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: : The tasks of preschool

, 2012

Content

1. Preschools as an institution Social care for children ............................................................. 3 2. Preschools as educational institutions ..................................................................................... 4 3. Complexity, interaction and complementarity of functions pre-school ............................... 6 4. Modern trends in pre-school opportunities for the development of institutions for social care for children ............................................................................................................................ 7 Literature ......................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

1. Preschools as an institution Social care for children

Historically, the beginnings of pre-schools were the asylums, orphanages for children without parents, and one of the original function (which is naturally linked to the previous) was downloading child care while parents are at work, or when conditions are unfavorable to the parental home for their the development. This has become particularly topical with industrialization, which is separated from the family circle of the first father and mother, and urbanization, which has changed the existing relations between the family and life-work environment, as well as previously established ways of living and raising children, especially younger ones. Educational function of pre-schools, which emphasize the classics, but preschool pedagogy, there was only later, and long been in the forefront, and often not even today, although it is given more attention. Preschools are treated as long kindergarten children in one period of their life, when - under the influence of bio-logistics wild theories about the development of the medical experts who have for some time had the final say in raising the children of early age - their task to organize a sort of vaulted hygiene regime. Led by its predominantly physiological and biological and mechanical aspects rational, medical experts are, recommended some impersonal, generalizing the statistical treatment of established small child "(Bergant,1969,50) For example, parents are advised that, should let the child more at peace, that the more sleep or to play with some toys for exercising the senses. From a hygienic point of move the use of pacifiers to soothe the child, as well as thumb sucking and stroking and fondling it seemed to them unnecessary. After six months, when the child is well seated, it should start getting used to the physical purity, as soon as possible to become physically clean...(Bergant,1969,50-51). The situation has changed significantly between the forties and fifties of this century when, under the influence of Freud's theories, and L works. K. Frank, A. Geza and B.Spock, the focus of the objectives of preschool settled the spread from the physical to the socio-emotional development. This also contributed to works by authors such as Hunt, Blum, Piaget, Skilz. All these changes were the result of complex social and historical conditions. Most of these conditions was the socio-political or psycho-pedagogical character, and their consequences are generally accepting of the idea that preschool is extremely rich in educational opportunities, expand the network of preschool institutions are associated with school education and upbringing. In addition to meeting the needs of families and children, pre-schools have an important role in the population policy of each country. In connection with the satisfaction of the needs of society for their own reproduction, Dr. Ana Gavrilovic believes that institutions should be directed to its development as follows:
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- To provide conditions for a permanent stay of each child which is necessary to the construction of buildings, adaptation of space, but also by initiating the establishment of private kindergartens and service delivery activities from preschool to private organizations and their involvement in the network of preschool institutions, in order to have the same status and were available to children under the same conditions as state institutions; - To become the pivot around which branch off other institutional forms to which they provide expertise and perform certain type of supervision the work of these institutional forms of care, protection, care and education of young children; - To provide the types of work and services for which families and children in need and to develop requirements for the types of services that the design; - To improve the organization and quality of objective evaluation and public communication of the results of evaluations; - To perform an advisory function in aspects of parenting, the children are brought to you professionally competent, and contemporary and different forms; - To develop their public activities and from the standpoint of certain educational and moral messages; - To inform their environment about a difficult demographic situation; - Take into account the increasing diversification of the situation and parents to monitor their supply needs that arise from it; - To animate a connection between parents and neighbors to organize certain types of assistance in connection with the children at the close of the local community, or the micro level of organization; - To enhance the realization of its social functions in terms of leveling the differences between children and creating opportunities for the development of their uniform; - That in exercise of the process of education and promote humane care for human values; - To the extent possible to encourage and mobilize others who may contribute to changing the very unfavorable situation in the development of the population. (Gavrilovic, 1998, 120).

2. Preschools as educational institutions

In addition to us since the founding of kindergartens as educational institutions shared by more than one hundred and fifty years, have long held prejudices about small opportunities for preschool children's acquisition of systematic education. In the period since 1930. to 1950. The psychologist and the teacher could see the lack of emphasis on children's learning (Spiker, 1969,
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362). Pre childhood is understood as a period when the child does not learn, so it should be left game how is, in their view, light, casual and fun activity for him, no more important for acquiring and processing experience. There were several reasons why the understanding of the possibilities for the development of preschool children and the whole attitude toward preschool childhood began to radically change the sixties. Are described in detail the stages of child development and attempts to explain the mechanisms of not only mental but also other aspects of development, particularly socioeconomic. That is the special role was Piaget whose development model used provided the starting point of numerous studies which have extended the limits of knowledge about childhood, as well as support the work of people involved in education and training at all levels. Psychological research survey data on which they rejected many of the ideas survived. Hunt them is summarized in the following claims: 1. A belief in fixed intelligence can no longer hold; 2. The development is far from being completely predetermined; 3. what happens between the receipt information and respond to it less like a process that takes place on a static telephone switchboard, a more active process of program formation in an electronic computer; 4. Experience programming the human brain-computer, and S. Freud was right in pointing out the importance of experience; 5. no matter, Freud was wrong about the nature of experience is important because it shows that the ability to see and hear many things more important than the fate full instinctive needs and impulses; 6.Learning need not be motivated by painful stimulation, or homeostatic needs based ontheir acquired motives, but there is intrinsic motivation, inherent in information process their use (1966, 60-61). Previous positions and hypotheses have led to the preschool set request to provide children a carefully planned and full of positive influences of environment, which will, no matter what the circumstances are the parental home, encouraged to develop their activities through the total potential to the fullest extent (Woodhead, 1979.10) In many on countries one of the main reasons to indicate greater attention to pre-school education was the need for extending the age limit to include the education system in both directions. It could not be achieved quite simply due to the separation and diversity of traditional pre-schools from the school regarding the status of institutional goals. Traditional preschools were criticized because of the above ideas for teachers, rather than to improve academic skills and abilities in children, wasting your time on games and entertainment. Avoiding any,, pressure "on the children do not use their considerable development potential, which later cannot compensate for" (Elkind, 1973, 109). However, despite all the reproaches the classic pre-school, there are some features of its permanent value, which in modern systems of preschool education are positively evaluated, and even accentuated, because they reflected the specificity of educational work with children of that age as a significant protection of threatening school these institutions, which arose after the
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inclusion in the educational system. The first of these characteristics is the recognition of children's creativity.

3. Complexity, interaction and complementarity of functions pre-school

Functions associated with preschool school activities are just one of the domains of action that preschools, in addition to educational, social and have more preventative health function. The purpose of the social function is to achieve social justice for children and creating the necessary conditions for an equal start in life, and preventive health and nutrition of children function to provide the conditions for healthy and normal growth and development of each child. These functions are intertwined and overlapping, and exercise in unity. Upbringing and education to ensure harmonious physical, mental, moral and aesthetic development, fosters creativity, children are introduced to the culture and prepare for successful participation in community and school. Care to maintain hygiene of children and meet the needs of children for sleep and nutrition, room air, and interaction in the process of care contributes to the overall development and socialization of the child. Preventive child care is medical methods preserves health and prevents disease by prophylaxis and treatment of all relevant factors endangering children's health. Nutrition of children in accordance with the principles dialects specific needs of children of early age provides enough quality food prepared in an appropriate manner, necessary for proper growth and development. Daily rest and sleep to cultivate a healthy way of life of children and encourage their proper physical and mental development. Remedial work with children with disabilities provides early detection, prevention and rehabilitation of disorders or delays in the development in accordance with the principles of special pedagogy. Social protection of children is provided to compensate for adverse impacts on the development of a different kind of vulnerability and deprivation, as well as priority in enrollment of children in an institution. Combining the aforementioned activities, preschool child should provide a favorable social and material environment with all the needs, requirements and incentives for the development of rich, varied and designed activities that children can engage in devotional, using their overall potential for the development of skills to effectively and constructively creative act, play, communicate and collaborate with peers and adults in the institution and beyond. In this environment children need to feel safe and accepted to be safe and relatively independently to investigate the world around them, gaining a positive experience that will be expressed through the inclination and ability to actively participate in community life and work of children and teachers, what is the educational group. In this general activation of the child and, especially, in his self-training, and join action, as well as for social life, we see the most important pedagogical
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function kindergarten institution. To establish where the children were coming to meet their needs for social living, communication, play and knowledge, it is in their good organization to create an appropriate environment. It should start from what children corresponds to the parental home, and to the corner in which you can squeeze and play, alone or daydream mimic activities of adults. They need their own space where they feel safe and undisturbed, where they can meet their needs for movement and creative research, the independent research (in particular for playing, experimenting and exploring their own strengths and opportunities), hygiene needs, needing rest, needs to live in the community, and the need for broader contacts with their social and natural environment. Certainly, the way it educates the institution must not be very different from education in the family and the position that the child is given the whole of society and today's civilization. It is known that due to modern life and work of children grow up in a kind of isolation, more influenced by the limitations and prohibitions of all kinds, but encouraged to freely develop and learn. Children are both employed more than they ever were, and have little opportunity to practice and develop divergent and creative thinking and behavior, which aimed to stifle the pressures of conforming to adults and their circumstances that they created. Because preschool should to some extent an oasis, a refuge for children in which to take care of their unmet needs and to replace what they lack in the family and immediate surroundings, not separating them, however, from everyday life that are prepared and whose are active participants.

4. Modern trends in pre-school opportunities for the development of institutions for social care for children
Preschool, as is understood in relation to earlier periods of its development, given the new content, meaning and function. Deviating significantly from its original meaning, that of binding only for the period of childhood pre-school, but extends the period of the birth of a child to school, which brings into question his whole name. In order to comprehend the specific physiognomy of pre-schools, we should start from their main purpose to organize the coexistence of young children, with the aim to completely or not based on the model of school (which are not similar because of the special characteristics of the psychosocial development of children), or modeled the family (of which differ considering the number of children ages that gather personal).During debate on the function of pre-school education should not forget its ultimate purpose-the continuous improvement of conditions for development and learning that will be in the interest of each child, taking into account the current environment and its future development. It is therefore considered that the nursery should be primarily to serve the child only after a family and school. It cannot be a substitute for family or her role is limited to preparation for school. Its main value lies in that it allows the child to
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actively participate in the community of children similar to themselves in conditions that are adapted to it, capabilities, interests and developmental needs. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child Discussing the function of pre-school institutions, the European Council took the view that the policy pursued in the field of preschool education, it must be primarily directed at wellchild ", because in our society all categories of adults have rights and tend to expand while small children have no rights and their life has constantly to adapt to those right six tended to adults apply. it is generally known that the rights of children is sometimes in conflict with the rights of parents and educators such as in the case of adjustment of working time pre-schooltime parents, but not and needs of children. in the field of family policy, child directed, will enable the pre-school education is organized according to the good of the child, not as a convenience for the adults. it will be possible to change perceptions of the preschool institution to replace the family in case you cannot in all respects play a role in the understanding of pre-school institutions as an essential supplement school education which are intended for all children "(Report, 1976,11,20) Particular attention should be paid to the quality of teachers, of which largely depends on the success of educational work. In the nursery would not be reduced to kindergarten, needed are well-prepared teachers are ready to meet existing needs, but also to cope with different situations and changes that may occur in the future. However, after the completion of respective school their education to continue to be continually updated with new scientific developments in educational and other related scientific disciplines, particularly psychology, sociology, neurology, biology ... Also, it is necessary to change the existing situation in which the staff employed in kindergartens mainly females. To atmosphere in these institutions more like a family, to hire more men. Greater attention should be paid to children exposed to various forms of social and cultural deprivation in towns and sparsely populated areas. Compensatory action in order to improve them is necessary to establish greater cooperation between the pre-school, family and social environment, children that will facilitate adjustment to institutional conditions. Increasingly recognizes the importance of the role that these institutions can play in pedagogical education and informing parents. It is possible to significantly expand their social function and not restricted only to children of certain ages, located in the institution. It is believed that parents can help to improve their living conditions and the growth of their children and to provide significant support to the efforts being made in pedagogical-educational institution. Finally, it became clear that the developing system of education of preschool children overcome the stage at which knowledge is acquired by trial and error as well as measures for its improvement should be undertaken more quickly and reliably. Despite the fact that there are good examples in some countries, they are not transferable to other countries because of different
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historical, geographical, economic, political and other conditions. Therefore, the required experiments and other forms of scientific research to changes in pre-school education took place on the basis of reliable modern discoveries about children's learning and development opportunities and an optimal effect on them.(Mialaret, 1975, 63-66).

Literature

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