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Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Origins of the healthy city How architecture and urbanism can contribute to public health A collection of strategies, theories and philosophies, 1750-2000

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Statistics (18th century): Mortality in rural areas: 1 / 40 Mortality in cities: 1 / 25

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Hundreds of country estates...

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Hygienic revolution: sewage, water supply: a fundamental reversal Note: tremendous growth of the urban administration Note: contradicts the dominant political philosophy of Laissez-Faire liberalism Note: results in healthier cities

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

September 17: Enlightenment & Hygienic Revolution

W.N. Rose Waterproject Rotterdam

1843 -

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Crowning the hygienic revolution in the Netherlands: *the Public Housing Law of 1901 -assessment of existing housing conditions -specifications for new public housing nieuwe volkshuisvesting -financial regulations -Very close link between Public Housing and Urbanism *the Public Health Law of 1901 -introduction of municipal health committees made up of medical doctors and architects

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

H.P. Berlage Amsterdam Southern Expansion Plan, 1917: Public Housing as the Heart and Soul of the City

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architects and Urbanists as Medical Doctors... Best Cases

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1918-1924 Symptoms: diseases related to living and working conditions; alcohol, overburdening

Diagnosis: housing shortage, lack of leisure time, lack of recreation facilities, chaotic conditions thanks to the lack of zoning

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Therapy 1918-1924 Two models -the Garden City -the Compact City made up of Large-scale Urban blocks

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Therapy 1 1918-1924 -the Garden City

-Advantages: -inexpensive housing -green environment

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Therapy 2 1918-1924 -Tenement Blocks

-Advantages: -relatively inexpensive sewage and water supply systems -collective facilities

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1918-1924 In the meantime: 'Administrative revolution' -Office jobs in England: 0,8 %; in 1851, 7,2 % in 1921 Shift from physical to administrative jobs

Less hours of work More time for leisure and recreation

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1924-1944 Symptoms: diseases related to living and working conditions; alcohol, overburdening

Diagnosis housing shortage, lack of leisure time, lack of recreation facilities, chaotic conditions thanks to the lack of zoning, lack of scientific knowledge

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1924-1944 Therapy 1: Modernism: light, sun, fresh air; sports, leisure; elimination of everything that can be seen as superfluous

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Sports, Body Culture, Health...

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Public Housing

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

A sharp break with the past...

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Modern mythology: -Modernisms claim of being the first movement to promote health is untenable -Although the twentieth-century city can be classified as modern, this does not imply that it is necessarily healthy An attempt at reconstructing the links between architecture, urbanism and health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Therapy 2 1924-1944 -The Regional City

Advantages: -Based on Surveys -Harmonious interplay of Cities and Landscapes -Merger of Garden City Movement and Urban Reform Movement -Zoning: Cities with Offices, Administrative and Cultural Facilities; Industries near Infrastructure; Working Class Housing near Industries -Green Wedges -Typical for Holland: Landscape Conservation

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

W.G. Witteveen: General Expansion Plan for Rotterdam (1927)

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

C. van Eesteren, General Expansion Plan for Amsterdam (1934)

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

J.M. de Casserres: General Expansion Plan for Eindhoven

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

September 24: Public Housing, the Garden City, Tenement Blocks, Modernism, the Regional City

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1924-1944 In the meantime: Founding in 1928 of the Congrs Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM) Propaganda for the functional (healthy) city Chartres d'Athenes: separation of living, working, recreation and traffic

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1924-1944 In the meantime: Depression Mass Unemployment (and mass recreation) Segregation & desintegration Processes of improving hygiene and providing public housing virtually stop

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1924-1944 (In the meantime:) Emergence of totalitarianism End of European modernism

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime: World War II -Casualties: .Sovjet Union: 23.954.000 .China: 15.000.000 .Germany 7.728.000 .Poland 5.720.000 .Engeand .United States .Netherlands 449.800 418.500 301.000

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime: World War II -Destruction

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1944-1960 Symptomen: diseases related to living and working conditions; alcohol, overburdening, mental disruption, existential crisis Diagnosis: housing shortage, lack of leisure time, lack of recreation facilities, chaotic conditions thanks to the lack of zoning, lack of scientific knowledge, social isolation, living an incomplete life

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Therapy 1944-1960 Reconstruction -The Structured City (Housing as a catalyst for New Ways of Living) Advantages: -hierarchical composition -living in a green environment -more safety during air raids

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Therapy 1944-1960 Advantages: -the wholeness of life -functionalism vs. waste -living as an educational device -each level marked by a center

-Radical break with the previous concept: -end of landscape conversation -end of compact city ideals -Suburbia

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Population: facts & forecasts


5.000.000 / 50 (100.000) CBS ca. 1965, 2000: 20.000.000

7.500..000 / 35 (215.000)
Persons per family
1950: 3,93 1965: 3,30 2000: 2,30

Rijksdienst voor het National Plan ca. 1950: 1970: 12.000.000, 2000: 15.000.000

1.000.000 / 25 (40.000)

1946 forecasts: 10.178 housing units / year

CBS 1946: 1970: 10.638.880

1950 forecasts: 25.445 housing units / year


1965 forecasts: 65.151 housing units / year (actual numbers of newly built housing unites >60.000 / year since 1953: effects of shortages, slum clearance, replacement, etc.) (2011: 16 654 455) (forecast 2040: 17 840 780) (1.000.000 / 30: 34.483) (15.674)

12.377.000

10.114.000

9,423.000

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1944-1960 Therapy: Structured city / living Suburbia / commuting

Note: Radical cesure: -end of the compact city -end of landscape preservation

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Urbanization < 1950

Urbanization > 1950

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Explosion of private car ownership
1924: USA 142 / 1000 1 car for every 7 citiziens NL: 2,8 / 1000 1 / 350

End 1920s:
Wassenaar 53,5 / 1000 Zegwaard 36 / 1000 Moerkapelle 28 / 1000 Zoetermeer 28 / 1000 Den Haag 18,6 / 1000 Rotterdam 9,4 / 1000

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Explosion of private car ownership
A nightmare of urban planners *The car ruins the way cities are seen and experienced H.P. Berlage 1931: The city, that used to be the apix of culture with a soul of its own, has rapidly
turned into a moster that nobody can deal with. Because traffic, which is impossible to contain, ra es through it with an ever greater fury. Elbert Peets, 1937: The automobile has taken the city unto itself, destroying the possibilty of any full human experiencing the city as an esthetic whole (the dragon traffic)

*Planning -The car has no fixed tracks, follows no fixed timetables cannot be planned, defies rational settlement and zoning patterns Exception: Martin Wagner, 1929: 'Only the car can give the individual easy access to the
countryside, to nature, and to physical recuperation. The car liberates the inhabitants of the American metropolis from place and time

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

The Car!!!

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Consequences
Old urban centers are force to compete with surburban shopping facilities: -they are adopted for car use -increasing scale -tabula rasa urban renewal

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Most jobs are now office jobs (january 1981: >50% of all jobs in the US) Quickborner Team (Wolfgang & Eberhard Schnelle): invention of the office landscape

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Development of conditioned spaces (closed boxes): music, light, color Interior decoration of shops aims at manipulatint peoples feelings

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1960-1985 Symptoms: boredom & stress

There is nothing to do in suburbia

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Diagnosis 1960-1985 Conferences prove that in Suburbia -the number of ulcers increases by 40% -days lost by illness increase by 100% -30-50% of all complaints are of a pychosomatic nature and are caused by the environment -noise -housing shortage -collective housing typologies

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1960-1985 How bad is it? Living in Suburbia causes more mental diseases than experiencing an air raid in a historical city (1957)

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
The (myth) of living naturally (not bound by conventions and bourgeois ways of life) Counter culture: rebellion against an allegedly coercive society

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Dennendal: mentally retarded people live a more natural life than healthypeople clash counter culture / authorities

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Merger counter culture and youth movements (conflict of generations)

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Therapy 1960-1985 Therapy: the cozy city

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

F. van Klingeren, Karregat

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Inner cities: end of city formationprocesses

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Old neighborhoods: end of tabula rasa urban renewal kaalslagsanering

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Cauliflower housing estates: the car under control

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

October 1: Reconstruction, the structured city, the cosy city

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime: Economic crisis and the death of industry


Context: Economic Crisis, dying industries -Uneumployment 1984: 17 % (822.400 people, as opposed to 210.000 in 1979) -End of babyboom: 170.000 newborns in 1984, as opposed to 239.000 in 1970 -Public sector: 70 % in 1984, as opposed to 45 % in 1965 -Shipbuilding and textile industries largely lost The big change -Welfare State: redistribution of money to those in need of support -Global Capitalism: investment in economic sectors that are potentially strong; budget cuts in social security

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1985-2010
Symptoms: overburdening, existential crisis, social insecurity, dissatisfaction, concern about worldwide terrorism

Diagnosis: lack of individual means of expressions, lack of urbanity, lack of sustainability, lack of economic opportunities; unlimited connectivity, need to face the entire world

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

1985-2010 Therapie: The (re-)creative city

Advantages -The city as catalyst of economic activities -Culture as economic booster (<2005) -Identity as a distinguishing device in a global competition

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Inner cities: rewinding the processes of city formation

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Inner cities / new urbanity: strengtening perceived qualities

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Abandoned areas near inner cities: densification

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

New housing estates: Vinex

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Sustainability: human interventions should not have lasting effects on the ecology -sustainable building technologies -renewable energy (Note: catastrophic effects for the landscape and for architecture

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Sick Buildings: return of health problems that are associated with physical, material causes Computer: pollution, rsi

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Disadvantages of former innovations in offices: -flat hierarchy: less opportunities to get promoted -computer: software coerces employees -emergence of new office concepts Cycle of movement: 7 years Creative cells, fractals, guerilla workers

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Evidence Based Design: manipulation of the built environment in order to achieve specific results (especially in hospitals) -medical outcomes (length of stay, use of medicine -patient satisfaction ('litigation') -in urbanism: making people independenf of the car

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Global dimension of environmental problems -concept of 'footprints' Compensatory mechanisms: CO2 pollution compensated by forestation

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:
Healthy Ageing Most health problems > 40 Aim: extension of healthy

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Time where ageing starts: about 40... Present curve

Ideal curve

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Trends
A. Ageing starts earlier B. Life expectancy increases

Gezondheid en de moderne stad

Trends
Ageing starts at a a younger age Life expectancy is still increasing

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Strategies
A. Keep them out of the system B. Analyze the causes of ageing

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

B.

Analyze the causes of ageing

Eriba: European Research Institute on the Biology of Ageing

*genetic factors *Lifestyles -Environmental factors (back to the origins of modern healthcare

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

In the meantime:

Lifelines: data of 165.000 people who are monitored for at least 30 years Aim: analysis of the relations between lifestyles and ageing interest for the effects of architecture and urbanism

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

B.

Analyze the causes of ageing

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

October 8: the recreative city, the creative city, healthy cities, healthy ageing

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Summary Symptoms... Complaints related to the living en working environment, overburdening, boredom, stress, existential crises, dissatisfaction, lack of social security, etc.

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Summary Therapy... Garden cities/urban blocks; regional city, structured city, cosy city, recreative city, creative city, etc.

Architecture, Urbanism & Health

Architecture, Urbanism & Health


A long and continuous tradition