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**A new method for determination of satellite orbits by transfer
**

LI ZhiGang1†, YANG XuHai1, AI GuoXiang2, SI HuLi2, QIAO RongChuan1 & FENG ChuGang3

1 2

National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710600, China; National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China; 3 Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030, China

The original idea of a new method for determination of satellite orbits by transfer is from Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT). The original method is called “determination of satellite orbit by transfer”. The method is not only for determination of satellite orbit but also for the time transfer with high accuracy and precision. The advantage is that the accuracy and the precision for determination of satellite orbit are very high and the new method is favorable for various applications. The combination of various signals disseminated and received forms various modes of satellite orbit determinations. If receivers at stations receive the own station-disseminated signals via a satellite transponder, it forms an orbit determination mode called “receiving the own station-disseminated signals mode”. If receivers at all stations receive the signals disseminated from the master station via satellite transponders, it forms an orbit determination mode called “receiving the master station-disseminated signals mode”. If all of receivers at stations receive all stations-disseminated signals via satellite transponders, it forms an orbit determination mode called “receiving all stations-disseminated signals mode”. Also there are other combinations of signals for satellite orbit determination. For different orbit determination modes with different signal combinations, their rigorous formulae of processing are hereby presented in this paper. The accurate and the precise satellite orbit determination for both of the modes, “receiving the own station-disseminated signals mode” and “receiving the master station-disseminated signals mode” is attempted. It shows that the accuracy and precision for both of modes are nearly the same, the ranging accuracy is better than 1 cm, and the observation residuals of satellite orbit determination are better than 9 cm in the observation duration of 1 day.

TWSTFT, transfer, satellite orbit determination

There are several kinds of techniques for satellite orbit determinations. Recently, the united system for S Band (USB) is used for regular observations of orbit determinations. The ranging accuracy for the USB is 3－5 m and the precision for orbit determination is about few hundreds meters. It meets the requirements for spacecraft long-term management, so the USB is still used in the observations of orbit determinations of spacecraft at present. With the development of deep space tracking and satellite navigation system, especially for the area positioning system, such as Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), requirements of accuracy and precision

for orbit determination are very high. The CAPS is consisted by sets of Geostationary Satellites (GEO) placed at an altitude of 36000 km above the equator. The angle of the GEO satellite to Earth is very small (17.6°). If the ranging stations are only placed in the area of China, the angle of the GEO satellite to the area is only few degrees. Viewing from space, the directions from satellite to all stations are nearly parallel. Furthermore, the orbital peReceived September 8, 2008; accepted December 23, 2008 doi: 10.1007/s11433-009-0057-6 † Corresponding author (email: lizg@ntsc.ac.cn) Supported by the National Basic Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2007CB815503100453001)

Sci China Ser G-Phys Mech Astron | Mar. 2009 | vol. 52 | no. 3 | 384-392

riod of the GEO matches the period of the Earth’s rotation so that velocity of satellite to ground is very low. If the ranging accuracy is not good enough, the velocity of GEO satellite to ground can not be determined. From the above discussion, we can draw a conclusion that the techniques of orbit determination with lower accuracy are not able to obtain the precise orbit of the GEO satellites. The ranging accuracy for Laser Ranging Satellite (LRS) is very high, about 1 cm, but the observations are limited by a weather condition, if the ranging stations are limited in the area of China, and the coverage of observation for the GEO is limited. It is not suitable for regular observations of orbit determination. The accuracy of determination of angles for the VLBI is very precise, but the orbit determination of satellite is not superior over others. Obviously, techniques mentioned above do not meet the requirements of orbit determination for satellite navigation system. The Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) is a technique of time transfer with high accuracy. The possibility of time transfer by satellite was researched before the first satellite in the world, Sputnik 1, was launched. The first time transfer experiment for TWSTFT began in 1966. Since that time, the TWSTFT is regarded as the hopeful method for high accuracy time transfer. Using VSAT and spread-spectrum technique, the accuracy and precision for time transfer were improved greatly[1,2]. Soon, the method of TWSTFT becomes a routine technology[2] for time transfer. The first TWSTFT link in China was set up in 1998 by the National Time Service Centre, Chinese Academy of Sciences, cooperated with Communication Research Laboratory (CRL) in Japan and put in real regular operation, the precision is better than 1 ns[3,4]. Based on TWSTFT[5], an original method of satellite ranging, called “a method for determination of satellite orbit by transfer”, was proposed by National Time Service Center at the TWSTFT WG 9th Meeting, and the corresponding technique of the new method was developed, it was used in the project of the CAPS. The principle of observations is that the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is employed. The time signals are generated by atomic clocks at ground stations and are modulated with different pseudo noise code sequence. The time signals with the same carrier frequency via satellite transponder are transmitted to receivers at ground stations. It is equal to that there are N sets of positioning systems, like GPS, to

make the ranges between the satellite and the stations. With high rate of the PN code (chip rate is 20 MHz for CAPS), the ranging accuracy is better than 1 cm and the precision of orbit determination is better than 2 m. Its advantage is that observations are available for any weather condition. Obviously, our technique of orbit determinations with high accuracy can be used in satellite management, deep space tracking, and precise orbit determination for satellite navigation system. Even very high precision can be reached by our method; in order to confirm its accuracy, comparison of orbit with others is needed.

**1 The observation principle for determination of a satellite orbit by a transfer
**

Observation principle for “determination of satellite orbit by transfer” is that precise time signals from atomic clocks of ground stations modeled with different pseudo-noise code sequence are disseminated with the same carrier frequencies. The time signals are transferred via satellite transponder and received by receivers at stations, in such a way, that the time delay on the propagation path can be determined. It means that the distances between satellite and stations are determined. The different modes are constructed by combinations of received signals from different stations. Receivers at stations receive their own station disseminated signals, so we call it “receiving own station disseminated signals mode”; receivers at stations only receive the signals from the master station, so we call it “receiving master station disseminated signals mode”; all receivers receive all disseminated signals from all stations, so we call it “receiving all stations disseminated signals mode”. A set of formulae of processing is hereby presented, also, the observation results for both modes, “receiving own station disseminated signals mode” and “receiving master station disseminated signals mode” are presented. The performance for both modes has been confirmed. 1.1 Basic relationship of observations Figure 1 shows an overview of the observation relationship for orbit determination by transfer. It is assumed that both station i and station j are the same. The time signals of master clock at station i modulated by PN code are dispatched to satellite. The signals from station i are transferred to station j via satellite. The receiver at

385

LI ZhiGang et al. Sci China Ser G-Phys Mech Astron | Mar. 2009 | vol. 52 | no. 3 | 384-392

station j demodulates it, and the delay time of signals for path from station i to station j via satellite is determined. It means that the distance between station i and station j via satellite is also determined.

In eq. (1), the Ti and the I ji are signal delays for both transmitters and receivers which can be determined by a special survey. Rit is the time delay of disseminated signals for that path from the phase center of antenna of station i at the moment (when the signals are disseminated) to the phase center of antenna of satellite at the moment ( when the signals are received by the satellite ). In the inertial frame, it is a total sum of signal delays of the distance (for that distance from phase center of antenna of station i to the phase center of antenna of satellite at the moment when the signals are received by satellite) and the effect of earth rotation. R rji is the time delay of received signals for that path from the phase center of antenna of satellite at the moment (when signals are transmitted by satellite) to the phase center of antenna of station i at the moment (when signals are received by receivers at station i). In the inertial frame, it is the total sum of received signal delays of the distance (for that distance from the phase center of antenna of satellite to the phase center of antenna of station i at moment of transferred signals of satellite) and the effect of earth rotation. Equation (1) is the formula for processing TWSTFT and orbit determination by transfer. Correcting the effects of ionosphere, time delay of instrument and earth rotation, Rit can be replaced by Ri (distance between the phase center of antenna of satellite to the phase center of antenna of station i at moment of received the signals by satellite). And R ji can be replaced by R j (the distance between the phase center of antenna of satellite to the phase center of antenna of station j at moment of satellite transmitted signals). Then, eq. (1) can be rewritten as

Ri + τ s + R j − ΔT1i + ΔT1 j = R ji .

Figure 1

The principle for orbit determinations by transfer.

It is assumed that the signals from station i are received by receiver at station j, and then their relation of time delay for the transmitting signals can be expressed as

**Rit + Oiu + Ti + τ s + R rji + O jd + I ji − ΔT1i + ΔT1 j = R ji ,
**

(1) where Rji is the reading of the Time Interval Counter (TIC) at station j received signals from station i; Rit is time delay of signals for that path from the phase center of antenna of station i at the moment (when the signals are disseminated) to satellite barycentre at the moment (when the signals from station i are received); R rji is time delay of signals of station i for that path from satellite barycentre at the moment (when the signals of station i are transferred) to the phase center of antenna of station j at the moment (when the signals are received); Oiu is the additional time delay of ionosphere at station

(2)

**i for the up link; O jd is the additional time delay of
**

ionosphere at station j for the down link; Ti is transmitter time delay at station i; I ji is time delay of Receiver at station j received signals from station i; ΔT1i is clock offset at station i related to atomic clock of master station, and define that τ 0 = τ i + ΔT1i , where

The fact is that the time delay of the transponder and that of the path can not be separated. If one half of the former is allocated to the paths, i.e., if we define that

τ j = R j + τ s / 2,

then eq. (1) becomes τ i + τ j − ΔT1i + ΔT1 j = R ji . Hereafter formula (3) will be discussed.

1.2 Reduction of the pseudo-range for the “receiving all stations-disseminated signals mode”

(3)

**τ1 and τ i are clock time at master station and station i,
**

respectively; τ s is signals time delay of satellite transponder.

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**We assume that all stations disseminate signals and all
**

LI ZhiGang et al. Sci China Ser G-Phys Mech Astron | Mar. 2009 | vol. 52 | no. 3 | 384-392

stations receive all signals from all stations. For such a net system with N stations, there are N sets of observations for each station, and N×N sets of observations for N stations. The N unknowns for distances from satellite to stations and N − 1 unknowns for clock offset related to master station can be solved by the method of least squares. For orbit determination, there are 3 unknowns for satellite positions. In principle, we can obtain the satellite orbit at least with a net system consisting of 3 stations. We take the relation for a pair of observations when a receiver at station i receives signals from station j and at the same time a receiver at station j receives signals from station i. According to eq. (3), the relation for such a pair of observations consisting of two stations becomes 1 τ i + τ j = ( R ji + Rij ). (4) 2 Equation (4) is an equation of observation for a pair of observations. For the net consisting of N stations, there

2 are Cn sets of equations like eq. (3). Adding the equa-

**Equation (5) is an incompatible equation, and it can be solved by the method of least squares. Its normal equation is
**

AT ⋅ A ⋅ B = AT ⋅ R,

and

n ⎡ ⎤ ⎢n + 3 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 ⎥ n+3 ⎢ 1 ⎢ 1 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ T , A ⋅A=⎢ 1 1 ⎥ n+3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 ⎥ n+3 ⎢ 1 ⎢ 1 1 n + 3⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(6)

tion of receiving own station disseminated signal mode, in total, there are n(n+1)/2 sets of equations. Then the equation of observation with matrix representation can be expressed as A ⋅ B = R, (5) where n ⎡ ⎤ ⎢2 0 0 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎢1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎢1 0 ⎢0 2 0⎥ ⎥, A=⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎢0 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 1 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ B = [τ1 , τ 2 , , τ n ]T ,

1 ( R1n + Rn1 ) 2 ⎤ Rnn ⎥ . ⎦

T

⎡ R j1 + R1 j ⎤ ⎡ R ⎤ 11 ⎢ ⎥ R j 2 + R2 j ⎥ ⎢ R22 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ n ⎢ 1 ⎢ T ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥. A ⋅R = ∑ (7) 2 j =1 ⎢ R ji + Rij ⎥ ⎢ Rii ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ R + R ⎥ ⎢ Rnn ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ nj ⎦ ⎣ jn Beginning at the second row of eq. (6), the first row is subtracted from each row, and we get n ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ n+3 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ −n − 2 n + 2 ⎢ −n − 2 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ T , (8) A ⋅A=⎢ −n − 2 0 ⎥ n+2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 ⎥ n+2 ⎢ −n − 2 ⎢ −n − 2 0 0 n + 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ and R j1 + R1 j ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ R ⎤ 11 ⎢ ⎥ R j 2 + R2 j − R j1 − R1 j ⎥ ⎢ R22 − R11 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ n ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ ⎥+⎢ AT ⋅ R = ∑ ⎥ . (9) 2 j =1 ⎢ R ji + Rij − R j1 − R1 j ⎥ ⎢ Rii − R11 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ R − R11 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ R jn + Rnj − R j1 − R1 j ⎦ ⎢ nn The solution is

387

1 ⎡ 1 R = ⎢ R11 ( R12 + R21 ) ( R13 + R31 ) 2 2 ⎣ 1 × R22 ( R23 + R32 ) 2

1 ( R j. j +1 + R j +1, j ) 2

LI ZhiGang et al. Sci China Ser G-Phys Mech Astron | Mar. 2009 | vol. 52 | no. 3 | 384-392

τk =

n 1 1 Rkk + ∑ ( R jk + Rkj ) 2(n + 2) j =1 n+2

and then eq. (3) can be written as τ j = R ji − τ1 − ΔT1 j . (10) According to eq. (9), that is 1 2 and the above equation can be rewritten as 1 τ j = R j1 − R11 − ΔT1 j . (12) 2 The above equation is the reduction formula of ranging for “received master station disseminated signal mode”. For the master station, the above equation becomes one for “received own station disseminated signal mode”. In eq. (12), ΔT1 j is clock offset of station j relative to

−

n n 1 ∑ ( R jj + ∑ Rkj ). (2n + 2)(n + 2) j =1 i =1

τ1 = R11 ,

The first part on the right side of eq. (10) is the effect for “receiving own station disseminated signal mode”, the second part on the right is the effect of station K as master station for “receiving master station disseminated signal mode”, and the third part on the right is the effect for “receiving all stations disseminated signal mode”. It is obvious that the biggest effect is from the first part.

1.3 Reduction of the pseudo-range for the “receiving the own station-disseminated signals mode”

If there is a set of receivers at a station, the receiver receives the signals disseminated from its own station. Such manner we call it receiving own station disseminated signal mode[2]. The equation of observation for such mode is n ⎡ ⎤ ⎢2 0 0 0⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎢0 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ A = ⎢0 0 2 0 0 ⎥ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 0⎥ ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢0 0 ⎣ ⎦ Matrix A is that the number of unknowns is equal to the number of observations sets. The solution is 1 τ i = Rii . (11) 2 We notice that a precise time synchronism is not necessary for “receiving own disseminated signal mode”. The time scale only effects the observing time. If the speed of satellite is 3 km/s, then the accuracy of time synchronism of 1 μs is required for the accuracy of 3 mm.

1.4 Reduction of the pseudo-range for the “receiving the master station-disseminated signals mode”

master clock. For the “receiving master station disseminated signal mode”, it needs time synchronization with high accuracy. Obviously, with such a mode, the accuracy for satellite orbit determination depends on the accuracy of time synchronization.

2

Time transfer

The original idea for determination of satellite orbit by transfer is from TWSTFT. Obviously, the precise time synchronism at remote clocks[6,7] is available for our method. According to eq. (2), the relation for a pair of observations (the receiver at station i receives the signals from station j and the receiver at station j receives the signals from station i) becomes 1 ΔTi − ΔT j = ( Rij − R ji ). 2 If station j is master station and we assure that the serial number of master station is 1, and then the formula for reduction of time synchronism between master station and slave stations is 1 ΔTi = ( Ri1 − R1i ). (13) 2 Equation (13) is a formula of reduction of two-way satellite time transfer used at present[7,8]. We notice that the effects from earth rotation and from instrument time delay in eq. (13) should be corrected in advance[9].

If only the master station disseminates the time signals and all slave stations receive the signals from master station, such a manner we call it “receiving master station disseminated signal mode”[1]. This system is very useful for the military use. We assure that serial number of master station is 1

388

3

Observation results

The method for determination of satellite orbit by transfer is applied in the project of the CAPS. With TDMA, up to 5 satellites can be observed at the same time. With the observation experiments of the past 3 years we draw

LI ZhiGang et al. Sci China Ser G-Phys Mech Astron | Mar. 2009 | vol. 52 | no. 3 | 384-392

a conclusion that the method for determination of satellite orbit by transfer can determinate the satellite orbit with very high accuracy and precision. The system is very stable and it has small system error. Obviously, such a method is suitable for determination of navigation satellite orbit. In order to value the accuracy of the above method, we make continuous observations in the duration of 10 days, and the accuracy and precision of different modes has been determined.

3.1 Results for “receiving tion-disseminated signals mode” the own sta-

In the duration from 6 June 2005 to 13 June 2005, Sino-1 satellite was observed continually. The 12 sets of parameters, including 6 sets for satellite orbit parameters, 1 set for light pressure, 2 sets for experiential acceleration, and 3 sets for transponder delay, were determined[10,11]. Table 1 shows the bias of stations for observing Sino-1 satellite in the duration from June 6 to June 13. The last

column in Table 1 shows RMS (root mean square) of observing bias. The change is very small, from 3.7 to 8.3 cm. The RMS of average of observing bias is 5.7 cm. Table 2 shows the average of observing residuals for Sino-1 satellite in the duration from 6 June to 13 June. The last column in Table 2 shows RMS of observing residuals. The average of observing residual is 7.8 cm. Figures 2－5 show the observing residuals for 5 stations. The observation accuracy and precision are obtained. Tables 1 and 2 and Figures 2－5 show the accuracy of the method for determination of satellite orbit by transfer . We also research into the accuracy of prediction of orbit[12,13]. In order to eliminate the effect of short periods, the 8 sets of parameters including 6 sets for orbit parameters, 1 set for light pressure, and 1 set for transponder delay, are determined. We predict the orbit of 7 days using observation data of 1 day. Figure 6 shows the difference between observation data and the predicted

Table 1 Bias of stations for 1 day data with observation of Sino-1 satellite in the duration from 6 June 2005 to 13 Name of station Shanghai Changchun Lintong Kunming Urumqi June 6 (m) 3.143 −3.581 0.616 0.554 −0.732 June 7 (m) 3.169 −3.564 0.578 0.500 −0.684 June 8 (m) 3.121 −3.605 0.731 0.492 −0.739 June 9 (m) 3.192 −3.673 0.664 0.598 −0.780 June 10 (m) 3.228 −3.641 0.589 0.529 −0.706 June 11 (m) 3.120 −3.518 0.588 0.479 −0.667 June 12 (m) 3.116 −3.495 0.618 0.397 −0.636 June 13 (m) 3.144 −3.482 0.593 0.317 −0.573 RMS (m) 0.037 0.065 0.048 0.083 0.053

Table 2 Residuals of observations of 1 day data for Sino-1 satellite in the duration from 6 June 2005 to 13 Name of station Shanghai Changchun Lintong Kunming Urumqi Average June 6 (m) 0.062 0.101 0.065 0.124 0.079 0.089 June 7 (m) 0.034 0.107 0.056 0.122 0.074 0.085 June 8 (m) 0.053 0.086 0.077 0.130 0.078 0.088 June 9 (m) 0.078 0.114 0.082 0.120 0.077 0.096 June 10 (m) 0.059 0.074 0.073 0.121 0.064 0.081 June 11 (m) 0.085 0.083 0.069 0.086 0.079 0.081 June 12 (m) 0.068 0.066 0.043 0.055 0.056 0.058 June 13 (m) 0.072 0.079 0.048 0.074 0.055 0.067 Average (m) 0.064 0.089 0.064 0.104 0.070 0.078

Figure 2 Residuals (O-C) of 5 stations for orbit determination of Sino-1 satellite in the duration of June 6, 2005.

LI ZhiGang et al. Sci China Ser G-Phys Mech Astron | Mar. 2009 | vol. 52 | no. 3 | 384-392

389

Figure 3 Residuals (O-C) of 5 stations for orbit determination of Sino-1 satellite in the duration of June 7, 2005.

Figure 4 Residuals (O-C) of 5 stations for orbit determination of Sino-1 satellite in the duration of June 8, 2005.

Figure 5 Residuals (O-C) of 5 stations for orbit determination of Sino-1 satellite in the duration of June 9, 2005.

orbit (in the duration of 1 day observation data, 6 June). It shows that the maximum of values is less than 13 m. Figure 7 shows the difference between precise orbit and the predicting orbit ((in the duration of 1 day observation data, 6 June). The maximum of differences at direction transverse is less than 37 m, at direction of normal is less than 24 m, and at direction of radial is less than 10 m.

390

3.2 Results for the “receiving the master stationdisseminated signals mode”

Suppose there is only a set of transmitter at the observation net for orbit determinations and all of receivers receive the signals disseminated from master station. Such a manner we call it “receiving master station disseminated signal mode”. The advantage of such a mode is

LI ZhiGang et al. Sci China Ser G-Phys Mech Astron | Mar. 2009 | vol. 52 | no. 3 | 384-392

Figure 6 Residuals (O-C) of 5 stations for predicting the orbit of Sino-1 satellite based on the observation on June 6, 2005.

Figure 7 Difference between the prediction orbits based on the observation on June 6, 2005 and the precise orbit (Sino-1).

that the transmitted signals of the satellite can be only from the movable master station. It is very useful for military use. For “receiving master station disseminated signal mode”, eq. (2) becomes

R j = R j1 − R1 − τ s − ΔT1 j .

(14)

Obviously, for the “receiving master station disseminated signal mode”, it needs time synchronization with high accuracy. The method for the “receiving master station disseminated signal mode” is tested. The result is very exciting. The accuracy of “receiving master station disseminated signal mode” is nearly the same as that of

“receiving own station disseminated signal mode”. Figure 8 shows the residuals for both “received master station disseminated signals mode” and “received own station disseminated signals mode”. It is shown that the differences between them are very small. The differences between them are mainly from error of time synchronization.

4

Conclusions

The determination of satellite orbit by transfer is an accuracy and precise method for satellite orbit determination, also for time transfer. Its advantage is that both orbit determination and time transfer are processed, separately.

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Figure 8 Comparison of residuals between both of the two modest.

The accuracy and precision of orbit determination is not affected by the error of time transfer, and the dilution of precision factors to describe the effect of geometric satellite distribution on the accuracy is improved. The ranging signals are generated and measured at ground, and the instrumentation errors can be determined in the real time; therefore, such a system is very stable and the observation accuracy is improved greatly[5]. It can be used in the field of orbit determination for craft and deep space tracking. Its advantages are: (a) The ranging accuracy is very high. It can be better than 1 cm for ranging accuracy (accuracy for the USB is about 3－5 m) and 9 cm for the residuals of orbit determination. The precision of orbit determination is better than 2 m (for the USB is about few hundreds meters). (b) The observation system is very stable. There are auto-correction systems for instrumentation time delay at stations. The instrumentations time delay is determined in the real time. (c) It can be observed under any weather condition.

1 2 Li Z G, Li H X, Zhang H. The reduction of two-way satellite time comparison. Chin Astron Astrophys, 2003, 27: 226－235 Merck J P, Achkar J. Typical combined uncertainty evaluation on the Ku band TWSTFT link. In: Proceedings of the 19th European Frequency and Time forum (EFTF), 2005 Li Z G, Li H X, Zhang H. A method for processing multi-station data on two-way satellite time transfer with two-channel modems. Publ Shaanxi Astron Obs, 2002, 25(2): 81－89 Lewandowski W, Azoubib J, Klepczynski W J. Primary tool for time transter. Proc IEEE, 1999, 87(1): 163－172 Imae M. Development of new time transfer modem for TWSTFT. In: Proceedings of ATF 2000, 2000. 164－167 Imae M, Hosokawa M, Imamura K. Two-way satellite time and frequency transfer networks in Pacific Rim region. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas, 2001, 50(2): 559－562

This advantage is over that of the techniques of laser ranging satellite. The satellite management and the orbit determination with high accuracy can be preformatted. (d) It is suitable for deep space tracking. With spreadspectrum technique, the disseminated power is very low, for example, it can be less than 1 W, and it can observe satellite at long distance. (e) The time transfer at distance stations can be preformatted. (f) Both orbit determination and time transfer are processed, separately. The dilution of precision is improved. The accuracy for determination of satellite orbit by transfer is improved greatly. It meets the requirement of orbit determination accuracy of the CAPS. Obviously, it is valuable for application in the field of deep space tracking of craft and orbit determination of navigation system. We must notice the system error of instruments. It is better to have a remote station for measuring system error.

7 Ai G X, Shi H L, Wu H T, et al. The principle of the positioning system based on communication satellites. Sci China Ser G-Phys Mech Astron, 2009, 52(3): 472－488 Li Z G, Yang X H, Si H L, et al. The method and technique for determination of satellite orbits by transfer. National defense invention patent, ZL 200310162197.1, 2003-12-30 Li Z G, Qiao R C, Feng C G. Two way satellite time transfer & satellite ranging. J Spacecr TT C Technol, 2006, 25(3): 1－6 Li J S. Determination of precise satellite orbit. Beijing: Beijing Liberation Army Publishing Company, 1990 Scobal P R. Methods of Orbit Determination. Melbourne: Krieger Publishing Company, 1976 Montenbruck O, Gill E. Satellite Orbits. Berlin: Springer, 2000 France B, Cunningham J P, Swift E R, et al. Improvement of the NIMA precise orbit and clock estimates. In: Proceedings of ION GPS-98, Nashville, Tennessee, Sept. 15-18, 1998. 1587－1596

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- Juno Rocket History
- European Launchers for the World
- NASA Facts Project Relay
- 11682_1965-1969
- Outer Space
- HOUSE HEARING, 110TH CONGRESS - NATIONAL IMPERATIVES FOR EARTH AND CLIMATE SCIENCE RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS INVESTMENTS OVER THE NEXT DECADE
- Unmanned Spacecraft of the United States
- An Overview of United Kingdom Space Activity 1957-1987
- Twelfth Semiannual Report to Congress July 1 - December 31, 1964
- METOP Monitoring the Weather From Polar Orbit
- SpaceX FCC Filing
- TIROS the First Weather Satellite
- Lageos Press Kit
- NASA Facts the Next Step Large Space Structures
- Galileo to Jupiter Probing the Planet and Mapping Its Moons
- ESSA I Press Kit
- Space Exploration 1962
- America in Space the First Decade - NASA Spacecraft
- STS-77 Press Kit
- Building for the Future
- Survey On Satellite Image Resolution Techniques using Wavelet Transform
- Tiros III Press Kit
- NASA Facts the Landsat Satellites Unique National Assets
- As NZS 4280.1-2003 406 MHz Satellite Distress Beacons Marine Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacons (EPI
- Column | About satellites and software
- The Orbiting Geophysical Observatories
- 11545_1960-1964
- Magsat Press Kit

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