on the spectrum of eigenvalues present in the iteration matrix and their damping characteristics. we find that.xxx (Fig.1. Thus. the number of iterations required to reduce error by an order of magnitude varies as N^0. for diffusion-dominated flows. and the interested reader is referred to Axelsson (1994) for more details. (82) and (90) that as the number of subdivisions (M) increases. A response of the type of curve b may be obtained if the low frequency errors are damped rapidly. It is interesting to note from equations (79).pi/M (90) Comparing this with the corresponding expression (equation (83)) without SOR.5. For unsymmetric matrices. The above discussion is applicable in the asymptotic limit of large number of iterations and for large number of subdivisions (large M). the spectral radius of the Jacobi iteration matrix is cos (pi/M) and hence wopt for the GSSOR method is given by wopt = 2/[1+ sin(pi/M)] ≈ 2(1-pi/M) Hence the spectral radius at optimum relaxation is given by rho(GSSOR) = 2(1-pi/M) –1 = 1.wopt. A residual history of the type of curve a may be expected if the iterative scheme damps rapidly the high frequency errors but damps poorly the low frequency errors. In the initial stages of computation. the spectral radius approaches closer to unity and the convergence rate therefore decreases. A detailed discussion of this eigenvalue analysis of an iterative method is presented in Hirsch (1988). This represents a considerably enhanced convergence rate for large values of N. the residual reduction may typically follow one of the two idealized curves shown in Figure 5.5] The spectral radius for the optimal relaxation factor is given by rho(GSSOR) = wopt – 1 (88) (89) For the case of the Laplace equation with Dirichlet conditions. the convergence behaviour is more complicated and a non-monotone convergence may be expected. . GSSOR = 2/[1-{1-rho^2(Pjaco)}^0.

Let us summarize the results that we have obtained in this section. simultaneous solution of a reduced set of equations is possible. Also.The above results on the conditions for convergence and the rate of convergence expressed in terms of the spectral radius of the iteration matrix are not very useful in practice because of the large size of matrices involved. x0. is often used as a guide for the convergence behaviour of iterative schemes: A sufficient condition for covergence of an iterative scheme is that the matrix A (in equation 7) is irreducible and must have general diagonal dominance. A reducible matrix does not require the simultaneous solution of all the equations. a search for an optimal value of w should be incorporated for large N while taking account of the disparity of variation of the residual in the initial stages of the computation . the number of airthmetic operations required to reduce the residual by k orders of magnitude varies as ~kN^2 where N is the number of equations being solved simultaneously. It can be shown that (Ciarlet. 1989) that under such conditions. irreducibility and diagonal dominance. A matrix satisfying the irreducibility and the general diagonance condition is called irreducibly diagonally dominant matrix. However. the spectral radius of the iteration matrices corresponding to the Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methos is less than unity and that they converge for all initial vectors. Diagonal dominance of a matrix refers to the condition that |aii| > sum j=/I |aij| for all I (94) A matrix which satisfies equation (94) is said to be strictly diagonally dominant. When this is not the case.e. the Jacobi method and the Gauss-Seidel method.. the number of arithmetic operations may vary as ~kN^1. namely. namely. the SOR method would converge for 0 < w < 2. the convergence rate decreases rather sharply for non-optimal (especially suboptimal) values of the relaxation factor and. typically of the order of 104 x 104 or more. the matrix A is said to be irreducible. require some clarification. |aii| >= sum I=/j (|aij|) for all I |aii| > sum I=/ j (|aij|) for at least on ei (91) Both these conditions.. is said to be generally diagonally dominant. The evaluation of the eigenvalues and the spectral radius for such cases may not be practically feasible.5. For the basic iterative methods. but one which is readily implementable. in a practical implementation of the iterative scheme. The following more restrictive condition. For the optimal SOR method. i. constituting a significant improvement for large N. A matrix which satisfied the diagonal dominance condition for at least one row and satisfies the others with an equality sign.

e. While the Gaussian elimination method (with pivoting) would work for any non-singular matrix. e. compare very favourably with the best general purpose direct method for the solution of the same equation.g. (ii) taking advantage of the efficient Thomas algorithm for tridiagonal matrices. and (iv) taking advantage of the error smoothening properties of some iterative methods.. e. ADI methods. .g. A number of methods and strategies have been developed to arrive at improving the convergence behaviour of the iterative methods. for which the number of operations varies as ~ N.(Figure 5. Chebyshev iterative methods.14). which are valid for diffusion-dominated flows. These take the form of (i) improving the sensitivity of the SOR method to the choice of w. which takes 1/3N^3 number of arithmetic operations for the solution (to machine accuracy). the Thomas algorithm.. namely. require less storage and take advantage of the structure of the matrix. e.xxx). (iii) providing a betterconditioned splitting of the matrix A into M and N. as shown in Table 5. the Gaussian elimination method. 5.g.g. they compare significantly less favourably with the best general purpose direct method for a diagonally domaninat tridiagonal matrix. Some of these are discussed below. easier to program. The basic iterative methods are much simpler. these advantages are gained at the cost of a significant curtailment of applicability..3 Advanced Iterative Methods A number of iterative methods have been devised to improve the convergence behaviour of the basic iterative schemes. However. The above results. multigrid methods. namely. strongly implicit methods. its efficacy is reduced for non-optimal values and may not work at all in some cases.x (GS with w= 1.. the basic iterative methods are limited to diagonally dominant matrices. Also. While SOR remains an effective means of enhancing the convergence rate of the basic methods.