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CHAPTER
Introduction
Modeling Guide
Introduction
Modeling Guide

2
Overview of Model Generation
This document gives a general overview of the steps used to create a finite element analysis model. For
detailed information on commands, refer to the SimXpert Quick Reference. You may also refer to the
Example Problems or Workspace Guides for sample problems with step by step instructions.
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Model Generation
Model Generation
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Geometry Overview
Geometry for FEA is created for the purpose of describing the physical shape of the model to be analyzed.
It forms the base upon which the finite element mesh will be created.
Geometry can be created in SimXpert, imported from CAD, or directly accessed from CAD files with a
live link to the CAD code.
Units
SimXpert interprets all dimensions and input data with respect to a system of units. It is important to set
the appropriate units prior to importing any unitless analysis files (such as a Nastran Bulk Data file) or
creating materials, properties, or loads. You can control the system of units by selecting Units Manager
from the Options Editor in the Tools menu. If you import a file that contains units, SimXpert will
convert them into those specified in the Units Manager.
Create
Point
In addition to Geometric points , vertices on curves, surfaces, and solids are also considered points. You
can also create Mesh Control Points which mark locations where nodes will be placed when meshing is
performed.
Points can be suppressed so that a node will not be forced to be placed at that location when meshing.
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Model Generation
Elements and Meshing
This section describes the different element types supported in SimXpert, as well as the procedures used
to create these elements.
Check your Workspace Guide to determine which elements are supported for your analysis type.
Element Types
There are four basic element groups in SimXpert: scalar (0-D), line (1-D), surface (2-D), and solid (3-
D) elements. There are also a number of specialty elements. A list of the elements currently supported
by SimXpert, including a brief description of each, follows.
Scalar (0D) Elements
• Concentrated Mass - Three dimensional mass and/or inertia element located at a
node. Used to represent parts of a structure which contain mass but do not add
stiffness.
• Spring - Used to provide a specified stiffness between a nodal degree of freedom and ground.
• Damper - Used to provide viscous damping between a nodal degree of freedom and ground.
Line (1D) Elements
• Bar - Uniaxial element with tension, compression, torsion and bending. Used to model general
beam/frame structures for linear analysis.
• Beam - Uniaxial element with tension, compression, torsion and bending. It can be tapered and
have different properties along its axis. The shear center can be offset from the neutral axis.
Used to model both linear and nonlinear beam/frame structures and beams with open sections.
• Curved Beam or Pipe - Curved beam, pipe, or elbow element with an arc for the neutral axis.
Useful for modeling piping systems.
• Bushing - Vibration control device that has impedance values (stiffness and damping) that are
frequency dependent. Recommended as a replacement for spring elements.
• Damper - Used to provide viscous damping between two selected degrees-of freedom or
between one degree-of-freedom and ground.
• Spring - Used to provide a specified stiffness between two selected degrees of freedom. Other
properties can include a damping coefficient and a stress coefficient to be used in stress
recovery. It is recommended to create this element between two coincident nodes.
• Gap - Nonlinear element with different tension, compression and shear stiffness. Used to
represent surfaces or points which can separate, close or slide relative to each other.
• Scalar Mass - Useful for the selective representation of inertia properties, such as occurs when a
concentrated mass is effectively isolated for motion in one direction only.
• Rod - Uniaxial element with tension, compression and torsional stiffness. No bending or shear.
Typically used to model trusses.
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• Tube - Rod element with tubular cross section. Often used to model pipes.
• Plot Only - Nonstructural element used to represent structural features that are not being
analyzed but aid in the visualization of the model.
Surface (2D) Elements
• Plate/Shell - Two dimensional plate or shell element used to represent any three dimensional
structure. Resists membrane, shear and bending forces. Used to model structures comprised of
thin plate shells.
• Tria - Three or six noded element (linear or quadratic element, respectively).
• Quad - Four or eight noded element (linear or quadratic element, respectively).
• Cohesive - Four or eight noded element used to simulate the process of delamination (linear
or quadratic element, respectively).
• Axisymmetric - (Three or six) or (four or eight) noded element. The element can be linear or
fully nonlinear. Also, the element can be cohesive, for which it is either four or eight noded
(linear or quadratic element, respectively).
• Shear Panel - Resists only shear forces. Used to model structures which contain very thin elastic
sheets, typically supported by stiffeners. This is a four noded element.
• Acoustic Absorber - Defines a frequency -dependent acoustic absorber element. Used in coupled
fluid - structural analysis.
Solid (3D) Elements
• Solid - Three dimensional solid element used to represent any three dimensional structure.
Specialty Elements
• Rigid - Include both rigid and interpolation elements. General use rigid elements consist of
RBAR, RROD, RBE2, RBE1, and RSSCON. Of these elements, the RBAR and RBE2 are the
most commonly used. Interpolation elements consist of the RBE3 and RSPLINE. The RBE3 is a
linear interpolation element often used to distribute either loading or mass. The RSPLINE is
often used to model mesh transitions.
• Weld - General purpose connector element which can connect non congruent meshes. Used in
linear analysis.
• Contact - Used to identify bodies which are potential candidates for contact during analysis.
Bodies can be rigid or deformable. Self contact is also permitted
FAQs
1. Why Should I Use Coincident Nodes for Spring Elements?
In 1-D elements such as a bar, a positive axial force or stress indicates that the member is in tension. This
is not the case for scalar elements. Since the scalar elements do not have any geometry, the sign of the
output force or stress does not necessarily indicate compression or tension in the spring. The force in the
spring is recovered as follows:
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Model Generation
Simply by reversing the order of the endpoints of the spring the sign of the force and stress output for
these elements reverse. For example, consider the spring shown in Figure 1 where D1 and D2 are scalar
displacements.
Figure 1 Spring – Before and After Deformation
For D2 > D1,
If the spring is defined from node 1 to node 2 the axial force would be negative. If the spring is defined
from node 2 to node 1 the axial force would be positive.
Whenever a spring element is connected across two nodes, it is good modeling practice to make sure that
the nodes are coincident and use the same output coordinate system. If the nodes are not coincident, a
difference in displacement may be caused by a rigid body rotation. This situation causes forces in the
spring and a net moment on the structure. This condition is an example of an internal constraint, which
is allowed because it is valid for some types of modeling. Unless it is desired to have these internal
constraints, use coincident nodes. Since the length of the spring is zero when coincident nodes are used,
no internal moments are created. Also, the spring’s degrees of freedom are in the output coordinate
system.
2. Why is a bushing recommended as a replacement for spring elements?
As discussed in the previous question, if spring elements are used and the geometry is not aligned
properly, internal constraints may be induced. Bushing elements have all the features of the spring
elements without the drawback of the potential internal constraint. Furthermore, since a spring element
needs to be defined for each connected degree of freedom, several spring elements can be reduced to a
single bushing element.
F K U
1
U
2
– ( ) =
Before
Deformation
1 2
1 2
After Deformation
D2 D1
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Control of Mesh Size and Why
Mesh sizes can be set interactively using Seed in the Automesh group under the Meshing tab. It is
possible to specify a default mesh size for surfaces, or the size of an element at a vertex. For curves there
are several options for creating mesh seeds; they are, 1) uniform, 2) one way bias, 3) two way bias, 4)
curvature based, and 5) tabular.
• Uniform -- causes elements to be distributed evenly along a curve.
• One Way Bias -- specifies the mesh sizing for a given curve with an increasing or decreasing
element edge length.
• Two Way Bias -- specifies the mesh sizing for a given curve with symmetric non-uniform
element edge lengths.
• Curvature Based -- specifies the mesh sizing for a given curve with the element edge length
controlled by curvature of the curve.
• Tabular -- for specifying either parametric locations (place seeds at parametric locations of the
curve), arc length ratio locations (place seeds at arc length ratio locations of the curve arc), or
node/point locations (place seeds at the location of selected nodes or points) for mesh seeds.
A mesh seed consists of two adjacent control points. While meshing to create linear finite elements, a
mesh seed defines a single element edge -- the two control points cause the creation of two finite element
nodes at opposite ends of the element edge.
When meshing to create parabolic finite elements (elements with mid-side nodes), two mesh seeds are
used to define one element edge. A example of this is when there are ten mesh seeds on an edge of a
geometric solid (cube), and parabolic tetrahedral elements are created by meshing, five elements are
created along the solid edge where the mesh seeds are.
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Model Generation
In addition it is possible to define mesh control points on curves or surfaces to ensure that a node is placed
at that location. This is done using the FEM Tool Control > Points/Curves in the Misc group under the
Meshing tab.
Mesh should have high density in areas of large stress gradients.
Nodes along common edges of adjoining geometry entities may need to match. If these nodes are not
coincident, equivalencing nodes will not cause all of the adjacent elements to become connected. If the
adjacent elements are not connected, the model will have free edges or free faces at these locations. For
a linear analysis, always merge coincident nodes before analyzing the model using Equivalence in the
Modify group under the Nodes/Elements tab.
Element Creation
In SimXpert you can use a number of methods to create elements:
Automesh
• Mesh Geometry - used to create a set of elements on curves, surfaces, or solids.
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• Curves: a geometric curve is defined parametrically (one parameter). The meshing is done in
parametric space using 1D elements.
• Surfaces: a geometric surface is defined either parametrically or non-parametrically. The
mesher either follows the parametric directions (surface defined parametrically), or initially
follows the perimiter of the surface, subsequently meshing inward following the inner most
perimiter defined by the created element edges (surface defined non-parametrically).
• Solids: controls automatic meshing of solid geometry or volumes (in space). The meshing can
be tetrahedral, or by sweeping, it can be hexahedral. Tetrahedral meshing is for a geometric
solid or a set of contiguous tria elements that completely enclose a volume. The meshing is
done, for a solid, by surface meshing its faces with tria elements, then creating one layer of
tetrahedral elements that are congruent to the tria elements. Then, another layer of tetrahedral
elements is created that is congruent to the first layer of tetrahedral elements. This is continued
until the solid is filled with tetrahedral elements. The meshing for a set of contiguous tria
elements is similar to that for a geometric solid, but the mesher begins with the set of tria
elements.
Hexahedral meshing is for a geometric solid, where the meshing is done by sweeping a set of
2D quadrilateral elements from one solid face (“starting” face) to the opposing face (“ending”
face). This means that the solid must be sweepable, or 2 1/2/ D. The starting and ending face
(opposing faces), are connected with a set of four edged faces (linking faces). Each of the four
edged faces must have two of its opposing edges congruent with an edge of the “starting” or
“ending” face. The mesher creates on one of the opposing faces a 2D quadrilateral element
mesh, then sweeps it to the other opposing face, creating a hexahedral element mesh between
the opposing faces.
• Non-geometry meshing commands.
• Skin - creates shell elements on the free faces of 3D solid elements
• 2-3-4 line mesh - produces mesh between curves
• 3-4 Point mesh - produces mesh between virtual curves created by selecting end points
• On Mesh - used to modify an existing mesh. Useful for fixing or "cleaning-up" a distorted area
of a mesh
Create elements one at a time. Useful for simple models, line elements, and to fix areas of distorted
elements.
Copy existing elements using the Transform option of the Tools menu.
• Project elements onto plane, mesh, curve, surface
• Reflect (mirror) elements through a plane.
• Reorient - Move elements with respect to coordinate systems
• Scale - Create a scaled copy of the elements around a given location.
• Rotate - Move elements a specified angle
• Translate - Move elements a specified distance
Sweep Shells into Solids or Node pairs into Quads using the FEM based group under the Meshing tab.
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• Revolve - Revolve around a vector
• Extrude - Drag along a vector
• Glide - Drag along a curve
• Loft - Create linear mesh between destination and source elements
• Normal - Drag elements along normals
• Flange on Mesh - Drag node pairs along a specified angle.
Surface Meshing Guidelines
Examine your model before you begin the meshing process to determine which method of mesh
generation is most applicable. The items below provide some guidelines for meshing surfaces.
• For Surface from Automesh under the Meshing tab, there are several methods of meshing .
• Auto Decide -- meshes the surface(s) and uses the meshing algorithm which gives the best
quality elements.
• Paver -- the mesh will be a paved mesh. The paving algorithm creates elements around any
edges and boundaries of the surface first, then fills with elements in the interior of the
surface, and finally smooths the mesh.
• Mapped -- the mesh will be a mapped (iso) mesh. Elements are created in ‘rows’.
• Minimal -- using this will cause the creation of the smallest surface mesh (fewest number of
2D elements) possible, considering adjacent meshes and mesh seeds. Only one surface can
be meshed at a time for this option. Currently (R3.2), minimal meshing only works with
CATIA geometry (surfaces and curves).
• Most meshes involve creating geometry first. If you have small features in your geometry that
are not critical to the analysis, you can suppress them in SimXpert.
• You can use the FEM Based meshing Revolve / Extrude / Glide commands to generate Surface
elements from node pairs.
• Utilize symmetry whenever possible to reduce model size. Model size (and therefore run time)
is significantly reduced if the loading/constraints are also symmetrical. If loads/constraints are
not symmetrical, you can use the Tools > Transform > Reflect command to mirror the mesh
through a plane
• Remember, you may also want to use Translate from the Element group of the Nodes/Elements
tab or one of the commands under Tools > Transform to replicate elements instead of
performing more surface or boundary meshing
• Use the Equivalence command in the Modify group of the Nodes/Elements tab to merge
coincident nodes and connect the meshes
• Use the View, Highlight FE Boundary command to verify that you do not have any unwanted
free edges in the model.
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Solid Meshing Guidelines
• Often you can avoid using volumes or solids by extruding or revolving planar elements to create
solid elements. If your part has a consistent third dimension, use one of the Fem based sweep
methods under the Meshing tab to create solid elements.
• Use Skin from the Automesh group if planar elements are required on faces of solid elements.
Once the solid elements are created, planar elements can be created by skinning.
• If you have solid models with holes or other complicated features, use the solid mesher. This
mesher creates a surface mesh first, so all items applicable to surface meshing apply.
You can associate a property with the mesh as it is being created. Properties can also be assigned to parts
or to parent geometry.
Minimal Meshing
As previously mentioned, if minimal meshing is performed the smallest surface mesh (fewest number of
2D elements) will be created for the surface (only one surface can be meshed at a time for this option.).
The mesh created will be congruent to adjacent meshes and mesh seeds.
Also, it is possible to simultaneously mesh curves on the perimeter, and interior to the perimeter, of the
surface that is being minimally meshed. For this to occur, it is necessary to associate the curves to the
surface. The meshes created for associated curves will be congruent to the mesh created for the surface.
These two things are requested using the surface meshing form, Surface from Automesh under the
Meshing tab.
• Curve minimal meshing -- specify what type of curves (curves at the perimeter of the surface and
hard curves internal to the perimeter) are to be meshed.
• None -- No curves will be meshed. Only the surface will be meshed, and it will be meshed
minimally.
• Boundary curves -- curves at the perimeter of the surface are meshed to be congruent with
the surface mesh that is created.
• Boundary curves + hard curves -- curves at the perimeter of the surface and the hard curves
internal to the perimeter are meshed to be congruent with the surface mesh that is created.
• Hard curve association -- specify how the curves will be selected for association to the surface.
• None -- do not associate any curves to the surface. Any already associated curves will be
recognized (used) by the surface mesher.
• Auto -- automatically associate curves on the surface (if the distance between a curve and
the surface is < the tolerance, the curve is considered as being on the surface) to the surface.
• Selected -- set the form for selecting what curves are to be associated to the surface.
• Curves to mesh -- select the curves the are to be associated to the surface.
Normally, a surface to be minimal meshed is 4-sided without any holes.
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Model Generation
For hard curves, they need to divide the surface being meshed into a number of patch shapes. Each patch
shape should be a 3 or 4 sided region. If seeds or existing nodes are defined for the hard curves, the
numbers of seeds or nodes on the opposite sides of each patch should be equal. A node will be created
at the intersection of two hard curves. There can be problems if the two ends of a hard curve do not touch
the perimeter of the surface -- the ends of a hard curve are outside or inside of the surface perimeter.
Currently (R3.2), minimal meshing only works with CATIA geometry -- all the surfaces and curves
being minimally meshed must be of CATIA type.
A typical scenario is for the aerospace industry, that involves meshing a fuselage or wing model. Here,
a single (large) surface represents the entire top skin of the wing. Similarly, a single surface represents
the entire bottom skin of the wing. Between the two skins are individual ribs and spars (represented by
curves) that act as stiffeners.
When meshing the top or bottom surface (skin) of the wing, usually it is desired to have only a single
element span the surface (skin) between the stiffener locations (at each skin and rib, or skin and spar
sections). In such cases, it is important that only one element be generated on the surface (skin) between
the stiffeners. The minimal mesh option satisfies this requirement.
Users want to create a minimal mesh on a model with a single tool and the least possible number of
picking and selecting.
Element Shape Quality
Once you have created a surface mesh, check the elements using the Element Fringes icon on the
Element Render toolbar. You can set maximum distortion criteria using Check Quality in the Checks
group under the Quality tab. Fix all distorted elements if possible before adding any loads or constraints.
This is especially important if the distorted elements are in a critical region of the model.
Improve Quality by Parts
This method improves the quality of elements associated with selected parts. Use Repair in the Edit
group under the Meshing tab. The parameters that are used are
• Pick Parts: Select Parts whose elements are to be considered for remeshing..
• Remesh Poor Quality Elements: if checked, the elements with poor quality will be replaced.
• Remesh Triangles: if checked, the current triangular elements are to be replaced either by quad
elements if possible, or by better quality tria elements.
• Remesh Hole Rings: if checked, the elements around holes are replaced by better quality
elements.
• Remesh Distance: used to specify the size of the region for remeshing.
• Feature Angle: if mesh feature angles are greater than this specified angle the original mesh
features are preserved..
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Auto Geometry Cleanup
The Auto cleanup command in the Misc group under the Meshing tab is used to suppress curves at the
interface between two adjacent surfaces. The curves are suppressed so the surface mesher will not
automatically create nodes along them. The surfaces must be three or four sided. The parameters that are
used are:
• Surfaces: select surfaces, some of whose curves are to be suppressed.
• Element Size: specify the size of the finite elements that are to be created during meshing.
• Surface cross section length tolerance: for two congruent, adjacent surfaces, each with 4 edges,
SimXpert will determine the smallest edge length for the four edges emanating from the
interface, L. If L is less than the specified tolerance, the curve along the interface of the two
surfaces will be suppressed.
• Small surface area tolerance: For two congruent, adjacent surfaces, each with 4 edges, SimXpert
will determine the area of both surfaces. The smallest area, S, will be determined. If S is less than
the specified tolerance, the curve along the interface of the two surfaces will be suppressed.
• Short curve length tolerance: If the length of curves associated to the selected surfaces is less
than the specified tolerance, they will be suppressed.
• Small angle tolerance: for each surface in the list, SimXpert will determine the smallest interior
angle, A. If A is less than the specified tolerance, the shortest edge at the vertex of each angle
will be suppressed.
• Break Angle: for two congruent, adjacent surfaces, each with 4 edges, SimXpert will determine
the intersection angle, A. If A is less than the specified Break Angle, the curve along the
interface of the two surfaces will be suppressed.
Lock / Unlock
The Control > Lock / Unlock command in the Misc group under the Meshing tab is used to prevent
geometric edges/curves from being modified. For example, if a curve is locked then selected for
suppression, it cannot be suppressed. Subsequently, if the same curve is unlocked, it can be suppressed.
Collapse / Expand Edges
The Edit edges command in the Edit group under the Meshing tab is used to 1) merge two nodes that
define an edge or 2) expand (split) along the edge defined by the two nodes. The method to use is
Element: Collapse / Expand Edges. The parameters that are used are
• Pick Nodes: Select two nodes to define an edge. The nodes can be coincident. The nodes do not
have to belong to the same actual finite element edge.
• Method:
• Collapse: Collapses the edge formed by the two nodes.
• Expand: Splits the edge formed by the two nodes.
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Model Generation
• Propagate: if checked, extends the collapse/expansion along all connected elements until the end
of the mesh path or a feature boundary is reached.
• Force Editing: if checked, if a node that is associated with a hard point (vertex) can be moved,
otherwise the node cannot be moved.
Creating a Surface Mesh From an Existing Surface Mesh
The On Mesh command in the Automesh group under the Meshing tab is used to create a surface mesh
from an existing surface mesh. The parameters that are used are
• Elements: select the set of surface elements that are to be remeshed.
• Element Size: edge length of the new elements.
• Mesh Type: Mixed (Quad and Tria), Tria only.
• Mesh Method:. Paving, Mapped.
• Seed Type:
• Uniform: The mesher will create new boundary nodes based on input global edge length.
• Existing Boundary: All boundary edges on input mesh will be preserved.
• Defined Boundary. The mesher will use all the nodes selected in the Feature Selection sub-
form to define the boundary of the output mesh. No other boundary nodes will be created.
• Delete Input Mesh -- Option to delete original elements
• Element property -- Option to specify the property to be associated to the new elements.
• Add to part -- Option to associate the new mesh to a desired Part.
• Curvature check -- Option to adjust the mesh density to control the deviation between the input
mesh and the straight element edges on the output mesh.
• Feature recognition -- Option to define features on the input mesh automatically based on
feature edge angles and vertex angles, and preserve them on the output mesh.
• Feature selection -- Allows for manual selection of entities to be preserved in the new mesh.
• Washers around holes -- used to create layers of elements that are well shaped around holes.
Remesh Elements Retaining Features
The Remesh command in the Edit group under the Meshing tab is used to create a new mesh on an
existing shell mesh without removing features, hard points, or connected rigid elements. The parameters
that are used are:
• Elements: select those elements to be remeshed.
• Feature Angle:specify the angle between adjacent element normals that if exceeded will define a
feature line.
• Free Edge Size: Edge length for free edges for those elements with free edges .
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• Keep Better Quality Only: Option to keep the new elements only if they are of better quality
otherwise the older mesh will be retained..
Automatically Remesh CAD Geometry and Update LBCs
When geometry is imported into SimXpert, the user will want to mesh it and possibly create LBCs that
are associated to it. After this is done, the geometry may be changed. If the geometry is modified in a
CAD program, then imported into a SimXpert database, it will be necessary to remesh the geometry and
create new LBCs. Doing this manually could involve a considerable amount of work. There are several
ways to deal with this task. One way is to use SimXpert’s capability of detecting changes in the geometry,
then automatically remeshing as shown in the examples below.
Steps to have SimXpert automatically update your CAD model:
• Execute SimXpert.
• Import CATIA geometry.
• Mesh the geometry and create any LBCs, associating them to the geometry.
• Exit SimXpert.
• Execute CATIA.
• Open the geometry in CATIA.
• Make changes to the geometry.
• Save the changes to the CATIA database, then exit CATIA.
• Execute SimXpert, then open the database corresponding to the CATIA geometry.
• SimXpert will detect that the geometry is different will automatically remesh changed regions.
Also, the corresponding LBCs will be updated.
Possible variations to the above steps:
• Variation 1
• Mesh geometry in SimXpert, then exit SimXpert.
• Open the geometry in CATIA.
• Create new geometry in CATIA, then exit.
• Open the geometry (original and new) in SimXpert.
• In SimXpert the original geometry will retain its mesh and the new geometry will be part of
the database.
• Variation 2
• Mesh some of the geometry in SimXpert, then exit SimXpert.
• Open the geometry in CATIA.
• Delete the geometry that was meshed in SimXpert, then exit CATIA.
• Open the geometry (original minus deleted) in SimXpert.
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Model Generation
• The geometry that was deleted in CATIA is gone, and the mesh the was associated to the
deleted geometry is gone.
The second way to do this is to use Smart Update. File > Smart Update is used to access geometry that
is currently being used in a CAD program. Any changes to the geometry in the CAD program will be
indicated to SimXpert. If the geometry was previously meshed and had LBCs assigned to it, it will be
remeshed and the LBCs modified. Using this approach requires both SimXpert and the CAD program to
be executing simultaneously.
Element Modification
To modify an element the user can can select one or more elements from the canvas and click Edit >
Properties from the top menu.
Click Edit > Properties.
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The form for modifying the element properties of the selected elements will appear.
Selecting a multiple number of elements to modify their properties will display only common properties,
and the modified properties will be applied to all the selected elements.
Instead of selecting Edit > Properties from the top menu, the user can RMB click on the selected
elements, then select Properties in the drop-down menu that appears.
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Connections
Connections can be created in the Connection group under the LBCs tab.
A connection in SimXpert defines the location of the connection between parts. Before creating a
connection, a Connection Type must first be selected. Creating a Connection alone does not create any
elements. Once a Connection has been created, it must be “Rendered” to produce a specific connection
type, eg. RBE2, CWELD, etc.
Connection Groups
Connections are stored in Connection Groups. A connection group references up to four parts that will
be connected when the Connections in it are rendered. A Maximum Length tolerance defines the
maximum distance between parts for which to generate connections.
The diagram above is an analogy between Parts and Connection Groups. Parts are like Connection
Groups, but Parts contain surfaces, while Connection Groups contain Connections. And surfaces are like
connections in that neither are exported to a solver file. Surfaces and Connections can be re-used across
different disciplines (eg. Structures and Crash). Also, as compared in the boxed regions of the diagram,
automeshing is like rendering. Automeshing has several algorithms - some for surfaces and some for
solids, while rendering has several methods for each connection type. Meshing and Rendering are both
procedures that create actual elements that can be exported to a solver file.
Along with the various Connection Types, there are also two Connection Group Options to choose from
when creating connections.
Elements
Elements
Render
Meshing
Parts Connection
Group
Geometry
Connections
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Model Generation
1. Auto Create Connection Group - Determines Parts that lie within the tolerance of the connection.
If no Connection Group exists for those parts, a new Connection Group will be created.
2. Use Current Connection Group - Connections are placed into the current Connection Group
(Current group can be set by Right-Clicking the group name in the Model Browser and selecting
Set Current from the context menu).
Creating Connections
In order to create a connection, it is first necessary to select one of the following seven Connection Types.
1. Spot Weld
2. Bolt
3. Hinge Pin
4. Seam Weld
5. Adhesive Curve
6. Adhesive Surface
7. Trim Mass
Spot Weld
Spot Weld creates a general connection between shell parts.
To create a spot weld connection, select the points defining the spot weld locations. The locations do not
need to be at existing nodes.
There are also various rendering options for Spot Weld:
• ACM2 - Solid HEXA element connected with RBE3 elements
• RBE2 - Node-to-Node Rigid element
• CFAST - Mesh independent CFAST element
• CWELD - Mesh independent CWELD element
• RBAR - Node-to-Node Rigid Bar element
• Generic - Node-to-Node multi-element connector defined by a SimXpert Generic Template
For the Node-to-Node connections, if the connection location does not coincide with a node on the
surface mesh, near nodes will be moved or the shell elements split.
Bolt
Bolt creates a rigid connection between aligning holes in shell element parts. It is rendered with RBE2
elements which create a “spider web” at each hole by linking the elements around the perimeter.
To create a bolt connection, select any node on the perimeter of one of the holes. The aligning holes on
the other parts will be automatically detected.
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Bolt has two rendering options:
• Clevis Search - Searches for a co-linear hole in the same part and connects if found
• Release Rotate Dof - CBAR elements will be created instead of the linking RBE2s with the pin
flag releasing the rotational DOF about the bolt axis at one end
Hinge Pin
Hinge Pin is a connection that can have rotational degrees of freedom released. It is effectively the same
as a Bolt Connection, but instead has the Release Rotate Dof option selected by default.
Seam Weld
Seam Weld is a rigid connection representing a seam weld between parts. It is typically used for lap joints
and T-connections. It is rendered with multiple RBE2 elements. Seam Weld also automatically handles
mismatched meshes by element splitting and node adjustments.
To create a seam weld connection, select a series of locations to define a polyline along which the seam
weld will be created.
Adhesive Curve
Adhesive Curve creates a patch between two parts defined by a curve. Also, it generates solid HEXA
elements connected to the parts through RBE3 elements.
To create an adhesive curve connection, select a series of locations to define a polyline representing one
side of the adhesive area.
For Adhesive Curve, there are various rendering options such as:
• Mesh Thickness - The thickness of the adhesive region (solid elements)
• Mesh Width - The width of the adhesive region
• Mesh Width Offset - The offset of the adhesive region from the adhesive curve
• Mesh Length - The length of the individual solid elements
• Young’s Modulus - Material property for the adhesive region
• Poisson’s Ratio - Material property for the adhesive region
Adhesive Surface
Adhesive Surface is very similar to Adhesive Curve Connection, but in Adhesive Surface, region is
defined by selecting elements.
To create an adhesive surface connection, select shell elements on one part that defines the adhesive area
For Adhesive Surface, there are various rendering options such as:
• Thickness - The thickness of the adhesive region (solid elements)
• Young’s Modulus - Material property for the adhesive region
21
CHAPTER
Model Generation
• Poisson’s Ratio - Material property for the adhesive region
The Mesh Width and Length are assumed from the element selection. The Mesh Width Offset is zero.
Trim Mass
Trim Mass represents a lumped mass connected to various nodes.
To create a trim mass connection select a location for the mass element followed by the locations to
connect the mass to the structure.
For Trim Mass, there are various rendering options such as:
• Mass - The lumped mass
• Search Tolerance - Distance to search for nodes from the selected locations
• Stiffness Type - Select from RBE2 (rigid) or RBE3 (interpolation) element to connect the mass
to the structure
Modeling Guide

22
Coordinate Systems
Sometimes it is convenient to use local coordinate systems for specifying loads, and or boundary
conditions. For example, a certain node may have a roller support placed in an inclined plane. A local
coordinate system with one of its axes normal to the inclined plane needs to be created and used to specify
the fixity (SPC) of the displacement component along the direction normal to the inclined plane.
Local coordinate systems can be in cartesian, cylindrical or spherical systems.
Coordinate
System
Direction
1
Direction
2
Direction
3 1-3 plane
Cartesian x y z x-z (y=0)
Cylindrical r z r-z ( =0)
Spherical r r- ( =0)
CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT
Cartesian
Cylindrical
Spherical
θ θ
θ φ φ θ
23
CHAPTER
Model Generation
You can create local coordinate systems by selecting Cartesian, Cylindrical, or Spherical from the
Coordinate System group under the Geometry tab. There are numerous methods to create local
coordinate systems in SimXpert:
1. 3 Points: Three points are used to define the coordinate system. The first point corresponds to the
location of origin. The second point defines the point on a specified axis and the third point
defines a point in a specified plane.
2. Euler: Creates a coordinate system through three specified rotations about the axes of an existing
coordinate system.
3. Normal: Creates a coordinate system with its origin at a point location on a surface. A specified
axis is normal to the surface.
4. Two Vectors: Creates a coordinate system with its origin at a designated location and two of the
coordinate frame axes are defined using vectors
5. Advanced: Location and orientation can be independently defined. There are 4 different ways to
define the location of the origin of the coordinate system: Geometry, Point/Node, Coordinate
System, and Center of Part. Further, the orientation can also be defined 3 ways: Global, Two
Axes, and Coordinate System.
A Cartesian coordinate system consists of three mutually perpendicular axes (X, Y, & Z axis) which
intersect at the origin. The three directions of a Cartesian coordinate system may be referred to as X,Y,Z;
u, v, w; or 1,2,3 respectively.
In a cartesian coordinate system, the principal axes 1, 2 and 3 correspond to the X, Y and Z axes,
respectively. Points in space are entered in the order: x-coordinate, y-coordinate and z-coordinate. The
principal axes of a cartesian coordinate system and a point, P(x, y,z) are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 Cartesian Coordinate System
x
y
z
Axis 3
Axis 2
Axis 1
Y
Z
X
P = (x, y, z)
Modeling Guide

24
The graphical representation for creating a coordinate system using 3 Points method is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3 Coordinate system using 3 Points method
In Figure 4, the normal method to create a cartesian coordinate system is graphically represented. The
origin of the coordinate system is at a node on a surface. The z-axis direction is normal to the surface by
using right-hand rule and crossing the surface’s U direction with the V direction.The x-axis is parallel to
the U direction.
Figure 4 Cartesian Coordinate system using Normal method
Second, a point location on the specified
axis
First, a point location at the Origin
Third, a point location in the speci-
fied plane
u
v
X
Y
Z
25
CHAPTER
Model Generation
The graphical representation for creating a coordinate system using 2 vector method is shown in Figure 5
Figure 5 Coordinate System using 2 Vector Method
Y
Z
X
First, a point location
for origin
Second, two points to define
the Vector for Axis-1
Third, two points to
define the Vector for
Axis-2
(0, 0, 0) (0, 0.9, 0)
(0.5, 0, 0)
(1, 0, 0)
(0, 1, 0)
Modeling Guide

26
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Loads and boundary conditions describe the physical environmen of the model to be analyzed. LBCs can
be created under the LBCs tab.
27
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Material
SimXpert supports the following material properties:
• Isotropic.
• Has the same properties in every direction.
• Infinite number of planes of material property symmetry.
• Two independent elastic constants.
• Orthotropic 2D, 2D axisymmetric, and 3D.
• Has the same properties in some directions, and different properties in other directions.
• For 3D, there are three orthogonal planes of material property symmetry; nine independent
elastic constants; no interaction between normal and shear stresses.
• Anisotropic 2D and 3D.
• Has different properties for different directions.
• For 3D, there are no planes of material property symmetry; 21 independent elastic constants.
For nonlinear analysis, supported properties are
• Elasto plastic
• Elastic behavior when total stress < yield stress of the material.
• Plastic behavior when total stress > yield stress of the material.
• Visco elastic (nonlinear elastic)
• Elastic in the classical sence -- upon unloading, the stress-strain curve is retraced with no
permanent deformation/offset. The material is initially isotropic.
• Viscous effects are modeled.
• If the appropriate parameters are specified, is is possible to define a hypoelastic material.
• Visco plastic
• This is time-dependent cyclic plasticity.
• Creep
• This is time-dependent, inelastic behavior, and can occur at any stress level (below or above
the yield stress of the material).
Temperature dependent material properties are also allowed, for both linear and nonlinear analysis.
Material Overview
A wide variety of materials are encountered in stress analysis problems, and for any one of these
materials a range of constitutive models is available to describe the material’s behavior. We can broadly
classify the materials of interest as those which exhibit almost purely elastic response, possibly with
some energy dissipation during rapid loading by viscoelastic response (the elastomers, such as rubber or
Modeling Guide

28
solid propellant); materials that yield, and exhibit considerable ductility beyond yield (such as mild steel
and other commonly used metals, ice at low strain rates, and clay); materials that flow by rearrangement
of particles which interact generally through some dominantly frictional mechanism (such as sand); and
brittle materials (rock, concrete, ceramics).
Table 5-1 Common Material Characteristics
Material Characteristics Examples Models
Composites
(MATi,
MATORT,
PCOMP)
Anisotropic:
1) Layered,
21 Constants
2)Fiber Reinforced,
One dimensional strain in fibers
Aircraft panels
Tires, glass/epoxy
Composite
continuum
elements
Creep
(MATVP)
Strains increasing with time under
constant load. Stresses decreasing
with time under constant
deformations. Creep strains are
noninstantaneous.
Metals at high
temperatures, polymide
films, semiconductor
materials
ORNL
Norton
Maxwell
Elastic
(MATi,
MATORT)
Stress functions of instantaneous
strain only. Linear
load-displacement relation.
Small deformation
(below yield) for most
materials: metals, glass,
wood
Hookes Law
Elastoplasticity
(MATEP)
Yield condition flow rule and
hardening rule necessary to
calculate stress, plastic strain.
Permanent deformation
upon unloading.
Metals
Soils
von Mises
Isotropic
Cam -Clay
Hill’s Anisotropic
ds
ij
C
ijkl

kl
=
S
E
2
--- T
t
CT 1 – ( ) =
29
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Constitutive Models
A single material may contain multiple constitutive models. Each constitutive model characterizes
distinct ranges of the material’s response. The constitutive models in MD Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear contain a range of linear and nonlinear material models that can address or approximate the
material response of most commonly encountered materials. The constitutive models in MD Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear can be accessed by any of the solid or structural elements. The models are assessed
independently at each “constitutive calculation point” (i.e., the numerical integration points in the
elements). Thus, the constitutive models are concerned only with a single calculation point. The element
then provides an estimate of the kinematic solution to the problem at the point under consideration.
Hyperelastic
(MATHE)
Stress function of instantaneous
strain. Nonlinear load-
displacement relation. Unloading
path same as loading.
Rubber Mooney
Ogden
Arruda-Boyce
Gent
Hypoelastic Rate form of stress-strain law Concrete Buyukozturk
Viscoelastic
(MATVE)
Time dependence of stresses in
elastic material under loads. Full
recovery after unloading.
Rubber,
Glass, industrial
plastics
Simo Model
Narayanaswamy
Viscoplastic
(MATVP)
Combined plasticity and creep
phenomenon
Metals
Powder
Power law
Shima Model
Table 5-1 Common Material Characteristics (continued)
Material Characteristics Examples Models
Modeling Guide

30
MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear Material Entries
The following material bulk data entries are available in SOL 600. Each of these options are summarized
in the sections of this chapter and detailed in the MD NASTRAN QRG. All standard MD Nastran materials
are also available in SOL 600.
The following sections describe how to model material behavior in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.
Modeling material behavior consists of both specifying the constitutive models used to describe the
material behavior and defining the actual material data necessary to represent the material. Directional
dependency can be included for materials other than isotropic materials. Data for the materials can be
entered into MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear either directly through the input file or by user subroutines,
or material models may be defined in the SimXpert Materials Application. Each section of this chapter
discusses various options for organizing material data for input. Each section also discusses the
constitutive (stress-strain) relation and graphic representation of the models and includes
recommendations and cautions concerning the use of the models.
Bulk Data Entry Description
MATEP Specifies elasto-plastic material properties.
--MATTEP Specifies temperature-dependent elasto-plastic material properties.
MATF Specifies failure model properties for linear elastic materials.
MATG Specifies gasket material properties to be used in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
(SOL 600) only.
--MATTG Specifies gasket material property temperature variation to be used in MD
Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
MATHE Specifies hyperelastic (rubber-like) material properties for nonlinear (large strain
and large rotation) analysis in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
--MATTHE Specifies temperature-dependent properties of hyperelastic (rubber-like)
materials (elastomers) in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
MATED Specifies damage model properties for hyperelastic materials in MD Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
MATORT Specifies elastic orthotropic material properties for 3-dimensional and plane
strain behavior for linear and nonlinear analyses in MD Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
--MATTORT Specifies temperature-dependent properties of elastic orthotropic materials for
linear and nonlinear analyses used in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600)
only.
MATVE Specifies isotropic visco-elastic material properties in MD Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
--MATTVE Specifies temperature-dependent visco-elastic material properties in terms of
Thermo-Rheologically Simple behavior in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL
600) only.
MATVP Specifies viscoplastic or creep material properties to be used for quasi-static
analysis in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
31
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Linear Elastic
MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is capable of handling problems with any combination of isotropic,
orthrotropic, or anisotropic linear elastic material behavior.
The linear elastic model is the model most commonly used to represent engineering materials. This
model, which has a linear relationship between stresses and strains, is represented by Hooke’s Law.
Figure 5-1 shows that stress is proportional to strain in a uniaxial tension test. The ratio of stress to strain
is the familiar definition of modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus) of the material.
E (modulus of elasticity) = (axial stress)/(axial strain) (5-1)
Figure 5-1 Uniaxial Stress-Strain Relation of Linear Elastic Material
Experiments show that axial elongation is always accompanied by lateral contraction of the bar. The ratio
for a linear elastic material is:
= (lateral contraction)/(axial elongation) (5-2)
This is known as Poisson’s ratio. Similarly, the shear modulus (modulus of rigidity) is defined as:
(shear modulus) = (shear stress)/(shear strain) (5-3)
A Poisson’s ratio of 0.5, which would be appropriate for an incompressible material, can be used for the
following elements: Herrmann, plane stress, shell, truss, or beam. A Poisson’s ratio which is close (but
not equal) to 0.5 can be used for constant dilation elements and reduced integration elements in situations
which do not include other severe kinematic constraints. Using a Poisson’s ratio close to 0.5 for all other
elements usually leads to behavior that is too stiff. A Poisson’s ratio of 0.5 can also be used with the
updated Lagrangian formulation in the multiplicative decomposition framework using the standard
displacement elements. In these elements, the treatment for incompressibility is transparent.
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
E
1
v
G
Modeling Guide

32
Isotropic Materials
Most linear elastic materials are assumed to be isotropic (their elastic properties are the same in all
directions). For an isotropic material, every plane is a plane of symmetry and every direction is an axis
of symmetry. It can be shown that for an isotropic material:
(5-4)
The shear modulus can be easily calculated if the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio
are known.
Specifying Isotropic Material Entries
Isotropic material models are designated with the MAT1 Bulk Data entry in the MD Nastran Input File.
References
• MAT1 in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
SimXpert Materials Application Input Data
To define an isotropic material in SimXpert:
1. Select Materials and Properties>Isotropic.
Isotropic linear elastic material models require the following material data via the Input Options subform
on the Materials Application form.
The material density, used to define the mass of the structure, and the damping value are used in dynamic
loadings, while the expansion coefficient is used to identify the thermal strains.
Entry Description
MAT1 Defines the material properties for linear isotropic materials.
Isotropic-Linear Elastic Description
Elastic Modulus Defines the elastic modulus. This property is generally required. May vary
with temperature via a defined material field.
Shear Modulus Defines the shear modulus. This property is generally not required. May
vary with temperature via a defined material field.
Poisson’s Ratio Defines the Poisson’s ratio. This property is generally required. May vary
with temperature via a defined material field.
Density Defines the mass density. This property is optional.
G E 2 1 v + ( ) ( ) ⁄ =
G E v
33
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Orthotropic Materials
An orthotropic material has three mutually orthogonal planes of symmetry. With respect to a coordinate
system parallel to these planes, the constitutive law for this material is given by the following more
general form of Hooke’s Law:
3-D Orthotropic
Due to symmetry of the compliance matrix, E11 = E22 , E22 = E33 , and E33 =
E11 . Using these relations, a general orthotropic material has nine independent constants:
E11, E22, E33, , , , G12, G23, G31
These nine constants must be specified in constructing the material model.
2-D Orthotropic
Orthotropic material models can be used with 2-D elements, such as plane stress, plane strain, and
axisymmetric elements. For example, the orthotropic stress-strain relationship for a plane stress
element is:
(5-5)
Specifying Orthotropic Material Entries
ε
11
ε
22
ε
33
γ
12
γ
23
γ
13
1 E
1
( ) ⁄ υ
12
( ) E
1
( ) ⁄ – υ
13
( ) E
1
( ) ⁄ – 0 0 0
υ
12
– ( ) E
1
( ) ⁄ 1 E
2
( ) ⁄ υ
23
– ( ) E
2
( ) ⁄ 0 0 0
υ
13
– ( ) E
1
( ) ⁄ υ
23
– ( ) E
2
( ) ⁄ 1 E
3
( ) ⁄ 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 G
12
( ) ⁄ 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 G
23
( ) ⁄ 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 G
13
( ) ⁄
σ
11
σ
22
σ
33
τ
12
τ
23
τ
13
=
ν
21
ν
12
ν
32
ν
23
ν
13
ν
31
ν
12
ν
23
ν
31
Note:
The inequalities E22 > E33, E11 > E22, and E33 > E11 must be satisfied in
order for the orthotropic material to be stable. This is checked by MD Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear.
ν
23
ν
12
ν
31
C
1
1 ν
12
ν
21
– ( )
-----------------------------
E
1
ν
21
E
1
0
ν
12
E
2
E
2
0
0 0 1 ν
12
ν
21
– ( )G
=
Modeling Guide

34
2-D and 3-D othrotropic materials are characterized in MD Nastran using the following bulk data entries.
References
• MAT3 in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
• MAT8 in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
• MATORT in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
SimXpert Materials Application Input Data
To define an orthotropic material in SimXpert:
1. Select Materials and Properties>2D or 3D Orthotropic.
The required properties for orthotropic linear elastic material models vary based on dimension, element
type, and thermal dependencies. 3-D orthotropic material models require the following material data
(2-D requires a reduced set) via the Input Properties subform on the Materials Application form.
Anisotropic Materials
Anisotropic material exhibits different elastic properties in different directions. The significant directions
of the material are labeled as preferred directions, and it is easiest to express the material behavior with
respect to these directions.
The stress-strain relationship for an anisotropic linear elastic material can be expressed as
Entry Description
MAT3 Defines the material properties for linear orthotropic materials used by the
CTRIAX6 element entry.
MAT2
MAT8
Defines the material property for an orthotropic material for solids and
isoparametric shell elements.
MATORT Specifies elastic orthotropic material properties for three-dimensional and
plane strain behavior for linear and nonlinear analyses in MD Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) only in a more general way than MAT2 or MAT8.
Orthotropic-Linear Elastic Description
Elastic Modulus 11/22/33 Defines the elastic moduli in the element’s coordinate system. This is
required data. May vary with temperature via a defined material field.
Poisson’s Ratio 12 Defines the Poisson’s ratios relative to the element’s coordinate
system. This is required data. May vary with temperature via a defined
material field.
Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.
Shear Modulus 12/23/31 Defines the shear moduli relative to the element’s coordinate system.
This is required data. May vary with temperature via a defined
material field.
35
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-6)
The values of

(the stress-strain relation) and the preferred directions (if necessary) must be defined
for an anisotropic material.
Specifying Anisotropic Material Entries
Anisotropic materials are characterized in MD Nastran using the following bulk data entries.
References
• MAT2 in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
SimXpert Materials Application Input Data
To define anisotropic material in SimXpert:
1. Select Materials and Properties>2D or 3D Anisotropic>.
Anisotropic linear elastic material models require the following material data via the Input Properties
subform on the Materials Application form.
Nonlinear Elastic
Hypoelastic - Isotropic
The hypoelastic model is able to represent a nonlinear elastic (reversible) material behavior. For this
constitutive theory, MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear assumes that
(5-7)
where is a function of the mechanical strain and is a function of the temperature.
The stress and strains are true stresses and logarithmic strains, respectively, when used in conjunction
with the updated Lagrange and large displacement options.
When used in conjunction with the large displacement option only, Equation (5-7) is expressed as
Entry Description
MAT2 Defines the material properties for linear anisotropic materials for two-
dimensional elements.
Anisotropic-Linear Elastic Description
Stress-Strain Matrix
components, Cij
Defines the upper right portion of the symmetric stress-strain matrix
relative to the element’s coordinate system.
Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.
σ
ij
C
ijkl
ε
kl
=
C
ijkl
σ
·
ij
L
ijkl
ε
·
kl
g
ij
+ =
L g
Modeling Guide

36
(5-8)
where are the Green-Lagrangian strain and second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, respectively.
This model can be used with any stress element, including Herrmann formulation elements.
The tensors and may be defined by user subroutine HYPELA. In order to provide an accurate
solution, should be a tangent stiffness evaluated at the beginning of the iteration. In addition, the total
stress should be defined as its exact value at the end of the increment. This allows the residual load
correction to work effectively.
In user subroutine HYPELA2, besides the functionality of HYPELA, additional information is available
regarding the kinematics of deformation. In particular, the deformation gradient ( ), rotation tensor
( ), and the eigenvalues ( ) and eigenvectors ( ) to form the stretch tensor ( ) are also provided.
This information is available only for the continuum elements namely: plane strain, generalized plane
strain, plane stress, axisymmetric, axisymmetric with twist, and three-dimensional cases.
Hyperelastic - Isotropic
Hyperelastic models are specified using either the MATHP or MATHE bulk data entries and are used to
describe the behavior of materials that exhibit elastic response up to large strains, such as rubber, solid
propellant, and other elastomeric materials. These materials are described in terms of a “strain energy
potential”, U, which defines the strain energy stored in the material per unit of volume in the initial
configuration as a function of the strain at that point in the material.
Elastomeric materials are elastic in the classical sense. Upon unloading, the stress-strain curve is retraced
and there is no permanent deformation. Elastomeric materials are initially isotropic. Figure 5-2 shows a
typical stress-strain curve for an elastomeric material.
Figure 5-2 A Typical Stress-Strain Curve for an Elastomeric Material
S
·
ij
L
ijkl
E
·
kl
g
ij
+ =
E S ,
L g
L
F
R λ N U
σ
,

S
t
r
e
s
s
ε, Strain
100%
37
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Calculations of stresses in an elastomeric material requires an existence of a strain energy function which
is usually defined in terms of invariants or stretch ratios. Significance and calculation of these kinematic
quantities is discussed next.
Characteristics of Elastomeric Materials
Most solid rubberlike materials are nearly incompressible: their bulk modulus is several orders of
magnitude larger than their shear modulus. For applications where the material is not highly confined,
the assumption that the material is fully incompressible is usually a good approximation. In cases where
the material is highly confined (such as in an O-ring), modeling the compressibility can be important for
obtaining accurate results. In either case, the use of “hybrid” (mixed formulation) elements is
recommended for this type of material in all but plane stress cases.
Elastomeric foams on the other hand are elastic but very compressible.
Elastomeric materials are considered to be isotropic in nature with random orientation of the long
chain molecules.
Strain Energy Potential and Representative Models
Calculations of stresses in an elastomeric material requires an existence of a strain energy function which
is usually defined in terms of invariants or stretch ratios.
In the rectangular block in Figure 5-3, , , and are the principal stretch ratios along the edges
of the block defined by
(5-9)
Figure 5-3 Rectangular Rubber Block
In practice, the material behavior is (approximately) incompressible, leading to the constraint equation
the strain invariants are defined as
λ
1
λ
2
λ
3
λ
i
L
i
u
i
+ ( ) L
i
⁄ =
L3
λ2L2
L2
L1
λ
1
L
1
Undeformed
Deformed
λ3L3
λ
1
λ
2
λ
3
1 =
Modeling Guide

38
(5-10)
Depending on the choice of configurations, for example, reference (at ) or current ( ),
you obtain total or updated Lagrange formulations for elasticity. The kinematic measures for the two
formulations are discussed next.
Total Lagrangian Formulation
The strain measure is the Green-Lagrange strain defined as:
(5-11)
where is the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor defined as:
(5-12)
in which is the deformation gradient (a two-point tensor) written as:
(5-13)
The Jacobian is defined as:
(5-14)
Thus, the invariants can be written as:
(5-15)
in which is the permutation tensor. Also, using spectral decomposition theorem,
I
1
λ
1
2
λ
2
2
λ
3
2
+ + =
I
2
λ
1
2
λ
2
2
λ
2
2
λ
3
2
λ
3
2
λ
1
2
+ + =
I
3
λ
1
2
λ
2
2
λ
3
2
=
t 0 = t n 1 + =
E
ij
1
2
--- C
ij
δ
ij
– ( ) =
C
ij
C
ij
F
ki
F
kj
=
F
kj
F
kj
∂x
k
∂X
j
-------- =
J
J λ
1
λ
2
λ
3
det C
ij
( )
1
2
---
= =
I
1
C
ii
=
I
2
C
ij
C
ij
C
ii
( )
2
– ( )
2
--------------------------------------- =
I
3
1
6
--- e
ijk
e
pqr
C
ip
C
jq
C
kr
det C
ij
( ) = =
(implied sum on i)
e
ijk
39
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-16)
in which the stretches are the eigenvalues of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor, and
the eigenvectors are .
Updated Lagrange Formulation
The strain measure is the true or logarithmic measure defined as:
(5-17)
where the left Cauchy-Green or finger tensor is defined as:
(5-18)
Thus, using the spectral decomposition theorem, the true strains are written as:
(5-19)
where is the eigenvectors in the current configuration. It is noted that the true strains can also be
approximated using first Padé approximation, which is a rational expansion of the tensor, as:
(5-20)
where a polar decomposition of the deformation gradient is done into the left stretch tensor and
rotation tensor as:
The Jacobian is defined as:
(5-21)
and the invariants are now defined as:
C
ij
λ
A
2
N
i
A
N
j
A
=
λ
A
2
C
ij
N
i
A
ε
ij
1
2
--- ln b
ij
=
b
ij
b
ij
F
ik
F
jk
=
ε
ij
1
2
--- λ
A
ln ( )n
i
A
n
j
A
=
n
i
A
ε
ij
2 V
ij
δ
ij
– ( ) V
ij
δ
ij
+ ( )
1 –
=
F
ij
V
ij
R
ij
F
ij
V
ik
R
kj
=
J
J λ
1
λ
2
λ
3
det b
ij
( )
1
2
---
= =
Modeling Guide

40
(5-22)
It is noted that either Equation (5-15) or Equation (5-22) gives the same strain energy since it is scalar
and invariant. Also, to account for the incompressibility condition, in both formulations, the strain energy
is split into deviatoric and volumertic parts as:
(5-23)
Mooney-Rivlin Model
The generalized Mooney-Rivlin model for nearly-incompressible elastomeric materials is written as:
(5-24)
where and are the first and second deviatoric invariants.
Jamus-Green-Simpson Model
A particular form of the generalized Mooney-Rivlin model, namely the third order deformation (tod)
model, is implemented in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). This is one of the few places where
the formulation for SOLs 106 and 129 may be more appropriate because they can use up to fifth order
terms. However, the Ogden formulation (below) is usually better for large strain behavior than even the
fifth order Mooney-Rivlin.
(5-25)
where is the deviatoric third order deformation form strain energy function,
are material constants obtained from experimental data.
Simpler and popular forms of the above strain energy function are obtained as:
I
1
b
ii
=
I
2
1
2
--- b
ij
b
ij
b
ii
( )
2
– ( ) =
I
3
1
6
--- e
ijk
e
pqr
b
ip
b
jq
b
kr
det b
ij
( ) = = and
W W
deviatoric
W
volumetric
+ =
W
deviatoric
gmr
C
mn
I
1
3 – ( )
m
I
2
3 – ( )
n
n 1 =
N
¯
m 1 =
N
¯
=
I
1
I
2
W
devratoric
tod
C
10
I
1
3 – ( ) C
01
I
2
3 – ( ) C
11
I
1
3 – ( ) I
2
3 – ( ) C
20
I
1
3 – ( )
2
C
30
I
1
3 – ( )
3
+ + +
+
=
W
deviatoric
tod
C
10
C
01
C
11
C
20
C
30
, , , ,
41
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-26)
Ogden Model
The form of strain energy for the Ogden model in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is,
(5-27)
where are the deviatoric stretch ratios while , , and are the
material constants obtained from the curve fitting of experimental data.
The Ogden model is usually applied to slightly compressible materials. If no bulk modulus is given, it is
taken to be virtually incompressible. This model is different from the Mooney model in several respects.
The Mooney material model is with respect to the invariants of the right or left Cauchy-Green strain
tensor and implicitly assumes that the material is incompressible. The Ogden formulation is with respect
to the eigenvalues of the right or left Cauchy-Green strain, and the presence of the bulk modulus implies
some compressibility. Using a two-term series results in identical behavior as the Mooney mode if:
, , , and
Arruda-Boyce Model
In the Arruda-Boyce strain energy model, the underlying molecular structure of elastomer is represented
by an eight-chain model to simulate the non-Gaussian behavior of individual chains in the network. The
two parameters, and ( is the chain density, is the Botzmann constant, is the
temperature, and is the number of statistical links of length l in the chain between chemical crosslinks)
representing initial modules and limiting chain extensibility and are related to the molecular chain
orientation thus representing the physics of network deformation.
As evident in most models describing rubber deformation, the strain energy function constructed by
fitting experiment data obtained from one state of deformation to another fails to accurately describe that
deformation mode. The Arruda-Boyce model ameliorates this defect and is unique since the standard
tensile test data provides sufficient accuracy for multiple modes of deformation.
W
deviatoric
mr
C
10
I
1
3 – ( ) C
01
I
2
3 – ( ) + = Mooney-Rivlin
W
deviatoric
nh
C
10
I
1
3 – ( ) =
Neo-Hookean
W
deviatoric
ogden

μ
k
α
k
------ λ
1
α
k
λ
2
α
k
λ
3
α
k
3 – + + ( )
k 1 =
N
¯
=
λ
i
α
k
J

α
k
3
----- –
λ
i
α
k
= C
mn
μ
k
α
k
μ
1
2C
10
= α
1
2 = μ
2
2C
01
– = α
2
2 – =
nkΘ N n k Θ
N
Modeling Guide

42
Figure 5-4 Eight Chain Network in Stretched Configuration
The model is constructed using the eight chain network as follows:
Consider a cube of dimension with an unstretched network including eight chains of length
, where the fully extended chain has an approximate length of Nl. A chain vector from the
center of the cube to a corner can be expressed as:
(5-28)
Using geometrical considerations, the chain vector length can be written as:
(5-29)
and
(5-30)
Using statistical mechanics considerations, the work of deformation is proportional to the entropy change
on stretching the chains from the unstretched state and may be written in terms of the chain length as:
(5-31)
where is the chain density and is a constant. is an inverse Langevin function correctly accounts
for the limiting chain extensibility and is defined as:
λ
2
α
0
λ
3
α
0
λ
1
α
0
C
1
k
j
i
α
0
r
0
Nl =
C
1
α
0
2
------ λ
1
i
α
0
2
------ λ
2
j
α
0
2
------ λ
3
k + + =
r
chain
1
3
------- Nl λ
1
2
λ
2
2
λ
3
2
+ + ( )
1 2 ⁄
=
λ
chain
r
chain
r
0
------------
1
3
------- I
1
( )
1 2 ⁄
= =
W nkΘN
r
chain
Nl
------------
\
|
β ln
β
β sinh
--------------
.
|
ΘC
ˆ
– + =
n C
ˆ
β
43
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-32)
where Langevin is defined as:
(5-33)
With Equation (5-30) through Equation (5-33), the Arruda-Boyce model can be written
(5-34)
Gent Model
Also, using the notion of limiting chain extensibility, Gent proposed the following constitutive relation:
(5-35)
where
(5-36)
The constant is independent of molecular length and, hence, of degree of crosslinking. The model
is attractive due to its simplicity, but yet captures the main behavior of a network of extensible molecules
over the entire range of possible strains.
The volumetric part of the strain energy is for all the rubber models in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear is:
(5-37)
when is the bulk modulus. It can be noted that the particular form of volumetric strain energy is
chosen such that:
1. The constraint condition is satisfied for incompressible deformations only; for example:
β L
1 –
r
chain
Nl
------------
\ .
| |
=
ℑ β ( ) β
1
β
--- – coth =
W
dev
Arruda-Boyce
nkΘ
1
2
--- I
1
3 – ( )
1
20N
---------- I
1
2
9 – ( )
11
1050N
2
------------------ I
1
3
27 – ( ) + + =
19
7000N
3
------------------ I
1
4
81 – ( )
519
673750N
4
------------------------ I
1
5
243 – ( ) ] + +
W
dev
Gent
EI
m

6
------------
I
m
I
m
I
1
*

---------------- log =
I
1
*
I
1
3 – =
EI
m
W
volumetric
9K
2
------- J
1
3
---
1 –
\ .
|
| |
2
=
K
Modeling Guide

44
(5-38)
2. The constraint condition does not contribute to the dilatational stiffness.
This yields the constraint function as:
(5-39)
upon substitution of Equation (5-39) in Equation (5-35) and taking the first variation of the variational
principle, you obtain the pressure variable as:
(5-40)
The equation has a physical significance in that for small deformations, the pressure is linearly related to
the volumetric strains by the bulk modulus .
The discontinuous or continuous damage models discussed in the models section on damage can be
included with the generalized Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Gent models to simulate
Mullins effect or fatigue of elastomers when using the updated Lagrangian approach. In the total
Lagrangian framework however, this is available for the Ogden model only.
Foam Model
Sometimes elastomeric materials show large volumetric deformations. For this type of behavior, the
models discussed above are not appropriate. Instead, the foam model expressed by:
(5-41)
should be used. In contrast to the Ogden model, the first part of the foam strain energy function is not
purely deviatoric. The material constants provide additional flexibility to describe the material
behavior also for a large amount of compressibility.
Updated Lagrange Formulation for Nonlinear Elasticity
f I
3
( )
> 0 if I
3
0 >
0 = if I
3
1 =
< 0 if I
3
0 <
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
¦
¦
f I
3
( ) 3 I
3
1
6
---
1 –
\ .
|
| |
=
p 3K J
1
3
---
1 –
\ .
|
| |
=
K
W
μ
n
α
n
------ λ
1
α
n
λ
2
α
n
λ
3
α
n
3 – + + ( )
μ
n
β
n
----- 1 J
β
n
– ( )
n 1 =
N
¯
+
n 1 =
N
¯
=
β
n
45
CHAPTER
Model Generation
The Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, Gent and Foam models may be used either in the total
Lagrange or updated Lagrange framework. This is selected using the PARAM,MARUPDAT. For plane
stress analysis the total Lagrange procedure will always be used.
The updated Lagrangian rubber elasticity capability can be used in conjunction with both continuous as
well as discontinuous damage models. Thermal, as well as viscoelastic, effects can be modeled with the
current formulation. While the Mooney model can account for the temperature dependent material
properties, the Ogden model does not support the temperature dependence at this time. The singularity
ratio of the system is inversely proportional to the order of bulk modulus of the material due to the
condensation procedure.
A consistent linearization has been carried out to obtain the tangent modulus. The singularity for the case
of two- or three-equal stretch ratios is analytically removed by application of L’Hospital’s rule. The
current framework with an exact implementation of the finite strain kinematics along with the split of
strain energy to handle compressible and nearly incompressible response is eminently suitable for
implementation of any nonlinear elastic as well as inelastic material models. In fact, the finite
deformation plasticity model based on the multiplicative decomposition, is
implemented in the same framework.
To simulate elastomeric materials, incompressible element(s) are used for plane strain, axisymmetric,
and three-dimensional problems for elasticity in total Lagrangian framework. These elements can be
used with each other or in combination with other elements. For plane stress, beam, plate or shell
analysis, conventional elements can be used. For updated Lagrangian elasticity, both conventional
elements (as well as Herrmann elements) can be used for plane strain, axisymmetric, and three-
dimensional problems.
Experimental Determination of Hyperelastic Material Parameters
In order to determine the material parameters to be used, like Mooney coefficients, Ogden moduli,
relaxation times, etc., experiments must be carried out. In this section, the laboratory tests of which data
can be used to fit the material parameters will be described. Once the test data is available the
Experimental Data Fitting module in MSC SimXpert can be used to calculate appropriate coefficient
values.
For a homogeneous material, homogeneous deformation modes suffice to characterize the material
constants. MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear accepts test data from the following deformation modes:
• Uniaxial tension and compression.
• Biaxial tension and compression.
• Planar tension and compression (also known as pure shear).
• Simple Shear
• Volumetric tension and compression
F F
e
F
θ
F
p
=
Modeling Guide

46
Figure 5-5 Test Data
Uniaxial Test
Probably the most popular test is the uniaxial test (see Figure 5-6). This test can be used in tension as well
as in compression, both for incompressible and (slightly) compressible elastomeric materials. The shape
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
Uniaxial Test Data
Biaxial Test Data
Planar Test Data
Volumetric Test Data
47
CHAPTER
Model Generation
of the specimen used in compression will usually be less slender than the shape used in tension. Within
the region indicated by the dashed line, the state of deformation will be homogeneous, where the
deformation can be described by:
, (5-42)
while the corresponding engineering stresses are given by:
, (5-43)
in which is the applied force and is the cross sectional area of the undeformed specimen in the
- -plane, within the region indicated by the dashed line.
Figure 5-6 Uniaxial (Tensile) Test
Necessary input for the curve fitting program in MSC SimXpert consists of at least engineering strain
( ) versus engineering stress ( ) data points. In case of (slightly) compressible materials,
information about the volume changes is also needed. This data can be given either in terms of the area
ratio or the volume ratio. The area ratio is defined by the current cross sectional area over the original
cross sectional area . Similarly, the volume ratio is defined by the current volume over the
undeformed volume . Notice that the volume ratio and the area ratio are related by:
If, for a particular elastomeric material, both a tensile and a compression test have been performed, all
the data points should be collected into one data file. The layout of a data file containing uniaxial test
data is given in the figure below. The columns may be separated by either spaces or commas. For (nearly)
incompressible material behavior, the third column can be omitted.
λ
1
λ 1 e
11
+ = = λ
2
λ
3
J λ ⁄ = =
σ
11
σ
F
A
0
------ = = σ
22
σ
33
0 = =
F A
0
E
2
E
3
E
1
E
3
E
2
F F
e
11
σ
11
A
A
0
V
V
0
V
V
0
------ J
A
A
0
------ 1 e
11
+ ( ) = =
Modeling Guide

48
Figure 5-7 Layout of Data File for a Uniaxial Test
Equi-Biaxial Test
The equi-biaxial tensile test outlined in Figure 5-8 can be used to obtain, within the region indicated by
the dashed line, a homogeneous state of deformation defined by:
Figure 5-8 Equi-biaxial (Tensile) Test
, (5-44)
with corresponding engineering stresses:
, (5-45)
e
11
σ
11
A A
0
⁄ e
11
σ
11
V V
0

or
F
F
F F
E
1
E
3
E
2
λ
1
λ
2
λ 1 e
11
+ 1 e
22
+ = = = = λ
3
J λ
2
⁄ =
σ
11
σ
22
σ
F
A
0
------ = = = σ
33
0 =
49
CHAPTER
Model Generation
with being the original cross sectional area of the elastomeric sheet in the direction perpendicular
to the applied forces, which is assumed to be the same in the - -plane and the - -plane.
For compressible elastomers, volumetric information is needed. For the equi-biaxial test, this can be
given in terms of a thickness ratio or, similar to the uniaxial test, a volume ratio. The thickness ratio is
defined as the current sheet thickness over the original sheet thickness . The relation between the
thickness ratio and the volume ratio is:
(5-46)
The layout of a data file for an equi-biaxial tensile test is given in Figure 5-8.
Planar Shear Test
A state of planar shear, also sometimes called pure shear, can be obtained by clamping and stretching an
elastomeric rectangular sheet of material, as indicated in Figure 5-9.
Figure 5-9 Planar Shear Test
Except for the vicinity of the free edges and the clamps, the state of strain can be found to be substantially
uniform, according to:
, , (5-47)
where the known stress components are given by:
A
0
E
1
E
3
E
2
E
3
t t
0
V
V
0
------ J
t
t
0
---- 1 e
11
+ ( )
2
= =
F F
E
1
E
3
E
2
λ
1
λ 1 e
11
+ = = λ
2
1 = λ
3
J
λ
--- =
Modeling Guide

50
, (5-48)
in which is the cross sectional area of the undeformed specimen in the - -plane. Notice that
the engineering strain is zero, but that the corresponding engineering stress depends on the
material behavior.
(5-49)
(5-50)
Simple Shear Test
A test which, compared to the above mentioned tests, leads to a more complex kinematic description, is
the simple shear test (see Figure 5-10).Upon introducing the shear strain , the coordinates in the
deformed configuration are given by:
, , (5-51)
which yields for the deformation gradient:
(5-52)
Figure 5-10 Simple Shear Test
σ
11
σ
F
A
0
------ = = σ
33
0 =
A
0
E
1
E
3
e
22
σ
22
δU T
S
δλ
S
=
T
S
λ
S


U 2 λ
S
λ
S
3 –

\ .
| |
I
1

∂U
I
2

∂U
+
\ .
|
| |
= =
γ
x
1
X
1
γX
2
+ = x
2
X
2
= x
3
X
3
=
F
1 γ 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
=
2F
E
1
E
3
E
2 γ atan
51
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Notice that , irrespective of the value of , from which it can be concluded that a simple
shear test is a constant volume test.
Based on Equation (5-51), Equation (5-52) and Figure 5-10, the engineering strain tensor and the right
Cauchy-Green strain tensor can be evaluated as:
(5-53)
(5-54)
According to Equation (5-54), the principal stretch ratios follow from the principal values of
and read:
, (5-55)
It can easily be verified that , which again shows that the simple shear test is a constant
volume test. The relevant engineering stress is given by:
(5-56)
with being the cross sectional area of the undeformed specimen in the - -plane.
The layout of a data file containing measurements of a simple shear test is given in Figure 5-11.
Figure 5-11 Layout of Data File for a Simple Shear Test
det F ( ) 1 = γ
e
0 γ 2 ⁄ 0
γ 2 ⁄ 0 0
0 0 0
=
C
1 γ 0
γ 1 γ
2
+ 0
0 0 1
=
C
λ
1 2 ,
1
γ
2
2
---- γ ± 1
γ
2
4
---- + + = λ
3
1 =
λ
1
λ
2
λ
3
1 =
σ
12
F
A
0
------ =
A
0
E
1
E
3
2e
12
γ = σ
12
Modeling Guide

52
Volumetric Test
Although a uniaxial, equi-biaxial and planar shear test can be used to obtain information about the
volumetric behavior, for compressible materials an additional volumetric test may be preferable. This is
especially true for slightly compressible materials, since volumetric data from other tests other than a
volumetric one may easily be inaccurate (because most of the deformation is deviatoric). Two commonly
used volumetric tests are outlined in Figure 5-12. In Figure 5-12a, a cylindrical specimen is compressed
in a cylindrical hole. This test can be successfully applied for slightly compressible materials. In
Figure 5-12b, a specimen is deformed by compressing the surrounding fluid. This volumetric test can also
be used for highly compressible materials.
Figure 5-12 Volumetric Tests
For a volumetric test, the direct true stress components are assumed to be equal to the hydrostatic pressure
and given by:
(5-57)
in which denotes the area of the piston in the - -plane. The deformation can be expressed in
terms of an engineering strain and corresponding stretch ratio , which can be determined from the
measured volume change according to:
(5-58)
Based on according to Figure 5-12b, the engineering stress follows from:
F
F
F
(a) (b)
E
2
E
3
E
1
p
T
11
T
22
T
33
F
A
p
------ = = =
A
p
E
2
E
3
e λ
e λ 1 –
V
V
0
------
3
1 – J
3
1 – = = =
λ σ
53
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-59)
Notice that only in the case of Figure 5-12b the engineering strain and the engineering stress are
equal to the direct components of the engineering strain and the engineering stress tensor.
The layout of the data file corresponding to a volumetric test is given in Figure 5-13. Notice that because
of Figure 5-12b, the entries of the first and the third column are not independent.
Figure 5-13 Layout of Data File for a Volumetric Test
Relaxation Test
The basic feature of a relaxation test is that the force or stress response to a prescribed fixed displacement
or deformation is measured as a function of time. A relaxation test for a large strain elastomeric material
is indicated in Figure 5-14. By measuring the force needed for a displacement at different time
intervals, the decay of the strain energy as a function of time can be determined. For linear elastic
isotropic material, similar tests can be performed to get information about the shear modulus and/or the
bulk modulus as a function of time. In order to properly measure the instantaneous values, application
of the prescribed displacement should occur sufficiently fast. It should be noted, due to the assumption
introduced in equation Equation (5-94), that for large strain visco-elastic materials the magnitude of (the
instantaneous value of) the strain energy is not important, since every energy term in the Prony series
expansion is related to the instantaneous strain energy using a scalar multiplier. The data does not need
to be equispaced in time. Usually, at the beginning of the relaxation experiment the measurements are
done at smaller time intervals than at the end of the experiment.
σ T
11
λ
2
=
e σ
e σ
V V
0

Δu
Δu
Modeling Guide

54
Figure 5-14 Relaxation Test
If, for linear visco-elastic materials, instead of a relaxation test only a creep test can be performed, the
creep data must be transformed into relaxation data. Converting creep data into relaxation data can be
done using a numerical integration scheme, but is not part of MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.
Hyperelastic Foam Properties
Elastomeric foams are cellular solids that have the following primary mechanical characteristics:
• They can deform elastically up to large strain: up to 90% strain in compression. In most
applications, this is the dominant mode of deformation.
• Their porosity permits very large volumetric changes. This is in contrast to solid rubbers, which
are approximately incompressible.
• Cellular solids are made up of interconnected networks of solid struts or plates which form the
edges and faces of cells. Foams are made up of polyhedral cells that pack in three dimensions.
The foam cells can either be open (e.g., sponge) or closed (e.g., flotation foam). Common
examples of elastomeric foam materials are cellular polymers such as cushions, padding, and
packaging materials which utilize the excellent energy absorption properties of foams - for a
certain stress level, the energy absorbed by foams is substantially greater than by ordinary stiff
elastic materials.
The figure below shows a typical compressive stress-strain curve for elastomeric foam.
Figure 5-15 Typical Compressive Stress-Strain Curve
Three stages can be distinguished during compression:
At small strains (< 5%) the foam deforms in a linear elastic manner, due to cell wall bending.
This is followed by a plateau of deformation at almost constant stress, caused by the elastic buckling of
the columns or plates which make up the cell edges or walls. In closed cells, the enclosed gas pressure
and membrane stretching increase the level and slope of the plateau.
STRAIN
S
T
R
E
S
S

Densification
Plateau: Elastic buckling
of cell walls
Cell wall bending
55
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Finally, a region of densification occurs, where the cell walls crush together, resulting in a rapid increase
of compressive stress. Ultimate compressive nominal strains of 0.7 to 0.9 are typical.
The tensile deformation mechanisms for small strains are similar to the compression mechanisms but
differ for large strains. The figure shows a typical tensile stress-strain curve.
Figure 5-16 Typical Tensile Stress-Strain Curve
There are two stages during tension:
At small strains the foam deforms in a linear, elastic manner, due to cell wall bending, similar to that
in compression.
The cell walls rotate and align, resulting in rising stiffness. The walls are substantially aligned at a tensile
strain of about 1/3. Further stretching results in increased axial strains in the walls.
At small strains for both compression and tension, the average experimentally observed Poisson's ratio,
ν, of foams is 1/3. At larger strains it is commonly observed that Poisson's ratio is effectively zero during
compression - the buckling of the cell walls does not result in any significant lateral deformation.
However, during tension, ν is nonzero, which is a result of the alignment and stretching of the cell walls.
The manufacture of foams often results in cells with different principal dimensions. This shape
anisotropy results in different loading responses in different directions. However, the foam model does
not take this kind of initial anisotropy into account.
Determination of Foam Material Parameters
The response of the material is defined by the parameters in the strain energy function, U, so that it is
necessary to determine these parameters to use the foam model. MSC SimXpert contains a capability
for obtaining the μ
i
, α
i
and β
i
for the foam model with up to six terms (N=6) directly from test data. It
is usually best to obtain data from several experiments involving different kinds of deformation, over
STRAIN
S
T
R
E
S
S

Cell wall bending
Cell wall alignment
Modeling Guide

56
the range of strains of interest in the actual application, and to use all of these data to determine
the parameters.
Since the properties of foam materials can vary significantly from one batch to another, all of the
experiments should be performed on specimens taken from the same batch of material or to use
MSC.Stocastics in combination with SOL 600.
Uniaxial, Equibiaxial and Planar Deformations
The deformation modes are characterized in terms of the principal stretches, λ
i
, and the volume ratio, J.
The elastomeric foams are not incompressible, so that J = λ
1
λ
2
λ
3
!= 1. The transverse stretches, λ
2
and/or
λ
3
, are independently specified in the test data either as individual values from the measured lateral
deformations or through the definition of an effective Poisson’s ratio.
Uniaxial mode: λ
1

U
, λ
2

3
, J=λ
U
λ
2
2
Equibiaxial mode: λ
1

2

B
, J=λ
B
2
λ
3
Planar mode: λ
1

P
, λ
2
=1, J=λ
P
λ
3

The three deformation modes above use a single form of the nominal stress-stretch relation,
(5-60)
where T
L
is the nominal stress and L
L
is the stretch in the direction of loading. Because of the
compressible behavior, the planar mode does not result in a state of pure shear. In fact, if the effective
Poisson’s ratio is zero, planar deformation is identical to uniaxial deformation.
Simple Shear Deformation
Simple shear is described by the deformation gradient
(5-61)
where γ is the shear strain. For this deformation, J=det F =1. A schematic illustration of simple shear
deformation is shown in Figure 5-17.
The nominal shear stress T
S
is:
T
L
λ
L

∂U 2
λ
L
-------
μ
i
α
i
----- λ
L
α
i
J
α
i
β
i


\ .
| |
i 1 =
N
¯
= =
F
1 γ 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
=
57
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-62)
where λ
j
= are the principal stretches in the plane of shearing, related to the shear strain, γ, by:
(5-63)
.
Figure 5-17 Simple Shear Test
The stretch in the direction perpendicular to the shear plane is L
3
=1. The transverse (tensile) stress, T
T
,
developed during simple shear deformation due to the Poynting effect, is
(5-64)
Volumetric Deformation
The volumetric deformation mode consists of all principal stretches being equal,
λ
1

2

3

V
, J=λ
V
3
.
The pressure-volumetric ratio relation is
(5-65)
T
S
γ ∂
∂U 2γ
2 λ
j
2
1 –
\ .
| |
γ
2

------------------------------------
μ
i
α
i
----- λ
j
α
i
1 –
\ .
| |
i 1 =
N
¯
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
j 1 =
2
¯
= =
λ
1 2 ,
1
γ
2
2
----- γ 1
γ
2
4
----- + ± + =
2F
E
1
E
3
E
2 γ atan
T
T
ε ∂
∂U
2 λ
j
2
1 –
\ .
| |

j
4
λ
j
2
γ
2
2 + ( ) –
------------------------------------------
μ
i
α
i
----- λ
j
α
i
1 –
\ .
| |
i 1 =
N
¯
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
j 1 =
2
¯
= =
p –
J ∂
∂U 2
J
---
μ
i
α
i
----- J
α
i
3
-----
J
α
i
β
i


\ .
|
|
|
| |
i 1 =
N
¯
= =
Modeling Guide

58
A volumetric compression test is illustrated Figure 5-18.
The pressure exerted on the foam specimen is the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid and the decrease in the
specimen volume is equal to the additional fluid entering the pressure chamber. The specimen is sealed
against fluid penetration.
Figure 5-18 Volumetric Compression Test Setup
Difference in Compression and Tension Deformation
For small strains (< 5%), foams behave similarly for both compression and tension. However, we have
seen that at large strains, the deformation mechanisms differ for compression (buckling and crushing) and
tension (alignment and stretching). Accurate modeling with the FOAM option therefore requires that the
experimental data used to define the material parameters correspond to the dominant deformation modes
of the actual problem being analyzed.
If compression dominates in the problem, the pertinent tests are:
• Uniaxial compression.
• Simple shear.
• Planar compression (if Poisson’s ratio ).
• Volumetric compression (if Poisson’s ratio ).
If tension dominates, the pertinent tests are:
• Uniaxial tension.
• Simple shear.
• Biaxial tension (if Poisson’s ratio ).
• Planar tension (if Poisson’s ratio ).
F
F
F
(a) (b)
E
2
E
3
E
1
ν 0 ≠
ν 0 ≠
ν 0 ≠
ν 0 ≠
59
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Lateral strain data can also be used to define the compressibility of the foam. Measurement of the lateral
strains may make other tests redundant, e.g., providing lateral strains for a uniaxial test eliminates the
need for a volumetric test. The foam model may not accurately fit Poisson's ratio if it varies significantly
between compression and tension.
Experimental Data Fitting
Least Squares Fit
The equations derived above for T
U
, T
B
, and T
S
, with the assumption of material incompressibility,
allow the material parameters C
ij
and μ
i
, α
i
to be determined from the experimentally measured stress-
strain relationships in the uniaxial, equibiaxial, and planar loading tests. A least squares fit, which
minimizes the relative error in stress, is used for this purpose. The equation for T
S
alone will not
determine the constants uniquely. The planar test data input must be augmented by either or both of the
other two types of test data to determine the material parameters.
The Ogden potential is linear in the coefficients μ
i
but strongly nonlinear in terms of the exponents α
i
,
thus necessitating use of a nonlinear least squares procedure. For the nominal stress-nominal strain data
pairs, the error measure, E, is minimized by E = sum(i=1to n)(1-T
i
th
/T
i
test2
), where T
i
test
is a stress value
from the test data and T
i
th
comes from one of the nominal stress expressions derived above.
The foam parameters μ
i
, α
i
, β
i
are determined from the experimentally measured stress-strain
relationships in the various loading tests described above. A least squares fit, which minimizes the
relative error in stress, is used for this purpose.
The foam potential is linear in the coefficients μ
i
but strongly nonlinear in terms of the exponents α
i
and
β
i
thus necessitating use of a nonlinear least squares procedure. For the n nominal stress-nominal strain
data pairs, the error measure E is minimized by E = sum(i=1to n)(1-T
i
th
/T
i
test2
, where T
i
test
is a stress
value from the test data and T
i
th
comes from one of the nominal stress expressions derived above.
Minimizing the relative error in stress implies that the error in slope (modulus) is minimized;
minimization of the absolute error would decrease the error at larger strains, at the expense of the
accuracy at small strains.
Alternative Method for Determination of Constants for Moderate Strains
Since the polynomial form with N=1 is very commonly used for cases where the nominal strain is not
too large, an alternative method of finding the material constants, assuming incompressibility, is to use
the uniaxial test data as follows. The nominal strain in the direction of loading in the uniaxial test is
ε
U

U
-1. Expanding the equation for T
B
in terms of ε
U
, using the Mooney-Rivlin form, and neglecting
terms of higher than second-order in ε
U
, gives
T
U
=6ε
U
(C
10
+C
01
-(C
10
+2C
01

U
).
Modeling Guide

60
This is a parabola: the slope of this curve at the origin (the effective Young’s modulus at zero strain) is
6(C
10
+C
01
); this slope, together with the second-order term -6(C
10
+2C
01

U
2
, defines the constants C
10

and C
01
.
If compressibility should be modeled, then, under pure pressure loading, the compressible model with
N=1 gives, to first-order in the volumetric strain ε
V
=3ε
11
,
p=-(2 / D
1

V
,
so that, at small nominal strains, the bulk modulus is defined as:
K=(2 / D
1
)
Hyperelastic Models in MD Nastran
Various options are provided for defining the material properties. The first (available in both MSC
SimXpert and MD Nastran) is to give the parameters of the polynomial form and , or the
parameters of the Ogden form and as functions of the temperature. The second is to give
the value of N, and give experimental stress-data for up to four simple tests: uniaxial, equilibrium, planar
and, if the material is compressible for volumetric compression test. MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear will
then compute the or and the . This method is available for N = 1 and N=2 for the
polynomial form and up to N = 6 for the Ogden form, and does not allow the properties to be temperature
dependent.
In either case, you should be careful about defining the or : especially when N > 1, the
behavior at higher strains is strongly sensitive to the values of the or , and unstable material
behavior may result if these values are not correctly defined. When some of the coefficients are strongly
negative, instability at higher strain levels is likely to occur.
Because the properties of rubber-like materials can vary significantly from one sample to another, it is
important that test data are taken from experiments on the same sample (or samples cut from the same
sheet), regardless whether the or are computed by the user or by the built-in method.
This material option can be used by itself, or can be combined with viscoelasticity to define time
dependent hyperelastic behavior. It cannot be combined with other material options such as plasticity or
creep. It may be used with the pure displacement formulation elements or with the “hybrid” (mixed
formulation) elements. Because elastomeric materials are usually almost completely incompressible,
fully integrated pure displacement method elements are not recommended for use with this material,
except for plane stress cases. If fully or selectively reduced integration displacement method elements
are used with the almost incompressible form of this material model in anything except plane stress
analysis, a penalty method is used to impose the incompressibility constraint. This can sometimes lead
to numerical difficulties, and the fully or selectively reduced integrated “hybrid” formulation elements
are therefore recommended.
N A
ij
, D
i
N μ
i
α
i
, , D
i
A
ij
μ
i
α
i
, [ ] D
i
A
ij
μ
i
α
i
, [ ]
A
ij
μ
i
α
i
, [ ]
A
ij
μ
i
α
i
, [ ]
61
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Specifying Hyperelastic Material Entries
Nonlinear hyperelastic materials are characterized in MD Nastran with the following Bulk Data entries:
.
References
• MATHP in the MD NASTRAN QRG
• MATHE in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
SimXpert Materials Application Input Data
To define a hyperelastic material in SimXpert:
1. Select Materials and Properties>General Hyperelastic or Mooney-Rivlin or
Odgen/Hyperfoam or Arruda-Boyce/Gent.
2. Select Coefficients or Test Data as the Data Type.
3. Enter parameter values.
4. Click OK.
Hyperelastic material models require the following material data via the Input Properties subform on the
Materials Application form.
General Hyperelastic
Entry Description
MATHP Specifies material properties for use in fully nonlinear (i.e., large strain and
large rotation) hyperelastic analysis of rubber-like materials (elastomers).
MATHE Specifies hyperelastic (rubber-like) material properties for nonlinear (large
strain and large rotation) analysis in (SOL 600) only.
Hyperelastic -General
Hyperelastic
Description
Data Type Coefficient
Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.
Destort. Def. Coeff. A10, A01 Strain energy densities as a function of the strain invariants in the
material. May vary with temperature via a defined material field.
This option consolidates several of the MSC.Marc hyperelastic
material models.
Data Type Test Data
Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.
Modeling Guide

62
Mooney-Rivlin
Simple Tension/Compress. Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
simple tension/compression data to be used in the estimation of
the material constants Aij. xi values in the TABLES1 entry must
be stretch ratios and yi values must be values of the
engineering stress . Stresses are negative for compression
and positive for tension. (Integer > 0 or blank)
Equivalent Tension Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
equibiaxial tension data to be used in the estimation of the
material constants Aij. xi values in the TABLES1 entry must be
stretch ratios . yi values must be values of the engineering
stress . is the current length, F is the current force, is
the initial length and is the cross-sectional area. In the case of
pressure of a spherical membrane, the engineering stress is given
by where P = current value of the pressure and
= initial radius and thickness. (Integer > 0 or blank)
Simple Shear Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
simple shear data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Aij. xi values in the TABLES1 entry must be values of
the shear tangent and yi values must be values of the
engineering shear stress . (Integer > 0 or blank)
Pure Shear Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
pure shear data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Aij. xi and yi values in the TABLES1 entry must be
stretch ratios and values of the nominal stress .
is the current length, F is the current force, and are the
initial length and cross-sectional area, respectively in the
1-direction. (Integer > 0 or blank)
Pure Volum. Compress. Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
pure volumetric compression data to be used in the estimation of
the material constants Di. xi values in the TABLES1 entry must
be values of the volume ratio where is the
stretch ratio in all three directions; yi values must be values of the
pressure, assumed positive in compression. (Integer > 0 or blank)
Hyperelastic -Mooney-Rivlin Description
Data Type Coefficient
Bulk Modulus (K) Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.
Hyperelastic -General
Hyperelastic
Description
l l
0

F A
0

l l
0

F A
0
⁄ l l
0
A
0
Pr
0
λ
2
2t
0
⁄ r
0
t
0
,
γ
F A
0

λ
1
l l
0
⁄ = F A
0
⁄ l
l
0
A
0
J λ
3
= λ l l
0
⁄ =
63
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Ogden
Destort. Def. Coeff. A10, A01 Strain energy densities as a function of the strain invariants in the
material. May vary with temperature via a defined material field.
This option consolidates several of the MSC.Marc hyperelastic
material models.
Data Type Test Data
Bulk Modulus (K) Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.
Simple Tension/Compress. Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
simple tension-compression data to be used in the estimation of
the material constants Cij, , , and . The x-values in the
TABLES1 entry must be stretch ratios and y-values must be
values of the engineering stress . is the initial length and
is the initial cross-sectional area.
Equivalent Tension Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
equibiaxial tension data to be used in the estimation of the
material constants Cij, , , and . The x-values in the
TABLES1 entry must be stretch ratios and
y-values must be values of the engineering stress . is the
initial length and & is the initial cross-sectional area. (Integer > 0
or blank)
Simple Shear Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
simple shear data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Cij or , , and . The x-values in the TABLES1
entry must be values of the shear strain and y-values must be
values of the engineering shear stress. (Integer > 0 or blank)
Pure Shear Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
pure shear data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Cij, , , and . The x and y values in the
TABLES1 entry must be stretch ratios and the values
of the nominal stress . and are the initial length and
cross-sectional area, respectively, in the
l-direction.
Pure Volum. Compress. Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
pure volumetric compression data to be used in the estimation of
the material constant K. The x-values in the TABLES1 entry must
be values of the volume ration where is the
stretch ratio in all three directions; y-values must be values of the
pressure, assumed positive in compression.
Hyperelastic -Mooney-Rivlin Description
μ
k
α
k
β
k
l l
0

F A
0
⁄ l
0
A
0
μ
k
α
k
β
k
l l
0

F A
0
⁄ l
0
μ
k
α
k
β
k
μ
k
α
k
β
k
λ
1
l l
0
⁄ =
F A
0
⁄ l
0
A
0
J λ
3
= λ l l
0
⁄ =
Modeling Guide

64
Hyperelastic-Ogden Description
Data Type Coefficient
Bulk Modulus (K) Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Density Defines the material mass density.
Number of terms The number of terms in the Ogden expression. There can be from
1 to 5 terms.
Ogden Terms, Modulus (k)
in the Ogden equation.
Ogden Terms, Deviatoric
Exponent (k)
in the Ogden equation.
Data Type Test Data
Bulk Modulus (K) Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.
Number of terms The number of terms in the Ogden expression. There can be from
1 to 5 terms.
Simple Tension/Compress. Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
simple tension-compression data to be used in the estimation of
the material constants Cij, , , and . The x-values in the
TABLES1 entry must be stretch ratios and y-values must be
values of the engineering stress . is the initial length and
is the initial cross-sectional area.
Equivalent Tension Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
equibiaxial tension data to be used in the estimation of the
material constants Cij, , , and . The x-values in the
TABLES1 entry must be stretch ratios and
y-values must be values of the engineering stress . is the
initial length and & is the initial cross-sectional area.
μ
k
α
k
μ
k
α
k
β
k
l l
0

F A
0
⁄ l
0
A
0
μ
k
α
k
β
k
l l
0

F A
0
⁄ l
0
65
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Hyperfoam
Simple Shear Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
simple shear data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Cij or , , and . The x-values in the TABLES1
entry must be values of the shear strain and y-values must be
values of the engineering shear stress. (Integer > 0 or blank)
Pure Shear Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
pure shear data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Cij, , , and . The x and y values in the
TABLES1 entry must be stretch ratios and the values
of the nominal stress . and are the initial length and
cross-sectional area, respectively, in the
l-direction.
Pure Volum. Compress. Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
pure volumetric compression data to be used in the estimation of
the material constant K. The x-values in the TABLES1 entry must
be values of the volume ration where is the
stretch ratio in all three directions; y-values must be values of the
pressure, assumed positive in compression.
Hyperelastic-Hyperfoam Description
Data Type Coefficient
Bulk Modulus (K) Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Density Defines the material mass density.
Number of terms The number of terms in the Ogden expression. There can be from 1
to 5 terms.
Hyperfoam Terms, Modulus (k)
in the Foam equation.
Hyperfoam Terms, Deviatoric
Exponent (k)
in the Foam equation.
Hyperfoam Terms, Volumetric
Exponent (k)
in the Foam equation.
Data Type Test Data
Bulk Modulus (K) Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Density Defines the mass density which is an optional property.
Number of terms The number of terms in the Ogden expression. There can be from 1
to 5 terms.
Hyperelastic-Ogden Description
μ
k
α
k
β
k
μ
k
α
k
β
k
λ
1
l l
0
⁄ =
F A
0
⁄ l
0
A
0
J λ
3
= λ l l
0
⁄ =
u
k
α
k
β
k
Modeling Guide

66
Arruda-Boyce
Simple Tension/Compress. Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
simple tension-compression data to be used in the estimation of the
material constants Cij, , , and . The x-values in the
TABLES1 entry must be stretch ratios and y-values must be
values of the engineering stress . is the initial length and
is the initial cross-sectional area.
Equivalent Tension Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
equibiaxial tension data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Cij, , , and . The x-values in the TABLES1 entry
must be stretch ratios and
y-values must be values of the engineering stress . is the
initial length and & is the initial cross-sectional area.
Simple Shear Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
simple shear data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Cij or , , and . The x-values in the TABLES1
entry must be values of the shear strain and y-values must be values
of the engineering shear stress. (Integer > 0 or blank)
Pure Shear Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains pure
shear data to be used in the estimation of the material constants Cij,
, , and . The x and y values in the TABLES1 entry must be
stretch ratios and the values of the nominal stress .
and are the initial length and cross-sectional area,
respectively, in the
l-direction.
Pure Volum. Compress. Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains pure
volumetric compression data to be used in the estimation of the
material constant K. The x-values in the TABLES1 entry must be
values of the volume ration where is the stretch
ratio in all three directions; y-values must be values of the pressure,
assumed positive in compression.
Hyperelastic-Arruda-Boyce Description
Data Type Coefficient
Bulk Modulus (K) Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Density This defines the material mass density.
Arruda-Boyce Material Const.
Number of statistic Links
Hyperelastic-Hyperfoam Description
μ
k
α
k
β
k
l l
0

F A
0
⁄ l
0
A
0
μ
k
α
k
β
k
l l
0

F A
0
⁄ l
0
μ
k
α
k
β
k
μ
k
α
k
β
k
λ
1
l l
0
⁄ = F A
0

l
0
A
0
J λ
3
= λ l l
0
⁄ =
67
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Gent
NKT Chain density times Boltzmann constant times temperature.
Chain Length Average chemical chain cross length.
Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion
Defines the instantaneous coefficient of thermal expansion. This
property is optional. May vary with temperature via a defined
material field
Hyperelastic-Gent Description
Data Type Coefficient
Bulk Modulus Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Density This defines the material mass density.
Tensile Modulus Defines standard tension modulus (E).
Maximum 1st Invariant
Defines .
Data Type Test Data
Bulk Modulus Defines the Bulk Modulus.
Density This defines the material mass density.
Tensile Modulus Defines standard tension modulus (E).
Maximum 1st Invariant
Defines .
Simple Tension/Compress. Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
simple tension-compression data to be used in the estimation of the
material constants Cij, , , and . The x-values in the
TABLES1 entry must be stretch ratios and y-values must be
values of the engineering stress . is the initial length and
is the initial cross-sectional area.
Equivalent Tension Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
equibiaxial tension data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Cij, , , and . The x-values in the TABLES1 entry
must be stretch ratios and
y-values must be values of the engineering stress . is the
initial length and & is the initial cross-sectional area.
Hyperelastic-Arruda-Boyce Description
I
1
*
I
1
*
I
1
3 – =
I
1
*
I
1
*
I
1
3 – =
μ
k
α
k
β
k
l l
0

F A
0
⁄ l
0
A
0
μ
k
α
k
β
k
l l
0

F A
0
⁄ l
0
Modeling Guide

68
Viscoelastic
The material models discussed in previous sections are considered to be time independent. However,
rubber materials often show a rate-dependent behavior and can be modeled as viscoelastic materials.
Viscoelasticity can be applied:
• To determine the current state of deformation based on the entire time history of loading.
• To characterize small strain and large strain problems.
• With other material options for linear elastic response (small strain) and hyperelastic response
(large strain).
• To include temperature dependencies.
• For isotropic, anisotropic, and incompressible materials.
Small Strain Viscoelasticity
In the stress relaxation form, the constitutive relation can be written as a hereditary integral formulation
(5-66)
Simple Shear Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains
simple shear data to be used in the estimation of the material
constants Cij or , , and . The x-values in the TABLES1
entry must be values of the shear strain and y-values must be values
of the engineering shear stress. (Integer > 0 or blank)
Pure Shear Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains pure
shear data to be used in the estimation of the material constants Cij,
, , and . The x and y values in the TABLES1 entry must be
stretch ratios and the values of the nominal stress .
and are the initial length and cross-sectional area,
respectively, in the
l-direction.
Pure Volum. Compress. Data Table identification number of a TABLES1 entry that contains pure
volumetric compression data to be used in the estimation of the
material constant K. The x-values in the TABLES1 entry must be
values of the volume ration where is the stretch
ratio in all three directions; y-values must be values of the pressure,
assumed positive in compression.
Hyperelastic-Gent Description
μ
k
α
k
β
k
μ
k
α
k
β
k
λ
1
l l
0
⁄ = F A
0

l
0
A
0
J λ
3
= λ l l
0
⁄ =
σ
ij
t ( ) G
ijkl
t τ – ( )

kl
τ ( )

------------------dτ
0
t
í
G
ijkl
t ( )ε
kl
0 ( ) + =
69
CHAPTER
Model Generation
The functions are called stress relaxation functions. They represent the response to a unit applied
strain and have characteristic relaxation times associated with them. The relaxation functions for
materials with a fading memory can be expressed in terms of Prony or exponential series.
(5-67)
in which is a tensor of amplitudes and is a positive time constant (relaxation time). In the
current implementation, it is assumed that the time constant is isotropic. In Equation (5-67),
represents the long term modulus of the material.
The short term moduli (describing the instantaneous elastic effect) are then given by
(5-68)
The stress can now be considered as the summation of the stresses in a generalized Maxwell model
(Figure 5-19)
(5-69)
where
(5-70)
(5-71)
G
ijkl
G
ijkl
t ( ) G
ijkl

G
ijkl
n
exp t λ
n
⁄ – ( )
n 1 =
N
¯
+ =
G
ijkl
n
λ
n
G
ijkl

G
ijkl
0
G
ijkl
0 ( ) G
ijkl

G
ijkl
n
n 1 =
N
¯
+ = =
σ
ij
t ( ) σ
ij

t ( ) σ
ij
n
t ( )
n 1 =
N
¯
+ =
σ
ij

G
ijkl

ε
kl
t ( ) =
σ
ij
n
G
ijkl
n
exp t τ – ( ) λ
n
⁄ – [ ]

kl
τ ( )

------------------dτ
0
t
í
=
Modeling Guide

70
Figure 5-19 The Generalized Maxwell or Stress Relaxation Form
For integration of the constitutive equation, the total time interval is subdivided into a number of
subintervals ( ) with time-step . A recursive relation can now be derived
expressing the stress increment in terms of the values of the internal stresses at the start of the
interval. With the assumption that the strain varies linearly during the time interval h, we obtain the
increment stress-strain relation as
(5-72)
where
(5-73)
and
(5-74)
In MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the incremental equation for the total stress is expressed in terms of
the short term moduli (See Equation (5-68)).
(5-75)
Note that the set of equations given by Equation (5-75) can directly be used for both anisotropic and
isotropic materials.
Isotropic Viscoelastic Material
E
1
η
1
q
1
ε
E
0
τ
i
= η
i
/E
i
E
2
η
2
q
2
E
i
η
i
q
i
η
E
t
m 1 –
t
m
, h t
m
t
m 1 –
– =
σ
ij
n
Δσ
ij
t
m
( ) G
ijkl

β
n
h ( )G
ijkl
n
n 1 =
N
¯
+ Δε
kl
α
n
h ( )σ
ij
n
t
m
h – ( )
n 1 =
N
¯
– =
α
n
h ( ) 1 exp h λ
n
⁄ – ( ) – =
β
n
h ( ) α
n
h ( )λ
n
h ⁄ =
Δσ
ij
t
m
( ) G
ijkl
0
1 β
n
h ( ) – { }G
ijkl
n
n 1 =
N
¯
– Δε
kl
t
m
( ) α
n
h ( )σ
ij
n
n 1 =
N
¯
– = t
m
h – ( )
71
CHAPTER
Model Generation
For an isotropic viscoelastic material, MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear assumes that the deviatoric and
volumetric behavior are fully uncoupled and that the behavior can be described by a time dependent
shear and bulk modules. The bulk moduli is generally assumed to be time independent; however, this is
an unnecessary restriction of the general theory.
Both the shear and bulk moduli can be expressed in a series
(5-76)
(5-77)
with short term values given by
(5-78)
(5-79)
Let the deviatoric and volumetric component matrices and be given by
G t ( ) G

G
n
exp t λ
d
n
⁄ –
\ .
| |
n 1 =
N
¯
+ =
K t ( ) K

K
n
exp t λ
v
n
⁄ –
\ .
| |
n 1 =
N
¯
+ =
G
0
G

G
n
n 1 =
N
¯
+ =
K
0
K

K
n
n 1 =
N
¯
+ =
π
d
π
v
π
d
4 3 ⁄ 2 – 3 ⁄ 2 – 3 ⁄ 0 0 0
2 – 3 ⁄ 4 3 ⁄ 2 – 3 ⁄ 0 0 0
2 – 3 ⁄ 2 – 3 ⁄ 4 3 ⁄ 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
=
Modeling Guide

72
The increment set of equations is then given by
(5-80)
and
(5-81)
Note that the deviatoric and volumetric response are fully decoupled.
Note that the algorithm is exact for linear variations of the strain during the increment. The algorithm is
implicit; hence, for each change in time-step, a new assembly of the stiffness matrix is required.
Anisotropic Viscoelastic Material
Equation (5-75) can be used for the analysis of anisotropic viscoelastic materials.
Also, a complete set of moduli (21 components) can be specified in the HOOKVI user subroutine.
Referencing a local coordinate system or use of the ORIENT user subroutine can be used to define a
preferred orientation both for the short time moduli and the amplitude functions .
Incompressible Isotropic Viscoelastic Materials
π
v
1 1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
=
Δσ t
m
( ) G
0
1 β
d
n
h ( ) – [ ]G
n
n 1 =
N
d
¯

¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
π
d
Δε t
m
( ) =
α
d
n
h ( )σ
d
n
t
m
h – ( )
n 1 =
N
d
¯
α
v
n
h ( )σ
v
n
t
m
h – ( )
n 1 =
N
v
¯
– –
K
0
1 β
v
n
h ( ) – [ ]K
n
n 1 =
N
v
¯

¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
π
v
Δε t
m
( )
Δσ
d
n
t
m
( ) β
d
n
h ( )G
n
π
d
Δε t
m
( ) α
d
n
h ( )σ
d
n
t
m
h – ( ) – =
Δσ
v
n
t
m
( ) β
v
n
h ( )K
n
π
v
Δε t
m
( ) α
v
n
h ( )σ
v
n
t
m
h – ( ) – =
G
ijkl
0
G
ijkl
n
73
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Incompressible elements in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear allow the analysis of incompressible and
nearly incompressible materials in plane strain, axisymmetric and three-dimensional problems. The
incompressibility of the element is simulated through the use of an perturbed Lagrangian variational
principle based on the Herrmann formulation.
The constitutive equation for a material with no time dependence in the volumetric behavior can be
expressed as
(5-82)
(5-83)
The hydrostatic pressure term is used as an independent variable in the variational principle. The
Herrmann pressure variable is now defined in the same way as in the formulation for time independent
elastic materials.
(5-84)
The constitutive Equation (5-82) and Equation (5-83) can then be rewritten
(5-85)
where
(5-86)
(5-87)
Large Strain Viscoelasticity
Δσ
ij
t
m
( ) 2 G
ijkl
0
1 β
n
h ( ) – [ ]G
ijkl
n
n 1 =
N
¯

¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
Δε
kl
t
m
( )
1
3
---Δε
pp
t
m
( )δ
kl
– =
α
n
h ( ) σ′
ij
( )
n
t
m
( )
n 1 =
N
¯

1
3
---σ
kk
δ
ij
+
Δσ
pp
t
m
( ) 3K
0
Δε
pp
t
m
( ) =
H
σ
pp
2G
0
1 ν
0
+ ( )
------------------------------- =
Δσ
ij
t
m
( ) 2G
e
Δε
ij
ν


ij
+ ( ) α
n
h ( ) σ′
ij
( )
n
t
m
h – ( )
n 1 =
N
¯
– =
G
e
G
0
1 β
n
h ( )G
n
– [ ]
n 1 =
N
¯
– =
ν

G
0
1 ν
0
+ ( ) G
e
1 2ν
0
– ( ) –
3G
e
---------------------------------------------------------------- =
Modeling Guide

74
For an elastomeric time independent material, the constitutive equation is expressed in terms of an energy
function . For a large strain viscoelastic material, Simo generalized the small strain viscoelasticity
material behavior to a large strain viscoelastic material. The energy functional then becomes
(5-88)
where are the components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor, internal variables and the
elastic strain energy density for instantaneous deformations. In MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, it is
assumed that , meaning that the energy density for instantaneous deformations is given by the
third order James Green and Simpson form or the Ogden form.
The components of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress then follow from
(5-89)
The energy function can also be written in terms of the long term moduli resulting in a different set of
internal variables
(5-90)
where is the elastic strain energy for long term deformations. Using this energy definition, the
stresses are obtained from
(5-91)
Observing the similarity with the equations for small strain viscoelasticity the internal variables can be
obtained from a convolution expression
(5-92)
where are internal stresses obtained from energy functions.
W
ψ E
ij
Q
ij
n
( ) ψ
0
E
ij
( ) Q
ij
n
E
ij
n 1 =
N
¯
– ψ
I
n
Q
ij
n
( )
n 1 =
N
¯
+ =
E
ij
Q
ij
n
ψ
0
ψ
0
W =
S
ij
∂ψ
∂E
ij
---------
∂ψ
0
∂E
ij
--------- Q
ij
n
n 1 =
N
¯
– = =
T
ij
n
ψ E
ij
T
ij
n
, ( ) ψ

E
ij
( ) T
ij
n
E
ij
n 1 =
N
¯
+ =
ψ

S
ij
∂ψ

E ( )
∂E
ij
------------------- T
ij
n
n 1 =
N
¯
+ =
T
ij
n
S
·
ij
n
0
t
í
τ ( )exp t τ – ( ) λ
n
⁄ – [ ]dτ =
S
ij
n
75
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-93)
Let the total strain energy be expressed as a Prony series expansion
(5-94)
If, in the energy function, each term in the series expansion has a similar form, Equation (5-94) can
be rewritten
(5-95)
where is a scalar multiplier for the energy function based on the short term values.
The stress-strain relation is now given by
(5-96)
(5-97)
(5-98)
Analogue to the derivation for small strain viscoelasticity, a recursive relation can be derived expressing
the stress increment in terms of values of the internal stresses at the start of the increment.
S
ij
n ∂ψ
n
∂E
ij
--------- =
ψ ψ

ψ
n
exp t λ
n
⁄ – ( )
n 1 =
N
¯
+ =
ψ ψ

δ
n
ψ
0
exp t λ
n
⁄ – ( )
n 1 =
N
¯
+ =
δ
n
S
ij
t ( ) S
ij

t ( ) T
ij
n
n 1 =
N
¯
t ( ) + =
S
ij
∂ψ

∂E
ij
---------- 1 δ
n
n 1 =
N
¯

\ .
|
|
| |

∂ψ
0
∂E
ij
--------- = =
T
ij
n
δ
n
S
ij
0
t ( )exp t τ – ( ) λ
n
⁄ – [ ]dτ
0
t
í
=
Modeling Guide

76
The equations are reformulated in terms of the short time values of the energy function
(5-99)
(5-100)
It is assumed that the viscoelastic behavior in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear acts only on the
deviatoric behavior.
Viscoelastic Models in MD Nastran
MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear has two models that represent viscoelastic materials. The first can be
defined as a Kelvin-Voigt model. The latter is a general hereditary integral approach.
Kelvin-Voigt Model
The Kelvin model allows the rate of change of the inelastic strain to be a function of the total stress and
previous strain.
The Kelvin material behavior (viscoelasticity) is modeled by assuming an additional creep strain ,
governed by
(5-101)
where and may be defined in the user subroutine CRPVIS and the total strain is
(5-102)
(5-103)
(5-104)
(5-105)
(5-106)
ΔS
ij
t
m
( ) 1 1 β
n
h ( ) –
n 1 =
N
¯
– δ
n
\ .
|
|
| |
S
ij
0
t
m
( ) S
ij
0
t
m
h – ( ) – { } =
α
n
S
ij
n
t
m
h – ( )
n 1 =
N
¯

ΔS
ij
t
m
( ) β
n
h ( )δ
n
S
ij
0
t
m
( ) S
ij
n
t
m
h – ( ) – [ ] α
n
h ( )S
ij
n
t
m
h – ( ) – =
ε
ij
k
d
dt
-----ε
ij
k
A
ijkl
σ′
kl
B
ijkl
ε
kl
k
– =
A B
ε
ij
ε
ij
e
ε
ij
p
ε
ij
c
ε
ij
k
ε
ij
th
+ + + + =
ε
ij
th
= thermal strain components
ε
ij
e
= elastic strain components (instantaneous response)
ε
ij
p
= plastic strain components
ε
ij
c
=
creep strains defined via the CRPLAW and VSWELL user subroutines
77
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-107)
The CRPVIS user subroutine is called at each integration point of each element when the Kelvin model
is used.
Use the NLPARM option and set a nonzero time increment to define the time step and to set the tolerance
control for the maximum strain in any increment.
This option allows Maxwell models to be included in series with the Kelvin model.
Hereditary Integral Model
The stress-strain equations in viscoelasticity are not only dependent on the current stress and strain state
(as represented in the Kelvin model), but also on the entire history of development of these states. This
constitutive behavior is most readily expressed in terms of hereditary or Duhamel integrals. These
integrals are formed by considering the stress or strain build-up at successive times. Two equivalent
integral forms exist: the stress relaxation form and the creep function form. In MD Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear, the stress relaxation form is used.
The viscoelasticity option in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear can be used for both the small strain and
large strain Mooney, Ogden, Arruda Boyce, and Gent material stress-relaxation problems. A description
of these models is as follows:
Experimental Determination of Viscoelastic Material Parameters
The free energy function versus time data being used for large strain viscoelasticity can be generated by
fitting experimental data provided the following two tests are done:
1. Standard quasi-static tests (tensile, planar-shear, simple-shear, equi-biaxial tension, volumertic)
to determine the elastomer free energy constants.
2. Standard relaxation tests to obtain stress versus time.
Temperature Dependence of Viscoelastic Materials
The rate processes in many viscoelastic materials is known to be highly sensitive to temperature changes.
Such temperature-dependent properties cannot be neglected in the presence of any appreciable
temperature variation. For example, there is a large class of polymers which are adequately represented
by linear viscoelastic laws at uniform temperature. These polymers exhibit an approximate translational
shift of all the characteristic response functions with a change of temperature, along a logarithmic time
axis. This shift occurs without a change of shape. These temperature-sensitive viscoelastic materials are
characterized as Thermo-Rheologically Simple.
A “reduced” or “pseudo” time can be defined for the materials of this type and for a given temperature
field. This new parameter is a function of both time and space variables. The viscoelastic law has the
same form as one at constant temperature in real time. If the shifted time is used, however, the
transformed viscoelastic equilibrium and compatibility equations are not equivalent to the corresponding
elastic equations.
ε
ij
k
= Kelvin model strain components as defined above
W
0
Modeling Guide

78
In the case where the temperature varies with time, the extended constitutive law implies a nonlinear
dependence of the instantaneous stress state at each material point of the body upon the entire local
temperature history. In other words, the functionals are linear in the strains but nonlinear in
the temperature.
The time scale of experimental data is extended for Thermo-Rheologically Simple materials. All
characteristic functions of the material must obey the same property. The shift function is a basic property
of the material and must be determined experimentally. As a consequence of the shifting of the
mechanical properties data parallel to the time axis, the values of the zero and infinite frequency complex
moduli do not change due to shifting. Hence, elastic materials with temperature-dependent
characteristics neither belong to nor are consistent with the above hypothesis for the class of
Thermo-Rheologically Simple viscoelastic solids.
In addition to the Thermo-Rheologically Simple material behavior variations of initial stress-strain
moduli , the temperature of the other mechanical properties (coefficient of thermal expansion, etc.)
due to changes in temperature can be specified.
Note, however, that only the instantaneous moduli are effected. Hence, the long term moduli given by
(5-108)
can easily become negative if the temperature effects are not defined properly.
The effect of temperature, θ, on the material behavior is introduced through the dependence of the elastic
modulus, G, on temperature, and through a reduced time concept:
(5-109)
where G=G(θ), and xi(t) is the reduced time, defined by
(5-110)
where A(θ(t)) is the shift function at time t. Often the shift function is approximated by the Williams
Landell Ferry (WLF) form:
(5-111)
G
ijkl
0
G
ijkl

G
ijkl
0
t ( ) G
ijkl
n
n 1 =
N
¯
– =
τ G γ g ξ t ( ) ξ s ( ) – ( )γ
·
s ( )ds
0
t
í
+
\ .
|
|
| |
=
ξ t ( )
ds
A θ s ( ) ( )
-------------------
0
t
í
=
A ( ) log
C
1
θ θ
0
– ( )
C
2
θ θ
0
– ( ) +
-------------------------------- – =
79
CHAPTER
Model Generation
where C
1
, C
2
and θ
0
are constants (θ
0
is the “glassy transition” temperature).
Narayanaswamy Model
The annealing of flat glass requires that the residual stresses be of an acceptable magnitude, while the
specification for optical glass components usually includes a homogenous refractive index. The design
of heat treated processes can be accomplished using the Narayanaswamy model. This allows you to
study the time dependence of physical properties (for example, volumes) of glass subjected to a change
in temperature.
For more information pertaining to the Narayanaswamy Model, see MSC.Marc Volume A: Theory and
User Information, Chapter 7 Material Library.
Specifying Viscoelastic Material Entries
The viscoelastic MATVE and MATTVE material options are provided for cases where dissipative losses
caused by “viscous” (internal friction) effects in materials must be modeled. For time domain analysis,
this option is used with an elastic model to define classical linear, small strain, viscoelastic behavior, or
with hyperelastic or foam models to define finite linear, large deformation, viscoelastic behavior. As
described in the previous section, viscoelastic relaxation data can be fit using the experimental data
fitting (EDF) capability available in SimXpert.
References
• MATVE in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
• MATTVE in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
SimXpert Materials Application Input Data
To define a viscoelastic material in SimXpert:
1. Select Materials and Properties>Isotropic>Advanced>Add Constitutive Model>Visco
Elastic.
2. Enter parameter values.
3. Click OK.
This input data creates the viscoelastic options. All inputs must have the same number of time points (at
the same times) in the referenced fields. The following equations may be useful when creating the Prony
series for the bulk and shear moduli: .
Entry Description
MATVE Specifies isotropic visco-elastic material properties to be used for quasi-static
or dynamic analysis in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
MATTVE Specifies temperature-dependent visco-elastic material properties in terms of
Thermo-Rheologically Simple behavior to be used for quasi-static or transient
dynamic analysis in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
K E 3 1 2v – ( ) ( ) ⁄ G E 2 1 v + ( ) ( ) ⁄ = =
Modeling Guide

80
Viscoelastic material models require the following material data via the Input Properties subform on the
Materials Application form.
Isotropic -Visco Elastic Description
Shift Function No Function
Thermal Exp. Solid Coeff. Solid coefficient of thermal expansion
Thermal Exp. Liquid Coeff. Liquid coefficient of thermal expansion
Deviatoric Terms of Prony Series Deviatoric Scale Factor -- Multiplier (scale factor) for deviatoric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0).
Deviatoric Time Constant -- Defines time constants for deviatoric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0).
Volumetric Terms of Prony Series Volumetric Scale Factor -- Multiplier (scale factor) for volumetric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0.).
Volumetric Time Constant -- Defines time constants for
volumetric behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 1000.).
Shift Function Williams-Landel-Ferry
Thermal Exp. Solid Coeff. Solid coefficient of thermal expansion
Thermal Exp. Liquid Coeff. Liquid coefficient of thermal expansion
Deviatoric Terms of Prony Series Deviatoric Scale Factor -- Multiplier (scale factor) for deviatoric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0).
Deviatoric Time Constant -- Defines time constants for deviatoric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0).
Volumetric Terms of Prony Series Volumetric Scale Factor -- Multiplier (scale factor) for volumetric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0.).
Volumetric Time Constant -- Defines time constants for
volumetric behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 1000.).
Reference Temperature Reference or glass transition temperature.
Shift Function Coeff. 1 Constant A1.
Shift Function Coeff. 2 Constant A2.
Shift Function Power Series Expansion
Thermal Exp. Solid Coeff. Solid coefficient of thermal expansion
Thermal Exp. Liquid Coeff. Liquid coefficient of thermal expansion
Deviatoric Terms of Prony Series Deviatoric Scale Factor -- Multiplier (scale factor) for deviatoric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0).
Deviatoric Time Constant -- Defines time constants for deviatoric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0).
81
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Volumetric Terms of Prony Series Volumetric Scale Factor -- Multiplier (scale factor) for volumetric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0.).
Volumetric Time Constant -- Defines time constants for
volumetric behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 1000.).
Reference Temperature Reference or glass transition temperature.
Number of Power Terms Number of coefficients in the power series representation.
Shift Function Coeff. 0 Coefficient C0 of the shift function.
Orthotropic-Visco Elastic Description
Shift Function No Function
Prony Terms Dev. Time Constant -- Defines time constants for deviatoric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0)
Youngs’s Modulus i
Poisson’s Ratio ij
Shear Modulus ij
Shift Function Williams-Landel-Ferry
Prony Terms Dev. Time Constant -- Defines time constants for deviatoric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0)
Youngs’s Modulus i
Poisson’s Ratio ij
Shear Modulus ij
Reference Temperature Reference or glass transition temperature.
Shift Function Coeff. 1 Constant A1.
Shift Function Coeff. 2 Constant A2.
Shift Function Power Series Expansion
Prony Terms Dev. Time Constant -- Defines time constants for deviatoric
behavior in Prony series (Real > 0., Default = 0)
Youngs’s Modulus i
Poisson’s Ratio ij
Shear Modulus ij
Reference Temperature Reference or glass transition temperature.
Number of Power Terms Number of coefficients in the power series representation.
Shift Function Coeff. 0 Coefficient C0 of the shift function.
Isotropic -Visco Elastic Description
Modeling Guide

82
Inelastic
Most materials of engineering interest initially respond elastically. Elastic behavior means that the
deformation is fully recoverable, so that, when the load is removed, the specimen returns to its original
shape. If the load exceeds some limit (the “yield load”), the deformation is no longer fully recoverable.
Some parts of the deformation will remain when the load is removed as, for example, when a paper clip
is bent too much, or when a billet of metal is rolled or forged in a manufacturing process. Plasticity
theories model the material’s mechanical response as it undergoes such nonrecoverable deformation in a
ductile fashion. The theories have been developed most intensively for metals, but they are applied to
soils, concrete, rock, ice, and so on. These materials behave in very different ways (for example, even
large values of pure hydrostatic pressure cause very little inelastic deformation in metals, but quite small
hydrostatic pressure may cause a significant, non-recoverable volume change in a soil sample), but the
fundamental concepts of plasticity theories are sufficiently general that models based on these concepts
have been successfully developed for a wide range of materials. A number of these plasticity modes are
available in the MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear material library.
In nonlinear material behavior, the material parameters depend on the state of stress. Up to the
proportional limit, i.e., the point at which linearity in material behavior ceases, the linear elastic
formulation for the behavior can be used. Beyond that point, and especially after the onset of
yield, nonlinear formulations are required. In general, two ingredients are required to ascertain
material behavior:
1. an initial yield criterion to determine the state of stress at which yielding is considered to begin
2. mathematical rules to explain the post-yielding behavior.
There are two major theories of plastic behavior that address these criterion differently. In the first, called
deformation theory, the plastic strains are uniquely defined by the state of stress. The second theory,
called flow or incremental theory, expresses the increments of plastic strain (irrecoverable strains) as
functions of the current stress, the strain increments, and the stress increments. Incremental theory is
more general and can be adapted in its particulars to fit a variety of material behaviors. The plasticity
models in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear are “incremental” theories, in which the mechanical strain rate
is decomposed into an elastic part and a plastic (inelastic) part through various assumed flow rules.
The incremental plasticity models are formulated in terms of:
• A yield surface, which generalizes the concept of “yield load” into a test function which can be
used to determine if the material will respond purely elastically at a particular state of stress,
temperature, etc.;
• A flow rule that defines the inelastic deformation that must occur if the material point is no
longer responding purely elastically;
• and some evolution laws that define the hardening - the way in which the yield and/or flow
definitions change as inelastic deformation occurs.
The models also need an elasticity definition, to deal with the recoverable part of the strain models divide
into those that are rate-dependent and those that are rate-independent.
83
CHAPTER
Model Generation
MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear includes the following models of inelastic behavior.
• Metal Plasticity (von Mises or Hill)
• ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) - characterizes creep behavior and cyclic loading
effects on stainless steel materials.
• Porous Metal Plasticity (Gurson) - includes effects of hydrostatic pressure and failure processes
in ductile materials.
• Pressure-Dependent models - models the behavior of granular (soil and rock) materials or
polymers, in which the yield behavior depends on the equivalent pressure stress.
• Linear Mohr-Coulomb
• Parabolic Morh-Coulomb
• Buyukozturk Concrete
Yield Conditions
The yield stress of a material is a measured stress level that separates the elastic and inelastic behavior
of the material. The magnitude of the yield stress is generally obtained from a uniaxial test. However,
the stresses in a structure are usually multiaxial. A measurement of yielding for the multiaxial state of
stress is called the yield condition. Depending on how the multiaxial state of stress is represented, there
can be many forms of yield conditions. For example, the yield condition can be dependent on all stress
components, on shear components only, or on hydrostatic stress. A number of yield conditions are
available in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, and are discussed in this section.
Metal Plasticity
The von Mises yield surface is widely used for plasticity in isotropic metals. It is assumed that the yield
and plastic flow describe isotropic metals at low temperatures where creep effects can be ignored.
Anisotropic metals and composite materials, can be treated by extensions of von Mises yield function,
as described in Hill’s yield function.
von Mises
The success of the von Mises criterion is due to the continuous nature of the function that defines this
criterion and its agreement with observed behavior for the commonly encountered ductile materials.
The von Mises criterion states that yield occurs when the effective (or equivalent) stress (σ) equals
the yield stress (σ
y
) as measured in a uniaxial test. Figure 5-20 shows the von Mises yield surface in
two-dimensional and three-dimensional stress space.
Modeling Guide

84
Figure 5-20 von Mises Yield Surface
For an isotropic material
(5-112)
where σ
1
, σ
2
, and σ
3
are the principal Cauchy stresses.
σ can also be expressed in terms of nonprincipal Cauchy stresses.
(5-113)
The yield condition can also be expressed in terms of the deviatoric stresses as:
(5-114)
where is the deviatoric Cauchy stress expressed as
(5-115)
For isotropic material, the von Mises yield condition is the default condition in MD Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear.
Yield
Surface
Elastic
Region
(b) π-Plane
Yield
Surface
Elastic
Region
(a) Two-dimensional Stress Space
σ′
3
σ′
2
σ′
1
σ
1
σ
2
σ σ
1
σ
2
– ( )
2
σ
2
σ
3
– ( )
2
σ
3
σ
1
– ( )
2
+ + [ ]
1 2 ⁄
2 ⁄ =
σ σ
x
σ
y
– ( )
2
σ
y
σ
z
– ( )
2
σ
z
σ
x
– ( )
2
6 τ
xy
2
τ
yz
2
τ
zx
2
+ + ( ) + + + [ ]
1 2 ⁄
= ( ) 2 ⁄
σ
3
2
---σ′
ij
σ′
ij
=
σ′
ij
σ′
ij
σ
ij
1
3
---σ
kk
δ
ij
– =
85
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Hill’s Yield Function
Hill’s yield surface has been widely used both as a yield surface and as a failure surface for anisotropic
and composite materials. Hill’s yield function is a generalization of von Mises as expressed below.
(5-116)
Note the following points about Hill’s surface:
1. It degenerates into von Mises surface when all three direct yield stresses are equal
(Fx = Fy = Fz) and all three shear yield stresses are equal.
2. It is invariant with respect to hydrostatic stress, as is von Mises.
3. Hill's surface, unlike von Mises, is not always an ellipsoid in stress space. When it is not an
ellipsoid, it is not appropriate for use as a yield function (since it does not have an inside and an
outside, thereby dividing stress space into elastic and plastic regions).
Mohr-Coulomb Material (Hydrostatic Stress Dependence)
MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear includes options for elastic-plastic behavior based on a yield surface that
exhibits hydrostatic stress dependence. Such behavior is observed in a wide class of soil and rock-like
materials. These materials are generally classified as Mohr-Coulomb materials (generalized von Mises
materials). Ice is also thought to be a Mohr-Coulomb material. The generalized Mohr-Coulomb model
developed by Drucker and Prager is implemented in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. There are two types
of Mohr-Coulomb materials: linear and parabolic. Each is discussed on the following pages.
σ
xx
Fx
--------
\ .
| |
2
σ
yy
Fy
--------
\ .
| |
2
σ
zz
Fz
-------
\ .
| |
2
+ +
1
F
x
2
------
1
F
y
2
------
1
F
z
2
------ – +
\ .
|
| |
σ
xx
σ
yy

1
F
x
2
------
1
F
y
2
------ –
1
F
z
2
------ +
\ .
|
| |
σ
xx
σ
zz

1
F
x
2
------ –
1
F
y
2
------
1
F
z
2
------ + +
\ .
|
| |
σ
yy
σ
zz

+
τ
xy
F
xy
--------
\ .
| |
2
τ
yz
F
yz
-------
\ .
| |
2
τ
zx
F
zx
-------
\ .
| |
2
+ + 1 =
Modeling Guide

86
Linear Mohr-Coulomb Material
The deviatoric yield function, as shown in Figure 5-21, is assumed to be a linear function of the
hydrostatic stress.
(5-117)
where
(5-118)
(5-119)
The constants and can be related to and by
(5-120)
where is the cohesion and is the angle of friction.
Figure 5-21 Yield Envelope of Plane Strain (Linear Mohr-Coulomb Material)
Parabolic Mohr-Coulomb Material
The hydrostatic dependence is generalized to give a yield envelope which is parabolic in the case of plane
strain (see Figure 5-22).
f αJ
1
J
2
1 2 ⁄
σ
3
------- – + 0 = =
J
1
σ
ii
=
J
2
1
2
---σ′
ij
σ′
ij
=
α σ c φ
c
σ
3 1 12α
2
– ( ) [ ]
1 2 ⁄
------------------------------------------

1 3α
2
– ( )
1 2 ⁄
------------------------------- ; φ sin = =
c φ
Yield Envelope
c
σ
φ
R
σ
x
+ σ
y
2
τ
87
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-121)
(5-122)
where is the cohesion.
Figure 5-22 Resultant Yield Condition of Plane Strain (Parabolic Mohr-Coulomb Material
Buyukozturk Criterion (Hydrostatic Stress Dependence)
The Buyukozturk concrete plasticity model is a particular form of the generalized Drucker-Prager
plasticity model, which is developed specifically for plane stress cases by Buyukozturk. This yield
criterion, which originally has been proposed as a failure criterion, has the general form:
(5-123)
The Buyukozturk criterion reduces to the parabolic Mohr-Coulomb criterion if .
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Options
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed a large number of creep tests on stainless and
other alloy steels. It has also set certain rules that characterize creep behavior for application in the
nuclear structures. A summary of the ORNL rules on creep is discussed in MSC.Marc Volume A, Theory
and User Information. In MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the ORNL options are based on the definitions
of ORNL-TM- 3602 [1] for stainless steels and ORNL recommendations [2] for 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel.
The initial yield stress should be used for the initial inelastic loading calculations for both the stainless
steels and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. The 10th-cycle yield stress should be used for the hardened material. The
100th-cycle yield stress must be used in the following circumstances:
f 3J
2
3βσJ
1
+ ( )
1 2 ⁄
σ – 0 = =
β
α
3 3c
2
α
2
– ( ) ( )
1 2 ⁄
----------------------------------------- =
σ
2
3 c
2 α
2
3
------ –
\ .
| |
=
c
c2
c
σ
R
σ
x
+ σ
y
2
α
τ
f β 3σJ
1
γJ
1
2
3J
2
σ
2
– + + =
γ 0 =
Modeling Guide

88
1. To accommodate cyclic softening of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel after many load cycles.
2. After a long period of high temperature exposure.
3. After the occurrence of creep strain.
Work Hardening Rules
The work-hardening rule defines the way the yield surface changes with plastic straining. A material is
said to be “perfectly plastic” if, upon the stress state touching the yield surface, an infinitesimal increase
in stress causes an arbitrarily large plastic strain. MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear models all materials as
work hardening, and treats perfectly plastic materials as a special case. Because the tangent stiffness
method is used, no difficulties arise in setting the work hardening slope equal to zero. Besides perfect
plasticity, three possibilities are provided: isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening.
The isotropic workhardening rule assumes that the center of the yield surface remains stationary in the
stress space, but that the size (radius) of the yield surface expands, due to workhardening. This type of
hardening is appropriate when the straining is the same in all directions.
For many materials, the isotropic workhardening model is inaccurate if unloading occurs (as in cyclic
loading problems). For these problems, the kinematic hardening model or the combined hardening model
represents the material better.
Isotropic, Kinematic, and Combined Hardening
The isotropic workhardening rule assumes that the center of the yield surface remains stationary in the
stress space, but that the size (radius) of the yield surface expands, due to workhardening. The change of
the von Mises yield surface is plotted in Figure 5-23b.
A review of the load path of a uniaxial test that involves both the loading and unloading of a specimen
will assist in describing the isotropic workhardening rule. The specimen is first loaded from stress free
(point 0) to initial yield at point 1, as shown in Figure 5-23a. It is then continuously loaded to point 2.
Then, unloading from 2 to 3 following the elastic slope E (Young’s modulus) and then elastic reloading
from 3 to 2 takes place. Finally, the specimen is plastically loaded again from 2 to 4 and elastically
unloaded from 4 to 5. Reverse plastic loading occurs between 5 and 6.
It is obvious that the stress at 1 is equal to the initial yield stress and stresses at points 2 and 4 are
larger than , due to workhardening. During unloading, the stress state can remain elastic (for example,
Original
Hardened
Isotropic Hardening Kinematic Hardening
σ
y
σ
y
89
CHAPTER
Model Generation
point 3), or it can reach a subsequent (reversed) yield point (for example, point 5). The isotropic
workhardening rule states that the reverse yield occurs at current stress level in the reversed direction.
Figure 5-23 Schematic of Isotropic Hardening Rule (Uniaxial Test)
Let be the stress level at point 4. Then, the reverse yield can only take place at a stress level of
(point 5).
6
5
1
2
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
E
E
E
+σ4
σ
σ
y
−σ4
4
3
0
(a) Loading Path
(b) von Mises Yield Surface
σ′
3
σ′
2
σ′
1
σ
4
σ
4

Modeling Guide

90
For many materials, the isotropic workhardening model is inaccurate if unloading occurs (as in cyclic
loading problems). For these problems, the kinematic hardening model or the combined hardening model
represents the material better.
Kinematic Hardening
Under the kinematic hardening rule, the von Mises yield surface does not change in size or shape, but the
center of the yield surface can move in stress space. Figure 5-23d illustrates this condition. Ziegler’s law
is used to define the translation of the yield surface in the stress space.
The loading path of a uniaxial test is shown in Figure 5-23c. The specimen is loaded in the following
order: from stress free (point 0) to initial yield (point 1), 2 (loading), 3 (unloading), 2 (reloading), 4
(loading), 5 and 6 (unloading). As in isotropic hardening, stress at 1 is equal to the initial yield stress ,
and stresses at 2 and 4 are higher than , due to workhardening. Point 3 is elastic, and reverse yield
takes place at point 5. Under the kinematic hardening rule, the reverse yield occurs at the level of
, rather than at the stress level of . Similarly, if the specimen is loaded to a
higher stress level (point 7), and then unloaded to the subsequent yield point 8, the stress at point 8
is . If the specimen is unloaded from a (tensile) stress state (such as point 4 and 7),
the reverse yield can occur at a stress state in either the reverse (point 5) or the same (point 8) direction.
For many materials, the kinematic hardening model gives a better representation of loading/unloading
behavior than the isotropic hardening model. For cyclic loading, however, the kinematic hardening
model can represent neither cyclic hardening nor cyclic softening.
Combined Hardening
Figure 5-25 shows a material with highly nonlinear hardening. Here, the initial hardening is assumed to
be almost entirely isotropic, but after some plastic straining, the elastic range attains an essentially
constant value (that is, pure kinematic hardening). The basic assumption of the combined hardening
model is that such behavior is reasonably approximated by a classical constant kinematic hardening
constraint, with the superposition of initial isotropic hardening. The isotropic hardening rate eventually
decays to zero as a function of the equivalent plastic strain measured by
(5-124)
σ
y
σ
y
σ
5
σ
4

y
– ( ) = σ
4

σ
7
σ
8
σ
7

y
– ( ) =
ε
·
p
ε
· p
dt
í
2
3
---
ε
·
ij
p
ε
·
ij
p
\ .
| |
1 2 ⁄
dt
í
= =
91
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Figure 5-24 Basic Uniaxial Tension Behavior of the Combined Hardening Model
This implies a constant shift of the center of the elastic domain, with a growth of elastic domain around
this center until pure kinematic hardening is attained. In this model, there is a variable proportion
between the isotropic and kinematic contributions that depends on the extent of plastic deformation (as
measured by ).
The workhardening data at small strains governs the isotropic behavior, and the data at large strains
( ) governs the kinematic hardening behavior. If the last workhardening slope is zero, the
behavior is the same as the isotropic hardening model.
Experimental Determination of Work Hardening Slope
In a uniaxial test, the workhardening slope is defined as the slope of the stress-plastic strain curve. The
workhardening slope relates the incremental stress to incremental plastic strain in the inelastic region and
dictates the conditions of subsequent yielding. A number of workhardening rules (isotropic, kinematic,
and combined) are available in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. A description of these workhardening
rules is given below. The uniaxial stress-plastic strain curve can be represented by a piecewise linear
function or through the user subroutine WKSLP . This requires the use of MARCIN to specify the
MARC WORKHARD option.
Fully Hardened
Pure Kinematic
Range
Combined
Hardening
Range
Initial
Elastic
Range
Initial
Yield
One-half Current
Elastic Range
σ
ε
3
2


p
Kinematic Slope,
Stress
Strain
ε
p
ε
p
1000 >
Modeling Guide

92
Figure 5-25 Workhardening Slopes
You enter a table of yield stress, plastic strain points.
E E E E
Strain
Stress
Δε
1
p
σ
Δσ3
Δσ2
Δσ1
Δε
2
p
Δε
3
p
Δσ
1
Δε
1
p
----------
Δσ
2
Δε
2
p
----------
Δσ
3
Δε
3
p
----------
0.0
Δε
1
p
Δε
1
p
Δε
2
p
+
Slope Breakpoint
93
CHAPTER
Model Generation
The yield stress and the workhardening data must be compatible with the procedure used in the analysis.
For small strain analyses, the engineering stress and engineering strain are appropriate. If only
PARAM,LGDISP is used, the yield stress should be entered as the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, and
the workhard data be given with respect to plastic Green-Lagrange strains. If PARAM,LGDISP,1 or 2
are used, the yield stress must be defined as a true or Cauchy stress, and the workhardening data with
respect to logarithmic plastic strains. Engineering stress and strain may be defined and Bulk Data
parameter MRTABLS1 used to provide the program with rules to convert to the proper stress and strain
measures. See MRTABLS1 in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
Flow Rules
Yield stress and workhardening rules are two experimentally related phenomena that characterize plastic
material behavior. The flow rule is also essential in establishing the incremental stress-strain relations for
plastic material. The flow rule describes the differential changes in the plastic strain components
as a function of the current stress state. So long as a material point is elastic, Hooke’s law provides a
relationship between total stress and strain. After a material becomes plastic, however, there is no longer
a unique relationship between total stress and strain. The problem then is usually solved incrementally,
following the exact loading path.
For points which are plastic, a flow rule is used to relate increments of stress to plastic strain. MD Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear uses an associated flow rule, which prescribes that increments of plastic strain are
computed as a constant times the gradient of the yield function.
In other words, considering the yield function as a surface in stress space, the plastic strain increment is
a vector in the direction of the outward normal to the surface at the point where it is touched by the
stresses on the loading path.
The equation representing this is:
(5-125)
Note: The data points should be based on a plot of the stress versus plastic strain for a tensile test.
The elastic strain components should not be included.

p

ij
p
λ
∂F
∂σ
ij
--------- =
Modeling Guide

94
where λ is a constant. Writing the six equations explicitly:
(5-126)
These stress vs. plastic strain equations are analogous to the stress vs. total strain equations of elasticity,
where elastic strains can be computed as the gradient of a strain energy potential function, namely;
(5-127)
Thus, the yield function F plays the role of a plastic potential. If a theory of plasticity uses something
other than the yield function as a plastic potential, a so-called nonassociated flow rule results.
Nonassociated flow rules are not available in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear.

xx
p
∂F
∂σ
xx
----------- =

yy
p
∂F
∂σ
yy
----------- =

zz
p
∂F
∂σ
zz
---------- =

xy
p
∂F
∂τ
xy
---------- =

yz
p
∂F
∂τ
yz
---------- =

zx
p
∂F
∂τ
xz
---------- =

ij
∂U
∂σ
ij
--------- =
95
CHAPTER
Model Generation
For the von Mises and modified Hill yield functions programmed in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the
derivatives in the yield function are obtained simply by differentiating with respect to individual
components of stress. For example, for the modified Hill function, we have:
(5-128)
The constant in these flow rule equations is evaluated automatically by MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear
on the basis of material stability during plastic flow (i.e., by the requirement that the stress state remain
on the yield surface during plastic straining).
The Prandtl-Reuss representation of the flow rule is available in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. In
conjunction with the von Mises yield function, this can be represented as:
(5-129)
where and are equivalent plastic strain increment and equivalent stress, respectively.
The significance of this representation is illustrated in Figure 5-26. This figure illustrates the
“stress-space” for the two-dimensional case. The solid curve gives the yield surface (locus of all stress
states causing yield) as defined by the von Mises criterion.
Equation (5-139) expresses the condition that the direction of inelastic straining is normal to the yield
surface. This condition is called either the normality condition or the associated flow rule.
If the von Mises yield surface is used, then the normal is equal to the deviatoric stress.

xx
p
λ

xx
F
x
2
-----------
σ
yy
F
x
F
y
------------
σ
zz
F
x
F
z
----------- – – =

yy
p
λ
σ
xx
F
x
F
y
------------

yy
F
y
2
-----------
σ
zz
F
y
F
z
----------- – + – =

zz
p
λ
σ
xx
F
x
F
z
-----------
σ
yy
F
y
F
z
-----------

zz
F
z
2
---------- + – – =

xy
p
λ
σ
xy
F
xy
2
-------- =

yz
2
λ
σ
xz
F
yz
2
-------- =

zx
p
λ
σ
yz
F
zx
2
-------- =

ij
p

p
∂σ
∂σ
ij

----------- =

p
σ
Modeling Guide

96
Figure 5-26 Yield Surface and Normality Criterion 2-D Stress Space
Rate Dependent Yield
Strain rate effects cause the structural response of a body to change because they influence the material
properties of the body. These material changes lead to an instantaneous change in the strength of the
material. Strain rate effects become more pronounced for temperatures greater than half the melting
temperature ( ), but are sometimes present even at room temperature. The following discussion
explains the effect of strain rate on the size of the yield surface.
Using the von Mises yield condition and normality rule, we obtain an expression for the stress rate of
the form
For elastic-plastic response
(5-130)
and
(5-131)
where
(5-132)
Yield Surface
σ
2
dε2
dεp
dεp
1
σ
1
p
T
m
σ
·
ij
L
ijkl
ε
·
kl
r
ij
ε
··
p
+ =
L
ijkl
C
ijkl
C
ijmn

∂σ
∂σ
mn
------------
∂σ
∂σ
pq
----------- C
pqkl
\ .
| |
D ⁄ – =
r
ij
C
ijmn

∂σ
∂σ
mn
------------
2
3
--- σ
∂σ
∂ε
· p
-------- D ⁄ =
D
4
9
--- σ
2

∂σ
∂ε
p
--------
∂σ
∂σ
ij
--------- C
ijkl

∂σ
∂σ
kl
---------- + =
97
CHAPTER
Model Generation
As strain rates increase, many materials show an increase in yield strength. The model provided in MD
Nastran Implicit Nonlinear for this purpose is
where:
Yield stress variation with strain rate is given using one of three options:
1. The breakpoints and slopes for a piecewise linear approximation to the yield stress strain rate
curve are given. The strain rate breakpoints should be in ascending order, or
2. The Cowper and Symonds model is used. The yield behavior is assumed to be completely
determined by one stress-strain curve and a scale factor depending on the strain rate.
Perfectly Plastic
A material is said to be “perfectly plastic” if, upon the stress state touching the yield surface, an
infinitesimal increase in stress causes an arbitrarily large plastic strain. The uniaxial stress-strain diagram
for an elastic-perfectly plastic material is shown in Figure 5-27. Some materials, such as mild steel,
behave in a manner which is close to perfectly plastic.
= the uniaxial equivalent plastic strain rate
= the effective yield stress at a non-zero strain rate
=
the static yield stress (which may depend on the equivalent plastic strain,
, via isotropic hardening, or on the temperature, .
=
are material parameters that may be functions of temperature. and are
defined on the input forms. This model is effective in both static and
dynamic procedures.
ε
·
D
σ
σ
0
------ 1 –
\ .
| |
P
for α σ
0
≥ =
ε
·
pl
σ
σ
0
ε
pl
T , ( )
ε
pl
T
D T ( ) p T ( ) ,
D p
Note: If multiple material models are used, they must all be expressed as piecewise linear, or as
Cowper and Symonds model.
Modeling Guide

98
.
Figure 5-27 Perfectly Plastic Material Stress-Strain Relationship
Experimental Stress-Strain Curves
Metals
In uniaxial tension tests of most metals (and many other materials), the following phenomena can be
observed. If the stress in the specimen is below the yield stress of the material, the material behaves
elastically and the stress in the specimen is proportional to the strain. If the stress in the specimen is
greater than the yield stress, the material no longer exhibits elastic behavior, and the stress-strain
relationship becomes nonlinear. Figure 5-28 shows a typical uniaxial stress-strain curve. Both the elastic
and inelastic regions are indicated.
Figure 5-28 Typical Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curve (Uniaxial Test)
x x ∋
σxx
YS
E
1
Note: Stress and strain are total quantities.
Stress Inelastic
Region
Elastic Region
Yield
Stress
Strain
99
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Within the elastic region, the stress-strain relationship is unique. As illustrated in , if the stress in the
specimen is increased (loading) from zero (point 0) to (point 1), and then decreased (unloading) to
zero, the strain in the specimen is also increased from zero to , and then returned to zero. The elastic
strain is completely recovered upon the release of stress in the specimen.
The loading-unloading situation in the inelastic region is different from the elastic behavior. If the
specimen is loaded beyond yield to point 2, where the stress in the specimen is and the total strain
is , upon release of the stress in the specimen the elastic strain, , is completely recovered.
However, the inelastic (plastic) strain, , remains in the specimen. Figure 5-29 illustrates this
relationship. Similarly, if the specimen is loaded to point 3 and then unloaded to zero stress state, the
plastic strain remains in the specimen. It is obvious that is not equal to . We can conclude that
in the inelastic region:
• Plastic strain permanently remains in the specimen upon removal of stress.
• The amount of plastic strain remaining in the specimen is dependent upon the stress level at
which the unloading starts (path-dependent behavior).
The uniaxial stress-strain curve is usually plotted for total quantities (total stress versus total strain). The
total stress-strain curve shown in Figure 5-29 can be replotted as a total stress versus plastic strain curve,
as shown in Figure 5-30. The slope of the total stress versus plastic strain curve is defined as the
workhardening slope (H) of the material. The workhardening slope is a function of plastic strain.

σ
1
ε
1
σ
2
ε
2
ε
2
e
ε
2
p
ε
3
p
ε
2
p
ε
3
p
Stress
Total Strain = Strain and Elastic Strain
Yield Stress
Strain
ε
2
ε
2
p
ε
2
e
+ =
ε
3
ε
3
p
ε
3
e
+ =
σ
y
σ
3
σ
2
σ
1
ε
3
ε
2
ε
1
ε
3
p
ε
3
e
ε
2
e
ε
2
p
0
1
2
3
Modeling Guide

100
Figure 5-29 Schematic of Simple Loading - Unloading (Uniaxial Test)
Figure 5-30 Definition of Workhardening Slope (Uniaxial Test)
The stress-strain curve shown in Figure 5-29 is directly plotted from experimental data. It can be
simplified for the purpose of numerical modeling. A few simplifications are shown in Figure 5-31 and
are listed below:
1. Bilinear representation – constant workhardening slope.
2. Elastic perfectly-plastic material – no workhardening.
3. Perfectly-plastic material – no workhardening and no elastic response.
4. Piecewise linear representation – multiple constant workhardening slopes.
5. Strain-softening material – negative workhardening slope.
In addition to elastic material constants (Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio), it is essential to include
yield stress and workhardening slopes when dealing with inelastic (plastic) material behavior. These
quantities can vary with parameters such as temperature and strain rate. Since the yield stress is generally
measured from uniaxial tests, and the stresses in real structures are usually multiaxial, the yield condition
of a multiaxial stress state must be considered. The conditions of subsequent yield (workhardening rules)
must also be studied.
Plastic Strain
H = tan θ (Workhardening Slope)
= dσ/dε
p
θ
ε
p
σ
Total Stress
101
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Figure 5-31 Simplified Stress-Strain Curves (Uniaxial Test)
Geological Materials
Data for geological materials are most commonly available from triaxial compression testing. In such a
test, the specimen is confined by pressure and an additional compression stress is superposed in one
direction. Thus, the principal stresses are all negative, with .
Figure 5-32 Triaxial Compression and Tension
σ
ε
(1) Bilinear Representation
σ
ε
(3) Perfectly Plastic
σ
ε
(5) Strain Softening
σ
ε
(2) Elastic-Perfectly Plastic
σ
ε
(4) Piecewise Linear Representation
0 σ
1
≥ σ
2
σ
3
≥ =

3
−σ
2
σ
1

2

3

1
−σ
3
−σ
1
σ
1

2

3
−σ
2
Modeling Guide

102
The values of the stress invariants in a uniaxial compression experiment are:
p=-{1/3}(2σ
1

3
)
q=σ
1

3
r
3
=-(σ
1

3
)
3

so that t=q=σ
1

3

The triaxial results may thus be plotted in the t-p plane shown above. Fitting the best straight line through
the results then provides β and d.
Triaxial tension data are also needed to define K. Under triaxial tension, the specimen is again confined
by pressure, then the pressure in one direction is reduced. In this case, the principal stresses are
.
The stress invariants are now:
p=-{1/3}(σ
1
+2σ
3
),
q=σ
1

3,
r
3
=(σ
1

3
)
3
,
so that t={q/K}={1/K}(σ
1

3
)
K may thus be found by plotting these test results as q versus p and again fitting the best straight line.
The triaxial compression and tension lines must intercept the p-axis at the same point, and the ratio of
values of q for triaxial tension and compression at the same value of p then gives K as shown in
Figure 5-33.
Figure 5-33 Triaxial Compression and Tension Data
Matching Mohr-Coulomb Parameters
σ
1
σ
2
≥ σ
3
=
q
p

ht hc
d
Best fit to triaxial
tension data
Best fit to triaxial
compression data
β
103
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Sometimes, experimental data are not directly available. Instead, the user is provided with the friction
angle and cohesion values for the Mohr-Coulomb model. We, therefore, need to calculate values
for the parameters of the Drucker-Prager model to provide a reasonable match to the
Mohr-Coulomb parameters.
The Mohr-Coulomb failure model is based on plotting Mohr’s circle for states of stress at failure in the
plane of the maximum and minimum principal stresses. The failure line is the best straight line that
touches these Mohr’s circles.
The Mohr-Coulomb model is thus
s+σ
m
sinϕ-c cosϕ=0,
where s={1/2}(σ
1

3
)
is half of the difference between the maximum and minimum principal stresses (and is, therefore, the
maximum shear stress), and
σ
m
={1/2}(σ
1

3
)
is the average of the maximum and minimum principal stresses.
We see that the Mohr-Coulomb model assumes that failure is independent of the value of the
intermediate principal stress. The Drucker-Prager model does not. The failure of typical geotechnical
materials generally includes some small dependence on the intermediate principal stress.
Matching Triaxial Test Response
One approach to matching Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager model parameters is to make the two
models provide the same failure definition in triaxial compression and tension. For this purpose, we can
rewrite the Mohr-Coulomb model in terms of principal stresses.
(5-133)
Using the results above (for the stress invariants p, q, and r), in triaxial compression and tension, allows
the Drucker-Prager model to be written for triaxial compression as
(5-134)
and, for triaxial tension, as
σ
1
σ
3
– σ
1
σ
3
+ ( ) φ ( ) 2c φ cos – sin + 0 =
σ
1
σ
3

β tan
2
1
3
--- β tan +
\ .
| |
------------------------------ σ
1
σ
3
+ ( )
1
1
3
--- β tan –
1
1
6
-- - β tan +
------------------------σ
c
0
+ + 0 =
Modeling Guide

104
(5-135)
We wish to make the equations for triaxial compression and biaxial tension identical to the general
Mohr-Coulomb equation for all values of (σ
1

3
).
Comparing the equations for triaxial compression and triaxial tension requires that:
(5-136)
so that
(5-137)
Comparing the coefficients of (σ
1

3
) in the equation for triaxial compression and that for triaxial
tension provides:
(5-138)
and hence, from the derived equation for K:
(5-139)
Finally, comparing the last terms in the general expression for the Mohr-Coulomb model and the equation
for triaxial compression and using the expression for tanβ provides:
(5-140)
The expression for tanβ, K, and this last expression and thus provide Drucker-Prager parameters that
match the Mohr-Coulomb model in triaxial compression and tension.
The value of K in the Drucker-Prager model is restricted to for the yield surface to remain
convex. Rewriting the expression for K as:
(5-141)
shows that this implies . Many real materials have a larger Mohr-Coulomb friction angle than
this value. In such circumstances, one approach is to choose K = 0.778 and then to use the expression for
σ
1
σ
3

β tan
2
K
----
1
3
--- – β tan
\ .
| |
---------------------------- σ
1
σ
3
+ ( )
1
1
3
--- β tan –
1
K
----
1
6
--- – β tan
------------------------σ
c
0
+ + 0 =
1
1
6
--- β tan +
1
K
----
1
6
--- β tan – =
K
1
1
1
3
--- β tan +
------------------------ =
β
6 φ sin
3 φ sin –
-------------------- tan
K
3 φ sin –
3 Φ sin +
--------------------- =
σ
c
0 2c Φ cos
1 Φ sin –
--------------------- =
K 0.778 ≥
Φ sin 3
1 K –
1 k +
-------------
\ .
| |
=
φ 22° ≤
105
CHAPTER
Model Generation
tan β to define β and the expression for to define , ignoring the expression for K. This matches
the models for triaxial compression only, while providing the closest approximation that the model can
provide to failure being independent of the intermediate principal stress. If ϕ is significantly larger than
22°, this approach may provide a poor Drucker-Prager match of the Mohr-Coulomb parameters. MD
Nastran Implicit Nonlinear uses K=1 by default.
Matching Plane Strain Response
Plane strain problems are often encountered in geotechnical analysis: examples are long tunnels,
footings, and embankments. For this reason, the constitutive model parameters are often matched to
provide the same flow and failure response in plane strain.
The Drucker-Prager flow potential defines the plastic strain increment as:
(5-142)
where is the equivalent plastic strain increment.
Since we only wish to match the behavior in one plane we can assume K=1, which implies that t=q. Then:
(5-143)
Writing this expression in terms of principal stresses provides:
(5-144)
with similar expressions for and .
Assume plane strain in the 1-direction. Then, at limit load, we must have =0. From the above
expression, this provides the constraint:
(5-145)
so that:
σ
c
0
σ
c
0

pl

pl 1
1
1
3
--- ψ tan –
-------------------------
σ ∂

t p ψ tan – ( )
\ .
|
|
| |
=

pl

pl

pl
1
1
1
3
--- ψ tan –
-------------------------
\ .
|
|
| |
σ ∂

q ψ
σ ∂
∂p
tan –
\ .
| |
=

1
pl

pl
1
1
1
3
--- ψ tan –
-------------------------
\ .
|
|
| |
1
2q
------ 2σ
1
σ
2
σ
3
– – ( )
1
3
--- ψ tan +
\ .
| |
=

2
pl

3
pl

1
pl
1
2q
------ 2σ
1
σ
2
– σ
3
– ( )
1
3
--- ψ tan + 0 =
Modeling Guide

106
(5-146)
Using this constraint, we can rewrite q and p in terms of the principal stresses in the plane of deformation,
(5-147)
and
(5-148)
With these expressions, the Drucker-Prager yield surface can be written in terms of σ
2
and σ
3
as
(5-149)
The Mohr-Coulomb yield surface in the (2,3) plane is:
(5-150)
By comparison,
(5-151)
(5-152)
Now consider the two extreme cases of flow definition: associated flow, ψ=β, and nondilatant flow, when
ψ=0.
Assuming associated flow, the last two equations provide:
(5-153)
and
(5-154)
σ
1
1
2
--- σ
2
σ
3
+ ( )
1
3
--- ψq tan – =
q
3 3
2 9 ψ tan ( )
2

------------------------------------- σ
2
σ
3
– ( ) =
p
1
2
--- σ
2
σ
3
+ ( ) –
ψ tan
2 3 9 ψ tan ( )
2
– ( )
--------------------------------------------- σ
2
σ
3
– ( ) + =
9 β ψ tan tan –
2 3 9 ψ tan ( )
2
– ( )
--------------------------------------------- σ
2
σ
3
– ( )
1
2
--- β σ
2
σ
3
+ ( ) d – tan + 0 =
σ
2
σ –
3
ϕ σ
2
σ
3
+ ( ) 2c ϕ cos – sin + 0 =
ϕ sin
β 3 9 ψ tan ( )
2
– ( ) tan
9 β ψ tan tan –
------------------------------------------------------ =
c ϕ cos
3 9 ψ tan ( )
2
– ( )
9 β ψ tan tan –
------------------------------------------d =
β tan
3 ϕ sin
1
1
3
--- ϕ sin ( )
2
+
------------------------------------ =
d
c
---
3 ϕ cos
1
1
3
--- ϕ sin ( )
2
+
------------------------------------ =
107
CHAPTER
Model Generation
while for nondilatant flow they give and
In either case, is immediately available as:
(5-155)
The difference between these two approaches increases with the friction angle but, for typical friction
angles, the results are not very different, as illustrated in the table below.
Plane strain matching of Drucker-Prager and Mohr-Coulomb models.
As strain rates increase, many materials show an increase in yield strength. This effect often becomes
important when the strain rates are in the range of -0.1 to 1 per second, and can be very important if the
strain rates are in the range of 10 to 100 per second, as commonly occurs in high energy dynamic events
or in manufacturing processes.
Temperature-Dependent Behavior
This section discusses the effects of temperature-dependent plasticity on the constitutive relation.
The following constitutive relations for thermo-plasticity were developed by Naghdi. Temperature
effects are discussed using the isotropic hardening model and the von Mises yield condition.
The stress rate can be expressed in the form
(5-156)
For elastic-plastic behavior, the moduli are
Mohr-Coulomb
Friction Angle, Φ Associated Flow Nondilatant Flow
Drucker-Prager
friction angle, β d/c
Drucker-Prager friction
angle, β d/c
10 ° 16.7 ° 1.70 16.7 ° 1.70
20 ° 30.2 ° 1.60 30.6 ° 1.63
30 ° 39.8 ° 1.44 40.9 ° 1.50
40 ° 46.2 ° 1.24 48.1 ° 1.33
50 ° 50.5 ° 1.02 53.0 ° 1.11
β tan 3 ϕ sin =
d
c
--- ϕ ϕ cos =
σ
c
0
σ
c
0 1
1
1
3
-- β tan –
-----------------------d =
σ
ij
·
L
ijkl
ε
··
kl
h
ij
T
·
+ =
L
ijkl
Modeling Guide

108
(5-157)
and for purely elastic response
(5-158)
The term that relates the stress increment to the increment of temperature for elastic-plastic behavior is
(5-159)
and for purely elastic response
(5-160)
where
(5-161)
and
(5-162)
and are the coefficients of thermal expansion.
Temperature-Dependent Stress Strain Curves
Starting in MD Nastran 2005, SOL 600 offers the capability of stress-strain curve dependence as a
function of temperature. The user specifies these stress strain curves at different temperatures and then
specifies the temperature to use for each subcase. Linear interpolation between the supplied curves is
used to determine the appropriate curve at the temperature specified for a particular subcase.
MSC.Marc’s AF-Flowmat capability is used for this capability; therefore, user subroutines do not have
to be supplied. This capability is best explained with an example (this example can be obtained from MD
Nastran development. The name of the file is mattep20.dat).
SOL 600,NLSTATIC path=1 stop=1
TIME 10000
CEND
ECHO = NONE
DISPLACEMENT(plot) = ALL
SPCFORCE(PLOT) = ALL
Stress(PLOT) = ALL
Strain(PLOT) = ALL
SPC = 1
L
ijkl
C
ijkl
C
ijmn

∂σ
∂σ
mn
------------
∂σ
∂σ
pq
----------- C
pqkl
\ .
| |
D ⁄ – =
L
ijkl
C
ijkl
=
h
ij
X
ij
C
ijkl
α
kl
– C
ijkl
∂σ
∂σ
kl
---------- σ
pq
X
pq
2
3
---σ
∂σ
∂T
------ –
\ .
| |
\ .
| |
D ⁄ – =
H
ij
X
ij
C
ijkl
α
kl
– =
D
4
9
--- σ
2

∂σ
∂ε
p
--------
∂σ
∂σ
ij
--------- C
ijkl

∂σ
∂σ
kl
---------- + =
X
ij
∂C
ijkl
∂T
--------------
ε
kl
e
=
α
kl
109
CHAPTER
Model Generation
NLPARM = 2
temp(init)=10
subcase 1
temp(load)=11
LOAD = 100
subcase 2
temp(load)=12
LOAD = 200
subcase 3
temp(load)=13
LOAD = 300
BEGIN BULK
param,mrafflow,mymat0
param,mrtabls1,4
param,mrtabls2,1
NLPARM 2 10 AUTO 1 20 P
PARAM,LGDISP,1
tempd, 10, 70.
tempd, 11, 110.
tempd, 12, 700.
tempd, 13, 1100.
$LOAD, 20, 1.0, 2.0, 1, 1.0, 2
load, 100, 1., 1., 1
load, 200, 1., -.5, 1
load, 300, 1., 1.1, 1
PLOAD4 1 1 -15.
.
.
.
$ Constraint Set 1 : Untitled
SPC 1 1 123456 0.
SPC 1 8 123456 0.
SPC 1 15 123456 0.
SPC 1 22 123456 0.
SPC 1 29 123456 0.
$ Property 1 : Untitled
PSHELL 1 1 0.125 1 1 0.
$ Material 1 : AISI 4340 Steel
MATEP, 1,TABLE, 35000., 2,CAUCHY,ISOTROP,ADDMEAN
MAT1 1 2.9E+7 0.327.331E-4 6.6E-6 70. +MT 1
+MT 1 215000. 240000. 156000.
MAT4 14.861E-4 38.647.331E-4
$ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
$2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678
MATTEP 1 21
MATT1 1 7
TABLEM1 7
+ 70.0 6.6E-6 1000. 6.5E-6 1200. 6.4E-6 1500. 6.3E-6
+ 2000. 6.2E-6 ENDT
$2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678 2345678
TABLEST 21
+ 70.0 31 1000. 32 1200. 33 1500. 34
+ 2000. 35 ENDT
TABLES1, 31
, 0., 15000., 1.0, 16000., 10., 25000., 100., 30000.,
, 99999., 40000., ENDT
TABLES1, 32
, 0., 13000., 1.0, 14000., 10., 23000., 100., 28000.,
, 99999., 28000., ENDT
TABLES1, 33
Modeling Guide

110
, 0., 11000., 1.0, 12000., 10., 21000., 100., 26000.,
, 99999., 25000., ENDT
TABLES1, 34
, 0., 9000., 1.0, 10000., 10., 19000., 100., 22000.,
, 99999., 24000., ENDT
TABLES1, 35
, 0., 5000., 1.0, 7000., 10., 9000., 100., 13000.,
, 99999., 15000., ENDT
GRID 1 0 0. 0. 0. 0
.
.
.
CQUAD4
.
.
.
ENDDATA
In this input, the stress strain curves are specified by TABLES1 entries. The collection of stress-strain
curves to be used is specified in the TABLEST entry and the corresponding temperatures at which they
apply is specified in the TABLEM1 entry. The TABLEM1 ID is called out in field 7 of the MATT1 entry
and the TABLEST ID is called out in field 5 of the MATTEP entry. TABLEST must list the stress strain
TABLES1 IDs in order of increasing temperature and the first ID must be at the lowest temperature
specified anywhere in the analysis. In this example, it is a temperature of 70 corresponding to
temp(init)=10 in the Case Control. Similarly, the temperatures in the TABLEM1 entry must be in
increasing order. The stress-strain curves should cover the entire range of temperatures for the analysis
so that no extrapolation is needed. The actual temperatures for each subcase are given by the temp(load)
specifications for each subcase.
There is one parameter that is critical to this analysis:
Specifying Elastoplastic Material Entries
Each of the elastoplastic models described in this section can be selected with the MATEP bulk
data entry.
param,mrafflow,mymat0 Name of the file containing temperature dependent stress versus plastic
strain curves in MSC.Marc’s AF_flowmat format. This file can be
generated from the current MD Nastran run using TABLEST and
TABLES1 entries or a pre-existing file can be used depending on the
value of PARAM,MRAFFLOR. The extension “.mat” will be added
to Name. If this is a new file, it will be saved in the directory from
which the MD Nastran execution is submitted. If a pre-existing file is to
be used, it can either be located in the directory where the MD Nastran
execution is submitted and run or in the MSC.Marc AF_flowmat
directory.
111
CHAPTER
Model Generation
References
• MATEP in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
• MATTEP in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
SimXpert Materials Application Input Data
To define an inelastic material in SimXpert:
1. Select Materials and Properties>Isotropic or Orthotropic or Anisotropic>Advanced>Add
Constitutive Model>Elasto Plastic.
2. Enter parameter values.
3. Click OK.
The required properties for describing elasticplastic behavior vary based on material type, dimension,
type of nonlinear data input, hardening rule, yield criteria, strain rate method, and thermal dependencies.
The table below shows the various input options and criteria available to you for defining
elastoplastic behavior.
Entry Description
MATEP Specifies elasto-plastic material properties to be used for large
deformation analysis.
MATTEP Specifies temperature-dependent elasto-plastic material properties to be used
for static, quasi-static, or transient dynamic analysis.
Modeling Guide

112
Elasto Plastic Model Summary
Constitutive
Model
Nonlinear Data
Input
Hardening
Rule Yield Criteria
Strain Rate
Method
• Plastic • Stress/Strain
Curve
• Isotropic
• Kinematic
• Combined
• von Mises
• Tresca
• Mohr-Coulomb
• Drucker-Prager
• Parabolic Mohr-
Coulomb
• Buyukozturk Concrete
• Oak Ridge National
Lab
• 2-1/4 Cr-Mo ORNL
• Reversed Plasticity
ORNL
• Full Alpha Reset
ORNL
• Piecewise
Linear
• Cowper-
Symonds
• Hardening Slope • Isotropic
• Kinematic
• Combined
• von Mises
• Tresca
• Mohr-Coulomb
• Drucker-Prager
• None
113
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Nonlinear Data Input
The type of nonlinear data input you choose to use to define elastoplastic material behavior determines
the input data required for the Input Properties subform on the Materials Application form.
• Stress/Strain Curve - All stress-strain curves are input as piecewise linear. SimXpert transfers
the stress-strain curve input on the material property field directly to the TABLES1 entry.
The number of linear segments used to define the stress-strain curve may be different from one
material to another. The same strain breakpoints need not be used for all of the different
material’s stress-strain curves. It is recommended to define the stress-strain curves throughout
the range of strains which the analysis is likely to predict. If the analysis predicts a plastic strain
greater than the last point defined by the user, MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear continues the
analysis after shifting the last strain breakpoint on that curve to match the predicted value,
thereby changing (reducing) the work hardening slope for the last segment of the curve.
• Hardening Slope - The hardening slope and the yield point are required with this Nonlinear Data
Input option.
• Perfectly Plastic - Perfect plasticity is described by simply specifying the yield point.
Constitutive
Model Type
Hardening
Rule Yield Criteria
Strain Rate
Method
• Plastic • Perfectly Plastic • None • von Mises
• Linear Mohr-Coulomb
• Parabolic Mohr-
Coulomb
• Buyukozturk Concrete
• Oak Ridge National
Lab
• 2-1/4 Cr-Mo ORNL
• Reversed Plasticity
ORNL
• Full Alpha Reset
ORNL
• Piecewise
Linear
• Cowper-
Symonds
• Power Law
• Rate Power Law
• Johnson-Cook
• Kumar
• Piecewise
Linear
• None • Piecewise
Linear
• Cowper-
Symonds
Elasto Plastic Model Summary
Modeling Guide

114
The tables below provide descriptions for the input data for each of the four types of nonlinear input.
Isotropic - Stress/Strain Curve or Perfectly Plastic:
All Yield Functions
Property Name Description
Stress /Strain Curve
or
Yield Stress
Defines the Cauchy stress vs. logarithmic strain (also called equivalent
tensile stress versus total equivalent strain) by reference to a table. For
Perfectly Plastic models, only a Yield Stress needs to be entered.
Can also be strain rate dependent if Strain Rate Method is Piecewise
Linear. Accepts table of yield stress vs. strain rate.
10th Cycle Yield Stress vs.
Plastic Strain
or
10th Cycle Yield Stress
When set to ORNL, accepts field of 10th cycle yield stress vs. plastic
strain. Can be temperature dependent also. For Perfectly Plastic
models, only a 10th Cycle Yield Stress needs to be entered.
Coefficient C Visible if Strain Rate Method is Cowper-Symonds.
Inverse Exponent P Visible if Strain Rate Method is Cowper-Symonds.
Alpha When set to Linear Mohr-Coulomb, defines the slope of the yield
surface in square root J2 versus J1 space. This property is required.
Beta When set to Parabolic Mohr-Coulomb, defines the beta parameter in
the equation that defines the parabolic yield surface in square root J2
versus J1 space. This property is required.
Note: 2 1/4 Cr-Mo ORNL, Reversed Plasticity ORNL, Full Alpha Reset ORNL are the same as
Oak Ridge National Labs. Generalized Plasticity is the same as von Mises.
Perfectly Plastic is identical to Stress/Strain except that no hardening rules apply.
115
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Hardening Slope - Nonlinear Data Input
Failure and Damage Models
One of the nonlinear features of a material's behavior is failure. When a certain criterion (failure
criterion) is met, the material fails and no longer sustains its loading and breaks. In a finite-element
method, this means that the element, where the material reaches the failure limit, cannot carry any
stresses anymore. The stress tensor is effectively zero. The element is flagged for failure, and, essentially,
is no longer part of the structure.
Failure criteria can be defined for a range of materials and element types. The failure models are
referenced from the material definition entries.
Anisotropic/Orthotropic - Stress/Strain Curve or Perfectly Plastic:
All Yield Functions
Description
Stress vs. Strain
or
Tensile Yield Stress
Same as description for Isotropic Elastic-Plastic. If Strain Rate Method
is Piecewise Linear, accepts field of yield stress vs. strain rate.
Or defines an isotropic yield stress. It is a required property when the
plasticity type is Perfectly Plastic.
Stress 11/22/33 Yield Ratios Defines the ratios of direct yield stresses to the isotropic yield stress in
the element’s coordinate system.
Stress 12/23/31 Yield Ratios Defines the ratios of shear yield stresses to the isotropic shear yield
stress (yield divided by square root three) in the element’s
coordinate system.
Note: Perfectly Plastic is identical to Elastic-Plastic except that no hardening rules apply. Stress
vs Plastic Strain is replaced with Yield Stress data only as is 10th Cycle Yield vs. Strain
replaced with 10th Cycle Yield Stress data. Thus no tabular data is necessary.
Isotropic/Orthotropic/Anisotropic - Hardening Slope
Property Name Description
Hardening Slope Slope of the stress-strain curve once yielding has started.
Yield Point Defines the stress level at which plastic strain begins to develop.
Internal Friction Angle When yield function is set to Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager this
gives the parameter describing the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the
yield stress.
Modeling Guide

116
Isotropic/Orthotropic/Anisotropic Failure Models
For isotropic, 2-D orthotropic, and 2-D anisotropic materials, you can implement one of five failure
models in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600). Failure models are based on maximum stress
criteria, maximum strain criteria, or one of three composite stress/strain failure theories.
Maximum Stress Criterion
At each integration point, MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear calculates six quantities:
(5-163)
(5-164)
(5-165)
(5-166)
Failure Model Applicable Material Type
Maximum Stress Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic, 2-D Anisotropic
Maximum Strain 2-D Orthotropic
Hill Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic (stress or strain based), 2-D Anisotropic
Hoffman Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic (stress or strain based), 2-D Anisotropic
Tsai-Wu Isotropic, 2-D Orthotropic (stress or strain based), 2-D Anisotropic
σ
1
X
t
------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
σ
1
X
c
------ –
\ .
| |
F ⁄
σ
1
0 >
σ
1
0 <
if
if
1.
σ
2
Y
t
------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
σ
2
Y
c
------ –
\ .
| |
F ⁄
σ
2
0 >
σ
2
0 <
if
if
2.
σ
3
Z
t
------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
σ
3
Z
c
------ –
\ .
| |
F ⁄
σ
3
0 >
σ
3
0 <
if
if
3.
σ
12
S
12
--------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
4.
117
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-167)
(5-168)
where
Maximum Strain Failure Criterion
At each integration point, calculates six quantities:
(5-169)
(5-170)
is the failure index (F =1.0).
are the maximum allowable stresses in the 1-direction in tension and compression.
are maximum allowable stresses in the 2-direction in tension and compression.
are maximum allowed stresses in the 3-direction in tension and compression.
is the maximum allowable in-plane shear stress.
is the maximum allowable 23 shear stress.
is the maximum allowable 31 shear stress.
σ
23
S
23
--------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
5.
σ
31
S
31
--------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
6.
F
X
t
X
c
,
Y
t
Y
c
,
Z
t
Z
c
,
S
12
S
23
S
31
ε
1
e
1t
------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
ε
1
e
1c
------- –
\ .
| |
F ⁄
ε
1
0 >
ε
1
0 <
if
if
1.
ε
2
e
2t
------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
ε
2
e
2c
------- –
\ .
| |
F ⁄
ε
2
0 >
ε
2
0 <
if
if
2.
Modeling Guide

118
(5-171)
(5-172)
(5-173)
(5-174)
where
Hill Failure Criterion
Assumptions:
• Orthotropic materials only
• Incompressibility during plastic deformation
• Tensile and compressive behavior are identical
At each integration point, MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear calculates:
is the failure index (F=1.0).
are the maximum allowable strains in the 1 direction in tension and compression.
are the maximum allowable strains in the 2 direction in tension and compression.
are the maximum allowable strains in the 3 direction in tension and compression.
is the maximum allowable shear strain in the 12 plane.
is the maximum allowable shear strain in the 23 plane.
is the maximum allowable shear strain in the 31 plane.
ε
3
e
3t
------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
ε
3
e
3c
------- –
\ .
| |
F ⁄
ε
3
0 >
ε
3
0 <
if
if
3.
γ
12
g
12
-------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
4.
γ
23
g
23
-------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
5.
γ
31
g
31
-------
\ .
| |
F ⁄
6.
F
e
1t
e
1c
,
e
2t
e
2c
,
e
3t
e
3c
,
g
12
g
23
g
31
119
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-175)
For plane stress condition, it becomes
(5-176)
where
Hoffman Failure Criterion
At each integration point, MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear calculates:
(5-177)
with
is the maximum allowable stress in the 1 direction
is the maximum allowable stress in the 2 direction
is the maximum allowable stress in the 3 direction
are as before
σ
1
2
X
2
------
σ
2
2
Y
2
------
σ
3
2
Z
2
------
1
X
2
------
1
Y
2
-----
1
Z
2
----- – +
\ .
| |
σ
1
σ
2

1
X
2
------
1
Z
2
-----
1
Y
2
----- – +
\ .
| |
σ
1
σ
3
– + +
1
Y
2
-----
1
Z
2
-----
1
X
2
------ – +
\ .
| |
σ
2
σ
3

σ
12
2
S
12
2
--------
σ
13
2
S
13
2
--------
σ
23
2
S
23
2
-------- F ⁄ + + +
σ
1
2
X
2
------
σ
1
σ
2
X
2
------------ –
σ
2
2
Y
2
------
σ
12
2
S
12
2
-------- + +
\ .
|
| |
F ⁄
X
Y
Z
S
12
S
23
S
31
F , , ,
Note: Hoffman criterion is essentially Hill criterion modified to allow unequal maximum
allowable stresses in tension and compression.
C
1
σ
2
σ
3
– ( )
2
C
2
σ
3
σ
1
– ( )
2
C
3
σ
1
σ
2
– ( )
2
C
4
σ
1
C
5
σ
2
+ + + + [
C
6
σ
3
C
7
σ
23
2
C
8
σ
13
2
C
9
σ
12
2
] F ⁄ + + + +
Modeling Guide

120
(5-178)
For plane stress condition, it becomes
(5-179)
where: are as before.
Tsai-Wu Failure Criterion
Tsai-Wu is a tensor polynomial failure criterion. At each integration point, MD Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear calculates:
C
1
1
2
---
1
Z
t
Z
c
----------
1
Y
t
Y
c
----------
1
X
t
X
c
----------- – +
\ .
| |
=
C
2
1
2
---
1
X
t
X
c
-----------
1
Z
t
Z
c
----------
1
Y
t
Y
c
---------- – +
\ .
| |
=
C
3
1
2
---
1
X
t
X
c
-----------
1
Y
t
Y
c
----------
1
Z
t
Z
c
---------- – +
\ .
| |
=
C
4
1
X
t
-----
1
X
c
----- – =
C
5
1
Y
t
----
1
Y
c
----- – =
C
6
1
Z
t
----
1
Z
c
----- – =
C
7
1
S
23
2
-------- =
C
8
1
S
13
2
-------- =
C
9
1
S
12
2
-------- =
1
X
t
-----
1
X
c
----- –
\ .
| |
σ
1
1
Y
t
----
1
Y
c
----- –
\ .
| |
σ
2
σ
1
2
X
t
X
c
-----------
σ
2
2
Y
t
Y
c
----------
σ
12
2
S
12
2
--------
σ
1
σ
2
X
t
X
c
------------ – + + + +
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
F ⁄
X
t
X
c
Y
t
Y
c
Z
t
Z
c
S
12
S
23
S
31
F , , , , , , , , ,
Note:
For small ratios of, for example, , the Hoffman criteria can become negative due to the
presence of the linear terms.
σ
1
X
t
------
121
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-180)
where are as before.
For plane stress condition, it becomes
(5-181)
See Wu, R.Y. and Stachurski, 2, “Evaluation of the Normal Stress Interaction Parameter in the Tensor
Polynomial Strength Theory for Anisotropic Materials”, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 18, Sept.
1984, pp. 456-463.
Interlaminar Shear for Thick Shell and Beam Elements
Calculation of interlaminar shear stress (a parabolic distribution through the thickness direction) for
thick shells and beams is available. These interlaminar shears are printed in the local coordinate system
above and below each layer selected for printing. These values are also available for postprocessing.
PARAM,MRTSHEAR,1 must be used for activating the parabolic shear distribution calculations.
In MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the distribution of transverse shear strains through the thickness for
thick shell and beam elements was assumed to be constant. From basic strength of materials and the
equilibrium of a beam cross section, it is known that the actual distribution is more parabolic in nature.
As an additional option, the formulations for certain beam and shell elements have been modified to
include a parabolic distribution of transverse shear strain. The formulation is exact for MSC.Marc beam
Interactive strength constant for the 12 plane
Interactive strength constant for the 23 plane
Interactive strength constant for the 31 plane
1
X
t
-----
1
X
c
----- –
\ .
| |
σ
1
1
Y
t
----
1
Y
c
----- –
\ .
| |
σ
2
1
Z
t
----
1
Z
c
----- –
\ .
| |
σ
3
σ
1
2
X
t
X
c
-----------
σ
2
2
Y
t
Y
c
----------
σ
3
2
Z
t
Z
c
---------- + + + + +
τ
12
2
S
12
2
--------
τ
23
2
S
23
2
--------
τ
13
2
S
13
2
-------- 2F
12
σ
1
σ
2
2F
23
σ
2
σ
3
2F
13
σ
1
σ
3
] F ⁄ + + + + + +
X
t
X
c
Y
t
Y
c
Z
t
Z
c
S
12
S
23
S
31
F , , , , , , , , ,
F
12
F
23
F
13
1
X
t
-----
1
X
c
----- –
\ .
| |
σ
1
1
Y
2
-----
1
Y
c
----- –
\ .
| |
σ
2
σ
1
2
X
t
X
c
-----------
σ
2
2
Y
t
Y
c
----------
σ
12
2
S
12
-------- 2F
12
σ
1
σ
2
+ + + + +
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
F ⁄
Note: In order for the Tsai-Wu failure surface to be closed,
F
12
2
1
X
t
X
c
-----------
1
Y
t
Y
c
---------- • < F
23
2
1
Y
t
Y
c
----------
1
Z
t
Z
c
---------- • < F
31
2
1
X
t
X
c
-----------
1
Z
t
Z
c
---------- • <
Modeling Guide

122
element 45, but is approximate for MSC.Marc thick shell elements 22, 75, and 140. Nevertheless, the
approximation is expected to give improved results from the previous constant shear distribution.
Furthermore, interlaminar shear stresses for composite beams and shells can be easily calculated.
With the assumption that the stresses in the and direction are uncoupled, the equilibrium
condition through the thickness is given by
(5-182)
where is the layer axial stress; is the layer shear stress. From beam theory, we have
(5-183)
where is the section bending moment and is the shear force. Assuming that
(5-184)
by taking the derivative of Equation (5-184) with respect to x, substituting the result into Equation
(5-182), using Equation (5-183) and integrating, we obtain
(5-185)
The function is given from beam theory as
(5-186)
where is the layer initial Young’s modulus, is the location of the neutral axis and is the
section bending moment of inertia. Equation (5-186) and Equation (5-184) express the
usual bending relation
(5-187)
except that these two equations are written so that the axis is not necessarily the neutral axis of
bending. With respect to this axis, membrane and bending action is, in general, coupled. Note that
V
1
V
2
∂τ z ( )
∂z
-------------
∂σ z ( )
∂x
-------------- + 0 =
σ z ( ) τ t ( )
V
∂M
∂x
-------- + 0 =
M V
σ z ( ) f z ( )M =
τ z ( ) f z ( )dz V •
z
í
=
f z ( )
f z ( )
E
0
z ( )
EI
------------- z z – ( ) =
E
0
z ( ) z EI
σ z ( )
Mz
I
------- – =
z 0 =
123
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-188)
and stress at the top and bottom surface of the shell.
Interlaminar Stresses for Continuum Composite Elements
In MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear, the interlaminar shear and normal stresses are calculated by
averaging the stresses in the stacked layers. The stresses are transformed into a component tangent to the
interface and a component normal to the interface. The two components, considered as shear stress and
normal stress, respectively, are printed out in the output file.
Progressive Composite Failure
A model has been put into MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear to allow the progressive failure of certain
types of composite materials. The aspects of this model are defined below:
1. Failure occurs when any one of the failure criteria is satisfied.
2. The behavior up to the failure point is linear elastic.
3. Upon failure, the material moduli for orthotropic materials at the integration points are changed
such that all of the moduli have the lowest moduli entered.
4. Upon failure, for isotropic materials, the failed moduli are taken as 10% of the original moduli.
5. If there is only one modulus, such as in a beam or truss problem, the failed modulus is taken as
10% of the original one.
6. There is no healing of the material.
Specifying the Failure Criteria
Any of the failure models described above can be selected with the MATF Bulk Data entry.
References
• MATF in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
Defining Failure Models in SimXpert
Entry Description
MATF Specifies failure model properties for linear elastic materials to be used for
static, quasi static or transient dynamic analysis in MD Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
z
zE z ( )dz
z
í
E z ( )dz
z
í
---------------------- =
τ z ( ) 0 =
Modeling Guide

124
To define a Failure Model in MSC SimXpert:
1. From the Materials Application form, select one of the following:
• Materials and Properties>Isotropic>Advanced>Add Constitutive Model>Failure
• Materials and Properties>2D Orthotropic>Advanced>Add Constitutive Model>Failure
• Materials and Properties>2D Anisotropic>Advanced>Add Constitutive Model>Failure
2. Enter parameter values.
3. Click OK.
125
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Modeling Guide

126
Isotropic Material Input Data
Isotropic materials require the following failure model data:
3-D Orthotropic Material Input Data
3-D orthotropic materials require the following failure model data:
3-D Anisotropic Material Input Data
3-D anisotropic materials require the following failure model data:
Damage Models
In many structural applications, the finite element method is used to predict failure. This is often
performed by comparing the calculated solution to some failure criteria, or by using classical
fracture mechanics.
Ductile Metals
Failure Theory : Hill, Hoffman, Tsai-Wu, Maximum Stress
Property Name Description
Tension Stress Limit Defines the tension stress (or strain) limits in the element’s
coordinate system.
Compression Stress Limit Defines the compression stress (or strain) limits in the element’s
coordinate system. Absolute values are used.
Shear Stress Limit Defines the shear stress (or strain) limits.
Failure Theory : Hill, Hoffman, Tsai-Wu, Maximum Stress, Maximum Strain
Property Name Description
Tension Stress (Strain) Limit ii Defines the tension stress (or strain) limits in direction ii.
Compression Stress (Strain) Limit ii Defines the compression stress (or strain) limits in direction ii.
Shear Stress (Strain) Limit ij Defines the shear stress (or strain) limits in direction ij.
Failure Theory : Hill, Hoffman, Tsai-Wu, Maximum Stress
Property Name Description
Tension Stress (Strain)
Limit
Defines the tension stress (or strain) limits.
Compression Stress
(Strain) Limit
Defines the compression stress (or strain) limits.
Shear Stress (Strain)
Limit
Defines the shear stress (or strain) limits.
127
CHAPTER
Model Generation
In ductile materials given the appropriate loading conditions, voids will form in the material, grow, then
coalesce, leading to crack formation and potentially, failure. Experimental studies have shown that these
processes are strongly influenced by hydrostatic stress. Gurson studied microscopic voids in materials
and derived a set of modified constitutive equations for elastic-plastic materials. Tvergaard and
Needleman modified the model with respect to the behavior for small void volume fractions and for
void coalescence.
In the modified Gurson model, the amount of damage is indicated with a scalar parameter called the
void volume fraction f. The yield criterion for the macroscopic assembly of voids and matrix material is
given by:
(5-189)
as seen in Figure 5-34.
Figure 5-34 Plot of Yield Surfaces in Gurson Model
The parameter was introduced by Tvergaard to improve the Gurson model at small values of the void
volume fraction. For solids with periodically spaced voids, numerical studies [10] showed that the values
of and were quite accurate.
The evolution of damage as measured by the void volume fraction is due to void nucleation and growth.
Void nucleation occurs by debonding of second phase particles. The strain for nucleation depends on the
particle sizes. Assuming a normal distribution of particle sizes, the nucleation of voids is itself modeled
as a normal distribution in the strains, if nucleation is strain controlled. If void nucleation is assumed to
be stress controlled in the matrix, a normal distribution is assumed in the stresses. The original Gurson
model predicts that ultimate failure occurs when the void volume fraction f, reaches unity. This is too
high a value and, hence, the void volume fraction f is replaced by the modified void volume fraction
in the yield function.
F
σ
σ
y
-----
\ .
| |
2
2q
1
f

q
2
σ
kk

y
-------------
\ .
| |
1 q
1
f

( )
2
+ [ ] – cosh + = =
1.0
0.5
0
0 1 2 3 4
σ
e
σ
M

f
*
0 =
f
*
f
u
*
⁄ 0.01 =
σ
kk

M

0.9
0.6
0.3
0.1
q
1
q
1
1.5 = q
2
1 =
f

Modeling Guide

128
The parameter is introduced to model the rapid decrease in load carrying capacity if void
coalescence occurs.
(5-190)
where f
c
is the critical void volume fraction, and is the void volume at failure, and . A
safe choice for would be a value greater than namely, . Hence, you can
control the void volume fraction, , at which the solid loses all stress carrying capability.
Numerical studies show that plasticity starts to localize between voids at void volume fractions as low as
0.1 to 0.2. You can control the void volume fraction , beyond which void-void interaction is modeled
by MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear. Based on the classical studies, a value of can be chosen.
The existing value of the void volume fraction changes due to the growth of existing voids and due to the
nucleation of new voids.
(5-191)
The growth of voids can be determined based upon compressibility of the matrix material surrounding
the void.
(5-192)
As mentioned earlier, the nucleation of new voids can be defined as either strain or stress controlled. Both
follow a normal distribution about a mean value.
In the case of strain controlled nucleation, this is given by
(5-193)
where is the volume fraction of void forming particles, the mean strain for void nucleation and
the standard deviation.
In the case of stress controlled nucleation, the rate of nucleation is given by:
f

f

f =
if f ≤ f
c
f

f
c
f
u
*
f
c

f
F
f
c

--------------
\ .
| |
f f
c
– ( ) + = if f > f
c
f
F
f
u
*
1 q
1
⁄ =
f
F
1 q
1
⁄ ( ) f
F
1.1 q
1
⁄ =
f
F
f
c
f
c
0.2 =
f
·
f
·
growth
f
·
nucleation
+ =
f
·
growth
1 f – ( )
ε
··
kk
p
=
f
·
nucleation
f
N
S 2π
-------------- exp
1
2
---
ε
m
p
ε
n

S
-----------------
\ .
| |
2

ε
··
m
p
=
f
N
ε
n
S
129
CHAPTER
Model Generation
(5-194)
If the second phase particle sizes in the solid are widely varied in size, the standard deviation would be
larger than in the case when the particle sizes are more uniform. The MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear user
can also input the volume fraction of the nucleating second phase void nucleating particles in the input
deck, as the variable .
A typical set of values for an engineering alloy is given by Tvergaard for strain controlled nucleation as
(5-195)
It must be remarked that the determination of the three above constants from experiments is extremely
difficult. The modeling of the debonding process must itself be studied including the effect of differing
particle sizes in a matrix. It is safe to say that such an experimental study is not possible. The above three
constants must necessarily be obtained by intuition keeping in mind the meaning of the terms.
When the material reaches 90 percent of , the material is considered to be failed. At this point, the
stiffness and the stress at this element are reduced to zero.
Elastomers
Under repeated application of loads, elastomers undergo damage by mechanisms involving chain
breakage, multi-chain damage, micro-void formation, and micro-structural degradation due to
detachment of filler particles from the network entanglement. Two types of phenomenological models
namely, discontinuous and continuous, exists to simulate the phenomenon of damage.
Discontinuous Damage
The discontinuous damage model simulates the “Mullins’ effect” as shown in Figure 5-35.
Figure 5-35 Discontinuous Damage
f
·
nucleation
f
N
S 2π
--------------exp
1
2
---
σ
1
3
---σ
kk
σ
n
– +
S
---------------------------------
\ .
|
|
| |
2
– * σ
·
1
3
-- -σ
·
kk + =
f
N
ε
n
0.30 ; f
N
0.04 ; S 0.01 = = =
f
F
Modeling Guide

130
This involves a loss of stiffness below the previously attained maximum strain. The higher the maximum
attained strain, the larger is the loss of stiffness. Upon reloading, the uniaxial stress-strain curve remains
insensitive to prior behavior at strains above the previously attained maximum in a cyclic test. Hence,
there is a progressive stiffness loss with increasing maximum strain amplitude. Also, most of the stiffness
loss takes place in the few earliest cycles provided the maximum strain level is not increased. This
phenomenon is found in both filled as well as natural rubber although the higher levels of carbon black
particles increase the hysteresis and the loss of stiffness. The free energy, W, can be written as:
(5-196)
where is the nominal strain energy function, and
(5-197)
determines the evolution of the discontinuous damage. The reduced form of Clausius-Duhem dissipation
inequality yields the stress as:
(5-198)
Mathematically, the discontinuous damage model has a structure very similar to that of strain space
plasticity. Hence, if a damage surface is defined as:
(5-199)
The loading condition for damage can be expressed in terms of the Kuhn-Tucker conditions:
(5-200)
The consistent tangent can be derived as:
(5-201)
Continuous Damage
The continuous damage model can simulate the damage accumulation for strain cycles for which the
values of effective energy is below the maximum attained value of the past history as shown in
Figure 5-36.
W K α β , ( )W
0
=
W
0
α max W
0
( ) =
S 2K α β , ( )
∂W
0
∂C
---------- =
Φ W α 0 ≤ – =
Φ 0 ≤ α
·
0 ≥ α
·
Φ 0 =
C 4 K

2
W
0
∂C∂C
---------------
∂K
∂W
0
----------
∂W
0
∂C
----------
∂W
0
∂C
---------- ⊗ + =
131
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Figure 5-36 Continuous Damage
This model can be used to simulate fatigue behavior. More realistic modeling of fatigue would require a
departure from the phenomenological approach to damage. The evolution of continuous damage
parameter is governed by the arc length of the effective strain energy as:
(5-202)
Hence, β accumulates continuously within the deformation process.
The Kachanov factor is implemented in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear through both an
additive as well as a multiplicative decomposition of these two effects as:
(5-203)
(5-204)
You specify the phenomenological parameters and . If is not defined,
it is automatically determined such that, at zero values of and , the Kachanov factor . If,
according to Equation (5-203) or Equation (5-204) the value of exceeds 1, is set back to 1.
β

∂s′
-------W
0
s′ ( ) s′ d
0
t
í
=
K α β , ( )
K α β , ( ) d

d
n
α

α
η
n
------ –
\ .
| |
d
n
β

β
λ
n
----- –
\ .
| |
exp
n 1 =
2
¯
+ exp
n 1 =
2
¯
+ =
K α β , ( ) d

d
n

α δ
n
β +
η
n
------------------- –
\ .
| |
exp
n 1 =
2
¯
+ =
d
n
α
d
n
β
η
n
λ
n
d
n
δ
n
, , , , , d

d

α β K 1 =
K K
Modeling Guide

132
The above damage model is available for deviatoric behavior. In addition, viscoelastic behavior can be
included. Finally, the user subroutine, UELDAM available starting in version 2005, can be used to define
damage functions different from Equation (5-211) to Equation (5-214).
The parameters required for the continuous or discontinuous damage model can be obtained using the
experimental data fitting option in Mentat.
Specifying Hyperelastic Damage Model Entries
The hyperelastic damage model described above can be selected with the MATHED Bulk Data entry.
References
• MATHED in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
SimXpert Materials Application Input Data.
Creep
Creep is an important factor in elevated-temperature stress analysis. In MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear,
creep is represented by a Maxwell model. Creep is a time-dependent, inelastic behavior, and can occur
at any stress level (that is, either below or above the yield stress of a material). The creep behavior can
be characterized as primary, secondary, and tertiary creep, as shown in Figure 5-39. Engineering analysis
is often limited to the primary and secondary creep regions. Tertiary creep in a uniaxial specimen is
usually associated with geometric instabilities, such as necking. The major difference between the
primary and secondary creep is that the creep strain rate is much larger in the primary creep region than
it is in the secondary creep region. The creep strain rate is the slope of the creep strain-time curve. The
creep strain rate is generally dependent on stress, temperature, and time.
The creep data can be specified in either an exponent form or in a piecewise linear curve.
(5-205)
Entry Description
MATHED Specifies damage model properties for hyperelastic materials to be used for
static, quasi static or transient dynamic analysis in MD Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
ε
·
c

c
dt
-------- =
133
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Figure 5-37 Creep Strain Versus Time (Uniaxial Test at Constant Stress and Temperature)
Forms of Creep Material Law
There are three possible modes of input for creep constitutive data.
1. Express the dependence of equivalent creep strain rate on any independent parameter through a
piecewise linear relationship. The equivalent creep strain rate is then assumed to be a piecewise
linear approximation to
(5-206)
where A is a constant; is equivalent creep strain rate; and , , , and are equivalent
stress, equivalent creep strain, temperature and time, respectively. The functions , , , and
are piecewise linear. This representation is shown in Figure 5-40. (Any of the functions ( , ,
, or ) can be set to unity by setting the number of piecewise linear slopes for that relation to
zero on the input data.)
2. The dependence of equivalent creep strain rate on any independent parameter can be given
directly in power law form by the appropriate exponent. The equivalent creep strain rate is
(5-207)
This is often adequate for engineering metals at constant temperature where Norton’s rule is a
good approximation.
(5-208)
Note: Primary Creep: Fast decrease in creep strain rate
Secondary Creep: Slow decrease in creep strain rate
Tertiary Creep: Fast increase in creep strain rate
Secondary
Creep
Primary
Creep
Tertiary
Creep
Creep Strain
εC
Time (t)
ε
·
c
A f σ ( ) g ε
c
( ) h T ( )
dk t ( )
dt
------------ • • • • =
ε
·
c
σ ε
c
T t
f g h k
f g
h k
ε
·
c

m
ε
·
c
( )
n
T
p
qt
q 1 –
( ) • • • =
ε
·
c
A = σ
n
Modeling Guide

134
3. Use the MATEP material to activate the ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory rules) capability
of the program.
Isotropic creep behavior is based on a von Mises creep potential described by the equivalent
creep law
(5-209)
Figure 5-38 Piecewise Linear Representation of Creep Data
The material creep behavior is described by
(5-210)
During creep, the creep strain rate usually decreases. This effect is called creep hardening and can be a
function of time or creep strain. The following section discusses the difference between these two types
of hardening.
Consider a simple power law that illustrates the difference between time and strain-hardening rules for
the calculation of the creep strain rate.
(5-211)
ε
·
f σ
ε
·
c
T t , , , ( ) =
(1) Slope-Break Point Data S
1
X
1
S
2
X
2
S
3
X
3

(2) Function-Variable Data F
1
X
1
F
2
X
2
F
3
X
3
F
4
X
4

Function F (X)
[Such as t ,
g , h (T),
k (t)]
σ ( )
ε
c
( )
X
1
F
1
X
2
F
2
X
3
F
3
X
4
F
4
S
1
S
2
S
3
Variable X (Such as σ, εC, T, t)
ε
·
c
ij ε
·
c ∂σ
∂σ
ij
---------
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
=
ε
c
βt
n
=
135
CHAPTER
Model Generation
where

is the creep strain, and are values obtained from experiments and is time. The creep
rate can be obtained by taking the derivative with respect to time
(5-212)
However, being greater than 0, we can compute the time as
(5-213)
Substituting Equation (5-209) into Equation (5-212) we have
(5-214)
Equation (5-213) shows that the creep strain rate is a function of time (time hardening). Equation (5-214)
indicates that the creep strain rate is dependent on the creep strain (strain hardening). The creep strain
rates calculated from these two hardening rules generally are different. The selection of a hardening rule
in creep analysis must be based on data obtained from experimental results. Figure 5-41 and Figure 5-42
show time and strain hardening rules in a variable state of stress. It is assumed that the stress in a structure
varies from to to ; depending upon the model chosen, different creep strain rates are
calculated accordingly at points 1, 2, 3, and 4. Obviously, creep strain rates obtained from the time
hardening rule are quite different from those obtained by the strain hardening rule.
Figure 5-39 Time Hardening
ε
c
β n t
ε
c
ε
·
c

c
dt
-------- nβt
n 1 –
= =
t t
t
ε
c
β
----
\ .
| |
1 n /
=
ε
·
c
nβt
n 1 –
n β
1 n ⁄
ε
c
( )
n 1 – ( ) n ⁄ ( )
( ) = =
σ
1
σ
2
σ
3
εc
σ1
0
1
2
3
4
t
σ2
σ3
Modeling Guide

136
Figure 5-40 Strain Hardening
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Laws
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed a large number of creep tests on stainless and
other alloy steels. It has also set certain rules that characterize creep behavior for application in the
nuclear structures. A summary of the ORNL rules on creep is discussed in MSC.Marc Volume A, Theory
and User Information. The references listed at the end of this section offer a more detailed discussion of
the ORNL rules.
Viscoplasticity (Explicit Formulation)
The creep (Maxwell) model can be modified to include a plastic element (as shown in Figure 5-43). This
plastic element is inactive when the stress ( ) is less than the yield stress ( ) of the material. The
modified model is an elasto-viscoplasticity model and is capable of producing some observed effects of
creep and plasticity. In addition, the viscoplastic model can be used to generate time-independent
plasticity solutions when stationary conditions are reached. At the other extreme, the viscoplastic model
can reproduce standard creep phenomena. The model allows the treatment of nonassociated flow rules
and strain softening which present difficulties in conventional (tangent modulus) plasticity analyses.
It is recommended that you use the implicit formulation described in the following paragraphs to model
general viscoplastic materials.
ε
c
σ1
0
1
2
3
4
t
σ2
σ3
σ σ
y
137
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Figure 5-41 Uniaxial Representation of Viscoplastic Material
Creep (Implicit Formulation)
This formulation, as opposed to that described in the previous section, is fully implicit. A fully implicit
formulation is unconditionally stable for any choice of time step size; hence, allowing a larger time step
than permissible using the explicit method. Additionally, this is more accurate than the explicit method.
The disadvantage is that each increment may be more computationally expensive. There are two methods
for defining the inelastic strain rate. The creep model definition option can be used to define a Maxwell
creep model. The back stress must be specified through the field reserved for the yield stress in the MAT1
or other material definitions. There is no creep strain when the stress is less than the back stress. The
equivalent creep strain increment is expressed as
(5-215)
and the inelastic deviatoric strain components are
where is the deviatoric stress at the end of the increment and is the back stress. is a function
of temperature, time, etc. Creep only occurs if sigma is greater .
One of three tangent matrices may be formed. The first uses an elastic tangent, which requires more
iterations, but can be computationally efficient because re-assembly might not be required. The second
uses an algorithmic tangent that provides the best behavior for small strain power law creep. The third
uses a secant (approximate) tangent that gives the best behavior for general viscoplastic models.
e
e
e
vp
σ
Plastic Element
Inactive if σ < σ
y
ε
p
ε
vp
=
ε
·
c

m
ε
· c
( )
n
• T
P
• qt
q 1 –
• =
Δε
ij
i
3
2
---Δε
i
σ′
ij
σ
-------- =
σ′
ij
σ
y
A
σ σ
y
Modeling Guide

138
Specifying Creep Material Entries
Each of the creep models described in this section can be selected with the MATVP Bulk Data entry.
MATVP is the only form of creep data material input supported by SOL 600, ie.e., no other MD Nastran
creep data formats are supported by SOL 600.
References
• MATVP in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
SimXpert Materials Application Input Data
To define creep behavior in SimXpert:
1. Select Materials and Properties>Isotropic or Orthotropic or Anisotropic>Advanced>Add
Constitutive Model>Creep.
2. Enter parameter values.
3. Click OK.
Creep material models require the following MATVP material data:
Creep
Entry Description
MATVP Specifies viscoplastic or creep material properties to be used for quasi-static
analysis in MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
Isotropic/Orthotropic/Anisotropic Description
Creep Data Input Form Power Law
Creep Law Type ID number for the emperical creep law type. The Creep Law
Type is defined as three digits, Creep Law Type = ijk, where
each is 1 or 2 (Class 1 equation), or all three together specify
300 (Class 2 equation).
Class 1 eq.,
Terms A(σ), R(σ), and K(σ) are specified as follows:
A(σ) = (i=1), or (i=2)
R(σ) = (j=1), or (j=2)
K(σ) = (k=1), or (k=2)
Class 2 eq., , where
, and .
Creep Reference Temperature Reference temperature at which creep characteristics are
defined.
ε
c
σ t , ( ) A σ ( ) 1 e
R σ ( )t –
– [ ] = K σ ( )t +

b
ae

ce


d
e fσ ( )
g
sinh ⋅ ee

ε
c
σ t , ( ) aσ
b
t
d
=
1.0 b 8.0 < < 0.2 d 2.0 < <
139
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Temperature Dependent Exp. Temperature dependent term in the creep rate expression,
Creep Threshold Stress Limit Threshold limit for creep process. Threshold stress under
which creep does not occur is computed as Creep Threshold
Stress Limit times Young’s modulus.
Creep Coefficient i , i = A,...,G Coefficients of the imperical creep law specified in Creep Law
Type
Creep Data Input Form Table
Creep Reference Temperature Reference temperature at which creep characteristics are
defined.
Temperature Dependent Exp. Temperature dependent term in the creep rate expression,

Creep Threshold Stress Limit Threshold limit for creep process. Threshold stress under
which creep does not occur is computed as Creep Threshold
Stress Limit times Young’s modulus.
Primary Creep Stiffness ID number of a TABLES1 entry, which defines the creep
model parameter K
p
(σ). Creep model parameter K
p
(σ)
represents a parameter of the uniaxial rheological model
shown below.
Primary Creep Damping ID number of a TABLES1 entry, which defines the creep
model parameter C
p
(σ). Creep model parameter C
p
(σ)
represents a parameter of the uniaxial rheological model
shown below.
Secondary Creep Damping ID number of a TABLES1 entry, which defines the creep
model parameter C
s
(σ). Creep model parameter C
s
(σ)
represents a parameter of the uniaxial rheological model
shown below.
Isotropic/Orthotropic/Anisotropic Description
e
ΔH – ( ) R T0 ⋅ ( ) ⁄
e
ΔH – ( ) R T0 ⋅ ( ) ⁄
Primary
Creep
Secondary Creep Elastic
K
p
σ ( )
C
p
σ ( )
C
s
σ ( )
K
e
σ t ( )
Modeling Guide

140
Composite
Composite materials are composed of a mixture of two or more constituents, giving them mechanical and
thermal properties which can be significantly better than those of homogeneous metals, polymers and
ceramics.
Laminate composite materials are based on layering homogeneous materials using one of several
methods. In order to define a laminate composite material, you must define the homogeneous materials
that form the layers, the thickness of each layer, and the orientation angle of the layers relative to the
standard coordinate axis being used for the model. The orientation is particularly important for
orthotropic and anisotropic materials, whose properties vary in different directions. The material in each
layer may be either linear or nonlinear. Tightly bonded layers (layered materials) are often stacked in the
thickness direction of beam, plate, shell structures, or solids.
Figure 5-42 identifies the locations of integration points through the thickness of beam and shell elements
with and without a composite formulation.
Note that when the COMPOSITE option is used, as shown in Figure 5-42, the layer points are positioned
midway through each layer. When the COMPOSITE option is not used, the layer points are equidistantly
spaced between the top and bottom surfaces. MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear performs a numerical
integration through the thickness. If the COMPOSITE option is used, the trapezoidal method is
employed; otherwise, Simpson’s rule is used.
Each layer is a “ply”, and each ply can
have a different material, thickness, or
material orientation (angle).
141
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Figure 5-42 Integration Points through the Thickness of Beam and Shell Elements
Figure 5-43 shows the location of integration points through the thickness of continuum elements. MD
Nastran Implicit Nonlinear forms the element stiffness matrix by performing numerical integration based
on the standard isoparametric concept.
Figure 5-43 Integration Points through the Thickness of Continuum Elements
Specifying Composite Material Entries
MD Nastran provides a property definition specifically for performing composite analysis. You specify
the material properties and orientation for each of the layers and MD Nastran produces the equivalent
PSHELL and MAT2 entries for shells. This is extended to PSOLID and MATORTH for SOL 600 only.
The stacking direction for 3-D composite solids was added with a new entry, MSTACK.
Gasket
Engine gaskets are used to seal the metal parts of the engine to prevent steam or gas from escaping. They
are complex (often multi-layer) components, usually rather thin and typically made of several different
Entry Description
PCOMP Defines the properties of an n-ply composite material laminate.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Beams or Shells with
Composite Option
Beams or Shells without
Composite Option
*
*
*
* *
*
*
*
Modeling Guide

142
materials of varying thickness. The gaskets are carefully designed to have a specific behavior in the
thickness direction. This is to ensure that the joints remain sealed when the metal parts are loaded by
thermal or mechanical loads. The through-thickness behavior, usually expressed as a relation between
the pressure on the gasket and the closure distance of the gasket, is highly nonlinear, often involves large
plastic deformations, and is difficult to capture with a standard material model. The alternative of
modeling the gasket in detail by taking every individual material into account in the finite element model
of the engine is not feasible. It requires a lot of elements which makes the model unacceptably large.
Also, determining the material properties of the individual materials might be cumbersome.
The gasket material model addresses these problems by allowing gaskets to be modeled with only one
element through the thickness, while the experimentally or analytically determined complex
pressure-closure relationship in that direction can be used directly as input for the material model. The
material must be used together with 2-D or 3-D first-order solid composite element types or 2-D
axi-symmetric elements. In that case, these elements consists of one layer and have only one integration
point in the thickness direction of the element.
Constitutive Model
The behavior in the thickness direction, the transverse shear behavior, and the membrane behavior are
fully uncoupled in the gasket material model. In subsequent sections, these three deformation modes
are discussed.
Local Coordinate System
The material model is most conveniently described in terms of a local coordinate system for the
integration points of the element (see Figure 5-44). For three-dimensional elements, the first and second
directions of the coordinate system are tangential to the midsurface of the element at the integration point.
The third direction is the thickness direction of the gasket and is perpendicular to the midsurface. For
two-dimensional elements, the first direction of the coordinate system is the direction of the midsurface
at the integration point, the second direction is the thickness direction of the gasket and is perpendicular
to the midsurface, and the third direction coincides with the global 3-direction.
In a total Lagrange formulation, the orientation of the local coordinate system is determined in the
undeformed configuration and is fixed. In an updated Lagrange formulation, the orientation is
determined in the current configuration and is updated during the analysis.
Figure 5-44 The Location of the Integration Points and the Local Coordinate Systems in
Two- and Three-dimensional Gasket Elements
1
2
Midsurface
Integration Point
1
2
3
Midsurface Integration Point
143
CHAPTER
Model Generation
Thickness Direction - Compression
In the thickness direction, the material exhibits the typical gasket behavior in compression, as depicted
in Figure 5-45. After an initial nonlinear elastic response (section AB), the gasket starts to yield if the
pressure p on the gasket exceeds the initial yield pressure p
y0
. Upon further loading, plastic deformation
increases, accompanied by (possibly nonlinear) hardening, until the gasket is fully compressed (section
BD). Unloading occurs in this stage along nonlinear elastic paths (section FG, for example). When the
gasket is fully compressed, loading and unloading occurs along a new nonlinear elastic path (section
CDE), while retaining the permanent deformation built up during compression. No additional plastic
deformation is developed once the gasket is fully compressed.
The loading and unloading paths of the gasket are usually established experimentally by compressing the
gasket, unloading it again, and repeating this cycle a number of times for increasing pressures. The
resulting pressure-closure data can be used as input for the material model. The user must supply the
loading path and may specify up to ten unloading paths. In addition, the initial yield pressure p
y0
must
be given. The loading path should consist of both the elastic part of the loading path and the hardening
part, if present. If no unloading paths are supplied or if the yield pressure is not reached by the loading
path, the gasket is assumed to be elastic. In that case, loading and unloading occurs along the
loading path.
The loading and unloading paths must be defined using the TABLES1 bulk data entries and must relate
the pressure on the gasket to the gasket closure. The unloading paths specify the elastic unloading of the
gasket at different amounts of plastic deformation; the closure at zero pressure is taken as the plastic
closure on the unloading path. If unloading occurs at an amount of plastic deformation for which no path
has been specified, the unloading path is constructed automatically by linear interpolation between the
two nearest user supplied paths. The unloading path, supplied by the user, with the largest amount of
plastic deformation is taken as the elastic path at full compression of the gasket.
For example, in Figure 5-45, the loading path is given by the sections AB (elastic part) and BD
(hardening part) and the initial yield pressure is the pressure at point B. The (single) unloading path is
curve CDE. The latter is also the elastic path at full compression of the gasket. The amount of plastic
closure on the unloading path is c
p1
. The dashed curve FG is the unloading path at a certain plastic
closure c
p
that is constructed by interpolation from the elastic part of the loading path (section AB) and
the unloading path CD.
Modeling Guide

144
Figure 5-45 Pressure-closure Relation of a Gasket
The compressive behavior in the thickness direction is implemented by decomposing the gasket closure
rate into an elastic and a plastic part:
(5-216)
Of these two parts, only the elastic part contributes to the pressure. The constitutive equation is given by
the following rate equation:
(5-217)
Here, D
c
is the consistent tangent to the pressure-closure curve.
Plastic deformation develops when the pressure p equals the current yield pressure p
y
. The latter is a
function of the amount of plastic deformation developed so far and is given by the hardening part of the
loading path (section BD in Figure 5-45).
Initial Gap
The thickness of a gasket can vary considerably throughout the sealing region. Since the gasket is
modeled with only one element through the thickness, this can lead to meshing difficulties at the
boundaries between thick regions and thin regions. The initial gap parameter can be used to solve this.
The parameter basically shifts the loading and unloading curves in the positive closure direction. As long
py0
py1
py
cp0 cp1 cp cy0 cy1 cy
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Gasket Closure Distance c
G
a
s
k
e
t

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
p
loading path
unloading path
c
·
c
· e
c
· p
+ =
p
·
D
c
c
· e
D
c
c
·
c
· p
– ( ) = =
145
CHAPTER
Model Generation
as the closure distance of the gasket elements is smaller than the initial gap, no pressure is built up in the
gasket. The sealing region can thus be modeled as a flat sheet of uniform thickness and the initial gap
parameter can be set for those regions where the gasket is actually thinner than the elements of the finite
element mesh used to model it.
Thickness Direction - Tension
The tensile behavior of the gasket in the thickness direction is linear elastic and is governed by a tensile
modulus D
t
. The latter is defined as a pressure per unit closure distance (that is, length).
Transverse Shear and Membrane Behavior
The transverse shear is defined in the 2-3 and 3-1 planes of the local coordinate system (for three-
dimensional elements) or the 1-2 plane (for two-dimensional elements). It is linear elastic and
characterized by a transverse shear modulus G
t
.
The membrane behavior is defined in the local 1-2 plane (for three-dimensional elements) or the local
3-1 plane (for two-dimensional elements) and is linear elastic and isotropic. Young’s modulus E
m
and
Poisson’s ratio ν
m
that govern the membrane behavior are taken from an existing material that must be
defined using the MAT1 bulk data entry. Multiple gasket material can refer to the same isotropic material
for their membrane properties (see also the GASKET model definition option in MSC.Marc Volume C:
Program Input).
Thermal Expansion
The thermal expansion of the gasket material is isotropic and the thermal expansion coefficient are taken
from the isotropic material that also describes the membrane behavior.
Constitutive Equations
As mentioned above, the behavior in the thickness direction of the gasket is formulated as a relation
between the pressure p on the gasket and the gasket closure distance c. In order to formulate the
constitutive equations of the gasket material, this relation must first be written in terms of stresses and
strains. This depends heavily on the stress and strain tensor employed in the analysis. For small strain
analyses, for example, the engineering stress and strain are used. In that case, the gasket closure rate and
the pressure rate are related to the strain rate and the stress rate by
and (5-218)
in which h is the thickness of the gasket.
The resulting constitutive equation for three-dimensional elements, expressed in the local coordinate
system of the integration, now reads
c hε – = Δp Δσ – =
Modeling Guide

146
(5-219)
in which C = hD
c
. For two-dimensional elements, the equation is given by
(5-220)
For large deformations in a total Lagrange formulation, in which the Green-Lagrange strains and the
second Piola-Kirchhoff stresses are employed (as well as in an updated Lagrange environment) in
which the logarithmic strains and Cauchy stresses are being used, similar but more complex relations
can be derived.
Specifying Gasket Material Entries
The MATG provides specifically for modeling gasket materials.
Entry Description
MATG Specifies gasket material properties to be used in MD Nastran Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
MATTG Specifies gasket material property temperature variation to be used in MD
Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) only.
σ
11
σ
22
σ
33
σ
12
σ
23
σ
31
E
m
1 ν
m
2

---------------
ν
m
E
m
1 ν
m
2

--------------- 0 0 0 0
ν
m
E
m
1 ν
m
2

---------------
E
m
1 ν
m
2

--------------- 0 0 0 0
0 0 C 0 0 0
0 0 0
E
m
2 1 ν
m
+ ( )
------------------------ 0 0
0 0 0 0 G
t
0
0 0 0 0 0 G
t
ε
11
ε
22
ε
33
Δε
33
p

γ
12
γ
23
γ
31
=
σ
11
σ
22
σ
33
σ
12
E
m
1 ν
m
2

--------------- 0
ν
m
E
m
1 ν
m
2

--------------- 0
0 C 0 0
ν
m
E
m
1 ν
m
2

--------------- 0
E
m
1 ν
m
2

--------------- 0
0 0 0 G
t
ε
11
ε
22
Δε
22
p

ε
33
γ
12
=
147
CHAPTER
Model Generation
References
• MATG in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
• MATTG in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
Material Damping
In direct integration analysis, the user very often defines energy dissipation mechanisms as part of the
basic model - dashpots, inelastic material behavior, etc. In such cases, there is usually no need to
introduce additional “structural” or general damping: it is unimportant compared to these other
dissipative effects. However, some models do not have such dissipation sources (an example is a linear
system with chattering contact, such as a pipeline in a seismic event). In such cases, it is usually desirable
to introduce some general low level of damping. MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear provides “Rayleigh”
damping for this purpose. The user includes the two Rayleigh damping factors, α
R
for mass proportional
damping and β
R
for stiffness proportional damping on the NLSTRAT Bulk Data entry. In the case of
elements the damping values must be used in conjunction with these property references. For a linear
problem, these provide a damping matrix [C] as described above:
[C]=α
R
[M]+β
R
[K].
Since the model may have quite general nonlinear response, the concept of “stiffness proportional
damping” must be generalized, since it is possible for the tangent stiffness matrix to have negative
eigenvalues (which would imply negative damping). To overcome this problem, β
R
is interpreted as
defining viscous material damping which creates an additional “damping stress,” σ
d
, proportional to the
total strain rate:
(5-221)
Here D
0
el
is the material’s initial (virgin) elastic stiffness. This damping stress is added to the stress
caused by the constitutive response at the integration point when the dynamic equilibrium equations are
formed, but it is not included in the stress output. This allows damping to be introduced for any nonlinear
case, and provides standard Rayleigh damping for linear cases.
Since the β
R
factor introduces damping proportional to the strain rate, this may be thought of as damping
associated with the material itself, while the α
R
factor introduces damping forces caused by the absolute
velocities of the model, and so simulates the idea of the model moving through a viscous “ether” (a
permeating, still fluid, so that any motion of any point in the model causes damping).
The α
R
factor is applied to all elements that have mass. The β
R
factor applies to all elastic elements and
to beam and shell elements. The β
R
factor is not applied to spring elements. Discrete dashpot elements
should be used as needed for springs.
σ
d
βD
0
el
ε
·
=
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148
Specifying Material Damping Entries
Parameters for material damping are input through the NLSTRAT entry.
References
• NLSTRAT in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
• NLDAMP in the MD NASTRAN QRG.
SimXpert Materials Application Input Data
Entry Description
NLSTRAT Defines transient analysis damping parameters BETA, GAMMA,
GAMMA1, GAMMA2.
NLDAMP Defines damping constants for nonlinear analysis when MSC.Marc is
executed from MD Nastran used in SOL 600 only (Not supported in MSC
SimXpert 2004).
Isotropic Description
Gamma (Newmark) Mass proportional damping coefficient.
Beta (Newmark) Stiffness proportional damping coefficient.
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Model Generation
Properties
Typical properties include cross-sectional properties of beam elements, thicknesses of plate and shell
elements, material IDs, etc. Properties are assigned to the elements of a specified part or element type,
either directly to the elements, or indirectly through the part to which the elements belong or the
geometry with which the elements are associated.
Properties associate materials with elements.
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Tables, Variable LBCs and Properties
In some problems, you may need to enter variable data. For example, the plate thickness may vary across
a part, or even within an element. Variable loads, boundary conditions, and material and element
properties can be generated by creating a Table of XY pairs that describes the variation, by typing in an
equation, by creating or importing spreadsheet data, or by extrapolating from results values.
A table is a set of XY pairs that can define a function to use in generating variable properties for
independent data. For example, tables can be used in generating temperature-dependent material
properties, stress-dependent materials, creep parameters, general Hyperelastic material parameters, and
variable heat transfer coefficients.
Tables can used in defining material properties. They can be created directly from the material form or
under the Tables tab in the Tool Ribbon. By using a table, you can enter values for the property behavior
with respect to an independent variable.
Variable LBCs and Properties
Variable LBCs and properties can define loads, attributes, or coefficients to vary as a function of
coordinate components or independent variables. For example, they can be used to define a variable
thickness, nonlinear properties, or variable force. Function expressions and tablular inputs are used to
generate the data for the variable load, attribute, or coefficient.
Variable LBCs and properties can be created directly from the LBC or Material forms by clicking on the
drop-down arrow to the right of the desired textbox and selecting New. There are four ways to define
Variable LBCs and Properties: Function, Tabular, Discrete FEM, and Continuous FEM.
Function
Function defines an expression for a scalar, or up to three expressions for vector components. To enter a
function , clicking on the drop-down arrow to the right of the desired textbox and select New > Function.
You may either type an expression directly on the Create Function form or click on the ellipsis to use the
function input form. You may use the following functions in an equation:
acos fmod
asin log
atan log10
atan2 sin
cos sinh
cosh sqrt
exp tan
fabs tanh
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Model Generation
Tabular
Tabular allows you to manually input or import spreadsheet style data of one or more independent
variables vs. a value. To enter tabular data, click on the drop-down arrow to the right of the desired
textbox and select New > Tabular.
Discrete FEM
Discrete FEM defines the variation in a property or load /boundary condition by entering values to be
associated with specific nodes or elements. To enter Discrete FEM data, click on the drop-down arrow
to the right of the desired textbox and select New > Discrete FEM.
Continuous FEM
Continuous FEM defines the variation in a property or load /boundary condition by entering data either
manually in a spreadsheet, importing data from a file, or by selecting a current Results Plot created using
Post Processing tools (Results from one analysis can be used to generate loads for another). To enter
Continuous FEM data, click on the drop-down arrow to the right of the desired textbox and select New
> Continuous FEM.
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1
CHAPTER
Combining Models
Combining Models
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Replacing Parts
SimXpert has part replacement tools which allow you to substitute a new part for an existing part in the
database. The part replacement procedure can be performed manually or using a wizard.
Replace Part Wizard
The wizard expects incoming parts to have the same Part ID as the part being replaced so you need to
prevent SimXpert from offsetting input part Ids. This is accomplished using the Options Editor as
follows:
Tools > Options. Expand General and Input/Output branches. Highlight Nastran Structures.
Uncheck Offset Part IDs in the Input group. Click OK.
Part IDs can be identified in the Nastran input file by locating the keyword SXNAME. The following
example shows the entry for a part named Ring Inner with ID 28.
$23456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678
$SXNAME COMP 28 "Ring Inner"
To see Part IDs in SimXpert, click the List tab in the Model Browser. The default listing will be Parts and
their corresponding ID numbers.
The Replace Part Wizard is accessed through Tools > CAE Wizard > Replace Parts. This script asks for
a Nastran file which contains the modified part designs. The procedure operates on the assumption that
if two part IDs are the same they are considered to be duplicate. Once duplicate parts are found, you are
prompted to be sure you wish to delete the existing part and replace it with the new one. If connections
exist in the database SimXpert will go through the process of reconnecting the parts.
Manually Replace Parts
You can also manually replace parts in a database. To do so, select Tools > Part > Replace Parts.You will
be prompted for name of the part to be replaced and the part with which to replace it. The contents of the
two parts will be swapped. The message area reflects the change
Unlike the Replace Part Wizard, the Replace Part command does not automatically delete the original
part or reconnect the parts if connections exist in the database.
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Combining Models
Exporting Combined Input Files
After importing multiple MD Nastran files into SimXpert and modifying the models you may want to
export the updated model files. This is accomplished using File > Export. The file(s) to be exported may
contain only solver entries or they may have either INCLUDE statements or solver entries. To export
files after the corresponding models have been modified in SimXpert, use File > Export with any of the
following choices:
• Nastran Model -- export all the model data under the Model tab to a single file.
• Nastran Scene -- export all entities displayed in the graphics window to a single file.
• Nastran Multiple -- export files based on SimXpert File Sets. The file names and destination
directories can be changed.
Following is an example of the Nastran Multiple method. Shown is an image of the Model tab for two
MD Nastran models.
After the two models have been modified, export them to two MD Nastran files using File > Export >
Nastran Multiple.
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4
The Export Multiple form has several parameters that can be specified.
• Export -- true: export the corresponding file.
• Set Name -- SimXpert file set name.
• Job -- select whether to output Nastran analysis job entries.
• File -- MD Nastran input file that will be created.
• Choose Folder -- Specify a single folder to which all files will be exported.
The two files that were imported were not referenced by a ‘parent’ file with just INCLUDE statements,
so when the two files are exported they are not referenced by a parent file.
Following is an example of the Nastran Multiple method for models that are referenced by a parent file.
Shown is an image of the Model tab for the MD Nastran models. The parent file is named main.dat.
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Combining Models
After the models have been modified, export them to MD Nastran files using File > Export > Nastran
Multiple. One of the files that will be exported is named main.dat. It will contain only INCLUDE
statements. The other files will contain MD Nastran entries.
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3
CHAPTER
Model Display
Model Display
For display purposes, SimXpert entities are organized into three major collection types:
1. Parts
Parts consist of:
• Geometric Entities
• Finite Element Entities (not including nodes)
Each part can have its own graphics attributes.
2. LBC Sets
LBC Sets consist of:
• Loads
• Boundary Conditions
3. Connection Groups
Connection Groups consist of:
• List of Connected Parts
• Connection Locations
In this document we will discuss controlling the display of entire collections and also the entities
contained therein.
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Viewing
The View menu and toolbars provide access to the tools for controlling the display of the model graphics
window (model orientation, rendering, scenes) as well as the appearance of the SimXpert GUI (toolbars,
regions). Also found here are ways to control which entities are displayed. Shown below are the entity
display menu and the corresponding Entity Display toolbar. Using these, all entities of a specific type
may be displayed or hidden.
If you would like to fine tune which specific entities, rather than entity types, to display or hide, you can
use the Organize command from the Element Render toolbar or the View menu. When the Action is set
Entity Display toolbar
Note: • Entities turned off using Entity Display can only be turned back on from this
menu. Other display commands described in this document will not redisplay
entities turned off using this command.
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CHAPTER
Model Display
to Activation, you can Activate or Deactivate (turn on or off) the three major collection types: Parts, LBC
Sets, or Connection Groups. They can be selected from the screen or the Model Browser.
When the Action is set to Visibilty you can selectively Hide or Show individual collection members:
finite elements, boundary conditions, connections, or geometric entities. If you select to Hide or Show a
collection the action is applied to all entities in that collection.
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Display Control
Using the Model Browser
Entity display can be controlled using the context menu. Right click on an item in the Model Browser to
display the context menu. You can also right click on parts in the graphics window to display a context
menu.
Figure 1 Context Menu from Model Browser
7
CHAPTER
Model Display
Visibility
Visibility controls whether selected entities are displayed in the graphics window.
Entities can not be selected from the graphics area or the Model Browser after they are hidden.
Show Only Turns off the graphics display of all unselected entities
Show Turns on graphics display of entities
Hide Turns off the graphics display of entities
Show All Turns on the graphics display of any hidden entities
Hide All Turns off the graphics display of all entities
Reverse All Shows entities that are currently hidden, and hides those that are currently
shown
Note: To return all items in your model to the graphics display,
• Select the Scenes tab in the Model Browser
• Select the Action Show Scene
• Click on scene All
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Activation
Activation controls whether collections are turned on or off . Activated parts are turned on. Deactivated
parts are turned off. Parts can be selected from the graphics area or the Model Browser after they are
Deactivated (turned off).
The appearance of the part icon in the Model Browser changes to show which parts are displayed.
Displayed Parts
Hidden Parts
Deactivated Parts
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CHAPTER
Model Display
Parts
Part display can be controlled from the context menu. Each part can have its own graphics attributes by
selecting Change Graphics.
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10
Scenes
A scene consists of the current contents of the window including parts, connections, and boundary
conditions. Current view, graphics, and visibility are also saved with the scene by default. Notice that you
can select checkboxes to ignore render style and view angle if you wish to keep your current settings
when you display a different scene.
If you isolate parts and/or elements that you would like to recall as a group at a future time, you can save
them as a scene using View > Scenes > Create Scene or Create Scene from the Scenes tab in the Model
Browser and supplying a name. The scene can be recalled at any time by selecting it from the Scenes
option of the View menu or the Scenes tab of the Model Browser.
Note: To return all items in your model to the graphics display,
• Select the Scenes tab in the Model Browser
• Select the Action Show Scene
• Click on scene All
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CHAPTER
Model Display
Viewing Enhancement
There are several things that can be done to improve the quality of the display of geometry. There are
different tolerances that affect the display of curves and surfaces, and parameters that can be used to
control the display of hatch lines for surfaces.
Tolerances
The three available tolerances for modifing the quality of the display of geometry are
• Surface Planar Tolerance: used to make planar surfaces display more smoothly. Reduce the
tolerance to increase the smoothness.
• Curve Chordal Tolerance: used to make curves with curvature display more smoothly. Reduce
the tolerance to increase the smoothness.
• Surface Edge Chordal Tolerance: used to make surface edges and faces display more smoothly.
Reduce the tolerance to increase the smoothness.
These parameters are accessed using Tools > Options and highlighting Geometry in the tree.
Hatch Lines
Hatch lines can be displayed on surfaces to assist visualizing the surface curvature. The three available
parameters for modifing hatch line display on surfaces are
• Surface Hatch Spacing: used to display hatch lines on surfaces or faces of solids. It has units that
are the model units of length.
• Surface Hatch Line Style: used to change the style for displayed hatch lines.
• Surface Hatch Line Width: used to specify the line width. The units are pixels.
These parameters are also accessed using Tools > Options and highlighting Geometry in the tree.
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1
CHAPTER
Keyboard Shortcuts
Keyboard Shortcuts
You can create your own keyboard shortcuts to execute commands from the GUI. You can access the
form to modify or create keyboard shortcuts using Tools >Customize > Hot Keys.
To assign a command to a key combination, simply click in the appropriate cell on the form, then select
the desired command from a menu or toolbar. Click Save if you would like to use your key assignments
in all SimXpert databases.
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1
CHAPTER
Geometry Interfaces
Geometry Interfaces
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2
Parasolid
You can directly import a parasolid file generated from your CAD code using File / Import / Parasolid.
For the supported formats listed, SimXpert can convert the geometry to parasolid format and open it as
such. This is accomplished under File/ Import / Geometry as Parasolid. No CAD license is required when
geometry is imported as a parasolid.
File Format Supported Types and Versions
CATIA V5 V5R2 - R18
CATIA V4 .model, .exp, V4.1.9 – 4.2.4
Pro/Engineer .prt, .asm, Pro/E 16 – Wildfire 2.0 (M250) and Wildfire 3.0 (F000))
ACIS .sat, to ACIS R16
STEP .ste, .step, AP203, AP214
IGES .igs, .iges, to 5.3
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CHAPTER
Geometry Interfaces
CATIA
SimXpert can directly access Native CATIA geometry using File / Import / CATIA. The following file
types are supported: CATProduct, CATPart and CATAnalysis. Supported versions of CATIA for direct
access are V5R16 through R18. When direct access is used, no geometry translation is involved. The
CATIA model itself is opened. You can directly edit CATIA features and parameters in SimXpert and
choose to save them back to the original CATIA file. This command uses the local CATIA installation
directly and therefore a CATIA license is required.
There are several parameters that affect importing CATIA geometry into SimXpert. They are available
under Tools: Options, Geometry / CAD Import. The parameters are
• Sew Surface: if this is enabled at the time of import, adjacent surfaces whose edges are within
the Sewing Tolerance are stitched (connected topologically).
• Generate Mapping File: use this to create a file that identifies the topological relationship
between geometry.
• Update Model: use this to update a CATIA model during import into SimXpert. The “Ask user”
option is used to be able to specify if it is desired to update the geometry; if this is not used the
model will be updated automatically. The Update Model option was implemented to deal with
the case of parametric changes made to the model in CATIA, then without updating, saving the
model in CATIA.
• Use DGM: If checked, the DGM (Derived Geometry Modeler) represents CAE geometry by
modifying CAD to a form that is suitable for meshing purposes. If unchecked, the SGM
(SimXpert Geometry Modeler) algorithms perform suppression and meshing operations.
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IGES
The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) defines a neutral data format that makes possible the
digital exchange of information among computer-aided design (CAD) systems. Using IGES, a CAD user
can exchange product data models in the form of circuit diagrams, wireframe, freeform surface, or solid
modeling representations. Applications supported by IGES include traditional engineering drawings,
models for analysis, and other manufacturing functions. For this application the IGES file is used to
transmit geometric curves, surfaces, and solids data. Once imported into SimXpert they can be used to
create other geometry if needed. Then, they will be meshed, creating 1D, 2D, or 3D elements.
There are several parameters that affect importing IGES geometry into SimXpert. They are available
under Tools: Options, Geometry / CAD Import. The parameters are
• Detect System: used to specify the source of the IGES file, e.g. CATIA. The default is “Auto
Detect”. This option is very useful because there can be subtle differences between IGES files
from different sources.
• Surface Trimmimg: causes surfaces to be split at intersections during import.
• Force Global Precision: tolerance to be used for the entire model, e.g. global model tolerance.
• Free Curves: If checked, unconnected curves will be imported.
• Free Surfaces: If checked, unconnected surfaces will be imported.
• Check Geometry: If checked, the geometry topology will be checked on import.
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CHAPTER
Geometry Interfaces
FE data import from CATIA V5 and SimDesigner:
Unit System and Coordinate Systems are fully supported. Connections are supported with the exception
of those between higher order elements. The following tables list specific entity types:
Element Type SimXpert
Solid Hexa 8 Supported
Hexa 20 Supported
Penta 15 Supported
Pents 6 Supported
Tetra 4 Supported
Tetra 10 Supported
Pyramid Not Supported
Shell Quad 4 Supported
Quad 8 Supported
Tria 3 Supported
Tria 6 Supported
1 D Bar2 (CBar, CBeam, CBush, CELAS, CGAP, CRod ) Supported
Bar3 (CBar, CBeam, CBush, CELAS, CGAP, CRod ) Not Supported
Rigid RBE 2 Supported
RBE 3 Supported
Property Type MD Nastran entry SimXpert
Solid PSOLID Supported
Shell PSHELL Supported
Bar / Beam PBAR / PBARL / PBEAM / PBEAML Supported
GAP PGAP Supported
Rod PROD Supported
Bush PBUSH Supported
SPRING PELAS Supported
Composite PCOMP Supported
WELD PWELD Supported
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SimDesigner
Material Nastran Entry
Crash
Workspace
Structures
Workspace
Type Model
Isotropic Linear NA MAT1 NA Supported
Isotropic Thermal NA MAT4 NA Supported (This
material is also
supported for the
Thermal Workspace as
MatIsotropic
Isotropic Elastic MAT1+MATEP NA Supported
Linear Plastic MAT1+MATEP NA Supported
Plastic-Kinematic MAT1+MATEP NA Supported
Power Law-
Plastic
MAT1+MATVP_POWER NA Supported
Elastic-Plastic MAT1+MATEP /
MAT1+MATS1 /
MAT1+MATVP_POWER
NA Supported
Rigid NA MAT 20 Supported
Isotropic Hyper Elastic Neo-Hookean /
Mooney-Rivlin /
3D-Order-
Invarient
MATHE_MOONEY NA Supported
Gent MATHE_ABOYCE_GENT NA Supported
Arruda-Boyce MATHE_ABOYCE_GENT NA Supported
Ogden / Foam MATHE_OGDEN_FOAM NA Supported
Orthotropic Composites NA MAT8 NA Supported
FE Entity
Nastra
n Entry
SimXper
t
Distributed Mass CONM2 Supported
Line Mass
Densities
CONM2 Supported
Surface Mass
Densities
CONM2 Supported
Inertia on Virtual
Parts
CONM2 Supported
7
CHAPTER
Geometry Interfaces
STL
STL (Stereo Lithography) file can be imported directly in SimXpert.
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8
Geometry Simplification Tools
Feature Suppression
Suppression is performed to eliminate fine (very small) CAD features. This will give you a better quality
mesh as you can eliminate sliver surfaces. You can suppress curves that are not required to define a
boundary when meshing. If a manifold curve is suppressed, the two surfaces it connects become one.
Similarly suppressing a vertex reduces the number of curves to be dealt with. Curves which are not
feature curves (no significant difference in the surface normals on either side of the curve) should be
suppressed.
Select Suppress/Unsuppress vertex or edges from the Cleanup group under the Geometry tab. You can
then select vertices or curves respectively to be ignored when meshing.
The Break Angle specified on the (Un)Suppress form will be used to suppress curves at the interface of
surfaces whose normals intersect at an angle less than or equal to the break angle. A mesh will not break
at that interface -- mesh nodes will not be constrained to be along the entire interface.
Force Suppression allows (un)suppression of all selected entities regardless of Break Angle.
Suppressed entities are diplayed in blue.
Turning on and off the display of suppressed entities is controlled by the Geometry Graphics toolbar.
No entities suppressed: After suppression: Suppressed
edges and vertices shown in blue.
Turn on/off the display of
suppressed edges.
Turn on/off the display of
suppressed vertices.
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CHAPTER
Geometry Interfaces
Stitching
This command will take sheet bodies whose boundaries lie within a specified tolerance and create
congruent surfaces with aligned normals.
Select Stitch Surfaces from the Surface group under the Geometry tab. Select the Sheet Bodies you
would like to make continuous. You can modify the stitch tolerance, if desired.
Unconnected or free edges are displayed in red. Shared edges are displayed in green.
Model before stitching:
Unshared edges shown in red.
Model after stitching:
No remaining interior free edges.
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1
CHAPTER
Mouse Functionality
Mouse Functionality
You can customize the functions of each mouse button as it is used in the graphics window using Tools/
Options / Mouse Options.
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2
Mouse Settings
There are four pre-configured mouse settings. They are based on default mouse settings for the codes
indicated and cannot be modified. There is a Custom choice that allows you to select your own mouse
functionality preferences. The following table shows the Default settings for the mouse buttons
The following table shows the Catia setting for the mouse buttons:
Catia settings also support the following mouse button combinations:
None Pick Done Context Menu
Shift Polygon Pick Mode None Drag Dynamic Rot
Control Pick Toggle Pick Mode Drag Zoom
Control
+Shift
View Manip Menu Toggle Pick Mode Drag Pan
None Pick Click Pan Context Menu
Shift Pick Drag Dynamic Rot None
Control Polygon Pick Mode Drag Zoom Done
Control
+Shift
View Manip Menu Drag Dynamic Rot Reject Last
Left Drag Rectangular Pick
Middle Drag Pan
Middle Left Release Drag Zoom
Middle Right Release Drag Zoom
Middle Left Drag Rotate
Middle Right Drag Rotate
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CHAPTER
Mouse Functionality
The following table shows the Patran setting for the mouse buttons:
The following table shows the Sofy setting for the mouse buttons:
Drop-down menu choices
If Custom View Manipulation is selected the following actions can be assigned to to mouse buttons +
key combinations. These actions are selected from the drop down menus.
None Pick Drag Dynamic Ro Context Menu
Shift Pick Drag Pan Pick
Control Polygon Pick Mode Drag Zoom None
Control
+Shift
None Drag Dynamic Rot Reject Last
None Pick Done Toggle View Manip.
Shift Reject Last None None
Control Pick Menu Toggle Pick Mode View Manip. Menu
Control
+Shift
None Toggle Pick Mode None
Fields Descriptions
None No action assigned.
Drag Pan
Dragging in the graphics area with the selected key/mouse button combination
will translate the image.
Toggle Pan Turns on pan mode. Image will move as you move the mouse. Click mouse
button assigned to Done to finish (default is middle mouse button).
Drag Zoom Dragging in the graphics area with the selected key/mouse button combination
will magnify/shrink the image.
Toggle Zoom Turns on zoom mode. Image will magnify/shrink as you move the mouse. Click
mouse button assigned to Done to finish (default is middle mouse button).
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Drag Dynamic Rot. Dragging in the graphics area with the selected key/mouse button combination
will rotate the image.
Toggle Dynamic Rot Turns on dynamic rotation mode. Image will rotate as you move the mouse.
Click mouse button assigned to Done to finish (default is middle mouse
button).
Drop Deselects entities that are clicked on with this key/mouse button combination.
Done Finalizes the action or selection.
Reject Last Discards your most recent selection
Toggle Pick Mode Changes picking action between Select and Deselect.
Pick Menu Displays the menu that lets you select Single, Polygon, Rectangular Window,
or Sketch picking.
View Manip. Menu Displays the View / Display menu.
Drag View Manip. Dragging in the graphics area with the selected key/mouse button combination
will manipulate the image based on whichever method is currently selected
from the View Manipulation toolbar or menu.
Toggle View Manip. Turns on whichever method is currently selected from the View Manipulation
toolbar or menu. Image will move as you move the mouse. Click mouse button
assigned to Done to finish (default is middle mouse button).
Context Menu Displays a menu related to the currently selected command.
Fields Descriptions
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Post Processing
Post Processing
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2
Freebody plots
The function of freebody plots is to display a freebody diagram on a selected portion of the model. The
freebody plots are in the form of vector plots, showing either the individual components or resultant
values. Individual components that make up the total freebody diagram, such as reaction forces, nodal
equivalenced applied forces, internal element forces and other forces from MPCs, rigid bars, or other
external influences, can also be plotted separately.
To enable the plotting of Freebody diagrams, right click on Output Request in the Model Browser and
select Create Grid Point Force Balance Output Request.
Freebody results provide an intuitive interface to Nastran’s Grid Point Force Balance data. The data table
shows the forces and moments acting on the grid point from each source (element, applied load, etc.) in
the Nastran global coordinate system. Grid Point Force and Moment data are stored as nodal and element
vector quantities. The data can also be viewed with other Result Plot Types such as Vector.
Result Types
Freebody plots can be derived in three different plot types:
1. Loads - Which displays a freebody of the structure based on all internal/external loads, just the
applied loads, just the constraint loads, etc.
2. Interface - Plots net loads at structure interfaces.
3. Displacement - Shows displacements at the freebody boundary.
At each node, the grid point force balance table includes contributions from elements, applied loads,
SPCs, and MPCs or
These nodal contributions form the basis for the Result Type selections in the Freebody Plot:
• Freebody Loads
• Applied Loads
• Constraint Forces
• Internal Forces
F
Total
Σ F
elms
( ) F
Applied
F
SPC
F
MPC
+ + + =
Σ F
elms
( ) – Internal – = Forces
F
Applied
F
SPC
Σ F
elms
( )
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CHAPTER
Post Processing
• MPC Forces
• Summation of Forces
One or more result cases can be used in freebody plots...(slide 71)
Freebody Loads are used to display a true freebody showing loads apploed to the structure from all
sources, including the applied loads, constraints (SPCs), MPCs/rigid elements, and other sources
(Totals).
Freebody Loads, as shown above, are equal to the negative of the Internal (or element) Forces.
The summation point is the point about which moments will be summed. Obviously for equilibrium, the
sum of forces and moments about any point should be zero.
Applied Loads
Applied Loads displays the applied loads acting on the target elements. These loads are not true
freebodies since they do not include all loading. The spreadsheet Totals row will sum to the total load
applied to the freebody elements.
Constraint Forces
Constraint Forces displays the constraint forces acting on the target elements. Constraint Forces are not
true freebodies since they do not include all loading.
Force Summation
Force summation typically will be all zeros. Force Summation is not a true freebody since it does not
include all loading.
Display Method
It is possible to toggle the display methods in order to show force, moment, or both together. The options
will be displayed as either resultant or component.
Freebody Plots
Within the Freebody tab is a Vector Attributes tab. The Vector Attributes tab controls vector scaling,
color and style. There is also an Annotation tab where the label and title options can be adjusted. The
Data Transforms tab controls coordinate transformation and scaling. The filter option can be useful for
uncluttering the display. On the Spreadsheet tab, it is possible to examine the forces and moments at each
F
MPC
F
Total
FreebodyLoads Σ F
elms
( ) – F
Applied
F
SPC
F
MPC
F
Total
– + + = =
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4
node. Contained in the spreadsheet is a Node ID, coordinate references for forces/moments,
force/moment resultants, and force/moment components.
Freebody Interface Plot
The interface method is designed to calculate and display net loads at structure interfaces. A common use
is to calculate net forces and moments at various stations along a wing or fuselage. The interface method
differs from the Loads method in that both elements and nodes must be selected. Results belonging to
nodes not associated to the target elements will be ignored. A single net force/moment is calculated at
the summation point in the reference system. The summation point can be any node, point, or location in
space.
Recall that Freebody Loads =
Also recall that _ is stored as vector data for the element at its nodes. Therefore, nodes should be selected
along the cut edge. Then, the elements that join the cut edge nodes should also be selected. THe nodelist
displayed along the cut boundary means that only elements that connect to these nodes will contribute.
In every interface plot it is necessary to specify a Summation Point Location as well as to Show
Summation Point.
Boundary Displacement Plot
The Boundary Displacement Plot displays/rotations instead of forces and/or moments.
Σ F
elm
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Customization
Customization
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Window Options
Tools > Options, Interface / Window allows you to specify window parameters such as background color
or axis display.
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Customization
Custom Menus
You can create your own custom menus in SimXpert by using: Tools > Customize > Custom Menus.
Click on Create when the Custom Menu Creation form appears. After entering your Custom Menu
Name, you can simply click on commands you would like included in your menu. You can select from
the main menu, the tool ribbon, or from the toolbars. Once you save your menu, the main menu will now
have a Custom menu that contains your customized menu
Notice that your custom menu is a tear away menu and can be made to remain displayed by clicking on
the dashed line at the top of the menu.
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Tool Ribbon Customization
By creating a custom tool ribbon you can add, remove, and rearrange tools, groups, and tabs on the tool
ribbon. Tools that you do not need can be removed. All the tools needed for a specific problem can be
placed under one tab and in the order each is used.
Creating a New Custom Tool Ribbon
To customize a tool ribbon, right-click in the tool ribbon region and select Configurations >
Customize....
The Ribbon Editor form allows you to create an entirely new tool ribbon from scratch (Create...) or
modify an existing tool ribbon (Clone...). You can customize the cloned tool ribbon using the Ribbon
Layout section of the form to rearrange or delete tools, groups, or tabs.
Using a Custom Tool Ribbon
To use a customized tool ribbon, right click in the tool ribbon region and select Configurations >
customized_tool_ribbon_name.
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Customization
Custom Help Documentation
You can add your own documentation to the SimXpert Help menu. This allows your organization to
provide help for custom macros, templates, and procedures that have been developed. Using an
environment variable, one or more entries can be added to the help menu. If the specified entry is a folder,
then a cascading menu will be created with each sub folder being a “node” in the cascading tree and each
HTML or PDF file a “leaf” (terminating) entry. This functionality supports HTML and PDF file formats.
All other file types are ignored. Selecting a document will launch the document in a separate browser
window.
Creating a custom Help menu
Create an environment variable
In Microsoft Windows, this is done in the Control Panel > System. Select the Advanced tab in the
Systems Properties dialog box. Click the Environment Variables button, then New.
Create a user variable with Variable name: MSC_SX_CUSTOM_HELP_ROOT_DIRS and set the
Variable value to be the path(s) to the custom help documentation. Any number and combination of files
and folders can be specified. Network locations can also be specified.
Each entry in this list will correspond to a “root” item added to the help menu. The format of the locations
should be: no quotes with entries separated by a semi-colon. For example:
C:\ABC_Corp_SimX_Templates;C:\ABC_Corp_Std_Work_Instructions
Add a script to the SimXpert startup
The script to be executed is located at:
<SimXpert installation directory>/RADE/SimXpert/CustomHelpDocumentation.rdl
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Execution of this script needs to be added to the SimXpert startup shortcut. Locate the SimXpert startup
shortcut desktop icon (or on Start menu). Right-click and open Properties.
On the Shortcut tab, append “-ridl script path” to the existing Target. For example:
C:\MSC.Software\SimXpert\R4\WINNT\bin\simxpert32.bat -ridl
C:\MSC.Software\SimXpert\R4\RADE\SimXpert\CustomHelpDocumentation.rdl
Click Ok to save the change to the shortcut.
Using a custom Help menu
Once a custom help menu has been created, as shown above, start SimXpert using the shortcut, as usual.
The customizing of the Help menu will occur as SimXpert starts. The addition of the custom help
documentation will be noted in the Messages window.
Upon selecting the Help menu, you will see the additional menu items. Navigate through the folders to
view the html and pdf files inside. The Help menu names are the same as the folder and file names in the
specified custom help paths.
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SimXpert Files
SimXpert Files
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Basic SimXpert Files
Backup Databases
.bak
The .bak file is created from an existing .SimXpert database. An existing .SimXpert file is renamed
.SimXpert.bak when the save command is executed. It can be opened by removing the .bak extension and
opening the renamed file in SimXpert.
.autosave
The .autosave file is created at regular time intervals. The settings for the .autosave file can be edited by
going to Tools > Options > General and scrolling down to Automatic Backup. From the User Options
form:
• automatic backup can be enabled or disabled
Name File Type Comments
Model.SimXpert Database One per model
Model.SimXpert.bak Database Backup database. Allows you to retrieve data up
to the previous state.
Model.SimXpert.autosave Database Saves a SimXpert database automatically at a
particular time interval. Autosave can be
disabled.
Model_SimXpert.proc Process (Macro) Contains a record of executed commands.
Repetitive tasks can be automated using the
.proc file. Data can be regenerated by running
the .proc file.
Model_recover.proc Process (Macro) To recover a file which terminated abnormally,
SimXpert writes a _recover.proc file.
SimX_LocalSettings.xml Custom Settings SimXpert’s user interface can be customized by
the user. The changes made are saved in the
SimX_Local_Settings.xml file
SimX_DefaultSettings.xml Default Settings Contains all the factory default settings provide
by MSC. Resetting to factory defaults loads the
settings from this file.
SimXpert.log Text Record of all messages SimXpert reports to the
message region. One per session.
SimXpert.err Text Status file showing code versions and database
entities.
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SimXpert Files
• the number of backups to save can be specified
• the backup time interval at which an automatic save is taken can be changed
• the file extension for the backup file can be changed
• the log file that keeps track of SimXpert’s autosave activity can be renamed
Automation Files
.proc
The .proc process file is created every time SimXpert is executed. It contains a record of executed
commands. The process file is an XML file. It can be executed to repeat the actions performed. It can be
edited in the SimXpert Template Builder Workspace.
When SimXpert is first executed a text file named SimXResLog.txt is created. After a workspace is
selected a procedure file named UNTITLED.proc is created. This file is used to record all actions that
occur. During the execution of SimXpert a log file, simx_backup.log, and a backup database,
UNTITLED.autosave01, are created. When a database is saved using File > Save a name must be
specified. SimXpert creates the database with the suffix .SimXpert, e.g. model.SimXpert. The original
procedure file’s name is changed from UNTITLED.proc to the user specified name, with the suffix
_SimXpert.proc, e.g. model_SimXpert.proc.
When an existing SimXpert database is opened all subsequent steps performed are appended to the end
of the existing procedure file.
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_recover.proc
The _recover.proc file is written when a database has exited abnormally. When SimXpert is re-started it
will prompt whether to recover the database. By executing the recover process file, SimXpert will rebuild
the database.
Custom Settings
SimXpert’s user interface can be customized using the User Options form found under to Tools >
Options. When the user interface is customized, the changes are written to the SimX_LocalSettings.xml
file. If this file exists, it is read whenever SimXpert is started and will determine settings and appearance
in the user interface. This file is specific to the user.
Default Settings
The default factory settings can be recovered by clicking on the Restore Factory Defaults button on the
User Options form.
The default file locations can be accessed using Tools > Options / General / Locations. They can be
modified.

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