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Manpower Planning

Manpower Planning
Man power planning in Human Resource Management is a core factor. Human Resource Planning determines the human resources required by the organization to achieve its strategic goals. Human Resource Planning is based on the belief that people are an organizations most important resource. It is generally concerned with matching resources to business needs in the longer term, although it will sometimes address shorter term requirements. It addresses human resource needs both in quantitative and qualitative terms, which means answering two basic questions: first, how many people, and second, what sort of people? Human resource planning also looks at broader issues relating to the ways in which people are employed and developed in order to improve organizational effectiveness. It can therefore play an important part in strategic human resource management.

Meaning
Manpower planning or human resource planning is the process by which management determines how an organization should move from the current manpower to the desired manpower position. Through planning, a management strives to have the right number and the right kind of people at the right place, to do things which result in both individual and the organization receiving the maximum long range benefit.

Definition of Manpower planning
Stainer defines manpower planning as "strategy for the acquisition, utilization, improvement, and preservation of an enterprise's human resource. It relates to establishing job specifications or the quantitative requirements of jobs determining the number of personnel required and developing sources of manpower.

Therefore for the success of an enterprise. Manpower Planning Procedure 1. high cost of production and constant headaches for management personnel. it leads to the maximum utilization of human resources. 3. consultation. it leads to disruption in the flow of work. If not used properly. . Analyzing organizational plans Demand forecasting Forecasting overall human resources requirements in accordance with the organizational plans Supply forecasting. orders. reduces excessive labour turnover and high absenteeism. If used properly. 2. manpower planning is a very important function. less job satisfaction. improves productivity and aids in achieving organizational goals. very importantly overstaffing reduces the competitive efficiency of the business. Overstaffing is wasteful and expensive. minimum periods of notice. Manpower planning is a double edges sword.obtaining the data and information about present and the future human resource.Objectives of Manpower Planning         To determine future needs To recruit and retain human resources To improve standards. customers and profits. etc. lower production. if sustained and it is costly to eliminate because of modern legislation in respect to redundancy payments. skills and abilities of existing employees To estimate cost of human resources To make best use of existing human resources To foresee the impact of technology To assess the shortcake or surplus of human resources To minimize imbalances Need and Importance of Manpower Planning    Understaffing loses the business economics of scale and specialization.

the number of persons required per bed are four. Incase surplus. plan for redeployment. Service based Study This method is adopted for service organizations. Plan for recruitment 8. Here the attributes measured are qualitative in nature and hence complex. the time required for each process and also the no of persons required for accomplishment of the task within the specified time frame. retrenchment and lay-off. Appropriate steps then be planned to bring demand and supply into balance. Incase deficit. Such as. Example: According to WHO in a hospital. Forecasting Techniques        Time and Motion Study Service based Study Managerial Judgment Ratio. 4. .Trend analysis Work study techniques Delphi technique Flow model Time and Motion Study This method is used in manufacturing industries where the attributes measured are quantitative in nature. 6. These studies the number of personnel required to effectively carry out a particular service without compromising on part of the quality of such service. So this sets a standard for the manpower planning in Health industry.Estimating the net human resources requirements 5. Plan to modify or adjust the organizational plan if supply will be inadequate with reference to future net requirements Planning staff levels requires that an assessment of the present and future needs of the organization be compared with present resources and future predicted resources. which include nurse and helps. forecast future supply of human resources 7.

It will interact with other indices concerned with productivity (such as the amounts of overtime that are incurred simply to provide cover for absenteeism and . such as the retirement of a whole cohort of employees. Basic records cover: * Personal data including date of birth (age). *Headcount analysis. and pension rights. incremental scale. overtime and shift preemie). and the need for fresh recruitment and training. KEY INFLUENCES OF MANPOWER PLANNING--WASTAGES *Employee turnover. using data on joiners and leavers over a year. It can highlight impending problems. by age. grades. Along with headcount analysis. and department. how this is made up (for example.KEY INFLUENCES OF MANPOWER PLANNING-CURRENT STATUS The starting point for planning is to have proper records of existing employees. service. and training record * Position data including current job and work history in the organization * Financial data including current pay. qualifications. special skills. This will be especially geared to alerting management to problems and the need for corrective action. Many of these details will traditionally be kept for payroll purposes. It may also identify problems for example. particular jobs where there is high turnover and stimulate corrective action *Absenteeism and sickness. The overall profile of the workforce generated in this way is basic to any manpower planning system. and a vital aid to management decision making on things like redundancy. skills. this is basic to forecasting supply.

It is likely to be a natural product of payroll data and the subject of regular reports from line functional management. Whether this is part of a normal auditing process will depend from company to company. The Process of . This may come under review only when cost pressures or the example of a competitor cutting indirect staff focuses attention on labour costs. Unfortunately. including how salary costs will rise with increments and reduce with new entrants at lower points in a scale *Actual paybill against budget. forecasting the demand for labour might seem straightforward. Like turnover data. It underpins the shift in manpower planning from macroforecasting towards the more problerncentred approach. Forecasting the demand for labour At first. and imbalances that may need to be corrected. this information clearly needs to be generated on an ongoing basis. Analysis in these various ways can identify significant issues of performance and productivity. with areas of variance. Two of the favored means for doing this are ratiotrend analysis and the use of work study standards.sickness). it is not. as distinct from basic records (the 'inventory'). KEY INFLUENCES OF MANPOWER PLANNING . *Overall structure of the paybill.labour utilization The audit activity described above may be supplemented from time to time by data from other sources concerned with how efficiently people are being used. Data on analysis of manning ratios ('directs' to 'indirects') is a case in point. The problem is how to convert volumes of work into numbers of people. Many large organizations have permanent staffs using work study and O&M (organization and methods) techniques to undertake periodic reviews of working methods and the efficiency of staff levels.

nor of the potential of new methods and technology to increase efficiencies. Individual departments in an organization also will have their own ruleofthumb measures. They take no account of economies (or diseconomies) of scale which affect efficiencies. and. If the business plan projects an increase in the number of new customers. indeed. for example. use this as one criterion for monitoring sales efficiency. it will take twelve people to do twice as much. change in technology. may have an idea of the number of customer calls a salesperson should make in a week. The ratio between 'directs' and 'in directs' in manufacturing is a classic one. What ratiotrend analysis can do is to provide ballpark figures. to perform an existing amount of work. this can be translated into a proportionate increase in the sales force. A sales department. laws and regulatory bodies Internal Factors Budget Organizational structure Production levels Ratiotrend analysis The basic principle here is to say if it takes six people. nor of local conditions. which then focus attention on ways of improving efficiencies and a closer look at the . The problem with measures like these is that they are crude. Organizations measure activity levels in a variety of different ways. for instance.estimating future people required is also planned on the basis of annual budget and long term corporate plan. Factors considered here are:  o o o  o o o External factors competition.

and housing •he pay policies of other employers. but limited to manufacturing. For it to be worth while and doable in the first place.underlying implications. Inheritance: Persons from good collection are bound to work professionally. which is dissimilar in case of different individuals is the result of genetic differences. an activity has to be repeated sufficiently often to generate a reliable standard and justify the cost of measuring it. The quality and rate of physical as well as mental development. Work study Work study is a more systematic method. Factors which affect the efficiency of labour 1. KEY INFLUENCES OF MANPOWER PLANNING . education. 2. certain other areas of manual work. and their plans for growth and contraction. and large clerical functions.Forecasting supply Forecasting supply has two components. internal and external. Climate: Climatic location has a definite effect on the efficiency of the . locally and nationally. Forecasting external supply means understanding the impact on recruitment and retention of such factors as: Existing human resources     Potential losses to existing resources through employee wastage Potential changes to existing resources through internal promotion Sources of supply from within the organization Sources of supply from outside the organization •Demographic patterns •Levels of unemployment •Developments in the local economy like transport.

discipline etc. General and technical education: education provides a definite impact n the working ability and efficiency of the worker. such as cheerfulness. Good health means the sound mind. 5. 7. and keep workers satisfy. etc to ensure that future manpower needs and development manpower plans for implementation Perquisites of Manpower Planning Step1 Job Analysis / job design .Management must define what work to be performed. development. It is the process by which Management determines how the management should move from its current manpower to its desired manpower utilization.workers. motivation. Hours of work: long and tiring hours of work exercise have bad effect on the competence of the workers. how tasks to be carried out and allocated into manageable work units (jobs) . compensation. in the sound body. The personal qualities influence the quality of work. 3. Manpower Planning emphasizes: • Establishment and recognition of future job requirements • Scanning the organization thru systematic manpower audit • Assured supplies of qualified participants • Development of available manpower • Effective utilization of current and prospective workforce members Manpower Planning Process Manpower forecasts On the basis of corporate goals and manpower analysis forecasting of manpower is done where kind of people needed for conduct the business is decided. 6. utilization. training. Manpower Management System planning is required for selection. Manpower Inventory Before any manpower planning making an Inventory of present manpower resources and finding out the extent to which these manpower's are employed optimally is important. This provides incentive to work. 4. Wages: proper wages guarantees certain reasons in standard of living. Health of worker: worker's physical condition plays a very important part in performing the work. Personal qualities: persons with dissimilar personal qualities bound to have definite differences in their behavior and methods of working. Manpower Planning or Human resource planning is the process of systematically forecasting the future demand and supply for employees and the deployment of their skills within the strategic objectives of the organization.

Step 2 Job description & job specification: It refers to incumbent where a job specification with regard to qualification and experience needed to perform a job Step 3 Forecasting procedures: Corporate planner has to forecast the number of people needed for a particular job. It can be done by forecasting the internal supply and external supply of the people who can perform the job Step 4 Internal Supply of Manpower: Identifying the manpower internally.000 units as a matter of forecast Unit Forecasting This refers to the estimate of supervisors and managers with regard to forecasting Human resource needs for the next year unit wise – this approach called as “Bottom up approach” to forecasting as the judgment are made by lower level management and added together at a higher level of the organization. Time and motion study Here the Industrial Engineer observes records and movement of workman and productivity vis a vis time required to conduct specific activities. typically different methods following different method are used. Another thumb rule is based on past experience that one person can produce 2000 units of output per day and accordingly 5 employees needed for 10. (About Author: Mr. Delphi Method This method relies on Expert opinion in making long range forecasts – this involves obtaining independent judgments from a panel of experts usually thru a questionnaire or interview schedule on certain issue affecting the nature and magnitude of demand for an organization‟s products and services Computer Simulation This is one of the most sophisticated methods of forecasting human resource needs – A computer is a mathematical representation of major organizational processes. For example one firm believes that a ratio of one production supervisor for every 12 producers (Workmen) in optimal. Vinod Bidwaik is working as Chief Manager-Corporate HR in Sakaal Group of Publications. Thumb Rule This is on the basis of firm‟s beliefs with regard to forecasting Human resource needs. It is based on the walking and moving of the workmen to conduct the specific activity. MOST (Maynard Operating Sequence Technique) This method is well accepted in automobile industries where lots of manual activities are involved. policies and human resource movement thru organization – computer simulations are useful in forecasting for human resources by pinpointing any combination of organizational and environmental variables. Prior to this . Different Procedures in Manpower Planning Planning for the status quo Planning involves steps to replace any employees who are either promoted or who leave the firm. In technical field where direct production activities are involved. An example is Management succession planning which seeks to ensure that there is at least one qualified manager to replace any higher level manager in the organization. This firm maintains this 1:12 ratio because it has proved successful in the past.

He is invited for Guest lectures on specialized subjects by various management and engineering institutions. (the largest rubber based product manufacturing company in the world). Human Factor and other management Journals. Semperit Group. He is the life member of Bombay Management Association and holds various honorary positions.organization he was with Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.) . He holds Master degree in Personnel Management. at Pune. (Automotive Sector). He was writing regular columns in various newspapers on „Personality & Development‟. He has rich experience in hard-core HR and Industrial Relations. He is the regular writer for various management journals like BMA Review. He implemented various HR & OD interventions in his organisations. He has established HR departments in Semperit Group and Sakaal Group. Endurance Group. Journal of Management Research of CMRD. He is on editorial advisory board of CJMR. the company was awarded for "Best Innovative HR Practices during 2002" by NIPM. During his tenure with Semperit. Diploma in Production Management.