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INTERNAL AND CONFIDENTIAL ZERO DRAFT KEY TARGETS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF SECURITY COUNCIL PRESIDENTIAL STATEMENT S/PRST/2013/15 BACKGROUND

On 2 October 2013, the United Nations Security Council President issued a statement (S/PRST/2013/15) in which the Security Council expressed grave alarm at the significant and rapid deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Syria and noted with grave concern that, without urgent increased humanitarian action, the lives of several million Syrians in need of immediate humanitarian assistance will be at risk. This paper outlines key targets to monitor the operationalization of the PRST. 1. PROTECTION Recognising the Syrian authorities’ primary responsibility to protect their populations, the Security Council:  condemns the wide-spread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by the Syrian authorities, as well as any human rights abuses and violations of international humanitarian law by armed groups;  recalls that all obligations under international humanitarian law must be respected in all circumstances;  urges all parties to immediately cease and desist from all violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights;  calls on all parties to fully respect their obligations under international humanitarian law and to take all appropriate steps to protect civilians. Baseline:  Widespread occupation of civilian facilities (schools, hospitals, water stations) by military forces from all parties to the conflict.  Large-scale impact of conflict on public services: 4,000 schools closed as a consequence of conflict; 60 per cent of public hospitals, 34 per cent of public health centres; 92 per cent of public ambulances and 70 per cent of pharmaceutical plants affected by conflict.  The International Independent Commission of Inquiry has reported on widespread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by the Syrian authorities and human rights abuses and violations of international humanitarian law by armed groups, including but not limited to reports of: failure to distinguish between civilian populations and combatants; indiscriminate attacks, and attacks against civilians and civilian objects; use of chemical weapons and the employment of weapons, projectiles and material and methods of warfare which are of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering attacks directed against civilian objects; and establishment of military positions in populated areas.  The Special Rapporteur on Children in Armed conflict continues to report and monitor violations committed against children in Syria

INTERNAL AND CONFIDENTIAL Targets: 2 December 2013 20% demilitarized 2 January 2014 50% demilitarized 2 February 2014 100% demilitarized

Demilitarization of currently occupied civilian facilities Restoration of education (Link to “Lost Generation” action plan) Restoration of health services

Reduction in violations of IHL and human rights

800,000 children to be supported for back to learning until end 2013. In major population areas hardest hit by the conflict (ZERO hospital services), at least one hospital fully functional for emergency (surgery, obstetric and medical) care per 150,000300,000 population (SPHERE standard) in at least 25% of these areas. 20% reduction in reported military positions in populated areas Significant reduction of reported cases of violations of IHL/HR law against children, women and other vulnerable groups

1 million children to be supported for back to learning by end 2013. In major population areas hardest hit by the conflict, at least one hospital fully functional per 150,000-300,000 population (SPHERE standard) in at least 50% of these areas.

100 out of 4,000 currently closed schools partially functional. In major population areas hardest hit by the conflict, at least one hospital fully functional per 150,000-300,000 population (SPHERE standard) in 100% of these areas

50% reduction in reported military positions in populated areas No cases of violations of IHL/HR law reported against children, women and other vulnerable groups

No military positions reported in populated areas

No cases of violations of IHL/HR law reported against children, women and other vulnerable groups

2. SAFE PASSAGE OF MEDICAL PERSONNEL AND SUPPLIES The Security Council recalls that under international humanitarian law:  the wounded and sick must receive, to the fullest extent practicable, and with the least possible delay medical care and attention required by their condition; and  medical and humanitarian personnel, facilities and transport must be respected and protected.

INTERNAL AND CONFIDENTIAL To this end, the Council urges free passage to all areas for medical personnel and supplies, including surgical items and medicine. Baseline:  Restrictions imposed by Syrian authorities on delivery of medical supplies over past six months include: medical supplies which could be used for surgical interventions (e.g. scissors, infusions, anaesthesia) not allowed into opposition-controlled areas; all convoys which include medical supplies to be accompanied by international staff; removal of medical items from humanitarian convoys by security services (e.g. removal of contents from diarrhoea kits); and requirement that WHO items be stored in Ministry of Health facilities (large amounts of life-saving medicines and supplies are stored in Ministry of Health warehouses in Damascus and Tartous).  In a positive development, in August and October 2013, surgical supplies and medicines were successfully delivered to Idlib and Ter’mallah in Homs through inter-agency convoys.  At least 700,000 children have not been reached with essential vaccines and communicable diseases are spreading rapidly due to poor hygiene and sanitation and lack of access to medical treatment in areas most affected by the conflict. For example, there are now reportedly at least 100,000 cases of leishmaniasis in Aleppo and in October 2013 there were reports of cases of polio in Deir ez Zor. Targets: 2 December 2013 At least ten hardto-reach areas identified by the HCT reached with medical and surgical supplies. 2 January 2014 Monthly distribution of medical and surgical supplies to areas hardest hit by the conflict identified by the HCT. Second round of nationwide polio vaccination completed and at least 700,000 children also reached with measles vaccine who were not reached until now 2 February 2014 Monthly distribution of medical and surgical supplies to areas hardest hit by the conflict identified by the HCT. Third round of polio vaccination and measles vaccination extended to reach 100% of targeted children Days of tranquility carried out regularly to carry out vaccination campaigns as needed.

Distribution of medical and surgical supplies

Vaccination campaign(Polio, Measles)

First nationwide polio vaccination campaign completed and vaccinations procured for second round of polio and first round of measles vaccinations.

INTERNAL AND CONFIDENTIAL Leishmaniasis elimination Procurement of medicines/supplies and equipment for insecticide spraying against sand flies, and treatment of leishmaniasis. Distribution completed in eastern and western Aleppo and in Hama, along with relevant health education materials Procurement for spraying of habitats. Monthly reductions in reported cases and all cases treated with appropriate medicines. Spraying completed in Aleppo and Hama, if required.

3. SAFE AND UNHINDERED DELIVERY OF HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE The Security Council:  urges all parties, in particular the Syrian authorities, to take all appropriate steps to facilitate the efforts of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and all humanitarian actors engaged in humanitarian relief activities, to provide immediate humanitarian assistance to the affected people in Syria;  urges the Syrian authorities to promptly facilitate safe and unhindered humanitarian access to people in need, through the most effective ways, including across conflict lines and, where appropriate, across borders from neighbouring countries in accordance with the UN guiding principles of humanitarian emergency assistance;  urges all parties to agree on the modalities to implement humanitarian pauses, as well as key routes to enable promptly — upon notification from relief agencies — the safe and unhindered passage of humanitarian convoys along these routes to access people in need. Baseline:  Hard to reach and besieged areas: At least 2.5 million people are estimated to be living in “hard to reach” areas in dire need for humanitarian assistance, including in Rural Damascus (525,000), Aleppo (500,000), Damascus (320,000), Hassakeh (290,000), Dar’a (185,000) and Homs (150,000). This figure is likely to be increased based on latest information and includes besieged communities who have not received any humanitarian assistance for more than 10 months.  Evacuation: Humanitarian organizations have been requesting support from all parties to evacuate civilians from besieged areas for months (e.g. the Old City in Homs and Muadhamieh in Rural Damascus). From 12 to 16 October, an estimated 4,000 people were evacuated from Moadhamieh in coordination with the Ministry of Social Affairs. On 16 October, a shooting incident took place during the evacuation and the local committee in Muadhamieh reported that more than 3,000 children and women were held at the checkpoint by Government forces. The evacuation was therefore halted.  Safety of humanitarian workers: Since March 2011, 11 UN national staff and 22 SARC volunteers/staff members have been killed in the violence. There

INTERNAL AND CONFIDENTIAL have been more than 38 cases of arrest/detention of nationally-recruited personnel since the onset of the crisis; 21 of them are still in detention. Kidnappings and abductions are increasingly common: there have been 11 cases of abduction of national staff and 9 reported cases of missing staff since the beginning of the crisis and on 14 October, six ICRC staff members and 1 SARC volunteer were taken hostage near Saraqeb in Idlib Governorate by gunmen. Three ICRC and 1 SARC volunteer were subsequently released. The others are still held hostage (as of 16 October). Hijacking, seizure and looting of aid: Cars and aid trucks have increasingly been targeted for highjacking, seizure and looting. There have been about thirty-four cases of UN vehicles hijacked since May 2012 and 22 aid trucks hijacked since October 2012. Drivers are subject to detention and harassment at both Government and opposition controlled checkpoints.

Targets: 2 December 2013 At least ten besieged areas reached with humanitarian convoys, including to Moadamya, Daria, East Ghouta (East Damascus), Yarmouk, Aleppo, Zahra , Nubul, Old City of Homs, and rural Daraa. Implementation of regular programme of deliveries by UN agencies and INGOs (in partnership with SARC and national NGOs). Local humanitarian pauses negotiated to reach at least ten areas. Remaining civilians allowed to leave and evacuated from Moadhamieh by humanitarian organizations. 2 January 2014 Monthly distribution of aid to besieged communities. 2 February 2014 Monthly distribution of aid to besieged communities.

Distribution of humanitarian assistance to besieged communities

Distribution of humanitarian assistance to hardto-reach areas

Humanitarian pauses

Evacuation of civilians

Implementation of regular programme of deliveries by UN agencies and INGOs (in partnership with SARC and national NGOs). Regular/periodic pauses agreed by all parties to the conflict. Civilians allowed to leave and evacuated from the Old City in Homs by humanitarian organizations.

Implementation of regular programme of deliveries by UN agencies and INGOs (in partnership with SARC and national NGOs). Regular/periodic pauses agreed by all parties to the conflict. Civilians allowed to leave and evacuated from all besieged areas by humanitarian organizations.

INTERNAL AND CONFIDENTIAL Safety of humanitarian workers Due process for 21 national staff still in detention and release of staff held hostage. Respect for neutrality, impartiality and independence of humanitarian aid/emblems and significant reduction in incidents involving UN and humanitarian partners. Humanitarian convoys guaranteed safe passage by parties to the conflict. Blanket authorizations for field missions throughout the country. Respect for neutrality, impartiality and independence of humanitarian aid/emblems and significant reduction in incidents involving UN and humanitarian partners. Humanitarian convoys guaranteed safe passage by parties to the conflict. Blanket authorizations for field missions throughout the country.

Respect for humanitarian convoys

Facilitated field missions throughout the country

Humanitarian convoys guaranteed safe passage by parties to the conflict. Blanket authorizations for field missions throughout the country.

4. EXPANSION OF HUMANITARIAN RELIEF OPERATIONS The Security Council urges the Syrian authorities to take immediate steps to facilitate the expansion of humanitarian relief operations, and lift bureaucratic impediments and other obstacles, including through: a. expediting the approval of further domestic and international nongovernmental organizations to engage in humanitarian relief activities; b. easing and expediting the procedures for the operationalization of further humanitarian hubs, the entry and movement of humanitarian personnel and convoys, and the importation of goods and equipment; and c. accelerating approval for the implementation of humanitarian projects. The Security Council also urges all parties to designate empowered interlocutors with the necessary authority to discuss with humanitarian actors operational and policy issues. Baseline:  Empowered interlocutors: The Humanitarian Coordinator currently engages with interlocutors who do not have decision-making authority within their respective structures.  Visas: Since January 2013, the Government has approved 205 visas. There are currently 55 visas pending for UN staff: UNFPA (1), UNDP (2), IOM (2), WHO (3), FAO (4), UNMAS (5), UNICEF (5), UNHCR (5), WFP (6), OCHA (7), UNRWA (7), and DSS (8). 10 of the visas have been pending for more than 3 months and 5 for more than 6 months. Visas are currently issued for varying periods from one month to one year and there is no time limit established for

INTERNAL AND CONFIDENTIAL consideration of applications. Clearance procedures for convoys: For interagency convoys the UN is required to: 1) submit a request 72 hours prior to intended departure to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and await clearance; 2) obtain a letter from SARC; and 3) obtain a letter from the Ministry of Social Affairs. In the case of medical assistance, a further letter is required from the Ministry of Health. For regular truck dispatches, the UN is required to receive facilitation letters for passing through checkpoints. With regard to dispatches to SARC branches, two letters – one issued by the Ministry of Social Affairs and one by SARC – are required. Humanitarian hubs: The UN and partners have operationalized two hubs (Homs and Tartous). The UNCT has requested the opening of a further three hubs in Aleppo, Dar’a and Qamishly. Customs clearance: Approval to import and license communications equipment is still problematic and some agencies are facing delays in obtaining the required exemption letters from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, following a new requirement by the Ministry that implementing partners provide distribution plans. INGO partners: 15 INGOs (Danish Refugee Council, Premiere Urgence, HELP, Institut Europeen de Cooperation et de Developpement, International Medical Corps, Action Contre la Faim - Spain, Secours Islamique France, Terre des Hommes - Italy, Mercy Corps, Merlin, the Norwegian Refugee Council, ADRA, OXFAM - GB, SOS International, and International Catholic Migration Commission) are currently authorized to operate in Syria. INGOs are not authorized to work directly with national NGOs, and the MOUs they are required to sign with SARC have many restricting clauses. NNGO partners: The list of national NGOs authorised by the Syrian Government to work with humanitarian partners includes 74 national NGOs working through 97 branches over the country. However, some priority governorates still have a very low number of national NGOs, e.g. Dar’a (2); Ar Raqqa (2); Deir Ez-Zor (3); Idlib (3); and Homs (7). The UN has requested to be able to partner directly with local NGOs. Currently, agreements with local NGOs must be submitted for approval, and this can take more than a month.

Targets: 2 December 2013 Empowered interlocutors immediately designated and engaging with the HC on an ongoing basis to implement the PRST. Written agreement that current 2 January 2014 Empowered interlocutors to engage with the HC on an ongoing basis to implement the PRST. 2 February 2014 Empowered interlocutors to engage with the HC on an ongoing basis to implement the PRST.

Designation of empowered interlocutors

Expediting humanitarian

INTERNAL AND CONFIDENTIAL convoys procedures replaced by notification from humanitarian organizations to Government of convoy movements for deconfliction. While Government advice will be taken into account, final determinations on whether convoys should proceed in insecure areas will be taken by the UN. All pending visas New visa protocol processed. agreed and implemented with MFA: standardization of multiple entries visas and length of visa granted according to contract duration. List of priority Government INGOs and INGO approve of INGO sub-office locations applications submitted for resulting in an approval by increased number Government. of NGOs, especially those with needed expertise on issues such as nutrition, health, wash, shelter, education, protection, etc.. Restrictive clauses in standard agreement between INGOs and SARC removed. Government to Government to approve additional authorize INGOs NGOs for and UN agencies to

Expediting and standardizing visa issuance for humanitarian staff

New visa protocol fully implemented for all new applications.

INGOs

NNGOs

INTERNAL AND CONFIDENTIAL operations in priority governorates: Dar’a; Ar Raqqa; Deir Ez-Zor; Idlib; and Homs. work directly with NNGOs, dropping requirement for Government to approve agreement resulting in an increased expansion of partnerships with NNGOs. Government to agree on expeditious processing procedure and customs clearance for humanitarian supplies, including dropping requirement for implementing partners to provide distribution plans.

Customs clearance

Government to clear pending customs clearance for communication tools, protective armoured vehicles and medical and surgical equipment.

Establishment of Establishment and humanitarian hubs operationalization of humanitarian hubs in at least three additional locations (e.g. Aleppo, Dara’a and Qamishly) to be approved. Approval of All humanitarian humanitarian projects pending projects approval with the Government to be immediately approved. Needs Implementation of Assessments countrywide needs assessment.

Government to provide blanket approval for projects implementing SHARP. Sharing of information by all parties on needs, numbers and profiling of affected people to inform updated responses and

Sharing of information by all parties on needs, numbers and profiling of affected people to inform updated responses and

INTERNAL AND CONFIDENTIAL programming. programming.

5. NON-REFOULEMENT The Security Council reaffirms the importance of the principle of non-refoulement and the right for refugees to return voluntarily to Syria and encourages neighbouring countries to protect all people fleeing the violence in Syria, including Palestinians. It urges all Member States, based on burden sharing principles, to support these countries in assisting refugees and affected communities. The Council underlines the need for all parties to respect and maintain the security and civilian character of camps for refugees and internally displaced persons. Baseline:  There are now more than 2.18 million Syrian refugees registered and/or assisted in neighbouring countries and North Africa reached over 2.15 million.  Monitoring and reporting mechanisms are in place in line with UNHCR’s international refugee protection mandate, not just in relation to neighbouring countries but also globally. Burden-sharing is key to ease the burden on immediately affected countries. UNRWA is closely monitoring issues related to protection of Palestine refugees. Targets: Non-refoulement Border crossings 2 December 2013 No cases of refoulement. Border crossings open in each neighbouring country to allow refugees to flee. 2 January 2014 No cases of refoulement. Border crossings open in each neighbouring country to allow refugees to flee. 2 February 2014 No cases of refoulement. Border crossings open in each neighbouring country to allow refugees to flee.

6. FUNDING The Security Council urges all Member States to respond swiftly to the United Nations’ humanitarian appeals and to ensure that all pledges are honoured in full. It further urges all Member States, in coordination with international financial institutions and United Nations agencies, to increase their support to address the increasing political, socioeconomic and financial impact of the refugee crisis on hosting countries. Baseline:  The Syria Humanitarian Assistance Response Plan (SHARP) and the Regional Refugee Response Plan (RRRP) require US$4.4 billion to address the needs of people in Syria and the region until December 2013. As of 17 October, these response plans are 56 per cent and 53 per cent funded, respectively. Projects of the SHARP addressing winterization will be put forward for urgent funding at the onset of winter.

INTERNAL AND CONFIDENTIAL  During the 30 January 2013 Kuwait High-Level Pledging Conference for Syria, $1.54 billion was pledged, out of which over $1 billion (66 per cent) has been committed/contributed. New pledges for Syria and the region were made during September, amounting to about $1 billion including.

Targets: 2 December 2013 Comprehensive regional response to the Syria crisis, in support of neighbouring countries, to be finalized. 70% of funding for both SHARP and RRP received and winterization plan (under the SHARP) 75% funded. 2 January 2014 Comprehensive regional response to the Syria crisis, in support of neighbouring countries to be implemented. Preparations underway for highlevel pledging conference to fund 2014 response. Winterization projects Plan (under the SHARP) 85% funded. 2 February 2014

Comprehensive regional response

Funding

Winterization Plan (under the SHARP) fully funded.