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Running head: BIOLOGY

Biology An Assignment Submitted by Name of Student Name of Establishment Class XXXX, Section XXXX, Summer, 2012

BIOLOGY Biology 1. A 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. C 6. C 7. D 8. D 9. D 10. A 1. The term cancer is used to identify the group of diseases, characterised by abnormal and uncontrollable cell division, which later invades human body tissues (NCI, 2012). Currently, cancer is among leading causes of death in USA and in the world. According to some assessments, nearly one half of all Northern Americans are supposed to develop cancer in next few years (Hardin,, 2012). Obviously, understanding the origin of cancer is initial and one of the most significant steps in working out effective mechanism of disease control. The mechanism of cancer is still understudied. It is known, though, that all types of cancer appear in cells initially. The damage of cell DNA material results in uncontrolled cells division, which do not die, when the new cells are formed. Thus, these extra cells form tumours, which are not always cancerous, though, can be benign or malignant (NCI, 2012).

BIOLOGY Analysing cancer mechanism, it is easy come to conclusion that cancer is more often expected to arise from frequently divided cell; while, the cells, which divide rarely, or do not divide at all, are less likely to become the substance for cancer appearance. Other evidence, which can prove the idea, is cancer statistics, according to which, there are more than 100 different types of cancer (NCI, 2012), the main categories of which include carcinoma (begins in skin or tissues covering internal organs), sarcoma (most often, begins in connective or supportive tissues), leukaemia (begins in bloodforming tissue), and lymphoma (begins in the cells of immune system). All the mentioned types of cells are characterised by quick division, again proving the hypothesis that cancer most often arises from frequently divided cells. 2. The technique of genetic fingerprinting was discovered in 1984 in the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester by the Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys (UoL, 2012). Genetic fingerprinting (or DNA profiling) is the technique, which helps to reveal differences (polymorphisms) between the DNA of different individuals (Watts, 2000). Among the most obvious advantages of DNA profiling one can mention the following: 1. It can help to determine, if two DNA samples belong to the same person (Watts, 2000). Currently, this method is broadly used in forensics. 2. It can help to determine family relationships. 3. DNA profiling can help to trace gene flow between populations, thus, assisting in management and conservation of endangered species (Watts, 2000). 4. Can assist in tracing the inheritance of particular chromosomes, which can help to monitor and control genetic diseases.

BIOLOGY It must be admitted, though, that the problem of genetic fingerprinting, including obligatory DNA profiling, is a widely disputed issue, as it implies answering the number of ethical question, including the following: 1. The shared nature and ownership of genetic information (Barlow-Stewart, 2007). This ethical issue implies the idea that doctors should find reasonable balance between confidentiality and prevention of harm to others (Barlow-Stewart, 2007). For example, when applying DNA profiling to determine family relationship, the question, who the received information should be provided to, is often a disputable one. 2. Genetic tests seldom provide accurate information, which a person can use to make the final decision, as an individual is much more th an the sum of their genes (Barlow-Stewart, 2007). Thus, the use of such testing should be limited to reasonable minimum; 3. Inappropriate application of DNA profiling, as well as its use for discrimination is another problem area of genetic fingerprinting. Thus, in spite of its apparent benefits, the technique of DNA profiling has the number of disputable issues, mainly of ethical character. The misuse of information received also raises the question of who should have access to the information. So, until all the problem areas are resolved and all the questions are answered, the issue of general fingerprinting should not be raised.

BIOLOGY References Barlow-Stewart, K. (2007). Some Ethical Issues in Human Genetics. The Australian Genetics Resource Book (8 th ed.). Centre for Genetics Education. Hardin, Bertoni & Kleinsmith (2012). Beckers World of the Cells (8 th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc. National Cancer Institute (NCI). Defining Cancer. Retrieved, (June 5, 2012). University of Leicester (UoL). Alec Jeffreys and Genetic Fingerprinting. Retrieved, Watts, P. (2000). What Is Genetic Fingerprinting? Retrieved, (June 5, 2012)