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Hence, steam boilers are used as generators to produce electricity in the energy business. Besides many different application areas in the industry for example in heating systems or for cement production, steam boilers are used in agriculture as well for soil steaming. The steam generator or boiler is an integral component of a steam engine when considered as aprime mover. However it needs be treated separately, as to some extent a variety of generator types can be combined with a variety of engine units. A boiler incorporates a firebox or furnace in order to burn the fuel and generate heat. The generated heat is transferred to water to makesteam, the process of boiling. This produces saturated steam at a rate which can vary according to the pressure above the boiling water. The higher the furnace temperature, the faster the steam production. The saturated steam thus produced can then either be used immediately to produce power via a turbine and alternator, or else may be further superheated to a higher temperature; this notably reduces suspended water content making a given volume of steam produce more work and creates a greater temperature gradient in order to counter the tendency ofcondensation due to pressure and heat drop resulting from work plus contact with the cooler walls of the steam passages and cylinders and wire-drawing effect from strangulation at the regulator. Any remaining heat in the combustion gases can then either be evacuated or made to pass through an economiser, the role of which is to warm the feed water before it reaches the boiler.
An evaporator is a device used to turn the liquid form of a chemical into its gaseous form. The liquid is evaporated, or vaporized, into a gas. a heat-exchange device for evaporating liquids. In thermal power engineering, the evaporator is used to produce a distillate that compensates for losses of condensate in steam power plants. A tube vertical evaporator is usually heated by the steam coming from the turbine and passing through the space between the tubes. The evaporating water, which is softened in advance, passes within the tubes. There are also evaporators that are heated by flue gases emerging from boiler units. The steam produced in such evaporators may be used both to compensate for losses of condensate and to provide heat. High-capacity evaporators find application in atomic power plants located near seas and oceans for the distillation of seawater. Evaporators, which are sometimes called distillers, are installed on oceangoing vessels. They are the principal components of refrigeration units, in which the refrigerating agent used to provide direct (or using brine) cooling of refrigeration chambers is evaporated. Evaporators are also devices used to increase the concentration of various solutions. Industrial apparatus for converting liquid into gas or vapour. The single-effect evaporator consists of a container or surface and a heating unit; the multiple-effect evaporator uses the vapour produced in one unit to heat a succeeding unit. Double-, triple-, or quadruple-effect evaporators may be used in industrial and steam heating plants. Some evaporators are used to concentrate a solution by vaporizing and
decreasing the turbine backpressure will increase the thermal efficiency of the turbine. and Provide for de-aeration of the collected condensate. Use of cooling water or surrounding  air as the coolant is common in many condensers. leaving mineral residues behind. and will transfer to the condenser coolant. typically by cooling it. Condensers are typically heat exchangers which have various designs and come in many sizes ranging from rather small (hand-held) to very large industrial-scale units used in plant processes. a refrigerator uses a condenser to get rid of heat extracted from the interior of the unit to the outside air. the cooling is produced as the rapid evaporation of the liquid refrigerant absorbs heat. The condensers and cooling systems involved in condensing the exhaust steam from a steam turbine and transferring the waste heat away from the power station. Condensers are used in air conditioning.. in a concentration plant for sugar and syrup). a condenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state. For best efficiency. For example. the latent heat is given up by the substance. *The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. Decreasing the condensate temperature will result in a lowering of the turbine backpressure. In so doing. Note: Within limits. evaporators convert the water to vapour. industrial chemical processes such as distillation. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve . the vapour is then condensed into (desalinated) water. steam power plants and other heat-exchange systems. In a refrigeration system. Provide short-term storage of condensate.g. The condenser also has the following secondary functions: The condensate is collected in the condenser hot well. In systems involving heat transfer. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes. Condensers: The function of the condenser is to condense exhaust steam from the steam turbine by rejecting the heat of vaporisation to the cooling water passing through the condenser. In purification processes such as desalination. Provide a low-pressure collection point for condensate drains from other systems in the plant. This pressure is called the turbine backpressure and is usually a vacuum. from which the condensate pumps take their suction.eliminating water (e. The temperature of the condensate determines the pressure in the steam/condensate side of the condenser.
In domestic installations. hot water and water heated to steam have many uses. liquefied petroleum gas. often in combination with backup systems powered by fossil fuels or electricity. hot water tanks. Water heating is a thermodynamic process that uses an energy source to heat water above its initial temperature. power plants. Appliances that provide a constant supply of hot water are variously called water heaters. are in domestic or industrial use. and their energy source. or once-through water from a river. Domestically. These metal vessels that heat a batch of water do not produce a continual supply of heated water at a preset temperature. due to the expected high availability of district heating systems. boilers. hot water heaters. heat exchangers. usually from natural hot springs. Densely-populated urban areas of some countries provide district heating of hot water. and space heating. pots. becoming cooler as flow increases. cleaning. incinerators. . District heating systems supply energy for water heating and space heating from waste heat from industries. in turn. kettles. oil). and central solar heating. water is traditionally heated in vessels known as water heaters. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere. bathing. In industry. potable water heated for uses other than space heating is also called domestic hot water (DHW). or calorifiers. or coppers. or solid fuels are commonly used for heating water. Electricity to heat water may also come from any other electrical source. such as nuclear power orrenewable energy. hot water occurs naturally. Generally the consumer has no in-building backup system. Typical domestic uses of hot water include cooking. unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning. and whether they heat potable or non-potable water. geothermal heating. heat pumps. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100 oC where the vapor pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure. and geothermal heating can also heat water. Fossil fuels (natural gas. Rarely. heats water. cauldrons.the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. Actual heating of tap water is performed in heat exchangers at the consumers' premises. The temperature varies based on the consumption rate. hot water heat recycling. Thus leaks of non-condensible air into the closed loop must be prevented. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer. These may be consumed directly or may produce electricity that. These names depend on region. This is especially the case in Scandinavia and Finland. Alternative energy such as solar energy. the condenser generally works under vacuum. lake or ocean.geysers.
Powerplants Main article: Feedwater heater Modern-day boilers. In this context they are often referred to asfeedwater heaters and heat the condensate from turbines before it is pumped to the boilers. in addition there may be combustion. or economisers (UK/international).. Tube bundles are a sub-component in shell-and-tube heat exchangers. ventilating. are still fitted with economizers which are descendants of Green's original design. The economizer also prevents flooding of the boiler with liquid water that is too cold to be boiled given the flow rates and design of the boiler. are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption. or column heater. an economizer is a heat exchanger. powerplant. in turn reducing the firing rates needed for the rated boiler output. and heating. is a common form of convection heater used in domesticheating. lowering the needed energy input. in the literature.Tube banks are commonly-employed design elements in heat exchangers. not as a fuel. then a boiler and then asuperheater. such as kerosene – the oil is used as a heat reservoir(buffer). This raises the temperature of the boiler feedwater. How it works .) be single- phase or multiphase: boilers and condensers containing tube banks find a wide range of applications in industry. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. such as those in coal-fired power stations. and longitudinal flow elsewhere. Both plain and finned tube banks are widely found. it is electrically heated and does not involve burning any oil fuel. Economizers lower stack temperatures which may cause condensation of acidic combustion gases and serious equipment corrosion damage if care is not taken in their design and material selection. and air-conditioning (HVAC) uses are discussed in this article. In an HRSG. also known as an oil-filled heater. A common application of economizers in steam powerplants is to capture the waste heat from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer it to the boiler feedwater.g. Economizers (US). flow however may this convention from universal. or to perform another useful function such as preheating a fluid. where the flow resembles crossflow at some places. in a furnace heat exchanger. to denote a crossflow situation and bundle to is far indicate longitudinal The flow. Although filled with oil. In simple terms. water passes through an economizer. e. oil-filled radiator. (The term tube bank is often used. An oil heater. Boiler. Economizers are commonly used as part of a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle power plant.
A large surface area allows more air to be in contact with the heater at any point in time. Reheater Power plant furnaces may have a reheater section containing tubes heated by hot flue gases outside the tubes. Using the oil as a heat reservoir. while the high boiling point allows it to remain in the liquid phase for the purpose of heating.kg . with a relatively high specific heat capacity(approximately 2 −1 −1  kJ. which then flows around the cavities of the heater by convection. and separately fired. such assteam reforming. so that the heater does not have to be a high pressure vessel. The oil acts as a heat reservoir. then to the surroundings via convection and radiation. Exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine is passed through these heated tubes to collect more energy before driving the intermediate and then low pressure turbines. The high specific heat capacity allows the oil to store a large amount of thermal energy in a small volume. the heating element heats the oil. convection.Oil heaters consist of metal columns with cavities. such that the surface area of the metal columns is large relative to the volume of the oil heat reservoir. . The columns of oil heaters are typically constructed as thin fins. inside which oil flows freely around the heater. A heating element at the base of the heater heats up the oil. which remains warm for a long period of time while the heat is transferred to the metal wall through convection. through the walls via conduction.K ) and high boiling point (approximately 150–300 degrees  Celsius). A superheater can vary in size from a few tens of feet to several hundred feet (a few metres or some hundred metres). allowing for the heat to be transferred more rapidly from the heater into the room. A superheater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam into dry steam used in steam engines or in processes. There are three types of superheaters namely: radiant.
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