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41. IMPERFECT TENSE This past tense corresponds to "was, were or used to.

" This tense is used for repeated, continuous, or ongoing actions; as well as for verbs that describe background and circumstances, such as weather, time, and physical, mental, and emotional states. (Use the pass compos for actions that happened once and are done. !erbs that e"press mental and emotional states that are descriptive in nature are generally used in the imperfect more than the pass compos. These verbs are# aimer, avoir, croire, dtester, esprer, tre, penser, and prfrer. To form the stem, use the nous form of the present tense and drop the $ons. Then add these endings#
-ais -ais -ait // // // -ions -iez -aient /j/ /je/ //

The only e"ception is %tre for which you must use the stem t$, but still the same endings. !erb stems that end in $c must use a cedilla (& under the c to make it soft. !erb stems ending in $g keep the e before all forms e"cept nous and vous.
tre tais tais /et/ /et/ tions tiez taient /etj/ /etje/ /et/ manger mangions mangiez / mj/ /mje/

/et/ tait commencer / kms/ / commenais kms/ / commenait kms/ commenais commencions

/ / mangeais kms j/ m/ / commenciez /kmsje/ mangeais m/ / commenaien /kms/ mangeait m/ t

mangeaien /m/ t

voir, !evoir, Po"voir, Savoir, and #o"$oir These verbs change meanings, according to whether they are used in the imperfect or the pass compos.
Imperfect avoir devoir j'avais je devais I had j'ai eu I was supposed j'ai d to Pass Compos I got, received I must have, I had to (and did)

pouvoir je pouvais I was capable savoir je savais I knew

I was able to (and did), j'ai pu succeeded je n'ai pas pu I couldn't, failed j'ai su j'ai voulu je n'ai pas voulu I found out, discovered I tried, decided, insisted I refused

vouloir je voulais I wanted to

The imperfect tense is also used with these constructions#


tre en train de + infinitive to be in the middle of doing something

J'tais en train d'tudier quand vous tes I was (in the process of ) studying when arrivs! you arrived. tre sur le point de + infinitive aller + infinitive to be just about to do something I was just about to call you back. I was going to leave when the phone rang. I had just eaten, so I wasn't hungry anymore. J'tais sur le point de vous rappeler going to do something J'allais sortir quand le tlp!one a sonn venir de + infinitive Je venais de manger" alors je n'avais plus faim

to have just done something

4%. P& CES ' &ES EN!R(ITS


school bathroom locker drinking /ekl/ l'cole #f$ les toilettes #f$ /twalt/ le casier la fontaine /k#je/ /ftn/ universit" bank train station airport l'universit #f$ /"nivsite/ /bk/ la %anque la gare /ga/

l'aroport #m$ /aep/

fountain store

le magasin la librar" %i%lio#t!&que$ office le %ureau stadium le stade cafe le caf cafeteria la caftria movie theater le cinma church l'glise #f$ museum le muse pool la piscine countr"side la campagne beach la plage theater park restaurant hospital post office home cit" supermarket delicatessen le t!(tre le parc le restaurant l'!'pital #m$ la poste la maison la ville

/maga#/ /biblijtk/ /b"o/ /stad/ /kafe/ /kafeteja/ /sinema/ /egli#/ /m"#e/ /pisin/ /kpa/ /pla/ /tet/ /pak/ /st/ /pital/ /pst/ /m#/ /vil/

telephone

le tlp!one l'appartement apartment #m$ hotel l'!'tel #m$ village le village factor" l'usine #f$ garden le jardin castle le c!(teau cathedral la cat!drale #oo le zoo baker" la %oulangerie monument le monument pharmac" la p!armacie butcher la %ouc!erie shop cand" la confiserie store police la gendarmerie station town hall la mairie s%uare la place bookstore la li%rairie grocer" l'picerie #f$ store

/telefn/ /apat$m/ /otl/ /vila/ /"#in/ /ad/ /ato/ /katedal/ /#o/ /buli/ /mn"m/ /famasi/ /bui/ /kfi#i/ /dam($)i/ /mi/ /plas/ /libi/ /episi/

le /s"pmae/ pastr" shop la p(tisserie /ptisi/ supermarc! la c!arcuterie /ak"ti/ fish market la poissonnerie /pwasni/

'owadays, $a mdiat)*+"e (med)atk( is replacing biblioth*+ue because most libraries also have ,!,s and -,s to lend, not )ust books. .ou may also hear $a cantine (k/tin( to refer to the cafeteria in a school.

0isten to the $es ma,asins - . $a /o"$an,erie mp1 and try the clo2e (fill$in$the$blank e"ercise from 3rench 0istening 4esources. 40. TR NSP(RT TI(N

b" bike b" bus b" moped b" car b" motorc"cle b" subwa" on foot b" plane b" train b" boat

en vlo (m) en %us (m) en scooter (m) en voiture (f) en moto (f) en mtro (m) ) pied (m) en avion (m) en train (m) en %ateau (m)

/ velo/ / bus/ / skut&/ / vwat"/ / moto/ / meto/ /a pje/ / navj/ / t/ / bato/

5nstead of using a specific verb of movement (drive, fly, walk before a location, 3rench actually uses a more general verb 6 the location 6 the manner of movement. 5 walk to school. 7 1e vais . $2co$e . pied. (I go to school on foot.) 58m flying to 'ew .ork. 7 1e vais . Ne3 4or5 en avion. (I go to New York by plane.)

-ommon slang words for car(automobile are "ne /a,no$e (bal( or "ne caisse (ks(. 5n 9uebec, it8s "n c)ar (a(.

44. T( 6 NT 7 T( 8E 8&E T( vo"$oir (vulwa( $to want and po"voir (puvwa( $ to be able to, can
Present veu+ /v'/ voulez veut /v'/ veulent Imperfect /vule/ voulais /vul/ vouliez /v&l/ *uture /vulj/ voudrai /vud/ voudrons /vud/ /vulje/ voudras /vuda/ voudrez /vude/ voudra /vuda/ voudront /vud/

veu+ /v'/ voulons /vul/ voulais /vul/ voulions

voulait /vul/ voulaient /vul/

peu+ /p'/ pouvons /puv/ pouvais /puv/ pouvions /puvj/ pourrai /pu/ pourrons /pu/ peu+ /p'/ pouvez /puve/ pouvais /puv/ pouviez /puvje/ pourras /pua/ /pua/ pourrez /pue/ peut /p'/ peuvent /p&v/ pouvait /puv/ pouvaient /puv/ pourra pourront /pu/

Voulez-vous? can mean Do you want? or !ll you? The past participles are vo"$" and p" and both are con)ugated with avoir. The conditional forms of vouloir are used in the e"pression "would like" i.e. 58d like 7 9e vo"drais, you8d like 7 t" vo"drais, he8d(she8d like 7 i$'e$$e vo"drait, we8d like 7 no"s vo"drions, you8d like 7 vo"s vo"drie:, they8d like 7 i$s'e$$es vo"draient. : .ou do not need to use pouvoir after verbs that involve the senses, such as voir (to see and entendre (to hear . 1e ne vois pas ' 1e n2entends pas can mean I "on#t see or I can#t see $ I "on#t hear or I can#t hear depending on the conte"t. 4;. T<E <(=SE N! 4 R! ' & M IS(N ET &E 1 R!IN
(ouse *partment ,edroom (allwa" .itchen +toreroom +tairs 0loor -iving 2oom 4loset 2oom 5round 0loor la maison /m#/ )ard le jardin l'ar%uste #m$ le gazon , la pelouse le %uisson l'ar%re #m$ la tondeuse ) gazon le tu-au d'arrosage l'arrosoir #m$ le r(teau la %c!e le cisaille la pelle /ad/ /ab"st/ /ga#/ /p($)lu#/ /bis/ /ab/ /td&#aga#/ /tijodao#a/ /ao#a/ /to/ /b/ /si#j/ /pl/

l'appartement (m) /apat$m/ +hrub la c!am%re le couloir la cuisine le d%arras l'escalier (m) l'tage (m) le living , le salon la penderie la pi&ce le rez-de-c!ausse /b/ /kulwa/ /ki#in/ /debaa/ /skalje/ /eta/ /livi3/ /sal/ /pdi/ /pjs/ /dose/ -awn/grass ,ush /ree -awn mower (ose 1atering can 2ake (oe 4lippers +hovel

6ining 2oom la salle ) manger /salame/ +prinkler ,athroom la salle de %ains /errace, patio la terrasse *ttic le grenier 4himne" 2oof 5arage 6rivewa" +idewalk 7orch ,asement 4ellar la c!emine le toit le garage l'alle (f) le trottoir le porc!e le sous-sol la cave /sald$b/ /tas/ /g$nje/ /($)mine/ /tw/ /gaa/ /ale/ /ttwa/ /p/ /susl/ /kav/

l'arroseur #m$ -ock (door) la serrure -ock (bolt) le verrou 7adlock le cadenas la (inges c!arni&re .e" la cl le porte.e"chain cl le trou de .e"hole la serrure la poigne 6oorknob de porte les tuiles /ile roofing #f$ les 4lapboard/+hingle %ardeau+ #m$ l'ardoise +late roofing #f$

/ao#&/ /se"/ /vu/ /kadna/ /anj/ /kle/ /ptkle/ se"/ /pwaed$pt/ /til/ /bado/ /adwa#/

.ou may also see the words $a $o,,ia (ld)a( (small room off a large room $ sometimes like a pantry and $a veranda(ve/da( (enclosed porch(balcony , as well as $es toi$ettes (twalt( (a separate room )ust for the toilet , for parts of a house or apartment

4>. F=RNIT=RE N! PP&I NCES ' &ES ME=8&ES ET &2E&ECTR(MEN ?ER


0urniture +helf 6esk 4hair 6resser les meu%les l'tag&re (f) le %ureau la c!aise la commode /m&bl/ /eta/ /b"o/ /#/ /kmd/ /ido/ /tgl/ *ppliances /hermostat *ir 4onditioner 0an 2ocking chair +tool 4ushion l'lectromnager /elktomenae/ /tmsta/ le t!ermostat le climatiseur le ventilateur le fauteuil ) %ascule le ta%ouret le coussin /klimati#&/ /vtilat&/ /fot&jabask"l/ /tabu/ /kus/

4urtain le rideau 4urtain rod la tringle

+hutters ,linds 1indow ,ed 6oor 4loset 2ug -amp :ightstand *nswering machine +tereo

les volets #m$ les stores #m$ la fentre le lit , le plumard la porte le placard

/vl/ /st/ /f$nt/ /li/ /pl"ma/ /pt/ /plaka/

4arpet 8i9er / ,eater ,lender

/mkt/ la moquette le /bat&elktik/ %atteur lectrique /miks&/ le mi+eur

4an opener l'ouvre-%o.tes #m$ /uv$bwat/ /oaster 4offee maker 4offee press .ettle +heet ,lanket 8attress le grille-pain la cafti&re le moulin ) caf la %ouilloire le drap la couverture /gijp/ /kaftj/ /mul na kafe/ /bujwa/ /da/ /kuvt"/

le tapis /tapi/ /lp/ la lampe la ta%le de nuit /tabld$ni/ le rpondeur la c!a.ne !i fi /epd&/ /n i fi/

le matelas /matla/ les lits superposs /televi#j/ /lis"ppo#e/ /elevision la tl#vision$ ,unkbeds #m$ ;42 le magntoscope /maetskp/ -ightswitch l'interrupteur #m$ /te"pt&/ 2emote la /telekmd/ /abau/ -ampshade l'a%at-jour #m$ 4ontrol tlcommande /bin/ 4omputer l'ordinateur (m) /dinat&/ 0aucet le ro%inet /adjo/ /kanali#asj/ 2adio la radio 6rain/7iping la canalisation /figo/ 0ridge le frigo /owel bar le porte-serviettes /ptsvjt/ / -aundr" /bdi/ 2efrigerator le rfrigrateur la %uanderie efieat&/ room /avl/ 0ree#er le conglateur /kelat&/ ,leach la javel (4offee) -aundr" la ta%le #%asse$ /tabl bas/ le panier ) linge /panje a l/ /able basket /ps a l/ +ink l'vier (m) /evje/ 4lothespin la pince ) linge la mac!ine ) /mainalave/ 1ashing /bwa/ ,athtub la %aignoire laver , le lave8achine /lavl/ linge 4lothes /ki#inj/ /sl/ +tove la cuisini&re le s&c!e-linge 6r"er /fu/ <ven le four Iron le fer ) repasser /fa$pase/ Ironing la planc!e ) /pla$pase/ 6ishwasher le lave-vaisselle /lavvsl/ board repasser le four ) micro/fuamikod/ (anger /st/ 8icrowave le cintre ondes /du/ +hower la douc!e ;acuum l'aspirateur #m$ /aspiat&/

7illow 8irror 4eiling 0loor *rmchair 4lock ,edspread ;ase

l'oreiller le miroir le plafond le planc!er le fauteuil la pendule le couvre-lit le vase

/je/ /miwa/ /plaf/ /ple/ /fot&j/ /pd"l/ /kuv$li/ /v#/ /lavabo/ /klik klak/

,room 6ustpan 8op 5arbage 5arbage bag 5arbage can 0l"swatter 4lothes 6r"er (air 6r"er

le %alai la pelle la serpilli&re les ordures #f$ le sac pou%elle la pou%elle la tapette ) mouc!e le sc!oir

/bal/ /pl/ /spij/ /d"/ /sakpubl/ /publ/ /taptamu/ /sewa/

,athroom le lava%o sink 0uton couch le clic-clac

le s&c!e-c!eveu+ /sea$v'/

4ouch/+ofa le canap , le sofa /kanape/ /sfa/ 6;6 7la"er le lecteur de /0/ /lkt&d$devede/

Monte $e son. ' 8aisse $e son. Turn up the volume. ( Turn down the volume. $$"me $a $"mi*re. ' Eteinds $a t$. Turn on the light. ( Turn off the television. 4@. C(MP R TI#ES 7 S=PER& TI#ES
Comparatives aussi (adj or adv) que moins (adj or adv) que plus (adj or adv) que plus de (noun) que autant de (noun) que moins de (noun) que as (adj or adv) as less (adj or adv) than more (adj or adv) than more (noun) than as man" (noun) as less (noun) than

1ample 1entences =lle est plus grande +he is taller than 4olette! que 4olette! >e suis plus intelligente I am smarter than "ou! que toi! 7eter runs less %uickl" 7ierre court moins rapidement than me! quemoi! /he kitchen is as big as -a cuisine est aussi grande

the living room! I have more books than she! 1e have as man" cars as he!

que le salon! >'ai plus de livres qu'elle! :ous avons autant de voitures que lui!

!erbs can also be compared with plus$auss!$%o!ns (& 'ue)# 5l travaille moins +"8elle. ;e works less than she. 5ls dorment p$"s. They sleep more. S"per$atives <imply add le, la or les before the comparative if you are using an ad)ective. =ith adverbs, always use le. >fter a superlative, de is used to mean in. 5f the ad)ective follows the noun, the superlative follows the noun also, surrounding the ad)ective.
1ample 1entences It's the biggest cit" in the 4'est la plus grande ville du world! monde! +he is the most beautiful =lle est la plus %elle femme woman in this room! de cette salle! /his neighborhood is the 4e %uartier est le moins least e9pensive in 7aris! c!er de 7aris! It's the most dreaded 4'est la punition la plus punishment in the world! redouta%ledu monde! +he works the most =lle travaille le plus courageousl" of ever"one! courageusement de tous!

5n 3rench, sometimes you don8t use any articles, as compared to ?nglish# P$"s &a change, p$"s c8est la m%me chose. (he more things change, the more they stay the same. 4A. IRRE?=& R F(RMS

2djective %on mauvais petit good bad small 2dver% %ien mal peu well badl" little %eaucoup much

Comparative meilleur,e better pire moindre worse less

1uperlative le,la meilleur,e le,la pire best worst

le,la moindre least 1uperlative le mieu+ le plus le pis le moins best most worst least

Comparative mieu+ plus pis moins better more worse less

@nly use the irregular forms of mauvais in the abstract sense. 5f the idea is concrete, you may use plus(moins mauvais and le(la mauvais. 4B. C&(T<IN? ' &ES #ETEMENTS
pajamas jewelr" necklace jeans pants sweater turtleneck raincoat blouse bra slip coat tennis shoes swimsuit shorts bracelet charm t?shirt hat le p-jama le %ijou le collier le jean le pantalon le pull le col roul l'imperma%le #m$ le c!emisier le soutien-gorge le jupon le manteau des tennis #m$ le maillot de %ain le s!ort le %racelet le porte-%on!eur le tee-s!irt le c!apeau bo9er shorts briefs panties tu9edo bowtie vest/cardigan flip flops sleeve pocket decorative scarf man's suit woman's suit slippers jacket underwear gloves mittens belt cap le caleon le slip la culotte le smo3ing le n4ud papillon le gilet les tongs la manc!e la poc!e la foulard le costume le tailleur des pantoufles #f$ le %louson les sous-vtements les gants #m$ les moufles #f$ la ceinture la casquette

ring chain earrings pin sock shoe man's shirt hooded jacket sneakers track suit si#e (clothes)

la %ague la c!a.nette les %oucles d'oreilles #f$ l'pingle #f$ la c!aussette la c!aussure la c!emise l'anora3 des %as3ets le jogging la taille

skirt dress sandal boots bla#er/coat scarf tie slipper shoes high heels long shorts si#e (shoes)

la jupe la ro%e la sandale des %ottes #f$ la veste l'c!arpe #f$ la cravate des c!aussons des escarpins le %ermuda la pointure

&es /as (stockings and $es co$$ants (tights are popular in 3rance. C)a"ss"res . ta$ons )a"ts are high$heeled shoes, while c)a"ss"res . ta$ons p$ats are flat shoes. C)a"ss"res de vi$$e are dress shoes. > slang word forclothes is $es frin,"es. ;C. T( 6E R
5ettre ,mt, - to put" to put on" 6ear Present mets /m/ mettez met Imperfect /mte/ mettais /mt/ mettiez *uture /mtje/ mettras /mta/ mettrez /mte/ mets /m/ mettons /mt/ mettais /mt/ mettions /mtj/ mettrai /mt/ mettrons /mt/ /m/ mettent /mt/ mettait /mt/ mettaient /mt/ mettra /mta/ mettront /mt/

@ther verbs that are con)ugated like mettre# promettre $ to promise and permettre $ to permit. The past participle of mettre is mis and it is con)ugated with avoir. Porter is actually the verb to wear, but the 3rench use %ettre also. I$ ' E$$e te va /ien. I$ ' E$$e vo"s va /ien. I$s ' E$$es te vont /ien. 5t looks good on you. (informal 5t looks good on you. (formal They look good on you. (informal

I$s ' E$$es vo"s vont /ien. ;1. F=T=RE TENSES- SIMP&E

They look good on you. (formal N! NTERI(R

The futur simple e"presses an action that w!ll take place Awill 6 infinitiveB. The futur antrieur e"presses an action thatw!ll have taken place before another future action Awill have 6 past participleB. The future tense is used )ust like it is in ?nglish, however, in 3rench, the future is always used after +"and or $ors+"e (when , d*s +"e or a"ssitDt +"e (as soon as and tant +"e (as long as. To form the future tense, use the infinitive and add these endings that resemble those of avoir. ;owever, you drop the $e from $re verbs.
-ai -as -a parler parlerai parlerons parleras parlerez parlera parleront // /a/ /a/ -ons -ez -ont / /e/ // perdre perdrai perdrons perdras perdrez perdra perdront

choisir c!oisirai c!oisirons c!oisiras c!oisirez c!oisira c!oisiront

>nd of course, there are e"ceptions. ;ere are the irregular stems for the future tense (these will also be used in the conditional tense #
Irregular 1tems aller avoir courir devoir envo"er @tre faire falloir mourir iraurcourrdevrenverrserferfaudrmourrpleuvoir pouvoir recevoir savoir tenir valoir venir voir vouloir pleuvrpourrrecevrsaur? tiendrvaudrviendrverrvoudr-

serai seras sera

tre serons serez seront

j'irai iras ira

aller irons irez iront

(t)er eEceptions- 3or appeler and )eter, double the consonant. 3or nettoyer and payer, change the y to i. 3or acheter, add an accent grave. 3or prfrer, the accents all remain the same.
jeter jetterai jetteron s payer paierai paieron s acheter ac!&tera ac!&teron i s ac!&tera ac!&terez s ac!&tera ac!&teron t pr f rer prfrera prfreron i s prfrera prfrerez s prfrera prfreron t

jetteras jetterez jettera jetteron t

paiera paierez s paiera paieron t

To form the f"t"r antrie"r (will have 6 past participle , use the future of either avoir or %tre (whichever the main verb takes and the past participle of the main verb. F"and i$s reviendront, i$s a"ront c)an,. =hen they come back, they will have changed. !*s +"2i$s seront reven"s, i$s vo"dront repartir. >s soon as they have returned, they will want to leave again. ;%. PRECE!IN? 7 P&=R & !1ECTI#ES
*djective beautiful good dear +ingular %eau #%el$ %on c!er 5asculine 7lural %eau+ %ons c!ers *eminine +ingular 7lural %elle %elles %onne %onnes c!&re c!&res

cra#" nice big large "oung prett" long bad better, best soft new little old

fou #fol$ gentil grand gros jeune joli long mauvais meilleur mou #mol$ nouveau #nouvel$ petit vieu+ #vieil$

fou+ gentils grands gros jeunes jolis longs mauvais meilleurs mou+ nouveau+ petits vieu+

folle gentille grande grosse jeune jolie longue mauvaise meilleure molle nouvelle petite vieille

folles gentilles grandes grosses jeunes jolies longues mauvaises meilleures molles nouvelles petites vieilles

The masculine singular and plural are pronounced the same, as are the feminine singular and plural. These are the most common ad)ectives that go before the noun. >n acronym to remember which ones go before the noun is C4>D<# Ceauty, 4esemblance (m%me and autre , >ge(@rder (premier and dernier , Doodness, and <i2e. >ll other ad)ectives, e"cept numbers, go after the noun. The five words in parentheses (/e$, fo$, mo$, no"ve$, and viei$ are used before masculine singular words beginning with a vowel or a silent h. > few ad)ectives can be used before or after the noun, and the meaning changes accordingly. =hen used before the noun, they take a figurative meaning; and when used after, they take a literal meaning. Cefore plural ad)ectives preceding plural nouns, you use de instead of "es to mean some. ?"# <ome old monuments. De v!eu) %onu%ents. ;0. !1ECTI#ES- F(RM TI(N (F FEMININE

>lmost all ad)ectives must agree in number and gender with the noun they modify. Eost ad)ectives are given in the masculine form, so to change to the feminine forms, follow these rules#

*dd -e If it alread" ends in ?e, add nothing -+ changes to -se

5asculine %run fatigu jeune gnreu+

*eminine %rune fatigue jeune gnreuse fausse rousse douce naturelle inqui&te muette coquette Italienne c!&re active %lanc!e pu%lique grecque longue menteuse cratrice infrieure paisse favorite fra.c!e

2djective brown tired "oung generous false red (hair) sweet, soft natural worried silent st"lish Italian dear, e9pensive active white public 5reek long liar creator inferior thick favorite fresh, cool

!"ceptions# fau+ rou+ dou+ -il" -el" and -eil change to -ille" -elle, and -eille -et changes to -&te naturel inquiet !"ceptions# muet coquet -en and -on change to -enne and -onne -er changes to -&re -f changes to -ve -c changes to -c!e Italien c!er actif %lanc !"ceptions# pu%lic grec long menteur crateur infrieur pais favori frais

-g changes to -gue -eur changes to -euse if adjective is derived from verb -eur changes to -rice if adjective is not same as verb -eur changes to -eure with adjectives of comparison *nd a few completel" irregular onesA

;4. F(RMIN? P&=R &S-

!1ECTI#ES

To form the fe%!n!ne plural, )ust add an Gs, unless it already ends in an

s, then add nothing. To form the %ascul!ne plural, )ust add an G s, e"cept in these cases# Ga$ becomes Ga"E (e)cept!ons* banal banals+ f!nal - f!nals); and if it ends in an " or s already, add nothing. ,ascul!ne -!ngular nationa$ ,nra$ /e%!n!ne -!ngular nationa$e ,nra$e ,ascul!ne .lural nationa"E ,nra"E /e%!n!ne .lural nationa$es ,nra$es

national general national general

>nd of course there are more e"ceptions... some ad)ectives are invariable and do not have feminine or plural forms. -ompound ad)ectives, such as /$e" c$air (light blue and vert fonc (dark green , ad)ectives that are also nouns, such as or (gold , ar,ent (silver , marron (chestnut , and the words c)ic (stylish , /on marc) or mei$$e"r marc)(ine"pensive never change. ;;. M(RE !1ECTI#ES
short (length) elegant tight, narrow several pointed bright cute perfect read" sad court,e different diffrent,e situated big curious situ,e gros,se curieu+,euse boring cra#" interesting sensitive ennu-eu+,euse fou,folle intressant,e sensi%le sportif,sportive ttu,e timide travailleur,euse optimiste pessimiste tolrant,e

loud, nois" %ru-ant,e lgant,e troit,e plusieurs pointu,e vif,vive mignon,ne parfait,e prt,e triste

nervous nerveu+,euse athletic onl" seul,e stubborn sh" hard? working optimistic pessimistic tolerant amusing amusant,e touching mouvant,e funn" heav" careful dr'le" marrant,e lourd,e prudent,e

clever la#" generous famous

malin,maligne dirt" paresseu+,euse tired gnreu+,euse cl&%re angr" old

sale fatigu,e f(c!,e (g,e

pretentious ambitious pleasant enthusiastic honest

prtentieu+,euse am%itieu+,se agra%le ent!ousiaste !onnte

anno"ed irrit,e

decorated dcor,e

4emember the first word is the masculine and the second is the feminine. The addition of an e for the feminine form allows the last consonant to be voiced. These ad)ectives go after the noun. 'ormally, the verb rendre means to give something that you owe to someone, such as (n rend ses devoirs a" professe"r. 5t can also be used in the sense of to represent. Cut rendre 6 ad)ective means to make someone or something 6 ad)ective. T" me rends si )e"re"se H .ou make me so happyF &e fait +"2i$ ne poss*de pas de voit"re $e rend triste. The fact that he doesn8t have a car makes him sad.

<ome common slang ad)ectives that are used constantly in everyday speech# c)o"ette great, good con ' conne stupid, dumb d/i$e idiotic d,"e"I$asseJ disgusting, bad eEtra e"traordinary ,nia$ very interesting impec perfect mina/$e mediocre moc)e ugly, unpleasant sensass sensational s"per marvellous sKmpa nice, pleasant tarte inane ridiculous, tocard deplorable

The intensifiers vac)ement and drD$ement are also used often, meaning very or really.

I$ est vac)ement sKmpa. 7 ;e is really nice. E$$e est drD$ement triste. 7 <he is very sad. 0isten to the $e caract*re - "ne 9e"ne fi$$e tr*s )e"re"se mp1 and try the clo2e (fill$in$the$blank e"ercise from 3rench 0istening 4esources. ;>. PR(8&EM #ER8S <ome verbs in 3rench present problems because they have several translations in ?nglish. @ther verbs can have several translations in 3rench, but fewer meanings in ?nglish. visiter $ to visit places rendre visite . $ to visit people apporter $ to bring things to some place emporter $ to take things from some place amener $ to bring someone to some place emmener $ to take someone from some place apprendre +"e$+"e c)ose $ to learn something apprendre +"e$+"e c)ose . +"e$+"2"n $ to teach someone something rencontrer $ to meet faire $a connaissance de $ to meet someone for the first time retro"ver $ to meet (for an appointment partir $ to leave (from or for a place +"itter $ to leave (a person or place sortir $ to go out s2en a$$er $ to go away $aisser $ to leave something behind reto"rner $ to go back (to where speaker is not revenir $ to come back (to where speaker currently is rentrer $ to come or go home rendre $ to return or give something back

faire $ to make fa/ri+"er $ to produce o/$i,er $ to make someone do something rendre $ to make someone 6 ad)ective : >fter some verbs, the word ne is re+uired, but this does not imply negation# craindre, redoLter, empc)er 1e crains +"2i$ ne fasse trop froid. 58m afraid that it8s too cold. : >nd a few verbs only re+uire ne and not pas in the negative, but this is elevated or literary language# cesser, oser, po"voir, savoir 1e ne pe"E vivre sans toi. 5 cannot live without you. ;@. C2EST ' I& EST M !1ECTI#E M ' !E M INFINITI#E

C2est M ad9ective M . M infinitive is used when the idea has already been mentioned; while i$ est M ad9ective M de M infinitive is used when the idea has not yet been mentioned. >lso, the c2est construction is used when you do not use a direct ob)ect after the infinitive of the transitive verb, and the i$ est construction is used when you do. EstGce +"2on pe"t apprendre $e c)inois en "n an N -an you learn -hinese in one yearG Non, c'est impossible apprendre en "n an H 'o, it8s impossible to learn in one yearF (The idea, -hinese, has already been mentioned, and there is no direct ob)ect. @4# Non, il est impossible d'apprendre $e c)inois en "n an H (This sentence contains the direct ob)ect after the infinitive. Il est facile d'apprendre $2ita$ien. 5t is easy to learn 5talian. (The idea has not already been mentioned, and the direct ob)ect is used. : >d)ectives that e"press a certain emotion re+uire de before the infinitive# content, dso$, f"rie"E, )e"re"E, triste 1e s"is contente de vo"s voir. 5 am happy to see you. : @ther ad)ectives re+uire . before the infinitive# a,ra/$e, pni/$e, terri/$e, am"sant, intressant, enn"Ke"E, $,er, $o"rd, $ent,

rapide, premier, dernier, prt, se"$ I$ est prt . partir. ;e is ready to leave. 0 longer l!st of a"1ect!ves that re'u!re 2 or "e before an !nf!n!t!ve can be foun" at 91. on French V. : 5n addition, when +"e$+"e c)ose is followed by an ad)ective, de is inserted between the two. +"e$+"e c)ose d2intressant 7 something interesting ;A. SP(RTS 7 INSTR=MENTS
+occer (ocke" 0ootball ,asketball ,aseball (orse?back riding /ennis +kiing ;olle"ball 1restling >ogging Ice?skating +wimming /rack and 0ield ,owling le foot%all le !oc3ele foot%all amricain le %as3et le %ase-%all l'quitation7 du c!eval le tennis le s3i le vollela lutte , le catc! le jogging le patin ) glace la natation l'at!ltisme le %o6ling +oftball 5olf ,ic"cling +urfing 6irt/8otor biking 0rench horn violin guitar drum tuba flute trombone clarinet cello harp le soft%all le golf le vlo le surf le %icross le cor d'!armonie le violon la guitare le tam%our le tu%a la flte le trom%one la clarinette le violoncelle la !arpe

3a lutte !s regular wrestl!ng (the real 4reco-5o%an sport)6 wh!le le catch !s profess!onal$fake wrestl!ng. Faire de M a sport means to play. 1o"er . M a sport also means to play, as does 9o"er de M an instr"ment. T" fais d" foot. .ou play soccer. 12aime 9o"er a" tennis. 5 like to play tennis. 1e pe"E 9o"er de $a ,"itare. 5 can play the guitar. No"s 9o"ons de $a c$arinette. =e play the clarinet. I$ ve"t 9o"er d" t"/a. ;e wants to play the tuba.

0isten to the $es sports- $a ptan+"e mp1 and try the clo2e (fill$in$the$blank e"ercise from 3rench 0istening 4esources. ;B. N T=RE
air archipelago bank ba" barn beach branch bridge bud bush cape cave cit" climate cloud coast comet l'air #m$ l'arc!ipel #m$ la rive la %aie la grange la plage la %ranc!e le pont le %outon le %uisson le cap la caverne frost grass gulf hail ha" high tide hill ice island isthmus jungle lake leaf light lightning lil" low tide meadow moon mountain mountain range mouth (river) la gele l'!er%e #f$ le golfe la grle le foin la mare !aute la colline la glace I'.le #f$ l'ist!me la jungle le lac la feuille la lumi&re l'clair #m$ le lis la mare %asse le pr la lune la montagne la c!a.ne de montagnes l'em%ouc!ure #f$ la vase la nature le nord la pninsule la plaine rose sand sea shadow sk" snow soil south spring (water) star stem la rose le sa%le la mer l'om%re #f$ le ciel la neige la terre le sud la source

la ville le climat le nuage la c'te la com&te la constellation constellation countr" le pa-s countr"(side) la campagne current daffodil dais" darkness desert dew dust le courant la jonquille

l'toile #f$ la tige l'orage #m$ , storm la tempte strait le dtroit stream le ruisseau street la rue sun le soleil sunflower le tournesol thaw thunder tornado tree trunk tulip valle" view water fresh water la fonte le tonnerre la tornade l'ar%re #m$ le tronc la tulipe la valle la vue l'eau #f$ l'eau douce

la mud marguerite l'o%scurit #f$ nature le dsert north la rose peninsula la poussi&re plain

earth east farm field flower foam fog foliage forest

la terre l'est #m$ la ferme

planet plant

la plan&te la plante l'tang #m$

pond pot (for le c!amp plants) la fleur rain l'cume #f$ rainbow le %rouillard river le feuillage rock la fort root

salt water watering can waterfall

le pot de fleurs wave la pluie l'arc-en-ciel #m$ le fleuve le roc!er la racine weather west wind world

l'eau sale l'arrosoir #m$ la cascade la vague , l'onde #f$ le temps l'ouest #m$ le vent le monde

>C. T( &I#E vivre $ to live, be alive (vee$vruh


vis vis vit Present vivons vivez vivent vivais vivais vivait Imperfect vivions viviez vivaient vivrai vivras vivra *uture vivrons vivrez vivront

The past participle of vivre is vc" and it is con)ugated with avoir. <a/iter is another verb that means to live, but it means to live in a place. !ivre is used to mean the state of being alive. > sub)unctive form of vivre, vive, is often used in e"clamations. #ive $a France H 0ong live 3ranceF

>1. PERS(N & PR(N(=NS


1u%ject je tu il elle nous I "ou he she we me te le la nous /irect 8%ject me "ou him her us me te lui lui nous Indirect 8%ject to me to "ou to him to her to us toi lui elle nous /isjunctives moi me "ou him her us

vous ils elles

"ou the" the"

vous les les

"ou them them

vous leur leur

to "ou to them to them

vous eu+ elles

"ou them them

.ou have already learned the sub)ect pronouns. They go before the con)ugated verb forms. The ,irect and 5ndirect @b)ect pronouns go before the verb even though in ?nglish they go after it. They also go after the ne in a negative sentence and right before the verb. The dis)unctive always go after prepositions, or can be used alone for emphasis. -a%ple -entences*
>'achBte des pantalons >e les achBte! >e vous donne la %o.te >e vous la donne! *prBs toi :ous allons avec elle! Il ne la %uitte pas! Il la %uitte! >e t'aime! or >e vous aime! =lle ne l'aime pas! I bu" some pants! I bu" them! I give the bo9 to "ou! I give it to "ou! *fter "ou! (familiar) 1e go with her! (e doesn't leave her! (e leaves her! I love "ou! +he doesn't love him!

=hen you have more than one pronoun; me, te, no"s, or vo"s come first, then $e, $a, or $es, then $"i or $e"r. Me, te, $e, and $a contract to m2, t2, and $2 when they precede a vowel, the same way 9e does. 5n commands, the pronouns go after the verb, connected with a hyphen. >nd the pronoun order changes a little too# &e, $a, or $es come first; then moi, toi, (Ee and te become moi and toi in commands no"s, or vo"sO then $"i, or $e"r. 5f you have prono"ns, they go before the complete verb in regular sentences; but after the ne and before the form ofavoir in negative sentences.
:ous lui avons parlC! ;ous en ave# CcoutC trois! >e t'ai demandC du pain! Il ne l'a pas aimC! 1e spoke to him/her! )ou've listened to three of them! I asked "ou for some bread! (e didn't like it/her/him!

/u n'- as pas habitC!

)ou didn't live there! I didn't speak (or haven't >e ne vous ai pas parlC! spoken) to "ou! :ous ne l'avons pas fini! 1e didn't finish (or haven't finished) it!

5n the pass compos with avoir, "!rect ob1ect pronouns only must agree in gender and number with the past participle.
>e les ai aimCs! Il l'a regardCe! =lles nous ont CcoutC#e$s! I liked them! (e watched her! /he" listened to us!

>dd an e if the pronoun is feminine, and an s if it is plural. The $2 could mean h!% or her, so you might not need to put the e"tra e on the past participle. The same for nous and vous. They must have an s because they are plural, but it is unclear as to whether they are masculine or feminine. >%. P RTS (F T<E 8(!4 ' &ES P RTIES != C(RPS
head hair face forehead cheek ear e"e/s beard mustache mouth lip nose tongue tooth neck e"ebrows e"elashes chin +tandard 0rench la tte les c!eveu+ la figure , le visage , la face le front la joue l'oreille l'4il , les -eu+ la %ar%e la moustac!e la %ouc!e la l&vre le nez la langue la dent le cou les sourcils les cils le menton +lang la ca%oc!e , le cr(ne les tifs

les esgourdes les mirettes la %ar%ouse la gueule , la %o.te le %lair , le pif les crocs

throat skin blood bone shoulder chest waist bell" button back heart lungs brain liver kidne" bladder rib arm elbow wrist fist hand fingers stomach / bell" butt bod" hip leg knee foot toes ankle thigh shin calf thumb nails tattoo piercing

la gorge la peau le sang l'os l'paule la poitrine la taille le nom%ril le dos le c4ur les poumons le cerveau le foie le rein la vessie la c'te le %ras le coude le poignet le poing la main les doigts l'estomac , le ventre les fesses le corps la !anc!e la jam%e le genou le pied les orteils la c!eville la cuisse le ti%ia le mollet le pouce les ongles le tatouage le piercing

le %uffet , le %ide les mic!es

le penard , les arpions

blond brunette red?head light brown

%lond,e %run,e rou+,rousse c!(tain

: To say something hurts or that you have an ache, you can use avoir ma$ . (body part # 12ai ma$ . $a tte. 5 have a headache. 12ai ma$ . $2estomac. 5 have a stomach ache. E$$e a ma$ a" /ras. ;er arm hurts. T" as ma$ a" ,eno"N .our knee hurtsG I$ a ma$ a"E ortei$s. ;is toes hurt. ;owever, if someone is causing you pain, use faire ma$ (to hurt plus the indirect pronoun. T" me fais ma$. .ou8re hurting me. Ne $"i faites pas ma$. ,on8t hurt him ( her. : =hen describing hair color or eye color, you use /$onds, c)Ptain, /r"ns, ro"E for hair; and /$e"s, verts, marron, noirs for eyes. 'otice that chHtain and marron do not agree in gender or number. E$$e a $es c)eve"E ro"E. E$$e est ro"sse. <he has red hair. <he is a red$head. I$ a $es Ke"E marron. ;e has brown eyes. Com/ien ms"resGt" N ' Com/ien faisGt" N ;ow tall are youG Com/ien p*sesGt" N ;ow much do you weighG 1e fais 1m>C. 5 am I m JK cm. 1e p*se ;C 5i$os. 5 weigh LK kilos.

0isten to the $2apparence p)Ksi+"e - "n copain . moi mp1 and try the clo2e (fill$in$the$blank e"ercise from 3rench 0istening 4esources. >0. SQIN? F=ESTI(NS

I 5nvert the sub)ect and verb form and add a hyphen. 5nstead of Vous parlez angla!s? use Par$e:Gvo"s an,$aisN Cut if you invert !l6 elle6 or on, you must put a t between the verb form (if it ends in a vowel and the sub)ect for ease of pronunciation. .arle-!l angla!s? is incorrect and must become Par$eGtGi$ an,$aisN >nd 1e is usually only inverted with pouvoir or devoir. ;owever, if )e is inverted with pouvoir, you don8t use peu", but p"is. P"isG9e N (pweezh) is -an 5G M >dd n2estGce pas N (ness pah) to the end of the sentence. 5t is e+uivalent to isn8t it, don8t you, aren8t we, won8t you, etc. 1 5f the +uestion re+uires a yes or no answer, put EstGce +"e (ess kuh) at the beginning. 5t contracts to EstGce +"2before a word beginning with a vowel, such as elle6 !l or on. .ou can also use interrogative words (+uand, comment, oN, etc. at the beginning of the sentence and then add est$ce +ue. O =ith interrogative words, you can also use inversion# Quand tes parents partent-ils en vacances ? @r you can use an interrogative with est$ce +ue and normal word order# Pourquoi est-ce que vous 7tes !c! ? L F"e$ ' F"e$$e ' F"e$s ' F"e$$es (which, what agrees with the noun it modifies. 5t precedes the noun or the verb %tre, it may follow a preposition, and it can be used with inversion or with est$ce +ue. F"e$$e est $a date N +"e$$e)e"re parte:Gvo"s N F"e$s /a,a,es estGce +"e vo"s prene: N 'otice that the forms of +uel can also be used in e"clamatory sentences. F"e$ /ea" 9o"r H ' F"e$$e /e$$e 9o"rne H hat a beaut!ful "ay8 J =ith negative +uestions, negative e"pressions remain in their usual place (i.e. around the verb, or verb and sub)ect if inverted . (u ne trava!lles pas ? 9st-ce 'ue te ne trava!lles pas ? Ne trava!lles-tu pas ? .our'uo! n'as-tu pastrava!ll: ? R s5in, F"estions 3it) t)e Pass Compos @nly the au"iliary verb (avoir or %tre and the sub)ect pronoun are inverted. The past participle follows. GtGi$ t s"rpris N as he surpr!se"? T2esGt" am"s N D!" you have fun?

>4. INTERR(? TI#E PR(N(=NS

9o as3 a%out people: -ong 0orm ;ui est-ce qui $ui est%ce &ui est venu' ;ui est-ce que $ui est%ce &ue tu as vu' Preposition < qui estce que ( &ui est%ce &ue tu as parl ' +hort 0orm ;ui $ui est venu' ;ui $ui as%tu vu' Preposition < qui ( &ui as%tu parl ' /ranslation

+ubject

1ho cameD

6irect <bject

1hom did "ou seeD

<bject of 7reposition

1hom did "ou speak toD

9o as3 a%out t!ings: -ong 0orm ;u'est-ce qui $u'est%ce &ui est arriv ' ;u'est-ce que $u'est%ce &ue tu as fait' Preposition < quoi est-ce que *e &uoi est%ce &ue tu as parl ' +hort 0orm /ranslation

+ubject

)o short form ;ue $u'as%tu fait' Preposition < quoi *e &uoi as%tu parl '

1hat happenedD

6irect <bject

1hat did "ou doD

<bject of 7reposition

1hat did "ou talk aboutD

R =se of Inversion 3)en S"/9ect is No"na. =ith +ui and +uoi, inversion pattern is regular. F"i Marie aGtGe$$e v"N ho% "!" ,ar!e see? !e +"oi Marc aGtGi$ /esoinN hat "oes ,arc nee"? b. =ith +ue, the noun sub)ect must be inverted directly.

F"e ve"t 1eanN hat "oes ;ean want? F"e font $es a"tresN hat are the others "o!ng? c. ;owever, if the sentence contains more than a sub)ect and verb, or if the verb is in a compound tense (such as the pass compos , the short form is not used. F"2estGce +"e &"c ve"t faire a"9o"rd2)"iN hat "oes 3uc want to "o to"ay? F"2estGce +"e $es a"tres ont faitN hat "!" the others "o? R #er/ ,reementa. 5nterrogative pronouns are usually masculine singular. 0es voitures font du bruit. 9u8est$ce +ui fait du bruitG <ars %ake no!se. hat %akes no!se? 0es enfants sont arrivs. 9ui est arrivG (he ch!l"ren arr!ve". ho arr!ve"? b. ?"ception# when +ui is followed by a con)ugated form of %tre, the verbs agrees with the noun that follows. 9ui taient 0es Trois Eous+uetairesG ho were the three ,usketeers? R F"2estGce +"e Ior +"iJ vs. F"e$a. 9u8est$ce +ue c8est +ue is used to ask for a definition, and +uel asks for specific information. F"2estGce +"e c2est +"e $e camem/ertN hat !s =ca%e%bert=? F"e$ est $e pro/$*meN hat !s the proble%? b. =hen followed by a con)ugated form of %tre, +uel is used if %tre is followed by a noun and +u8est$ce +ui is used if %tre is followed by anything other than a noun. F"e$$e est $a dateN hat !s the "ate? F"2estGce +"i est /onN hat !s goo"? R 6ritten vs. Spo5en Frenc) 3it) F"estions 5n spoken 3rench, inversion and the use of est$ce +ue are usually dropped, but they must be used in written 3rench. >dditionally, some forms are contracted or the word order may differ. 5t8s also very common to use +"i c2est +"i in place of +"i or +"i estGce +"i. r!tten for%s -poken for%s (ranslat!on

Parle2$vous fran&ais G ?st$ce +ue vous parle2 !ous parle2 fran&ais G fran&ais G -omment l8ave2$vous appris G !ous l8ave2 appris -omment est$ce +ue vous comment G l8ave2 appris G 9uand es$tu arriv G 9uand t8es arriv G 9uand est$ce +ue tu es T 8es arriv +uand G arriv G ,e +uoi parlent$ils G ,e +uoi ils parlent G ,e +uoi est$ce +u8ils 5ls parlent de +uoi G parlent G Pour+uoi me regardes$ tu G Pour+uoi tu me Pour+uoi est$ce +ue tu me regardes G regardes G 9ui t8a dit &a G 9ui c8est +ui t8a dit &aG 9ui est$ce +ui t8a dit &a G >;. F(RMS (F &EF=E&

,o you speak 3renchG ;ow did you learn itG =hen did you arriveG =hat are they talking aboutG =hy are you looking at meG =ho told you thatG

0e+uel is a pronoun that replaces the ad)ective +uel and the noun it modifies. 5t e"presses h!ch one? as a +uestion, but wh!ch in a statement (usually preceded by a preposition .
2djective +ingular 8asculine 0eminine ;uel livre lis?tuD ,lural ;uels livres lis?tuD Pronoun +ingular =equel lis? tuD ,lural =esquels lis? tuD

;uelle page ;uelles pages =aquelle lis? =esquelles lis? lis?tuD lis?tuD tuD tuD

0e+uel contracts with . and de in the plural and masculine singular forms#

+ingular 8asculine 0eminine E + le%uel de + le%uel E + la%uelle de + la%uelle auquel duquel ) laquelle de laquelle E + les%uels

,lural au+quels desquels au+quelles desquelles

de + les%uels E + les%uelles de + les%uelles

!oilQ le portrait sans retouche de l8homme a"+"e$ )8appartiens. $ That8s the unaltered portrait of the man to which 5 belong. A?dith Piaf $ 0a !ie en 4oseB ?t des amours des+"e$$es nous parlons. $ >nd the loves about which we talk. Aby Rean$,enis CredinB : .ou can also use another preposition 6 form of $e+"e$ to translate preposition 6 wh!ch* on which, to which, in which, etc. 0a table s"r $a+"e$$e )8ai mis la bouteille est lQ$bas. $ The table on which 5 put the bottle is over there. 0e bHtiment dans $e+"e$ )8habite est tr*s vieu". $ The building in which 5 live is very old.

>>. RE& TI#E PR(N(=NS 4elative pronouns )oin sentences together. These words signal a relative clause which e"plains the noun, called the antecedent. 5f the relative pronoun is the sub)ect of the clause (a verb immediately follows , use +"i. 5f the relative pronoun is the direct ob)ect of the clause (sub)ect 6 verb follows , use +"e. 5f the verb of the dependent clause re+uires the preposition de, use dont to replace it. >lso use dont to mean whose. 9ui, +ue, and dont can all mean that or who, depending on the sentence. 5f the antecedent is a place or time, use oS to mean where or when. =hen there is no specific antecedent, ce is added as an artificial one before +ue, +ui or dont; but it can refer to only things, not people. Ce +"i, ce +"e and ce dont generally mean what.
>e mange des choses qui sont bonnes! I eat things that are good! &ui is subject &ue is object

>e mange des choses que j'aime! I eat things that I like!

4'est ce que je disais! -a femme dont le mari est mort!!! ;oici ce dont j'ai besoin!

/hat's what I said! /he woman whose husband is dead!!! (ere is what I need!

no antecedent whose avoir besoin is followed by de

4'est un restaurant o> on sert du It's a restaurant where the" restaurant is a place poisson! serve fish!

!ont can also be translated as !nclu"!ng or of wh!ch. Sept morts, dont > civi$s, dans $2attentat. <even dead, including si" civilians, in the attack. : >fter verbs of declaration or opinion (dire, affirmer, prtendre, )urer, dclarer, reconnaStre, avouer, penser, croire , you do not need to use a relative pronoun or to repeat the sub)ect. >s long as the sub)ect is the same in both clauses, you can replace +ue 6 sub)ect 6 con)ugated verb with the infinitive. 1e pense +"e 9e pe"E $e faire. T 1e pense po"voir $e faire . 5 think that 5 can do it. E$$e dit +"2e$$e $e connais. T E$$e dit $e connaUtre. <he says that she knows him. #o"s avo"e: +"e vo"s ave: menti. T #o"s avo"e: avoir menti. .ou admit that you lied.

>@. !EM(NSTR TI#E PR(N(=NS ,emonstrative pronouns translate to the one(s), or that$those when replacing a noun. There are four forms, but they are not often used alone. ,e, +ui, +ue, dont and $ci or $lQ usually follow them.
8asc! +ingular 7lural celui ceu+ 0em! celle celles

,onne2$moi mon billet et ce$"i de Duillaume. Dive me my ticket and =illiam8s. (or# the one of =illiam 5l porte ses propres livres et ce"E de sa sTur. ;e is carrying his own books and his sister8s. (or# those of his sister 9uelles fleurs aimes$tu, ce$$esGci ou ce$$esG$.G =hich flowers do you

like, these (ones or those (ones G Ce"E +"i travaillent dur russissent. Those who work hard succeed. -8est ce$"i dont )e parle. That8s the one 58m talking about. The indefinite demonstrative pronouns ceci (this , ce$a (that and Va (this(that refer to indefinite things or ideas. R8aime Va. 5 like that. Prene2 ceci. Take this. >A. T( RE !, T( S 4 ' TE&&, 7 T( & =?<
lire-to read lis lis lit lisons lisez lisent dis dis dit dire-to sa-,tell disons dites disent ris ris rit rire-to laug! rions riez rient

The past participles are# $", dit and ri, and all three are con)ugated with avoir. >B. !IS1=NCTI#E PR(N(=NS I. >s mentioned above, dis)unctives are mostly used after prepositions and can only replace people, not things. ;owever, if the preposition is ., there are two possible rules# . M person 7 !n"!rect pronoun . M person M . 7 "!s1unct!ve pronoun, in these cases#
se fier ) s'!a%ituer ) s'intresser ) penser ) rver ) to trust to get used to to be interested in to think about to dream about

M. They can also be used alone, to emphasi2e a sub)ect, with tre . (to belong to or in compound sub)ects.

Moi, )8ai faim. ,e6 I a% hungry. <es amis et $"i, ils aiment manger. >!s fr!en"s an" he6 they l!ke to eat. -e livre est Q moi F (hat book !s %!ne8 1. They can be added to Gmme to mean $self. e$$eGmme 7 herself O. They are also used with ne...+"e. -e n8est +ue $"i. 5t8s only him. @C. 4 7 EN . and en are both pronouns that go before the verb. 4 (ee) means it or t)ere. En (awn) means some or some Iof t)emJ, or of it. They replace prepositional phrases. 5n 3rench, the phrases will begin with . (or any contraction of it ,en, s"r, so"s, c)e:, devant, derri*re, dans, etc. for KO and de (or any contraction of it or a n"m/er for en. They cannot replace people unless the person is introduced with an indefinite article, partitive, number or +uantity. <ometimes K and en have no direct translation in ?nglish. 4emember that they go before the verb, e"cept in a command, in which they follow the verb and are connected with a hyphen. The $er verbs also add the $s they lost when forming the you (familiar command.
1ample 1entences 6o "ou want some applesD ;oule#?vous des pommesD 6o "ou want someD ?n voule#?vousD I have three sisters! >'ai trois s4urs I have three (of them)! >'en ai trois! It is in the drawer Il est dans le tiroir It is there! Il - est! I am going to 6etroit! >e vais ) /troit I am going there! >'- vais! I am going to go to *tlanta! >e vais aller ) 2tlanta I am going to go there! >e vais - aller!

*nswer the telephoneF *nswer itF (formal) +ta" thereF (familiar) 6on't sta" thereF (familiar)

2Cponde# au tlp!one @ 2Cponde#?- F 2estes?- F :'- reste pas!

. and en can also replace a phrase or clause, especially with verbs that re+uire Q or de after them# I think a lot about these stories! I think about them a lot! (e obe"ed the rules! (e obe"ed them! 1e don't need this book! 1e don't need it! +he's using the computer! +he's using it! >e rCflCchis beaucoup ) ces !istoires >'- rCflCchis beaucoup! Il a obCi au+ r&gles Il - a obCi! <n n'a pas besoin de ce livre <n n'en a pas besoin! =lle se sert de l'ordinateur! =lle s'en sert!

'otice y and en don8t go after the verb in negative commands. Treat them like pronouns. Ne or 1e plus K or en all contract to N2K, 12K, N2en, and 12en. =hen you have a con)ugated verb plus an infinitive (vais and aller , the y or en go in between the two verbs.

@1. T( SEE, T( 8E&IE#E, 7 T( 6RITE !erbs take a direct ob)ect if they do not need a preposition to connect it to the noun. !erbs that take indirect ob)ects use prepositions after the verb. #oir$to see (vwahr) and croire$to believe (krwahr) take a direct and crire$to write(ay-kreer) takes an indirect.
voir-to see
yohn) yay)

croire-to %elieve
yohn) yay) kree)

crire-to 6rite
kree%vohn) kree%vay)

vois (vwah) vo-ons (vwah% crois (krwah) cro-ons (krwah% cris (ay% crivons (ay% vois voit vo-ez (vwah% voient (vwah) crois croit cro-ez (krwah% croient (krwah) cris crit crivez (ay% crivent (ay%
kreev)

The past participles are# v", cr", and crit.

.ou can sometimes tell if a verb takes a direct or indirect ob)ect by using the verbs in ?nglish. =e say "5 see her" or "<he believes him" or ";e writes to them." 5n 3rench, it would be "Re la vois" (direct , "?lle le croit" (direct and "5l leur crit." (indirect Cut don8t always count on ?nglish to help you out. T$p)oner I.J and o/ir I.J both take indirect ob)ects in 3rench but you can8t tell that in ?nglish. 5n this case, you can tell by the . that follows the infinitive. 6ritin, #oca/"$arK $e point "at" sign writing d2interro,atio (U n $a $e point punctuatio e"clamatio ponct"atio d2eEc$amatio asterisk n n point n n $es +uotation period $e point ,"i$$emets brackets marks ImJ parenthese comma $a vir,"$e $a parent)*se slash s $es de"E $2apostrop)e uppercas colon apostrophe points ImJ IfJ e $e pointG $e trait lowercas semi$colon hyphen vir,"$e d2"nion e $2crit"re IfJ +uestion mark $2aro/ase IfJ $2astris+" e ImJ $e croc)et $a /arre ma9"sc"$e min"sc"$e

=hen typing in 3rench, you must leave an e"tra space before a punctuation mark that has two components, such as a colon, semi$ colon, +uestion mark, e"clamation point, etc. @%. NIM &S $a fo"rmi $2anti$ope $2antenne $a c)a"veG so"ris $e /ec giraffe goat goose gorilla grasshopper $a ,irafe $a c)*vre $2oie IfJ $e ,ori$$e pig pigeon pike pony $e coc)on $e pi,eon $e /roc)et $e poneK $e c)iot

ant antelope antenna bat beak

$a puppy sa"tere$$e

bear bee bird blackbird bull butterfly calf cat caterpillar

$2o"rs ImJ hamster $2a/ei$$e IfJ hare $2oisea" ImJ $e mer$e $e ta"rea" $e papi$$on $e vea" $e c)at $a c)eni$$e hen

$e )amster rabbit $e $i*vre $a po"$e

$e $apin $e raton raccoon $ave"r rat $e rat

herring $a )aren, hoof $e sa/ot horn $a corne horse $e c)eva$ hummingbird $e co$i/ri iguana $2i,"ane $2insecte cheetah $e ,"pard insect ImJ chicken $e po"$et )ellyfish $a md"se $e chimpan2ee kitten $e c)aton c)impan: $a claw $a ,riffe ladybug coccine$$e $2a,nea" cockroach $e cafard lamb ImJ $2a$o"ette cod $a mor"e lark IfJ cocoon $e cocon lion $e $ion cow crab crayfish crocodile crow deer dog donkey $a vac)e $e cra/e li2ard lobster (spiny $e $:ard

rooster $e co+ salmon $e sa"mon scale $2cai$$e IfJ scorpion $e scorpion sea gull $a mo"ette seal $e p)o+"e shark sheep shrimp slug snail snake $e re+"in $e mo"ton $a crevette $a $imace $2escar,ot ImJ $e serpent

sparrow $e moinea" $2arai,ne spider IfJ $e ca$amar

$a s+uid $an,o"ste $e po" s+uirrel

$2crevisse louse IfJ $e mackerel crocodi$e $e cor/ea" mole $e cerf $e c)ien $2Pne ImJ monkey mos+uito moth

$2c"re"i$ ImJ $e $2toi$e de starfish ma+"erea" mer $2)ironde$$e $a ta"pe swallow IfJ $e sin,e swan $e cK,ne $e tadpole $e ttard mo"sti+"e $e papi$$on tail $a +"e"e

dragonfly duck eagle eel elephant feather fin fish flea fly fo" frog gill

$a $i/e$$"$e $e canard $2ai,$e ImJ $2an,"i$$e IfJ $2$p)ant ImJ $a p$"me $a na,eoire $e poisson $a p"ce $a mo"c)e $e renard

mouse mule mussel nest nightingale octopus ostrich owl o" oyster parrot

de n"it $a so"ris $e m"$et $a mo"$e $e nid

tiger toad trout tuna

$e ti,re $e crapa"d $a tr"ite $e t)on $e dindon $a tort"e $a ,"pe

$e turkey rossi,no$ $a pie"vre turtle $2a"tr"c)e wasp $e )i/o" $e /W"f $2)"Utre IfJ $e perro+"et $a perdriE

weasel $a /e$ette whale $a /a$eine wing $2ai$e IfJ wolf worm $e $o"p $e ver $e :*/re

$a partridge ,reno"i$$e $a penguin /ranc)ie sit assis lie down co"c)eGtoi donne $a shake patte $es dog(cat food cro+"ettes leash $a $aisse collar $e co$$ier to take(let dog sortir $e out c)ien to climb on

$e pin,o"in 2ebra to bark to growl to pant to whine(whimper to drool to meow to scratch

a/oKer ,ro,ner )a$eter ,mir /aver mia"$er ,riffer se 9eter s"r

,rimper s"r to pounce on

@0. P& IRE 7 M NF=ER plaire-to please" enjoplais plaisons manquer-to miss" %e lac3ing manque manquons

plais pla.t

plaisez plaisent

manques manque

manquez manquent

The past participle of plaire is p$". To say that someone likes something, you have to switch the sub)ect and ob)ect around, so that literally it translates to "something or someone pleases." >s a refle"ive verb, se p$aire means to en)oy being somewhere. Faire p$aisir . can also be used to mean "to delight or to like." Cette c)ienne p$aUt . !omini+"e. ,omini+ue likes this dog. (0iterally# This dog is pleasing to ,omini+ue. Xa t2a p$"N ,id you like itG I$s se p$aisent . &ondres. They en)oy being in 0ondon. Ce$a me fait p$aisir de vo"s revoir. 5 am happy to see you again. Man+"er has several meanings# to miss, to lack, or to regret the absence (miss . The last meaning uses inverted word order )ust like plaire. Man+"er . means "to fail to do." E$$e a man+" $e train. <he missed the train. #o"s man+"e: de co"ra,e. .ou lack courage. T" me man+"es. 5 miss you. (0iterally# .ou are missing to me I$s ont man+" a"E devoirs. They failed to do the homework.

@4. P&=PERFECT IP ST PERFECTJ This compound tense is used for flashbacks or anything that ha" happene" before the time of the narration. 5t8s formed with the imperfect tense of avoir or %tre and the past participle of the main verb. This tense is comparable to the pass compos. Imperfect of avoir or tre avais avions avais avie# avait avaient Ctais Ctions Ctais Ctie# Ctait Ctaient + past participle

1e n2avais pas fini mon travai$ +"and i$ est arriv. 5 had not finished my work when he arrived. #o"s avie: faim parce +"e vo"s n2avie: pas d" to"t man,. .ou were hungry because you hadn8t eaten at all. No"s avions man+" $e rende:Gvo"s parce +"e $e /"s tait en retard. =e had missed the meeting because the bus was late.

@;. IN!EFINITE PR(N(=NS 5ndefinite pronouns refer to no one or nothing in particular, such as someone or something. someone/bod" quelqu'un each c!acun#e$

something

quelque c!ose #de < adjective$

not one, none

aucun#e$

some

quelques-uns , quelques-unes

an"thing

n'importe quoi

somewhere

quelque part

an"one

n'importe qui

several

plusieurs

an"where

n'importe o> n'importe quand nulle part

some!!!others

certains d'autres

an" time

another

un#e$ autre

nowhere

,o not confuse chacun with c)a+"e (each, every . -hacun is a pronoun and replaces a noun, while cha+ue is an ad)ective that describes a noun.

@>. S=81=NCTI#E M((! 5f a sentence e"presses a sub)ective statement of opinion, the sub)unctive mood is used rather than the indicative. The sub)unctive is used in dependent clauses introduced by the word +"e. The main clause must e"press personal opinions or feelings and have a different sub)ect from the dependent clause. 5f the two sub)ects are the same, the infinitive is used.

1e do"te +"e Marc soit $.. 5 doubt that Earc is here. (shows )udgment and opinion 1e ve"E venir. N?(* Re veu" +ue )e vienne. (use infinitive, same sub)ect To form the sub)unctive, use the ils(elles form of the present indicative tense. This is also the form for the ils(elles form of the sub)unctive. 3or )e, tu, il(elle, drop the $ent and add $e, $es, and $e. 'ous and vous use the imperfect forms.

-e -es -e

-ions -iez -ent

-on)ugations in the <ub)unctive avoir a-ons a-ez aient tre so-ons so-ez soient faire fasse fassions fasses fassiez fasse fassent savoir sac!e sac!ions sac!es sac!iez sac!e sac!ent aller aille allions ailles alliez aille aillent pleuvoir

aie aies ait

sois sois soit

vouloir veuille voulions veuilles vouliez veuille veuillent

pouvoir puisse puissions puisses puissiez puisse puissent

pleuve

These verbs and con)unctions are followed by the sub)unctive# Verbs douter suggrer vouloir proposer avoir peur regretter Verbal Expressions il faut que il est important que il se peut que il est possi%le que il est temps que Conjunctions avant que

il vaut mieu+ que pour , afin que jusqu') ce que ) moins que %ien que , quoique sans que

craindre tre content#e$,triste,dsol#e$,surpris#e$" etc penser,croire,trouver


(negative and interrogative forms onl")

c'est dommage que

en attendant que

1e ve"E +"e t" viennes avec moi. 5 want you to come with me. I$ est content +"e no"s soKons $.. ;e8s happy that we are here. EstGce +"e vo"s pense: +"2e$$e p"isse $e faire N ,o you think that she can do itG I$ fa"t +"e 9e fasse $a vaisse$$e. 5 have to do the dishes. E$$e sera $. 9"s+"2. ce +"e vo"s partie:. <he will be there until you leave. : ;owever, do"ter, 9"s+"2. ce +"e, . moins +"e, and /ien +"e ' +"oi+"e use the sub)unctive whether there is a change in sub)ect or not. >nd when using avant before an infinitive, the construction is avant de 6 infinitive. 'ote, also, that the sub)unctive is not used with esprer or i$ est pro/a/$e, although the sub)unctive may be used with these words in other 4omance languages. : The word ne is used after certain con)unctions (most notably avant +"e and . moins +"e that take the sub)unctive, but this does not make the phrase negative# Finisse: $e travai$ avant +"e $a c$asse ne se termine. 3inish the work before class ends.

@@. F &&(IR 7 # &(IR Fa$$oir (to be necessary and va$oir (to be worth are two very common impersonal verbs used in several phrases and situations. Their con)ugations are# imperfect present perfect present future conditional il fallait il a fallu il faut il faudra il faudrait il valait il a valu il vaut il vaudra il vaudrait

/allo!r can be translated as must, have to, be re+uired to, etc. 5t can be followed directly by an infinitive, or a sub)ect and the sub)unctive mood. I$ fa"t rester . $a maison a"9o"rd2)"i. .ou must stay at home today.

I$ fa"t pas $e faire H .ou must not do itF I$ fa"t +"2i$ parte . A). ;e must leave at V. 5n addition to worth, valo!r %!eu) is used in translating "it8s better." Xa ne va"t pas $a peine. 5t8s not worth it. I$ va"t mie"E en rire +"Yen p$e"rer. 5t8s better to laugh about it than cry.

@A. !#ER8S %ien mieu+ mal peu dj) %ient't ici l) dedans de!ors souvent d'!a%itude well better badl" little alread" soon here there inside outside often usuall" quelquefois toujours vite donc encore quelque part maintenant t't tard peut-tre jamais nulle part sometimes alwa"s %uickl" therefore "et somewhere now earl" late ma"be (n)ever nowhere

To form an adverb, simply take the feminine form of an ad)ective and add $ment to the end. 5f the masculine form ends in $e, you )ust add the $ment to that. >d)ectives ending in $ent or $ant take the endings $emment and $amment.

Masc"$ine naturel heureu" lent facile probable intelligent brillant rcent

Feminine naturelle heureuse lente facile probable intelligente brillante rcente

dver/ nat"re$$ement )e"re"sement $entement faci$ement pro/a/$ement inte$$i,emment /ri$$amment rcemment

<ome adverbs such as act"e$$ement (currently, now and vent"e$$ement (possibly, perhaps can be deceiving.

vrai gentil profond bref prCcis

2 *e6 Irregular 2dver%s vraiment gentiment profondment %ri&vement prcisment

>dverbs are placed right after the verb in a simple tense. >dverbs of opinion and time usually go at the beginning or end of the sentence. =hen pe"tGtre and sans do"te begin a sentence or clause, they are usually followed by +"e. =ith the pass compos, most adverbs are placed between the au"iliary verb and past participle. 5n negative sentences, pas prece"es the a"verb, e"cept with pe"tGtre, sans do"te, sLrement, and pro/a/$ement. >dverbs of time and place generally follow the past participle. @B. T((&S 7 <(88IES

tools toolbo" hammer screwdriver nail screw wrench ad)ustable wrench bolt nut pliers saw blade handle anvil

$es o"ti$s $a /oUte . o"ti$s $e martea" $e to"rnevis $e c$o" $a vis $a c$

chisel

$e cisea"

measuring tape $e m*tre chainsaw file do$it$yourself handicrafts embroidery $a tronVonne"se $a $ime $e /rico$a,e $2artisanat $a /roderie $e point de croiE $a co"t"re $2ai,"i$$e IfJ $e fi$ peindre faire des /i9o"E $e 9ardina,e $e tricot

$a c$ . mo$ette cross$stitch $e /o"$on $2cro" ImJ $es pinces IfJ $a scie $a $ame $e manc)e $2enc$"me IfJ needlework needle thread painting )ewelry making gardening knitting

clamp ( vise shovel pick a"e drill drill bit

$2ta" ImJ $a pe$$e $a pioc)e $a perce"se $a m*c)e

photography woodworking pottery drawing cooking

$a p)oto,rap)ie $a men"iserie $a poterie $e dessin $a c"isine

@ther e"pressions related to hobbies(leisure time# /avarder $ to chat /ron:er $ to tan faire $a ,rasse matine $ to sleep in late faire $a sieste $ to take a nap faire "ne pa"se $ to take a break faire "ne promenade $ to take a walk faire "n to"r $ to go out for a while prendre "n /ain de so$ei$ $ to sunbathe prendre "n verre $ to go out for a drink se dtendre $ to rela" se reposer $ to rest AC. F &SE C(?N TES 3es fau)-a%!s or false cognates are a common pitfall among language students. The following are some common words that you may be deceived by# /"s is used to mean e)cess or over!n"ulgence, and usually not abuse. !isposer means to arrange or to have ava!lable, not to dispose of. =ne in9"re is an !nsult, not an in)ury. ct"e$ and act"e$$ement mean current an" currently. vertissement is a warn!ng, not an advertisement. =ne recette is a rec!pe, not a receipt. Fo"rnit"res refers to suppl!es, not furniture. (ri,ina$ means new or !nnovat!ve. <"me"r means %oo", not humor. Forme$ is used to mean str!ct, not formal. A1. C(&&(F=I & EZPRESSI(NS

I$ fa"t M infinitive (it is necessary, one must 5l faut tourner Q gauche. 5t is necessary to turn left. 5l faut faire les devoirs. @ne must do homework. 5l lui faut aller Q l8cole. ;e must go to school. I$ fa"t M no"n (need 5l faut du fromage. .ou need some cheese. 5l faut un )eton. .ou need a token. 5l me faut un stylo. 5 need a pen. I$ reste (there remains 5l reste une chambre. There is one room left. 5l n8en reste plus. There are no more left. 5l me reste trois )ours. 5 have three days left. Not!ce that !l faut an" !l reste can both take an ob1ect pronoun to !n"!cate a person. I$ va"t mie"E M infinitive (it is better 5l vaut mieu" prendre le bus. 5t is better to take the bus. 5l vaut mieu" apprendre les langues +ue la politi+ue. 5t8s better to learn languages than politics. I$ s2a,it de (it8s a +uestion of, it8s a matter of, it8s about ,e +uoi s8agit$il G =hat8s is aboutG 5l ne s8agit pas de &a F That8s not the pointF 5l s8agit de ton avenir. 5t8s a matter of your future. voir /ea" (although, despite the fact, however much R8ai beau tudier cette langue, )e ne la parle pas. >lthough 5 study this language, 5 don8t speak it. 5l a beau faire froid, nous sortirons. >lthough is it cold, we will go out. voir $2air M ad9ective (to seem(look Wa a l8air dlicieu". That looks delicious. !ous ave2 l8air fatigu. .ou seem tired. Wa n8a pas l8air d8aller. Things don8t look so good. Xa vo"s dit N ' Xa vo"s dirait de... N (=ould you like toG ( ;ow would you feel about...G ( ,oes that interest youG ( ,oes that ring a bellG Wa vous dirait de regarder un film ce soir G >re you interested in

watching a movie tonightG ( =ould you like to watch a movie tonightG 'on, &a me dit rien. 'o, that doesn8t interest me. ( 'o, 5 don8t want to. Wa te dit +uel+ue chose G ,oes that ring a bellG ( ,oes that remind you of anythingG 'on, &a me dit rien. 'o, that doesn8t ring a bell. ( That doesn8t remind me of anything. Wa ne me dit pas grande chose. That does nothing for me. Xa par$e de +"oi ' +"i N (=hat ( =ho is it aboutG Wa parle de +uoi, le livre +ue tu cris G =hat8s the book about that you8re writingG Xa K est H ( ThereF That8s it F 5t8s doneF Xa a t (;ow did it goG ( 5t went well. Ton e"amen, &a a t G ;ow did your e"am goG @ui, &a a t. 5t went well. (n dirait... [Va ressem/$e .\ (5t seems ( it looks like ( it tastes like ( it smells like ( it feels like ( it sounds like @n dirait un chat. 5t looks like a cat. pas terri/$e (terr!ble actually means terr!f!c in this phrase -8est pas terrible, ce film. This movie is not very good. pas ma$ de (a lot of, lots of, tons of $ synonym of beaucoup R8ai pas mal de trucs Q faire au)ourd8hui. 5 have lots of things to do today. A%. C(N1=NCTI(NS 7 C(NNECTIN? 6(R!S a"paravant before d2a/ord ens"ite ' p"is p$"s tard apr*s first then later after par eEemp$e en'de moreover ( po"r ' afin p$"s furthermore de par contre ' d2ai$$e"rs besides en revanc)e de mme similarly p$"tDt s"rto"t rather especially d2a"tre part a" moins for e"ample in order to on the contrary on the other hand at least

a$ors ainsi donc

so thus

+"and mme a" fait

therefore en fait c2estG.G dire en when d2a"tres termes c2est as soon po"r Va as +"e as long parce as +"e since although car

fina$ement finally ' enfin +"and ' $ors+"e a"ssitDt ' d*s +"e tant +"e dep"is /ien +"e

ma$,r ' en in spite of dpit de by the way sa"f e"cept cependant ' actually however ( yet po"rtant that is to mme si even if say anyway in other words par conse+uently cons+"ent as though

that8s why comme si because for ( because

nanmoins nevertheless soit... soit either... or

p"is+"e ' en since in conclusion comme conc$"sion a$ors ' while ( . ca"se in brief ( in because of en /ref tandis +"e whereas de short

The word soit has several meanings. 5t is also the third person singular form of %tre in the present sub)unctive. 1e ve"E +"2i$ soit $.. 5 want him to be here. 5t can also be used to mean !.e. or that !s when introducing a clause. &e conten" d" C! est /i$in,"e, soit franVais et an,$ais. The contents of the -, are bilingual, i.e. 3rench and ?nglish. A0. F(RMS (F T(=T >s an ad)ective, tout precedes and agrees with the noun.
masc! sing! fem! sing! masc! pl! fem! pl! tout le train toute la journCe tous les enfants toutes les mBres the whole train the whole da" all the kids all the moms

: >s a pronoun, tout can be used alone; it then means everything and is invariable. To"t va bien. 9veryth!ng#s f!ne. Re ne peu" pas to"t faire. I can#t "o everyth!ng. : 5t can also reinforce the sub)ect. (The s of tous is pronounced when tous is a pronoun. 5ls sont to"s lQ. (hey are all here. : Tout can also be used with direct ob)ect pronouns. The forms of tout follow the verb in a simple tense and go between the au"iliary and past participle in a compound tense. Re les ai to"tes. I have the% all. Re ne les ai pas to"s eu. I "!"n#t have the% all.

Idiomatic EEpressions 3it) To"t


en tout cas tout le monde tout de suite de toute faon tout ) fait toutes sortes de pas du tout malgr tout tout ) l'!eure in an" case ever"one right awa" an"wa" completel" all kinds of not at all in spite of it all in a little while

A4. 8 8IES 7 C<I&!REN baby fetus diaper safety pin $e // $e fWt"s $a co"c)e $2pin,$e . no"rrice IfJ carousel toys ball marbles $e man*,e $es 9o"ets ImJ $e /a$$on $es /i$$es IfJ

rattle pacifier bottle stroller high chair bib crib cradle kids slide seesaw swing

$e )oc)et $a ttine $e /i/eron $a po"ssette $a c)aise )a"te $e /avoir $e $it de // $e /ercea" $es ,osses ImJ $e to/o,,an $a /a$anVoire . /asc"$e $a /a$anVoire

doll stuffed animals teddybear blocks top puppet kite balloon rollerblades rollerskates wagon ma2e hopscotch

$a po"pe $es pe$"c)es IfJ $e no"no"rs $es c"/es ImJ $a to"pie $a marionnette $e cerfGvo$ant $e /a$$on $es ro$$ers ImJ $e patin . ro"$ettes $e petit c)ariot $e $a/Krint)e $a mare$$e

carriage $e $anda"

> do"do" refers to a favorite stuffed animal. A;. PRIM R4 7 SEC(N! R4 SC<((& school teacher (m teacher (f elem. teacher (m elem. teacher (f secondary teacher chalkboard $2co$e IfJ $2ensei,nant $2ensei,nante $2instit"te"r $2instit"trice $e professe"r $e ta/$ea" pencil mechanical pencil pen eraser ink ink )ar pencil $e craKon $e porteGmine $e stK$o $a ,omme $2encre IfJ $2encrier IfJ $e tai$$eG

sharpener chalk desk student university student book backpack schoolbag locker globe diploma school supplies pencil case $a craie $e p"pitre $2$*ve $2t"diantIeJ $e $ivre $e sac . dos $e carta/$e $e casier $e ,$o/e terrestre $e dip$Dme $es fo"rnit"res sco$aires $a tro"sse glue scissors ruler highlighter crayons marker piece of paper spiral notebook folder notebook binder notepad

craKons $a co$$e $es cisea"E ImJ $a r*,$e $e s"r$i,ne"r $es craKons de co"$e"r ImJ $e mar+"e"r $a fe"i$$e $e carnet de notes . spira$e $a c)emise $e ca)ier $e c$asse"r $e /$ocGnotes

<tudents of all ages use a tro"sse in 3rance. They8re not )ust for elementary studentsF A>. P SSI#E #(ICE >s in ?nglish, the passive voice in 3rench is composed of a tense of the verb to be and a past participle. ;owever, only a direct ob)ect in 3rench can become the sub)ect of the passive form. The active form, $e c)at man,e $a so"risis made passive thus# &a so"ris est man,e par $e c)at. (he cat eats the %ouse becomes the %ouse !s eaten by the cat. The sub)ect in the active sentence (le chat becomes the ob)ect of the passive. The direct ob)ect of the active sentence (la souris becomes the sub)ect of the passive sentence preceded by

"par." The verb of the active sentence is changed into a past participle (mange becomes mange, notice the agreementF preceded by a form of tre. ?lle est porte par Rean. <he is carried by Rohn. ?lles ont t inspires par !an Dogh. They were inspired by !an Dogh. 5l avait t t" par les soldats fran&ais. ;e had been killed by 3rench soldiers. @ 'otice how pronominal verbs change from active to passive# 0ct!ve* Re me s"is rvei$$e. 5 woke up. .ass!ve* R8ai t rvei$$e par +uel+ue chose. 5 was awakened by something. Passive is Not Possi/$e : 5f a verb takes an indirect ob)ect, it cannot be transformed into the passive voice in 3rench. 5n this case, on is used in the active construction, as long as the agent is not specified and the action is performed by a human being (i.e. no natural forces, such as weather . (n a donn un cadeau Q ma m*re. Ey mother was given a present. A<omeone gave a present to my mother.B (n lui a dit de retrouver le conservateur au muse. ;e was told to meet the curator at the museum. A<omeone told him to meet the curator at the museum.B $ternatives to t)e Passive : 5n addition to using on as the sub)ect of an active construction to replace the passive, you can also use the pronominal constructions# se voir Ato see oneselfB, s2entendre Ato hear oneselfB, se faire Ato get oneselfB and se $aisser Ato let oneselfB 6 infinitive. These verbs can be used when the agent is specified, unlike the active construction with on. Re me s"is v" promettre une augmentation. 5 have been promised a raise. ?lle s2est entend" dire +u8il allait mourir. <he was told that he was going to die.

Rean s2est fait arrter. Rohn got arrested. 5ls se sont $aiss tom/er malade. They let themselves get sick. : .ou can also use a pronominal verb to translate the passive, as long as the agent is not specified. ;owever, this does not work for all verbs. Wa s2crit commentG ;ow is that writtenG Wa ne se dit plus. That is not said anymore. : Use tre . 6 infinitive to translate %ust 6 ?nglish passive# -e monument est . voir F This monument must be seenF -e rapport est . refaire. This report must be redone. A@. !EP=IS, I& 4 , 7 PEN! NT IN P ST C(NTEZTS I. To e"press an action that has been going on, depuis (or il y a ... +ue is used with the present tense.
/epuis quand avez-vous votre ordinateur A /epuis com%ien de temps avez-vous votre ordinateur A -ow long have you had your computer ' Je conduis depuis longtemps Je l'ai depuis deu+ ans Ba fait deu+ ans que je l'ai Il - a deu+ ans que je l'ai I've had it for two years. I have been driving for a long time.

M. Cut to e"press an action that had been going on for some time when something else happened, depuis is used with the !%perfect.
Cous conduisions depuis deu+ !eures" quand j'ai propos de prendre le volant .e had been driving for two hours when I volunteered to drive.

1. To e"press an action that you have not done for some time, use depuis with the pass: co%pos:.
Je n'ai pas conduit depuis mon mariage I haven't driven since I've been married.

O. To e"press an action that was done for a period of time, pendant is used, usually with the pass compos. Cut for an action that was completed some time ago, use i$ K a, also with the pass compos.

J'ai lou une voiture pendant deu+ semaines J'ai appris ) conduire il - a deu+ ans

I rented a car for two weeks. I learned to drive two years ago.

AA. P(ST (FFICE 7 8 NQ


post office la poste letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbo9 mail slot address return address label packing tape package la lettre la carte postale le tim%re la ca%ine tlp!onique la %o.te ) lettres la fente l'adresse l'e+pditeur l'tiquette le ru%an ad!sif le paquet bank teller bill check checkbook */8 ke" lock filing cabinet la %anque le caissier , la caissi&re le %illet le c!&que le c!quier le guic!et automatique la cl la serrure le classeur

safet" deposit le coffre bo9 notepad le %loc-notes la carte de crdit la camra de surveillance le gardien le drive-in le coffre-fort

credit card securit" postmark le cac!et de la poste camera rubber band l'lastique securit" guard drive?thru ink pad le tampon encreur window string la ficelle safe

AB. T( RECEI#E
Decevoir-to receive reois reois reoit recevons recevez reoivent

The past participle of recevoir is reV".

BC. #ER8S M

(R !E M INFINITI#ES (R N(=NS

<ome verbs re+uire Q or de before an infinitive#


0er% < ) < infinitive aider ) to help s'amuser ) to have fun apprendre ) to learn arriver ) c!erc!er ) to manage to look for 0er% < de < infinitive accepter de to accept conseiller de to advise arrter de to stop convenir de to agree upon avoir envie to feel like craindre de to fear de avoir !onte to be dsesprer de to despair de ashamed avoir peur to be afraid dissuader de to dissuade de avoir raison to be right entreprendre de to undertake de to avoir tort de to be wrong envisager de contemplate c!oisir de to choose s'tonner de to astonish to keep dcider de to decide se garder de oneself dfendre de to forbid ngliger de to neglect demander de to ask persuader de to persuade se dpc!er to hurr" up prier de to beg de recommander dire de to sa" to recommend de empc!er de to prevent reproc!er de to reproach essa-er de to tr" tre !eureu+ to be happ" de tre o%lig to be de re%uired viter de to avoid to s'e+cuser de apologi#e finir de to finish interdire de to forbid menacer de to threaten ou%lier de to forget permettre de to permit promettre de to promise refuser de to refuse

commencer ) to begin consister ) continuer ) donner ) to consist to continue to give

encourager ) to encourage enseigner ) to teach to s'e+ercer ) practice/learn s'!a%ituer ) to get used to !siter ) insister ) inviter ) renoncer ) russir ) songer ) to hesitate to insist to invite to give up to succeed to consider

s'appliquer ) to appl" to to become s'attac!er ) attached se dcider ) to decide s'emplo-er ) to use inciter ) to incite s'o%stiner ) to insist parvenir ) to succeed

persister ) pousser ) provoquer ) se risquer ) veiller ) viser )

to persist in to push to provoke to risk to look after to aim

regretter de remercier de rver de risquer de venir de cesser de

to regret to thank to dream to risk to have just to stop

: !enir de 6 infinitive means "to have )ust" 6 past participle in ?nglish. 1e viens de man,er. 5 )ust ate. <ome verbs re+uire Q or de before nouns# #er/ M . M no"n a$$er . to suit assister . to attend demander . to ask (someone dire . to tell (someone convenir . to suit to play 9o"er . (sport(game n"ire . to harm o/ir . to obey penser . to think of p$aire . to please renoncer . to give up rpondre . resister . ressem/$er . son,er . s"rvivre . t$p)oner . to answer to resist to resemble to consider to survive to phone #er/ M de M no"n s2apercevoir de to notice s2approc)er de to approach avoir /esoin de to need c)an,er de to change dpendre de to depend on do"ter de )riter de 9o"er de 9o"ir de man+"er de se mfier de to doubt

to inherit to play (instrument to en)oy to lack to distrust to think(have an opinion penser de about remercier de to thank for rire de to laugh at se servir de to use se so"venir de to remember vivre de to live on

>nd some verbs re+uire no prepositions in 3rench, while others use different prepositions from ?nglish#

No prepositions in Frenc)

!ifferent prepositions from En,$is) to enter

to entrer appro"ver approve dans of attendre to wait for to look for

c)erc)er

to consister consist en of to get se fPc)er angry contre with

demander to ask for to listen co"ter to to hope esprer for paKer to pay for to remind rappe$er of re,arder to look at to smell sentir of(like viser to aim at T" me rappe$$e mon p*re. .ou remind me of my father. Xa sent $a p$"ie. 5t smells like rain. B1. !1ECTI#ES M (R !E M INFINITI#ES d9ective M de M infinitive acc"s de accused ass"r de assure(insured capa/$e de capable certain de certain c)ar, de charged(loaded conn" de known

d9ective M . M infinitive accessi/$e . accessible a,ra/$e . pleasant am"sant . fun antrie"r . previous(earlier attac) . attached conforme . standard

contraire . dernier . enn"Ke"E . tran,er . eEpos . favora/$e . infrie"r . intressant . $,er . $ent . $o"rd . oppos . pni/$e . premier . prt . rapide . sem/$a/$e . se"$ . s"prie"r . terri/$e . "ti$e .

contrary last boring foreign e"posed favorable inferior(lower interesting light slow heavy opposite difficult first ready fast similar only superior(higher terrible useful

conscient de content de dn"d de dsire"E de dso$ de diffrent de di,ne de eEempt de f"rie"E de )e"re"E de )onte"E de impatient de p$ein de priv de proc)e de remp$i de so"cie"E de sLr de triste de vide de

conscious content(satisfied naked(bare desirous sorry different fit(worthy e"empt furious happy ashamed impatient full private close(near full worried sure sad empty

B%. T( F(&&(6
1uivre-to follo6 suis suis suit suivons suivez suivent

The past participle of suivre is s"ivi. S"ivre can also be used with school sub)ects to mean "to take a course." S"ive: $e ,"ide H 3ollow the guideF

S"ive: $es instr"ctions. 3ollow the instructions. 1e s"is "n co"rs de mat)s. 58m taking a math class. B0. F IRE C =S TI#E 3aire 6 an infinitive is called the faire causative. 5t translates to "have something done by someone or cause something to be done by someone," or "to cause someone to do something." Re rpare la voiture. 58m fi"ing the car. Re fais rparer la voiture. 58m having the car fi"ed. 5l peint son appartement. ;e8s painting his apartment. 5l fait peindre son appartement. ;e8s having his apartment painted. 0e bb mange. The baby is eating. ?lle fait manger le bb. <he8s feeding the baby. : =hen replacing the ob)ect with a pronoun, the pronoun precedes faire. >nd in past tenses, the past participle remains invariable. Re $a fais rparer. 58m having it fi"ed. 5l $e"r a fait apprendre les verbes. ;e had them learn the verbs. 5l $es leur a fait apprendre. ;e had them learn them. : <e faire 6 infinitive is usually translated as "to get" 6 (oneself 6 verb. Tu vas te faire t"er. .ou8re going to get yourself killed. 5l va se faire casser la gueule. ;e8s going to break his neck. Se faire soi,ner sans se faire arrter. Det treated(looked after without getting arrested. Xvite2 de vo"s faire pi+"er. >void getting stung. B4. !IRECT 7 IN!IRECT !ISC(=RSE ,irect discourse relates e"actly what someone has said or written, using +uotation marks and the original wording. 5ndirect discourse relates indirectly, without +uotation marks, what someone has said or written. 5t works the same way in 3rench as it does in ?nglish.
6irect 6iscourse Indirect 6iscourse

Il me ditA GG>e pars en vacances et ma famille a louC une villa!HH Il m'a ditA GG>e pars en vacances /ain verb in past et ma famille a louC une villa!HH /ain verb is present

Il me dit qu'il part en vacances et %ue sa famille a lou une villa! Il m'a dit qu'il partait en vacances et %ue sa famille avait lou une villa!

'ote that if the main verb is in the present tense, no tense changes occur when using indirect discourse. ;owever, if the main verb is in a past tense, the following tense changes occur# Present Y Imperfect Pass Compos Y P$"perfect The 5mperfect and Pluperfect do not change. 4emember to use +"e to introduce each dependent clause, and ad)ust personal pronouns and possessive ad)ectives. 5n +uestions, the following (rather uncomplicated changes occur# I. .es(no +uestions 7 si 6 declarative sentence 1e t2ai demand si t" avais faim. M. (S, +"and, comment, etc. 7 interrogative word 6 declarative sentence I$ m2a demand . +"e$$e )e"re 92a$$ais revenir. 1. 5nterrogative pronouns are a little trickier#
&ui est%ce &ui &ui est%ce &ue &u'est%ce &ui &u'est%ce &ue qui ce qui ce que Il m'a demand qui tait rest ?lle m'a demand qui j'avais vu Ils m'ont demand ce qui s'tait pass ?lles m'ont demand ce que j'avais dit

B;. C(MP=TERS 7 INTERNET


computer disk document 46?2<8 l'ordinateur la disquette le document le cdrom scanner laptop internet internet user le scanner le porta%le l'internet l'internaute

monitor ke"board mouse printer memo fa9 machine photocopier t"pewriter software file cabinet memor" card flashdrive

l'cran le clavier la souris l'imprimante la note de service le tlcopieur la p!otocopieuse la mac!ine ) crire le logiciel le dossier le placard la carte mmoire la cl E1F

online link bookmark e?mail password search engine chat room bulletin board homepage website web browser cable 6+-

e9ternal (6 le disque dur e+terne to sign on / off attachment to attach la pi&ce jointe joindre to scroll up / down to download

en-ligne le lien le signet le courriel , le mail le mot de passe le moteur de rec!erc!e la salle de tc!atc!e le forum la page d'accueil le site le navigateur le c(%le l'2/1= se connecter , dconnecter drouler le te+te tlc!arger

3rench uses porta/$e to refer to a laptop computer and a cell phone.

B>. NE EZP&ETIF <ometimes ne must be inserted in a phrase even when it is not e"pressing the negative. (;owever, do not confuse the use of ne e)pl:t!f with the verbs that can e"ist in the negative with only using ne and not pas in formal, written language# cesser, daigner, oser, pouvoir, savoir . 5t is used I after certain conunctions# avant +"e, . moins +"e; M after e"pressions and verbs of fear# de crainte +"e, de pe"r +"e, craindre +"e, avoir pe"r +"e, redo"ter +"e, trem/$er +"e, empc)er +"e, viter +"e; 1 before a verb that follows a comparison of ine+uality# p$"s, moins, a"tre; and O after adverbs of doubt and negation used in the negative to e"press a positive idea. 1e sors ce soir . moins +"2i$ ne p$e"ve. 58ll go out this evening unless it rains. I$ craint +"e t" ne sois fati," apr*s $e voKa,e. ;e8s afraid that you8ll be tired after the trip. No"s sommes p$"s forts +"2e$$e ne pense. =e are stronger than

she thinks. 1e ne do"te pas +"e vo"s ne fassie: des pro,r*s. 5 don8t doubt that you are making progress. B@. C(N!ITI(N & TENSES- PRESENT 7 P ST The present conditional tense corresponds to "would." 5t is used after the imperfect in a conditional sentence. Eost conditionals sentences begin with si (if . ;owever, do not confuse the conditional woul" with the woul" that e"presses a repeated action in the past. 5f woul" means use" to, then the imperfect tense is used. >nother use of the conditional is in news reports to indicate that the information is not confirmed. Si 92tais (!%perfect) dans "ne a"tre fami$$e, estGce +"e 9e serais (con"!t!onal) p$"s )e"re"se N 5f 5 were in another family, would 5 be happierG F"and no"s tions (!%perfect) en vacances, no"s dormions (!%perfect) 9"s+"2. midi. =hen we were on vacation, we would (used to sleep until noon. =n ota,e tran,er serait mort en ro"te po"r $2)Dpita$. > foreign hostage (probably died on the way to the hospital. To form the conditional, use the infinitive and add the imperfect endings (but remember to drop the $e on $re verbs . .ou use the same irregular stems and e"ceptions for the conditional that are used for the future tense.
-ais -ais -ait -ions -iez -aient

The past conditional is formed by using the conditional of avoir or %tre and a past participle. 5t corresponds to "would have" and is used in hypothetical sentences. I$ n2a"rait 9amais dit Va H ;e woul" have never sa!" thatF

: If... sentences- =hen si (if is used in sentences of condition, the verb tenses change. These pretty much correspond to ?nglish usage. I. Si M present tense M present, imperative, or f"t"re Si 9e s"is fati,"e, 9e me repose. 5f 58m tired, 5 rest. ReposeGtoi si t" es fati,". 4est if you8re tired. Si 9e s"is fati," demain, 9e me reposerai. 5f 5 am tired tomorrow, 5 will rest. M. Si M imperfect M present conditiona$ Si 92tais ric)e, 9e po"rrais ac)eter "n c)Ptea". 5f 5 were rich, 5 would buy a castle. I$ deviendrait roi s2i$ avait p$"s de co"ra,e. ;e would become king if he had more courage. 1. Si M p$"perfect M past conditiona$ Si 92avais s", 92a"rais compris. 5f 5 had known, 5 would have understood. 5t is possible to have past conditional with the imperfect, and it is also possible to have present conditional with pluperfect. ;owever, you can never have the future or conditional tenses directly following si. They must be in the other clause. R Trans$atin, 6o"$d, Co"$d, S)o"$d 5n general, you use the conditional tense of a verb to e"press woul" & !nf!n!t!ve6 such as 9e dirais $ 5 woul" say. >gain, make sure to use the imperfect of the verb if you8re referring to repeated actions in the past (i.e. used to . .ou can also use the conditional of pouvoir to mean coul", as long as the meaning is something that is yet to happen. I$ po"rrait m2aider. >e coul" help %e. @therwise, you use the imperfect or pass compos to mean could if you8re referring to the past of can (i.e. was(were not able to . E$$e ne po"vait pas s2arrter de rire. -he coul"n#t stop laugh!ng. <hould is usually translated by using the conditional of devoir. T" ne devrais pas dire Va. You shoul"n#t say that. 3or woul" have6 coul" have and shoul" have, you use the past conditional of the verb, past conditional of pouvoir 6 infinitive, and past conditional of devoir 6 infinitive, respectively. Rust remember that would and would have are not followed by infinitives in 3rench.

would could should would have could have should have

conditional of verb conditional of pouvoir 6 infinitive conditional of devoir 6 infinitive past conditional of verb past conditional of pouvoir 6 infinitive past conditional of devoir 6 infinitive

i$ dirait i$ po"rrait dire i$ devrait dire i$ a"rait dit i$ a"rait p" dire i$ a"rait dL dire

he would say he could say he should say he would have said he could have said he should have said

".ou shouldn8t have" or "that wasn8t necessary" when someone gives you a gift is i$ ne fa$$ait pas. 0isten to the $e conditionne$ - si t" ,a,nais a" $oto mp1 and try the clo2e (fill$in$the$blank e"ercise from 3rench 0istening 4esources. BA. P RTS (F
horn hood brake steering wheel windshield wipers dashboard accelerator headlights windshield motor

C R7

T T<E ? S ST TI(N
directional signal license plate brake light (on car) car window le clignotant la plaque d'immatriculation le stop la voiture la vitre la porti&re le rservoir la roue le pneu le pare-c!ocs

le 3la+on le capot le frein le volant les essuie-glaces

le ta%leau de %ord door l'acclrateur les p!ares le pare-%rise le moteur gas tank wheel tire bumper

trunk bod" (of car) driver's license gasoline traffic lights oil hubcap air hose

le coffre la carrosserie le permis de conduire l'essence les feu+ l'!uile l'enjoliveur la pompe ) air

fender door handle

l'aile la poigne de porti&re

air conditioning la climatisation heater batter" gas cap gas pump le c!auffage la %atterie le %ouc!on de rservoir d'essence la pompe ) essence

The most common types of cars in 3rance are Pe",eot, C$io, Rena"$t, and Fiat, and the ma)ority are manual drive. >utomatic cars in ?urope are generally reserved for handicapped people. The driving age in 3rance is IV, and young drivers who have )ust gotten their licenses have a red > sticker on their car.

BB. T( !RI#E
Conduire-to drive conduis conduis conduit conduisons conduisez conduisent

The past participle of conduire is cond"it. @ther verbs con)ugated like conduire are# trad"ire $ to translate, prod"ire$ to produce, and constr"ire $ to construct. 1CC. TR #E&&IN? 7
suitcase clothes passport diar" traveler's checks

T T<E IRP(RT
la valise les vtements le passeport le journal les c!&ques de vo-age

dictionar" flight baggage =uro bill coin change cent arrival departure 1here is/are!!! currenc" e9change passport check customs entrance lost and found information e9it ta9i stand restroom

le dictionnaire le vol les %agages l'euro le %illet la pi&ce la monnaie le centime l'arrive le dpart 8> est , 8> sont le %ureau de c!ange le contr'le des passeports la douane l'entre les o%jets trouvs les renseignements la sortie les ta+is les toilettes

=hen asking here !s$are..., (S est is the singular form and (S sont is the plural form, even if it8s singular in ?nglish. here !s the entrance? would be (S est $2entre N and here !s the lost an" foun"? would be (S sont $es o/9ets tro"vs N /irectional Gords right there here over there juste l) ici l)-%as 0hoost lah ee%see lah bah ah dwaht duh ah gohsh duh too dwah duh%vawn across from en face de awn faw0 duh between ne9t to near far (from) at the end of at the top of entre ) c't de pr&s de loin de au fond de en !aut de awn%truh ah koh%tay duh preh duh lwahn duh oh fohn duh awn oh duh

to the right of ) droite de to the left of straight ahead in front of ) gauc!e de tout droit devant

behind

derri&re

dare%ee%air ?o on to Frenc) #I ]

1C1. C MPIN? camping shelter tent spike sleeping bag flashlight lantern torch compass map binoculars campfire $e campin, $2a/ri ImJ $a tente $a sardine $e sac de co"c)a,e $a $ampe torc)e $a $anterne $e f$am/ea" $a /o"sso$e $a carte a"e stump canteen $a )ac)e $a so"c)e $e /idon

hammock $e )amac backpack $e sac . dos path bench rock stone pebble $e c)emin ' $e sentier $e /anc $e roc)er $a pierre $e cai$$o" $e cano^ $a pa,aie

$es 9"me$$es IfJ canoe $e fe" de camp oar

1C%. SPECI & =SES (F !E#(IR ,evoir is one of the trickiest verbs to translate and use in 3rench. The following is a list of the different meanings of devoir used in various tenses. must, have >e dois Ctudier! Present 9ense to Il doit @tre malade! probabl" Pass Compos Imperfect had to (and did), Il a d partir! must have was supposed I must (have to) stud"! (e's probabl" sick! (e had to leave!

=lle devait chanter ce soir! +he was supposed to sing tonight!

to, used to have to *uture will have to /u devras pa"er l'argent! ;ous devriez manger les fruits! )ou will have to pa" mone"! )ou should eat fruits! /he" should have pla"ed!

Conditional should

Past should have Ils auraient d jouer! Conditional

5n the present tense, you can also e"press I am s"pposed to with 1e s"is cens 6 infinitive. To e"press you "on#t have to instead of you %ust not, use vo"s nYtes pas o/$i, de instead of vo"s ne deve: pas or i$ ne fa"t pas.

1C0. C(SMETICS 7 T(I&ETRIES toothbrush toothpaste la %rosse ) dents le dentifrice hair spra" hair dr"er nail polish la laque le s&c!ec!eveu+ le vernis ) ongles blush foundation e"e liner e"e shadow bubble bath shower gel deodorant lotion pads tampons le %lus! le fond de teint l'e-e liner l'om%re ) paupi&res le %ain moussant le gel douc!e le dodorant la lotion , la cr&me les serviettes !-giniques les tampons

dental floss le fil dentaire hair brush comb shampoo la %rosse le peigne le s!ampooing la cr&me ) raser le rasoir la mousse

mascara le mascara lipstick powder le rouge ) l&vres la poudre le savon le maquillage

curling iron le fer ) friser soap shaving cream ra#or mousse makeup

perfume le parfum cologne l'eau de Cologne

1C4. ME!ICINE 7 <(SPIT & *I6+ le sida food poisoning l'into+ication alimentaire #f$

ambulance anesthetic antidote bandage band?aid cancer cane capsule cast chicken po9 cold crutches cure diabetes diagnosis disease doctor first aid kit flu

l'am%ulance #f$ l'anst!sie #f$ l'antidote le %andage le pansement le cancer la canne la capsule le pl(tre la varicelle le r!ume les %quilles #f$ le rem&de le dia%&te le diagnostic la maladie le mdecin la trousse de secours la grippe

hospital infection intensive care medecine medication nurse pills pneumonia poison sling stethoscope stretcher surgeon surger" s"ringe tablet tumor wheelchair I?ra"

l'!'pital #m$ l'infection #f$ la ranimation la mdecine le mdicament l'infirmier #m$ les cac!ets #m$ la pneumonie le poison l'c!arpe #f$ le stt!oscope la civi&re le c!irurgien la c!irurgie la seringue le comprim la tumeur le fauteuil roulant la radio

1C;. PRESENT P RTICIP&E

Present participles can be used as ad)ectives, as verbs, or like a +"i clause. =hen an ad)ective, it agrees with the noun it modifies. =hen it functions as a verb, it is invariable. Preceded by en, (e+uivalent to while, by, upon or in , it corresponds to the ?nglish $ing gerund form. Used without en, the present participle can act like a +ui clause. To form this participle, drops the $ons ending of the nous form in the present tense and add $ant. (There are only three irregular present participles# ayant6 :tant6 sachant $ having, being, knowing.
1e me s"is cass $e poi,net en tom/ant. 5 broke my wrist by falling. C2est en for,eant +"e $2on devient for,eron. Practice makes perfect. Ce resta"rant ne propose pas d2ea" pti$$ante. This restaurant doesn8t serve sparkling water.

1C>.

88RE#I TI(NS

5n everyday speech, it is common to shorten some words# advertisement afternoon apartment car cinema college demonstration dictionary drink before dinner e"traordinary friendly have a good meal intellectual laboratory microphone owner photography raincoat slide soccer television terrific usually 1C@. P ST INFINITI#E The past infinitive is used to e"press something that has already happened. !erbs such as s8e"cuser, regretter, and remercier are often used in this tense. 5t is formed with the infinitive of the au"iliary verb (avoir or %tre and the past participle of the main verb. >nd the past participle can have agreement as well, with either the sub)ect or the ob)ect, depending on the sentence. =henever apr*s is followed by a verb, it is always a past infinitive. >nd note that negative e"pressions precede an infinitive. la publicit l8apr*s$midi l8appartement l8automobile le cinma la facult la manifestation le dictionnaire l8apritif e"traordinaire sympathi+ue bon apptit intellectuel le laboratoire le microphone le propritaire la photographie l8impermable la diapositive le football la tlvision sensationnel d8habitude $a p"/ $2apr*m $2apparte $2a"to $e cin $a fac $e manif $e dico $2apro eEtra sKmpa /on app inte$$o $e $a/o $e micro $e proprio $a p)oto $2imper $a diapo $e foot $a t$ sensas d2)a/

Je vous remercie d'tre venus ?+cusez-moi d'tre arriv#e$ en retard 2pr&s avoir fini mes tudes" je veu+ devenir professeur ?lle regrette de ne pas avoir pos de questions

I thank "ou for coming (or having come!) =9cuse me for arriving (or having arrived) late! *fter finishing (or having finished) m" studies, I want to become a teacher! +he regrets not asking (or having asked) an" %uestions!

1CA. IN T<E (CE N barnacle $a /ernac$e bubble $a /"$$e $a com/inaison wet suit de p$on,e fishing $a $i,ne de line pc)e )ellyfish flipper clam wave anchor o"ygen tank seashell coral crab 1CB. T( !IE
5ourir-to die meurs meurs meurt mourons mourez meurent

fish hook mask scuba diver sand treasure chest snorkel shipwreck seaweed starfish

$e )ameVon $e mas+"e $e p$on,e"r so"sGmarin $e sa/$e $e trsor $e t"/a $2pave $es a$,"es $2toi$e de mer

$a md"se $a pa$me $a pa$o"rde $a va,"e $2ancre $e /a$$on d2oEK,*ne $e co+"i$$a,e $e corai$ $e cra/e

sea horse $2)ippocampe sea urchin $2o"rsin helm $a /arre

The past participle is mort ' morte and it is con)ugated with %tre. .ou will most likely use this verb in the past tense, but it is used in some present tense sayings. 1e me"rs de faim H 58m dying of hunger ( 58m starvingF

11C. IN SP CE alien asteroid astronaut beaker $2eEtraGterrestre ImJ $2astro_de ImJ $2astrona"te ImJ $e ,o/e$et nebula planet rings robot $a n/"$e"se

$a p$an*te $es annea"E $e ro/ot ' $2a"tomate $a f"se comet $a com*te rocket interp$antaire constellation $a conste$$ation satellite $e sate$$ite control panel $e ta/$ea" de /ord solar panel $e pannea" so$aire solar crater $e crat*re $e sKst*me so$aire system space ?arth $a terre $a navette spatia$e shuttle space gala"y $a ,a$aEie $a station spatia$e station $e scap)andre de laboratory $e $a/oratoire space suit cosmona"te landing $a caps"$e spaceship $a so"co"pe vo$ante capsule d2atterrissa,e lunar rover $a 9eep $"naire star $2toi$e IfJ meteor $a p$"ie de sun $e so$ei$ shower mtores moon $a $"ne test tube $2pro"vette IfJ 111. P(SSESSI#E PR(N(=NS Possessive pronouns replace nouns used with possessive ad)ectives. They agree in gender and number with noun they replace as well.

+ingular 8asc! le mien le tien le sien le n'tre le v'tre le leur 0em! la mienne la tienne la sienne la n'tre la v'tre la leur 8asc! les miens les tiens les siens les n'tres les v'tres les leurs

7lural 0em! les miennes les tiennes les siennes les n'tres les v'tres les leurs

mine yours his1hers1its ours yours theirs

-8est ma pomme. !oilQ $a tienne. That8s my apple. ;ere8s yours. 5l a son sac. ?lle a $e sien. ;e has his bag. <he has hers. -8est $e mien, pas $e tien F That8s mine, not yoursF 5ls aiment leur voiture. 'ous aimons $a nDtre. They like their car. =e like ours. 11%. SIMP&E P ST TENSE The simple past tense is used in works of literature in place of the pass compos and is very rarely spoken. .ou most likely will never need to form this tense, but you should be able to recogni2e it for reading purposes. >dd the following endings to the stem#
-er ?ai ?as ?a ?Jmes ?Jtes ?Brent ?is ?is ?it -ir , -re ?Kmes ?Ktes ?irent

Irre,"$ar ver/s t)at fo$$o3 a pattern- <ome verbs use their past participle as a stem, and then add endings for the simple past. 5n this case, the si" endings are $s, $s, $t, $Zmes, $Ztes, $rent. avoir e[ e me us s e e[t us es devoir recevoir vivre d d[ cru cr[m l[me di dSm dor dormS re& re&[ vc vc[ lus u me s es s s es mis mes us mes us mes s s cru cr[te lus l[tes di dSte dor dormS d d[t re& re&[t vc vc[t s s s s mis tes u es us es us es croire $ire dire dormir

s e eur cru crur di dire dor dormi d dur re& re&u vc vcu lut lurent ut ent t ent t nt mit rent ut ent ut rent ut rent prend mettr sortir vo"$oir connaUtre savoir po"voir re e prS mS s s[ pr sor sortS vou voul[ m con conn pu p[m me me u me is tis mes lus mes is nus [mes s es s s s s s pr prSt sor sortSt vou voul[ m mSt con conn s[t pu p[te u is es tis es lus tes is es nus [tes es s s s pr prir sor sortir vou voulu m mir con conn s sur pure put it ent tit ent lut rent it ent nut urent ut ent nt
@ther verbs do not use their past participles as stems (but they still take the same endings , so you should memori2e these forms. tre fus fus fut fLmes fLtes furent fis fis fit faire fKmes fKtes firent crire venir voir Ccriv CcrivKm vins vKnmes vis vKmes is es Ccriv CcrivKte vins vKntes vis vKtes is s Ccriv Ccrivire vint vinrent vit virent it nt craindre craign craignK is mes craign craignKt is es craign craignir it ent %attre batt battKm is es batt battKte is s batt battire it nt conduire condui conduisK sis mes condui conduisKt sis es condui conduisir sit ent

mourir mour mourL us mes mour mourLt us es mour mourur ut ent

na.tre ouvrir na%u na%uKm ouvri ouvrKm is es s es na%u na%uKte ouvri ouvrKte is s s s na%u na%uire ouvri ouvrire it nt t nt

110. M QEG8E&IE#E 7 F NT S4 archer armor $2arc)er ImJ fairy $a fe $a fantaisie moat monster $es do"ves IfJ $e monstre

$2arm"re fantasy

arrow a" bow cackle castle cauldron

$a f$*c)e fork $a )ac)e genie $2arc ImJ ricaner $e c)Ptea" $e c)a"dron $2)omme des cavernes ImJ $e cimeti*re $e cerc"ei$ $a co"ronne $e dmon ghost giant grave haunted house headstone

$a fo"rc)e mummy $e ,nie pillory $e pirate fantDme $e ,ant prince $a tom/e princess $a maison +ueen )ante $a pierre tom/a$e scarecrow

$a momie $e pi$ori $e pirate $e prince $a princesse $a reine $2po"vantai$ ImJ $e /o"c$ier $a $ance $2c"Ker ImJ $2pe IfJ $e trDne

caveman

cemetery coffin crown demon devil dragon

hobgoblin $e $"tin humpback $e /oss" )ester king $e fo"

shield spear s+uire

$e dia/$e knight

$e dra,on lamp $e pontG drawbridge lance $evis dungeon dwarf elf e"ecutioner magic $e don9on wand $e nain $e $"tin mermaid minstrel

$e roi sword $e throne c)eva$ier $a $ampe tower $a $ance

$a to"r $e troubadour tro"/ado"r $a $icorne $a sorci*re $e sorcier $e mort vivant

$a /a,"ette unicorn ma,i+"e $a sir*ne witch $e wi2ard mnestre$ ,mir 2ombie

$e moan /o"rrea"

114. RE&I?I(N altar angel $2a"te$ ImJ $2an,e ImJ Rudaism mass $e 9"da_sme $a messe

baptism bell Cible bishop bliss Cuddhism candle cathedral choir -hristian -hristianity church convent cross dome faith fast Dod gold ring Dospel heaven hell 5slam Rew

$e /aptme $a c$oc)e $a 8i/$e $2v+"e ImJ $a /atit"de

minaret monastery mos+ue munk Euslim

$e /o"dd)isme nun $e cier,e $a cat)dra$e $a c)ora$e $e c)rtien $a c)rtient $2,$ise IfJ $e co"vent $a croiE $a co"po$e $a foi $e 9eLne $e !ie" $2a"ro$e IfJ $2Evan,i$e ImJ $e cie$ ' $e paradis $2enfer ImJ $2is$am ImJ $e 9"if ' $a 9"ive organ pillar Pope prayer priest prophet Protestant religion reverend rosary saint sermon sin suffering temple

$e minaret $e monast*re $a mos+"e $e moine $e m"s"$man $a re$i,ie"se ' /onne sW"r $2or,"e ImJ $e pi$ier $e pape $a pri*re $e prtre $e prop)*te $e protestant $a re$i,ion $e c"r $e c)ape$et $e saint $e sermon $e pc) $a so"ffrance $e temp$e

torture $e s"pp$ice vow $e vW" worship(service $e c"$te

11;. M=SIC 7 accordion bagpipe band

RT $2accordon ImJ "ylophone $e EK$op)one $a cornem"se acteur $2acte"r $a /ande ' $e actress $2actrice ,ro"pe

bass clef conductor conductor8s stick drum drumstick flute

$a c$ef de fa $e c)ef d2orc)estre $e /Pton

applaud art

$es app$a"dissements ImJ $2art ImJ

audience $e p"/$ic boo bust canvas director easel film film bob frame light mask model museum paint paintbrush painter painting pallette pedastel pro)ector screen sculptor stage star statue tickets $a )"e IfJ $e /"ste $a toi$e $e mette"r en sc*ne $e c)eva$et $e fi$m $a /o/ine $e cadre $e pro9ecte"r $e mas+"e $e mod*$e $e m"se $a peint"re $e pincea" $e peintre $e ta/$ea" $a pa$ette $e pidesta$ $e pro9ecte"r $2cran ImJ $e sc"$pte"r $a sc*ne $a vedette, $a star $a stat"e $es /i$$ets ImJ

$e tam/o"r $a /a,"ette $a f$Lte $e cor 3rench horn d2)armonie guitar $a ,"itare guitar strings $es cordes IfJ harp $a )arpe IfJ horns $es cors ImJ keyboard $e sKnt)tise"r music $a m"si+"e $e p"pitre . music stand m"si+"e orchestra $2orc)estre ImJ piano $e piano piano keys $es to"c)es IfJ sa"ophone $e saEop)one sheet music $a partition tambourine $e tam/o"rin treble clef $a c$ef de so$ trombone $e trom/one trumpet $a trompette tuba $e t"/a tuning fork $e diapason cello $e vio$once$$e violin $e vio$on violin bow $2arc)et ImJ

viola $ $2a$to (m

11>. CF=ERIR G T( CF=IRE 7 RES(=!RE G T( RES(&#E ac+"rir $ to ac+uire ac+uiers ac+urons ac+uiers ac+ure2 ac+uiert ac+ui*rent rso"dre $ to resolve rsous rsolvons rsous rsolve2 rsout rsolvent

The past participles are ac+"is and rso$", and both verbs are con)ugated with avoir. 11@. IMPERFECT 7 P ST S=81=NCTI#E The sub)unctive in past tenses is not used very often in 3rench in everyday speech, but grammatically, it should be used if the verb in the main clause is in the past tense. The imperfect sub)unctive is formed from the simple past, while the the past and pluperfect sub)unctive forms are composed of two elements# the present sub)unctive of avoir or %tre 6 past participle for the past sub)unctive and the imperfect sub)unctive of the avoir or %tre 6 past participle for the pluperfect sub)unctive. Use the il(elle form of the simple past to form the imperfect sub)unctive endings. <ometimes, the only difference between the il(elle forms of the simple past and the imperfect sub)unctive is the circumfle" for the imperfect sub)unctive. tre co"per finir $ire Ase the s!%ple past to for% the ste%s !l eut !l fut !l coupa !l f!n!t !l lut I%perfect -ub1unct!ve e"sse f"sse co"passe finisse $"sse e"sses f"sses co"passes finisses $"sses eLt fLt co"pPt finUt $Lt e"ssions f"ssions co"passions finissions $"ssions e"ssie: f"ssie: co"passie: finissie: $"ssie: e"ssent f"ssent co"passent finissent $"ssent avoir tenir !l t!nt tinsse tinsses tUnt tinssions tinssie: tinssent

11A. TR NS& TIN? P<R S & #ER8S- EN?&IS< T( FRENC<

Eost ?nglish phrasal verbs translate as one verb without any prepositions or adverbs in 3rench. Eake sure to pay attention to the correct meaning of the phrasal verb in ?nglish, however, before deciding on the correct 3rench translation. add up additionner so"tenir ' back up sa"ve,arder beat up ta/asser bend down bend over se /aisser se penc)er make up make up for mess around inventer ' se rconci$ier compenser ' rattraper

faire $2im/ci$e ' s2am"ser ' to"c)er . mettre en dsordre ' mess up ,Pc)er ' /Pc$er miss out omettre ' sa"ter

miss out $aisser passer ' $o"per on ,onf$er ' sa"ter ' faire confondre ' em/ro"i$$er ' blow up mi" up sa"ter m$an,er break tom/er en panne ' mouth se vanter ' par$er . tort et down enfoncer off . travers move break in entrer par effraction avancer forward break up rompre ' se terminer move in emmna,er breathe inspirer move off se mettre en ro"te in breathe eEpirer move out dmna,er out brighten s2c$aircir ' se move se po"sser up d,a,er over bring muddle rapporter ' ramener m$an,er ' em/ro"i$$er back up note bring up $ever ' so"$ever noter down bump rentrer dans ' own up avo"er into renconter par )asard burst c$ater ' fondre Ien part with se sparer de into $armesJ call back rappe$er pass for se faire passer po"r blow out so"ff$er

call off call on call round calm down care about

ann"$er rendre visite . passer se ca$mer se so"cier de

pass on transmettre pass out s2vano"ir ' distri/"er pay back rem/o"rser pay for peel off phone back pick on pick up pile up plug in paKer dtac)er rappe$er s2en prendre . ' )arce$er ramasser ' c)erc)er ' apprendre ' dra,"er s2entasser ' s2empi$er ' s2acc"m"$er /ranc)er

care for s2occ"per de ' aimer carry on contin"er catch up rattraper chase after chase away co"rir apr*s c)asser

se prsenter . check in $2enre,istrement ' $a rception check r,$er sa note ' out re,arder check vrifier ' eEaminer over remonter $e mora$ . ' cheer up retro"ver $e mora$ chop a/attre down clean up nettoKer clear off d,a,er ' fi$er clear out vider clear up ran,er ' s2c$aircir climb down descendre

point out montrer ' faire remar+"er pop in pull ahead pull down pull in pull out passer prendre $a tte dmo$ir ' /aisser s2arrter

arrac)er ' retirer se ran,er ' se ,arer s"r $a pull over cDt pull s2en sortir through pull faire "n effort together pull up remonter ' s2arrter

climb over climb up cloud over come around come back come down

passer parGdess"s monter se co"vrir ' s2assom/rir venir ' reprendre connaissance revenir descendre ' /aisser

pump up ,onf$er push in res+"i$$er

put away ran,er put back remettre put down poser put off put on put out remettre . p$"s tard ' diss"ader ' d,oLter ' dran,er ' teindre mettre ' a$$"mer ' prendre ' monter ' faire marc)er teindre ' tendre ' sortir ' dran,er

come in entrer come off se dtac)er come out come over come to sortir ' partir venir

reprendre connaissance monter ' so"$ever ' come up tre so"$ev come up arriver . ' s2approc)er read out $ire . )a"te voiE to de come up read up proposer ' s",,rer parco"rir ' $ire en entier with on cool refroidir ' refraUc)ir rely on compter s"r down cross off raKer ring back rappe$er cross out /arrer ring up appe$er ' t$p)oner . cross traverser roll up ro"$er ' retro"sser over cry out po"sser "n cri rub out effacer cut off co"per rule out eEc$"re cut out dco"per run away s2enf"ir

put monter together ri,er ' monter ' mettre ' put up a",menter ' )/er,er put up s"pporter with reach tendre $a main out

s2occ"per de ' traiter de dig up dterrer do away se d/arasser ' with s"pprimer fermer ' attac)er ' do up /o"tonner ' retaper do se passer de without se d,"iser ' dress up s2)a/i$$er drop by passer deal with drop off dposer ' $aisser end up face up to finir ' se retro"ver faire face .

run out

s2p"iser

run over renverser ' craser save up mettre de $2ar,ent de cDt scare away search for see off faire f"ir ' effraKer c)erc)er dire a" revoir .

see to s2occ"per de send renvoKer back send for appe$er ' faire venir send off eEp"$ser set off partir ' se mettre en ro"te ' faire partir ' faire eEp$oser ' dc$enc)er partir ' se mettre en ro"te crer ' insta$$er ' monter

fall apart s2effondrer fall down tom/er fall off tom/er

set out set up settle fall out tom/er ' se /ro"i$$er se ca$mer ' s2insta$$er down fall over tom/er ' tr/"c)er s"r show off frimer fight se dfendre show up arriver back figure comprendre ' ca$c"$er shut up se taire out fill in remp$ir ' /o"c)er sit down s2asseoir slave fill out remp$ir trimer away fill up remp$ir sleep in faire $a ,rasse matine se rensei,ner ' sleep passer $a n"it c)e: find out dco"vrir over +"e$+"2"n finish off terminer ' finir slip off fi$er ' s2c$ipser flick off teindre slow ra$entir

down flick on a$$"mer sort out speak out speed up spin around split up ran,er ' r,$er ' s2occ"per de par$er en fave"r ' dfendre a$$er p$"s vite to"rner ' se reto"rner se sparer

flip fe"i$$eter through fly away s2envo$er s2c)apper ' partir ' s2en a$$er rentrer ' rc"perer ' get back rec"$er get away get down descendre get in get off get on get out get up give in entrer ' monter dans descendre IdeJ monter dans ' s2entendre sortir ' descendre se $ever cder

spread se disperser out stand for vo"$oir dire ' to$rer stand out ressortir stand up se $ever stand up for start off(out stay away stay in stay out stay up step forward stick out stretch out dfendre partir ne pas s2approc)er rester c)e: soi ne pas rentrer ne pas se co"c)er avancer dpasser ' tirer tendre ' a$$on,er ' s2a$$on,er rs"mer enf$er ' ,onf$er teindre ' arrter a$$"mer ' mettre en

give out distri/"er give up a/andonner ' arrter go away partir go back reto"rner ' rentrer go down descendre ' /aisser go in go off entrer

eEp$oser ' sonner ' sum up partir ' to"rner go on contin"er ' se passer swell up switch go out sortir ' s2teindre off go under co"$er switch

go up go without

monter ' a",menter se passer de

grow up ,randir hand in rendre

hand out distri/"er

hand remettre ' cder over hang on attendre hang out fr+"enter ' traUner accroc)er ' s"spendre hang up take out ' raccroc)er head for se diri,er vers hear from hear of avoir des no"ve$$es de entendre par$er de take over take up

on take after take apart take aside take away take back take down take off take on

marc)e tenir de dmonter prendre . part en$ever ' emporter ' emmener rapporter dmonter ' en$ever ' noter dco$$er ' en$ever em/a"c)er ' prendre sortir ' retirer remp$acer ' prendre $a re$*ve se mettre . ' prendre

talk eEp$i+"er ' prvenir through faire rc)a"ffer ' tear heat up dmo$ir IfaireJ c)a"ffer down help out venir en aide tear out arrac)er hold on attendre ' s2accroc)er tear up dc)irer hold out tendre tell off ,ronder $ever ' retarder ' think penser . ' penser de ' hold up atta+"er about rf$c)ir . hurry up se dpc)er think of penser de throw )oin in participer I.J 9eter away sa"ter dedans ' )ump in throw out 9eter ' mettre . $a porte p$on,er keep out ne pas entrer dans throw up vomir keep up s"ivre ' contin"er tidy up ran,er

knock down knock out knock over know about

renverser assommer ' $iminer renverser tre a" co"rant de ' s2K connaUtre en

tie up tip off tip over

fice$er ' attac)er prvenir ' avertir renverser ' se renverser

laugh at se mo+"er de lean over leave aside se penc)er $aisser de cDt

leave out o"/$ier let down $aisser tom/er faire entrer ' $aisser entrer ne pas p"nir ' faire let off partir, tirer s2a$$on,er ' se lie down co"c)er lift off dco$$er let in line up faire $a +"e"e

toss 9eter away(out track retro"ver down try essaKer on(out se reto"rner ' faire demiG turn to"r ' to"rner Idans $2a"tre around sensJ turn back faire demiGto"r turn re9eter ' /aisser down c)an,er en ' transformer turn into en ' se transformer en turn off turn on teindre a$$"mer

lock in enfermer lock out enfermer de)ors log in(on se connecter look after look at look down s2occ"per de re,arder /aisser $es Ke"E

turn over reto"rner ' se reto"rner mettre p$"s fort ' venir ' turn up arriver wait for attendre wake up rvei$$er ' se rvei$$er walk out partir rc)a"ffer ' faire warm up rc)a"ffer ' se rc)a"ffer ' s2c)a"ffer faire $a vaisse$$e I=QJ ' se wash up $aver I=SJ watch faire attention out

look re,arder de )a"t down on look for c)erc)er

wear out "ser ' s2"ser ' p"iser weigh down well up wind up a$o"rdir avoir $es $armes a"E Ke"E se retro"ver ' se terminer ' remonter

look attendre avec forward impatience to look out faire attention look out c)erc)er ' s2occ"per for de look round look up look up to make out se reto"rner ' re,arder ' visiter $ever $es Ke"E ' c)erc)er admirer dc)iffrer ' comprendre ' prtendre

wipe up ess"Ker tro"ver ' rso"dre ' work out ca$c"$er ' comprendre ' se passer ' faire de $2eEercice em/a$$er ' enve$opper ' wrap up rcapit"$er ' se co"vrir write rpondre back write down noter

11B. (T<ER TR NS& TI(N !IFFIC=&TIES- EN?&IS< T( FRENC< be getting ( going 6 devenir M ad)ective ad9ective do nothing but forgive somebody for AverbB$ing get oneself 6 past participle how come...G ne faire +"e let somebody faire savoir know let8s )ust hope po"rv" +"e that let8s AverbB ( how about we Et si on...N AverbBG i$ se pe"t ' may ( might po"rrait +"e p"isse... pe" importe

eEc"ser +"e$+"2"n de M infinitive se faire M infinitive comment se faitGi$ may... +"e...N

however ( no matter avoir /ea" (much

no matter

5 can8t help AverbB$ ing 5 hate(loathe(can8t stand AverbB$ing 5 miss 6 AverbB$ing 5 was going to ( 5 had planned to 5 wish (regret 5 wish 6 imperfect 5 wish 6 past perfect

1e ne pe"E pas m2empc)er de M no sooner... infinitive 12ai )orre"r de M see to it that infinitive Va me man+"e de so far ne pas 12avais prv" de 1e re,rette de ne pas si se"$ement M imperfect 12a"rais aim +"e M s"/9"nctive 12aimerais mie"E +"e M s"/9"nctive

n2avoir pas si tDt vei$$er . ce +"e 9"s+"2. prsent

58d rather that 5n order (not to 5t8s about time it8s no use ( you needn8t 5t8s typical of him(her 5t8s usual for )ust because... doesn8t mean keep on AverbB$ing let (permission

&a faVon dont The way 6 M s"/9ect M sub)ect 6 verb ver/ There is no 6 I$ n2K a pas de AverbB$ing moKen de There(it I$ se tro"ve +"e happens to tre assis, to sit, stand, de/o"t, lie a$$on, =hat ( ;ow F"e dirais t" about 6 AverbB$ de M infinitive N ingG et siN +"e$ +"e soit +"oi +"e c)a+"e fois oS +"e M s"/9"nctive F"e Va te p$aise o" non. +"icon+"e

dans $e /"t de Ine =hat ifG pasJ M infinitive i$ serait ,rand whatever temps i$ est in"ti$e +"e Va $"i ressem/$e whatever whenever

i$ est d2"sa,e +"e wherever $e simp$e fait +"e... ne ve"t pas dire ne cesser pas de M infinitive F"e M s"/9"nctive =hether you like it or not whoever

.ou )ust have T" n2as +"2. M to 6 infinitive infinitive

1%C. F=E8EC(IS FRENC< ,ifferences in vocabulary#


$uebec l'arrt un %reuvage une %roue des %%elles un %c-que des %idou+ , du foin un %leuet ma %londe 2rance le stop une boisson une biBre des jouets une bic"clette de l'argent $uebec ac!aler , gosser quelqu'un asteure avoir les -eu+ dans la graisse de %innes %ienvenu %railler a adonne %ein a pas d'allure a pas de tes affaires c(lisser une vole c'est dispendieu+ c'est pas fort c!auffer d%arquer #d'un c!ar$ 2rance emb@ter %uel%u'un E cette heure avoir l'air fatiguC de rien pi%uer une crise Ma tombe bien Ma n'a aucun sens Ma ne te regarde pas donner une raclCe c'est cher c'est pas terrible conduire un vChicule descendre (d'une voiture) monter (dans une voiture) en avoir marre avoir mauvaise mine bouder faire ses courses il pleut causer / bavarder se promener dans les magasins inscrire / noter espBce de crCtin F caresser pas du tout attraper / tripoter /

une m"rtille ma petite amie une une %uanderie blanchisserie une calotte une cas%uette une canne%erge une airelle un c!ar une automobile une c!icane le djeuner une dispute le petit dCjeuner

em%arquer #dans un c!ar$ un dpanneur un petit magasin tre tann le d.ner le dCjeuner faire dur la fin de semaine le week?end faire la %a%oune un frigidaire un rCfrigCrateur faire son picerie la gang la bande d'amis il mouille une gunille un chiffon jaser la jo% une jo3e une lampe de poc!e le boulot magasiner marquer maudit niaiseu+ @ minouc!er pantoute pogner

une blague une lampe? torche une machine E une laveuse laver un melon d'eau un pastB%ue un minou un chat

le netto-eur une patente une piastre,piasse un pitou une sc!euse le souper la ta%agie une vadrouille

le pressing une chose un dollar un chien une machine E sCcher le dKner le tabac une serpilliBre

prendre une marc!e prsentement sacrer son camp se c(ler #une pizza , un ta+i$ ta%ernacle , ta%arna3 @

avoir du succBs faire une promenade E pied maintenant ficher le camp commander / appeler #ut F

tiguidou c'est d'accord tu es fin tu es gentil - a du monde ) la messe il " a foule

!ifferences in pron"nciationI. >n affrication of the consonants "t" and "d" before the vowels "u" and "i." 3or e"ample, "tu es parti" is pronounced "tsu es partsi." M. There is a reduction of the pronoun "il" to"y"# .8est malade, .8a pas le temps; as well as a reduction of "elle" to "a" ("elle a" becomes "aa" # >a pas le temps, aa mal au dos. 1. "-hu" is a contraction for ")e suis"# -hu fatigu, chu en retard. O. > "t" sound still e"ists in the e"pressions# "il fait frette" (froid , "mon litte" (lit , "viens icitte" (ici . >nd the old pronunciation for the "oi" sound (as o is still used sometimes# moi, toi, and verb forms such as bois, boit, vois, voit, re&oit, etc. are pronounced mo, to, bo, etc. L. "Tu" is often added after +uestions# 5l en veut$tu G Tu m8coutes$tu G Re l8ai$tu G J. Eany people end their statements with# T8sais G (a reduction of# tu sais \. The verb pogner is a very popular word with several translations# to catch, to get, to grab, to be successful, to come, to get caught, to take, to be stuck, etc.

F"oss +"i2t2po,ne, toiN =hat8s going on with youG rrte de po,ner $es nerfs. <top getting worked up. Some eEamp$es of n,$icisms "sed in F"e/ec-

Cummer, spinner, sla+uer, ki+uer, faker, domper, frencher, puncher, backer, rusher, spotter, tripper, checker, avoir un good time, %tre cheap, %tre op*ne, faire son show, etc. A Frenc) #II `ip fi$e of mp0s G 0C.0> M8 B C(NF=SI(NS (he follow!ng are sentences that !n!t!ally confuse" %e because I was translat!ng the% l!terally !nto 9ngl!sh. C2est pas d" franVais. 5t8s not grammatically correct, formal 3rench. Bnot the /rench language !n generalC &a Norv*,e n2est pas en E"rope. 'orway is not in the ?uropean Union. Bnot 9urope as a cont!nentC 12ai $aiss "n petit mot po"r toi. 5 left a little note for you. Bnot wor"C T" d9e"nes pas N .ou aren8t eating breakfastG Bnot lunchC Norma$ement, e$$e arrive . 1;). 5f everything goes as planned, she will arrive at 1 PE. Bnot nor%ally or usuallyC Tes parents s2enn"ient de toi N ,o your parents miss youG Bnot get bore" w!thC T" ve"E te /ai,ner a"9o"rd2)"i N ,o you want to go swimming todayG Bnot take a bathC 12ai ma$ a"E reins. Ey lower back hurts. Bnot k!"neysC (n a d9. donn . man,er a" c)at. =e8ve already fed the cat. Bnot g!ve to eatC E$$e $2a conn" en Ita$ie. <he met him in 5taly. Bnot knownC

FI&&IN? (=T F(RMS contact information last name first name address birthdate place of birth $es coordonnes nom prnom adresse date de naissance $ie" de naissance passport visa residency card receipt application enrollment form $e passeport $e visa $a carte de s9o"r $e rcpiss $e form"$aire ' $a candidat"re $a demande d2inscription

<igned AcityB ... Fait . ... $e date $2acte de birth certificate naissance

to apply (for a )ob post"$er to apply(enroll (in s2inscrire . university

4emember the date format in 3rance is day(month(year instead of month(day(year and that you generally capitali2e your last name, but not your first name# Rean$Paul C@U-;?4. SQIN? F(R C& RIFIC TI(N (R <E&P EEc"se:Gmoi de vo"s dran,er, monsie"r'madame, mais 92ai "n pro/$*me. <orry for bothering you, mister(miss, but 5 have a problem. EstGce +"e 9e pe"E vo"s poser "ne +"estion N -an 5 ask you a +uestionG F"2estGce +"e vo"s ave: dit N =hat did you sayG Po"rrie:Gvo"s rpter, s2i$ vo"s p$aUt N -an you repeat that, pleaseG 1e n2ai pas entend" ce +"e vo"s ave: dit. 5 didn8t hear what you said. Comment estGce +"2on crit Va N ' Xa s2crit comment N ;ow is that writtenG Comment estGce +"2on prononce Va N ' Xa se prononce comment N ;ow is that pronouncedG F"2estGce +"e Va ve"t direN ' Xa ve"t dire +"oi N =hat does that meanG F((! 7 E TIN?

cold cuts raw vegetables salad (with bacon onion soup melted cheese (w( potatoes ] cold cuts cheese, ham ] potato casserole

$a c)arc"terie $es cr"dits IfJ "ne sa$ade Iavec des $ardonsJ $a so"pe . $2oi,non $a rac$ette $a tartif$ette

beefstew with d" /W"fG carrots carottes beefstew in red d" /W"f wine /o"r,"i,non chicken in red d" co+ a" vin wine <teak ] 3rench "n stea5G fries frites potatoes au gratin $e ,ratin da"p)inois

melted cheese (with $a fond"e bread grilled ham and cheese grilled ham ] cheese with egg $e cro+"eG monsie"r

ham ] cheese $a +"ic)e +uiche $orraine dumplings (flavored w( $es +"ene$$es meat or fish vegetarian v,tarien'ne v,ta$ien'ne

$e cro+"eGmadame vegan

F"2estGce +"e 9e vo"s offre N ' F"2estGce +"e 9e vo"s sers N =hat can 5 get youG F"e$+"e c)ose . /oire N <omething to drinkG 12ai $a da$$e H 12ai $es crocs H 1e me"rs de faim H 58m starvingF 12ai trop man,. ' 12ai trop /o"ff. 5 ate too much. (N T<E P<(NE ' = TE&EP<(NE $$D, estGce +"e 9e po"rrais par$er .... N ;ello, may 5 speak to...G C2est de $a part de +"i N =ho is callingG F"i est . $2apparei$ N =ho is on the phoneG =n instant, s2i$ vo"s p$aUt. @ne moment, please. Ne +"itte: pas. Please hold. 1e vo"s $a passe. 58m putting you through to her. I$ ne rpond pas. ;e is not answering. I$ n2est pas $.. ;e is not here. EstGce +"e vo"s vo"$e: $aisser "n messa,e N ,o you want to leave a messageG

Po"ve:Gvo"s rappe$er p$"s tard N -an you call back laterG &a $i,ne est occ"pe. The line is busy. #o"s vo"s tes trompIeJIsJ de n"mro. .ou have the wrong number. 1e me s"is trompIeJ de n"mro. 5 got the wrong number. Ce$$ P)one #oca/"$arK pay as you go plan credit(minutes to recharge your account contract plan e"tra charges payment plan land line sans en,a,ement $e crdit rec)ar,er votre compte $e forfait )ors forfait $e p$an tarifaire te"t message photo message SMS MMS

call waiting $e do"/$e appe$ caller 5, unlimited calls P5' code <5E card locked $a prsentation d" n"mro $es appe$s i$$imits $e code PIN ' secret $a carte SIM /$o+"

$a $i,ne fiEe $a messa,erie voicemail voca$e account summary $e s"ivi conso empty ( no credit p"is

to download t$c)ar,er ringtone $a sonnerie

3e su!v! conso is short for $e s"ivi de consommation. ?(IN? S<(PPIN? ' F IRE &ES M ? SINS department store $a ,rande s"rface outlet store second$hand shop discount store (such as >ldi $e ma,asin d2"sine fitting room club(loyalty card $a ca/ine d2essaKa,e $a carte de fide$it des ta$ons des ton,s

$a /o"ti+"e d2artic$es heels d2occasion $e ma,asin )ard flip$flops disco"nt

flea market department to go window$ shopping to go grocery shopping mini market supermarket (food super store (everything shopping center

$e marc) a"E p"ces $e raKon

tank(halter top underwire bra

$e d/arde"r $e /a$connet $e strin, . pois . f$e"rs . fro"sGfro"s . pai$$ettes . raK"res

faire d" $*c)eGvitrine thong faire $es co"rses $a s"prette $e s"permarc) $2)Kpermarc) ImJ spotted flowery frilly glittery

$e centre commercia$ striped

EstGce +"e 9e pe"E vo"s aider N ' 1e pe"E vo"s rensei,ner N ' #o"s dsire: N -an 5 help youG Non, 9e re,arde se"$ement. 'o, 58m )ust looking. 1e vais rf$c)ir. 58ll think about it. F"e$$e est votre tai$$e N #o"s faites d" com/ien N =hat is your si2eG =hat si2e do you wearG F"e$$e est votre point"re N #o"s c)a"sse: d" com/ien N =hat is your shoe si2eG =hat si2e shoe do you wearG Xa va, $a tai$$e N CYest $a /onne tai$$e N 5s the si2e rightG CYest trop ,rand. ' C2est trop serr. 5t^s too big ( too small. Xa coLte com/ien N ;ow much does this costG C2est en so$de N 5s it on saleG F"e$$e escro+"erie H ' F"e$$e arna+"e H =hat a rip$offF ve:Gvo"s "ne carte de fid$it N ,o you have a club cardG #o"s r,$e: comment N ' #o"s paKe: comment N ;ow are you payingG En esp*ces'par carte /$e"e. -ash(with a bank card. > good way to increase your vocabulary is to look at ads for stores that are available online, such as Carrefo"r,?ant, MonopriE, etc. 0isten to the $e s)oppin,- $es so$des mp1 and try the clo2e (fill$in$the$blank e"ercise from 3rench 0istening 4esources.

?(IN? T( T<E !(CT(R ' C<E` &E !(CTE=R allergy illness cold fever flu migraine bump itching poisoning sting ( bite scratch scar scab blister sprain ear infection $2a$$er,ie IfJ $a ma$adie $e r)"me $a fi*vre $a ,rippe $a mi,raine $a /osse $es dman,eaisons IfJ $2intoEication IfJ $a pi+Lre $2,rati,n"re IfJ $a cicatrice $a croLte $2ampo"$e IfJ $a fo"$"re $2otite IfJ swollen di22iness drops pills tablet ointment bandage prescription medicine vitamins lo2enge sleeping pills to skin to sprain to crush to break enf$'e $e verti,e $es ,o"ttes IfJ $es pi$"$es IfJ $e cac)et $a pommade $e sparadrap $2ordonnance IfJ $es mdicaments ImJ $es vitamines IfJ $a pasti$$e $es somnif*res ImJ s2corc)er se fo"$er s2craser se casser

1e vo"drais prendre rende:Gvo"s, s2i$ vo"s p$aUt. 58d like to make an appointment, please. (S estGce +"e vo"s ave: ma$ N =here does it hurtG EstGce +"e vo"s tes a$$er,i+"e . +"e$+"e c)ose N >re you allergic to anythingG 1e me s"is corc) $a main en tom/ant. 5 skinned my hand by falling. 1e me s"is fait ma$. 5 hurt myself. The 3rench health care system (called $a Sc"rit Socia$e generally reimburses \K_ of your health costs (including dentist and eye doctor visits . 5f you want to be reimbursed for the other 1K_, you have to )oin a m"t"e$$e and pay a monthly fee. ?veryone covered by $a Sc" receives a Carte #ita$e to use at the doctor8s consultation and when filling prescriptions at any p)armacie. 5f you are a recent immigrant to 3rance and have not yet received your -arte !itale, you will receive fe"i$$e de soins forms to fill out in order to be reimbursed.

The emergency medical service in 3rance is called S M= IService d2aide mdica$e d2"r,enceJ and the phone number is IL. .ou can dial I\ to reach the police, and IV to reach the pompiers (firefighters . The general emergency number used throughout the ?uropean Union is IIM. 5n Celgium, you can also dial IKK for emergency services; in <wit2erland, it8s IOO, and in -anada, it8s `II. ?(IN? T( T<E !ENTIST (R E4E !(CT(R ' C<E` &E !ENTISTE (= &2(P<T &M(&(?ISTE cavity wisdom tooth baby tooth gums )aw crown filling cleaning root canal $a carie $a dent de sa,esse $a dent de $ait $a ,encive $a mPc)oire $a co"ronne $e p$om/a,e $e dtartra,e $e cana$ dentaire glasses frames glasses case contact lenses cleaning solution contact case near$sighted far$sighted clear blurry $es $"nettes $a mont"re $2t"i de $"nettes ImJ $es $enti$$es $a so$"tion de nettoKa,e $2t"i de $enti$$es ImJ mKope )Kpermtrope net f$o"

to pull out, remove arrac)er (tooth

Detting your eyes checked and then choosing your frames are two different processes in 3rance. .ou go to anop)ta$mo$o,iste to get your eyes checked and you will receive a prescription for your glasses(contacts. Then you must go to an opticien in order to choose your frames and turn in your prescriptions. They are not in the same office like in the U<. T T<E < IR S &(N ' C<E` &E C(IFFE=R bangs $a fran,e braid $a natte ' $es tresses

highlights hair cut blowdry curly wavy fri22y straight dyed

$es m*c)es ' $e /a$aKa,e $a co"pe de c)eve"E $e /r"s)in, /o"c$s ond"$s friss ' crp"s raides teints

ponytail barette head band hair clips hairband hairpin bu22 cut completely shaved head bald part

$a +"e"eGdeG c)eva$ $a /arrette $e serreGtte $es pinces . c)eve"E $2$asti+"e ImJ $2pin,$e . c)eve"E IfJ $a co"pe en /rosse $a /o"$e . :ro c)a"ve $a raie

lightened dco$ors layered d,rad

There is a slight difference between se co"per $es c)eve"E (to cut one8s hair $ by oneself and se faire co"per $es c)eve"E (to get one8s hair cut $ by someone else . The same is true of se teindre $es c)eve"E (to dye one8s hair $ by oneself and se faire teindre $es c)eve"E (to get one8s hair dyed $ by someone else . (PENIN? 8 NQ CC(=NT ' (=#RIR =N C(MPTE 8 NC IRE savings account checking account deposit direct deposit cash credit card loan $e compte d2par,ne $e compteG c)*+"es $e dpDt $e dpDt direct bank ( debit card >TE check checkbook $a carte /ancaire ' $a carte /$e"e $e distri/"te"r ' $e ,"ic)et Ia"tomati+"eJ $e c)*+"e $e carnet de c)*+"es

$es esp*ces ' d" balance $e /i$an $i+"ide $a carte de sum, amount $e montant crdit $2empr"nt ImJ ' bank statement $e re$ev de compte $e prt

debt wages estimate automatic payment to deposit

$a dette $e sa$aire $e devis

salary raise payment

$e traitement $2a",mentation de sa$aire IfJ $e versement

$e pr$*vement transfer(deposit $e virement dposer ' remettre to write a check faire "n c)*+"e encaisser ' to"c)er "n c)*+"e to pay cash paKer en esp*ces to save money faire des conomies to cash a check

to withdraw retirer to earn to spend ,a,ner dpenser

1e vo"drais o"vrir "n compte. 5 would like to open an account. 8orderea" de remise de c)*+"es. -hecks deposited slip. P(ST (FFICE ' & acc"s de rception avis de rception adresse de $2eEpdite"r adresse de reEpdition co$is destinataire P(STE imprims $ettre recommande mandat cas) printed matter registered letter money order air mail postage paid return to sender postage rate to sort

acknowledgement of receipt notice of receipt return address

forwarding address par avion parcel ( package addressee port paK reto"r . $2envoKe"r tarifs posta"E trier

eEpdite"r sender envoi en nom/re bulk mail

-urrently, the price of tim/res (stamps is LV ?uro cents to send mail within 3rance, \L cents within the ?U ] <wit2erland, and V\ cents to the rest of the world (for a letter or postcard under MK grams . RENTIN? N P RTMENT ' &(=ER =N PP RTEMENT

housing apartment rent

$e $o,ement $2appartement

$e $oKer $a +"ittance de rent receipt $oKer utilities ( $es c)ar,es ' $es fees frais e"penses $es dpenses (rental $es c)ar,es charges I$ocativesJ $es )onoraires ' agency fees frais d2a,ence private $e partic"$ier landlord security $a ca"tion ' $e deposit dpDt de ,arantie guarantor $e ,arant eEi, needed short$term rental $ocation co"rte

lease bill (telephone, etc. insurance conditions ( evaluation of apt. ta"es furnished building landlord renting renter renting with roommates roommate ( flatmate ( housemate

$e /ai$ $a fact"re $2ass"rance IfJ $2tat des $ie"E ImJ $es impDts ImJ me"/$ imme"/$e $e propritaire $ocation $ocataire ImJ ' $ocatrice IfJ co$ocation co$ocataire ImJ ' co$ocatrice IfJ

>partments are generally listed as 3I(TI, 3M(TM, 31(T1, etc. regarding the number of rooms. This number does not include the kitchen or bathroom, but it does include the living room. 5f a kitchen is +"ipe, it will probably have a refrigerator and burners, but may or may not have an oven. 5f a kitchen is nonG+"ipe, there will be no appliances at all. <ome apartments do not have ovens, but they might have p$a+"es $ectri+"es ' p$a+"ettes (burners, similar to a stove . > c"isini*re is also electric burners without an oven. 12)a/ite en co$ocation. 5 live with roommates. 1e c)erc)e "n co$ocataire po"r "n appartement avec % c)am/res. 58m looking for a roommate for a M bedroom apartment. &e /ai$ sera si,n d*s votre arrive . $a rsidence. The lease will be signed as soon as you arrive at the dorms. &es c)ar,es sont comprises dans $e priE Iea", $ctricit, c)a"ffa,eJ. Utilities are included in the price (water, electricity, heat .

You can "ownloa" a sa%ple contrat "e locat!on6 :tat "es l!eu)6 an" 'u!ttance "e loyer at this site. C((QIN? 7 QITC<EN =TENSI&S to chop ( grind to grate to peel to pit to mi" )ac)er rPper pe$er ' p$"c)er dnoKa"ter m$an,er cooking pot lid saucepan frying pan skillet $a marmite

$e co"verc$e $a cassero$e $a po$e $a sa"te"se $a cocotte ' to stir rem"er casserole dish da"/i*re to beat /attre baking sheet $a p$a+"e . ,Ptea"E $a ,ri$$e de to whip fo"etter cooling rack refroidissement to sift tamiser cake tin $e mo"$e . ,Ptea"E to pour verser pie tin $a to"rti*re $e /o$ . miEer ' $e to cook c"ire mi"ing bowl sa$adier strainer ( to roast rDtir $a passoire colander to fry frire peeling knife $2conome ImJ c"ire . $2to"ffe ' slotted spoon ( to steam $2c"moire IfJ faire c"ire . $a vape"r skimmer to boil /o"i$$ir ladle $a $o"c)e to simmer mi9oter spatula $a spat"$e to melt fondre (cheese grater $a rPpe I. froma,eJ to stew c"ire en ra,oLt whisk $e fo"et to broil ( $e ro"$ea" . ,ri$$er rolling pin grill pPtisserie to moisten mo"i$$er can opener $2o"vreG/oUte ImJ $e papier to soften faire revenir aluminum foil d2a$"mini"m to sprinkle sa"po"drer plastic wrap $e fi$m transparent to drain ,o"tter wa" paper $e papier c"isson

3or verbs that involve cooking methods, you add faire before them when they are transitive verbs (when they take a direct ob)ect . <o to cook something is faire c"ire, to fry something is faire frire, to boil something is faire /o"i$$ir, etc. 5f you bake >merican foods in 3rance, you will most likely need to look for certain ingredients that are not used very often in 3rench cooking# condensed milk $ $ait concentr s"cr; evaporated milk $ $ait concentr nonGs"cr; baking soda $ /icar/onate a$imentaire; baking powder $ $ev"re c)imi+"e and yeast $ $ev"re d" /o"$an,er. 5t is also very common to use $e sopa$in instead of essui$tout for paper towel. C<RISTM S #(C 8=& R4 Eerry -hristmasF angel bell bow bulb candle candy cane chimney -hristmas card -hristmas carols -hristmas ?ve -hristmas ?ve dinner -hristmas market -hristmas tree decorations egg nog elf fake tree garland holly lights 1oKe"E No^$ H $Yan,e ImJ $a c$oc)e ' $a c$oc)ette $e nW"d $a /o"$e $a /o",ie ' $a c)ande$$e $a canne en /on/on $a c)emine $a carte de No^$ $es c)ansons de No^$ $a vei$$e de No^$ $e rvei$$on de No^$ $e marc) de No^$ $e sapin de No^$ $es dcorations $e $ait de po"$e $e $"tin $e sapin artificie$ $a ,"ir$ande $e )o"E $a ,"ir$ande $ectri+"e '

mistletoe nativity scene 'orth Pole present present name tags reindeer ribbon <anta -laus <anta^s hat <anta^s sack <anta^s workshop sleigh sleigh bell snow snowflake snowman star stocking toy wrapping paper wreath .ule log

$"mine"se $e ,"i $a cr*c)e $e pD$e nord $e cadea" $es ti+"ettes $e renne $e /o$d"c ' $e r"/an $e P*re No^$ $e /onnet de No^$ $a )otte d" P*re No^$ $Yate$ier d" P*re No^$ $e trainea" $e ,re$ot $a nei,e $e f$ocon de nei,e $e /on)omme de nei,e $Ytoi$e IfJ $a c)a"ssette de No^$ $e 9o"et $e papier dYem/a$$a,e $a co"ronne $a /Lc)e de No^$

TR NSP(RT TI(N connection track $a correspondance subway map book of ten $e +"ai tickets $a voie monthly pass $e p$an de mtro $e carnet $a carte oran,e $a $i,ne $e tic5et $a camionnette

platform restaurant $e 3a,onGresta"rant subway(bus line car intersection $e carrefo"r bus ticket sedan (O $a /er$ine van

door coupe (M door station wagon convertible semi$truck

$e co"p $e /rea5 $e ca/rio$et $e camion

minivan pick$up truck <U! ( large truck trailer

$e monospace $e pic5G"p $e 4E4 I+"atreG +"atreJ $e remor+"e

Merci d2o/$itrer votre tic5et. Thank you for validating your ticket. (S est $2arrt de /"s $e p$"s proc)e N =here is the closest bus stopG Po"r a$$er a" centreGvi$$e N ;ow do 5 get downtownG #o"s vo"s insta$$e: ici, madame N ,o you want to sit here, ma8amG #o"s descende: N >re you getting off hereG 1e descends ici. 58m getting off here. SC<((& 7 E!=C TI(N school district middle school principal $2arrondissement high school urban district ImJ principal department ( e"am after middle $e dpartement division school e"am after high region ( area $a r,ion school town $a comm"ne mathematics $2acadmie IfJ pre$school elementary education elementary student secondary education middle school $2co$e materne$$e $2co$e primaire co$ier'*re secondaire $e co$$*,e economics ] sociology living(foreign language physics chemistry biology principa$ provise"r /revet /acca$a"rat mat)mati+"es sciences conomi+"e et socia$e ISESJ $an,"e vivante I&#J p)Ksi+"e c)imie /io$o,ie

middle school student

co$$*,ien'ne

life(earth science engineering

sciences de $a vie et de $a terre IS#TJ

high school $e $Kce high school $Kcen'ne student higher s"prie"r education university t"diant'e student university prestigious universities library $2"niversit ' $a fac"$t $es ,randes co$es $e C!I

sciences de $2in,nie"r ISIJ )istoireG history(geography ,o,rap)ie philosophy literature research pro)ect(seminar P.?. ( Dym report card p)i$osop)ie $ittrat"re trava"E personne$s encadrs ITPEJ d"cation p)Ksi+"e et sportive IEPSJ $e /"$$etin sco$aire

&a rentre sco$aire a $ie" d/"t septem/re. The return to school takes place at the beginning of <eptember. &es vacances d2t s2appe$$ent $es ,randes vacances. The summer vacation is called the big vacation. I$ a e" de ma"vais rs"$tats et i$ a dL redo"/$er. ;e got bad marks and he had to stay in the same grade. Cette anne, i$ passe dans $a c$asse s"prie"re. This year, he8s passing into the ne"t grade. Si 9e rate ' Si 92c)o"e mon /ac, 9e s"is o/$i, de redo"/$er ma termina$e. 5f 5 fail my final e"am, 5 have to do my last year of school over again. I$s ont sec) $es co"rs a"9o"rd2)"i. They skipped classes today. T" as e" com/ien N =hat (grade did you getG 12ai e" 10, pas ma$. 5 got a I1, not bad. 'ote# 5n 3rench schools, the grades(marks range from I to MK (though IK is considered passing, so it cannot be easily changed into percentages ; and the grades(years descend instead of increasing# si"i*me is the first year of coll*ge, while troisi*me is the last year. ?cole maternelle is ages M$J, cole lmentaire is ages J$II (-P, -?I, -?M, -EI, -EM , coll*ge is ages II$IL (Je, Le, Oe, 1e , and lyce is ages IL$IV (Mnde, I*re, T .

&? T &Kce ?nra$ &TT &Kce Tec)ni+"e &P(T &Kce Po$Kva$ent &?TT &Kce ?nra$ et Tec)ni+"e C&?T Co$$*,e EET Eco$e E$mentaire I T Inspecte"r cadmi+"e

8ac T /acca$a"rat & T &ittraire ES T conomi+"e et socia$e S T scientifi+"e STT T sciences et tec)no$o,ies tertiaires STI T sciences et tec)no$o,ies ind"strie$$es ST& T sciences et tec)no$o,ies de $a/oratoire

IENT Inspecte"r dYEd"cation SMS T sciences mdicoGsocia$es Nationa$e I=FM T Instit"ts =niversitaires de C P T certificat d2aptit"des Formation des MaUtres professionne$$es 8EP T /revet d2t"des CP T Co"rs prparatoire professionne$$es CE1 T Co"rs $mentaire 1*re 8TS T /revet de tec)nicien anne s"prie"r CE% T Co"rs $mentaire %e CP?E T c$asses prparatoires anne a"E ?randes Eco$es C!I T centre de doc"mentation CM1 T Co"rs moKen 1*re anne et d2information CPE T consei$$ers principa"E CM% T Co"rs moKen %e anne d2d"cation C(P T consei$$er d2orientation T T Termina$e psKc)o$o,"e Premier de,r T materne$$e 7 Second de,r T co$$*,e 7 $Kce $mentaire NE6S $es informations ' $e 9o"rna$ $e ma,a:ine news shows d2act"a$its current events $2act"a$it IfJ weather report $a mto protest $a protestation demonstration $a manifestation news poverty homeless murder genocide riot curfew $a pa"vret $es sansGa/ri $e crime ' $e me"rtre $e ,nocide $2me"te ImJ $e co"vreGfe"

earth+uake hurricane flood tsunami drought burglary assault crime robbery military army navy air force invasion battle retreat treaty truce P(&ITICS prime minister president vice president dictator nationality community society government election referendum vote environment democracy

$e trem/$ement de terre $2o"ra,an ImJ $2inondation IfJ $e ts"nami ' $e ra:G deGmare $a sc)eresse $e cam/rio$a,e $2a,ression IfJ $e d$it $e vo$ $es mi$itaires ImJ $2arme IfJ $a marine $es forces ariennes $2invasion IfJ $a /atai$$e $a retraite $e trait $a trve

harassment epidemic plague cloning

$e )arc*$ement ImJ $2pidmie IfJ $a peste $e c$ona,e

drug addiction $a toEicomanie drug $e trafic de dro,"e trafficking trial $e proc*s testimony $e tmoi,na,e evidence $a pre"ve ceasefire $e cesse:G$eGfe" gun $e revo$ver rifle $e f"si$ troops soldier hostage casualty winners losers $es tro"pes IfJ $e so$dat $2ota,e ImJ $es pertes IfJ $es vain+"e"rs ImJ $es vainc"s ImJ

$e premier ministre $e prsident $e viceGprsident $e dictate"r $a nationa$it $a comm"na"t $a socit $e ,o"vernement $2$ection IfJ $e rfrend"m $e vote $2environnement ImJ $a dmocratie

citi2en senator representative mayor law bill policy proposal grant legislation negotiation regulation democrat

$e citoKen $e snate"r $e dp"t $e maire $a $oi $e pro9et de $oi $a po$iti+"e $a proposition $a s"/vention $a $,is$ation $a n,ociation $a r,$ementation dmocrate

anarchy capitalism socialism communism

$2anarc)ie IfJ $e capita$isme $e socia$isme $e comm"nisme

liberal conservative socialist communist

$i/ra$'e conservate"r'trice socia$iste comm"niste

The current ma)or political parties in 3rance include# Parti <ocialiste (P< and Parti -ommuniste 3ran&ais (P-3 $ left$wing, Union pour la ,mocratie 3ran&aise (U,3 $ centrist, Union pour un Eouvement Populaire (UEP $ right$wing, and 3ront 'ational (3' $ far right$wing. TE&E#ISI(N the news series(program soap opera tv movie documentary passer 9o"er :apper a$$"mer $a t$ teindre $a t$ app"Ker s"r $e channel $a c)aUne push the button /o"ton turn up the remote control $a t$commande monter $e son volume turn down the subtitles $es so"sGtitra,es /aisser $e son volume $es p"/$icits commercials to plug in /ranc)er Ip"/J actor(actress $e'$a comdien'ne to unplug d/ranc)er director $e ra$isate"r what8s it aboutG Va par$e de +"oi N comedian $2)"moriste to be continued . s"ivre Programs do not start at the hour or half hour in 3rance, and the ma)ority of "prime time" shows begin at V#LK pm (MKhLK with more than one episode each week. The nightly new is always on at V pm (MKh . -ommercials are rarely shown during the programs, but more likely between the shows. There are a few 3rench channels that you can watch without subscribing to a cable provider# TF1, France %, France 0,France ;, rte, M>, and depending on where you live, there are local $es infos $a srie $e fe"i$$eton $e t$fi$m $e doc"mentaire to be on (T! to act (in to channel surf to turn on the T! to turn off the T!

channels as well as foreign channels of bordering countries. Cana$M is available at some times, but you must subscribe and pay e"tra if you want to watch it at all times. There are of course several other channels# France 4, France D, 6B, TMC, NR1, Paris Premi*re, Tva,RT&B, 8 1, NT1, etc. Eost >merican television shows are eventually broadcast in 3rance, though several months later than in the U< and dubbed in 3rench. (.ou will find that almost every foreign program is dubbed rather than subtitled . 'ot all programs or channels support subtitling(closed captioning, but if your T! is e+uipped with t$teEte, you should be able to read the subtitles in 3rench as well. >nd a series does not have to be a hit in the U< to be broadcast in 3rance; several shows that were cancelled after one year in the U< are still shown here. > lot of programs have the same names in 3rench (Cones, ;eroes, ,esperate ;ousewives, etc. while others have 3rench words added (&ost, $es dispar"s . ;ere are a few programs that are different in 3rench# Caywatch $ $erte . Ma$i/"; <eventh ;eaven $ @ . $a Maison; -<5 $ &es EEperts; =ithout a Trace $ F8I- Ports !ispar"s; The .oung ] the 4estless $ &es Fe"E de $2 mo"r; @ne Tree ;ill $ &es Fr*res Scott; -rossing Rordan $ Pre"ve . $2app"i. >nd because 5 watch several shows that involve solving crime, here is some speciali2ed vocabulary that you probably won8t ever use, but you8ll need to recogni2e if you watch crime dramas# assault blackmail blackmailer criminal record defendant evidence federal case gun handcuffs homicide investigation kidnapping $2a,ression IfJ prosecutor $e proc"re"r $e c)anta,e rape $e vio$ $e maUtreGc)ante"r sketch $e portraitGro/ot $e casier 9"diciaire stabbed poi,nard $2acc"s ImJ strangled tran,$ $a pi*ce . conviction surveillance $a fi$at"re d$it fdra$ suspect $e s"spect $e f$in,"e to arrest arrter $es menottes IfJ to con(cheat escro+"er $2)omicide IfJ to harass )arce$er $2en+"te IfJ to press charges porter p$ainte $2en$*vement ImJ to report missing porter dispar"

laundering lead loaded (gun murder paperwork S(CCER ball captain

$e /$anc)iment $a piste ' $2indice c)ar, $e me"rtre $a paperasse

to run away to shoot warrant weapon witness

s2enf"ir tirer $e mandat $2arme ImJ $e tmoin

captain armband cleats coach coin toss corner kick defense fans final forward foul(penalty game goal goal post goalie goalie bo" group (in tournaments header )ersey

$e /a$$on $e capitaine "n /rassard de capitaine $es crampons $2entraUne"r ' $e se$ectionne"r "n tira,e . pi$e o" face "n corner "n dfense"r $es s"pporters $a fina$e "n atta+"ant "ne fa"te "n matc) "n /"t $es ca,es "n ,ardien de /"t $a s"rface de rparation

pass penalty kick player playoffs

"ne passe "n pena$tK "n 9o"e"r

$e ta/$ea" fina$ $es +"arts de +uarter$finals fina$e red card referee replacement carton ro",e

$2ar/itre $e remp$aVant $es demiG semi$finals fina$es $es prot*,eG shinguards ti/ias shorts $a c"$otte shot "n tir slide tackle "n tac$e socks $es c)a"settes $es standings c$assements starter player $e tit"$aire team "ne +"ipe "n matc) n"$ passer mar+"er

$a po"$e ' $e ,ro"pe tie game "ne tte "n mai$$ot to pass to score

kickoff midfield net off$sides out of bounds (behind the goals out of bounds (on the sides

"n co"p d2envoi ' "n en,a,ement "n mi$ie" de terrain $e fi$et )orsG9e" "ne sortie de /"t en to"c)e

to shoot to throw in the ball tournament wave =hat8s the scoreG yellow card

tirer faire "ne to"c)e $e to"rnoi $a o$a F"e$ est $e scoreN carton 9a"ne

`(!I C SI?NS signs of the aodiac horoscope astrology >ries Taurus Demini -ancer 0eo !irgo 0ibra <corpio <agittarius -apricorn >+uarius Pisces $es si,nes d" :odia+"e $2)oroscope ImJ $2astro$o,ie IfJ 8$ier Ta"rea" ?mea"E Cancer &ion #ier,e 8a$ance Scorpion Sa,ittaire Capricorne #ersea" Poisson

M RRI ?E 7 CI#I& =NI(NS couple $e co"p$e to enter a se pacser

date relationship civil union engagement wedding wedding announcement honeymoon

P>-< contract $e rende:Gvo"s to get engaged $a re$ation to get married $e P CS IPacte to break up ( Civi$e de So$idaritJ leave $es fianVai$$es IfJ to get divorced $e maria,e to cheat on $e faireGpart de to meet maria,e $a $"ne de mie$ to separate

se fiancer se marier rompre ' +"itter divorcer tromper se rencontrer se sparer

I$s sont tom/s amo"re"E $2"n de $2a"tre. They fell in love with each other. I$s vivent en conc"/ina,e ' en "nion $i/re. They live with each other (without being married . C2est mon copain ' ma copine. This is my boyfriend ( girlfriend. 12ai "ne ,rande amiti po"r $"i. 5 have a great friendship with him. I$ a de $2affection po"r e$$e. ;e has affection for her. Mais e$$e n2pro"ve a"c"n sentiment po"r $"i. Cut she has no feelings for him. (n se disp"tait sans cesse. =e fought all the time. T" m2en ve"E N >re you mad at meG 1e t2aime /ien. ' 1e t2aime. 5 like you. ( 5 love you Si on a$$ait a" cinma ce soir N ;ow about if we go to the movies tonightG T" es $i/re, samedi soir N >re you free <aturday nightG 1e n2ai rien de prv" po"r ce 3ee5Gend. 5 have no plans for this weekend. =hen pulling petals off of a daisy, the 3rench have L sayings instead of )ust >e$she loves %e+ >e$she loves %e not# I. I$'E$$e m2aime. ;e(<he loves me. M. =n pe". > little. 1. 8ea"co"p. > lot. O. $a fo$ie. 0ike cra2y. L. Pas d" to"t. 'ot at all. EN?&IS< =SE! IN FRENC<

There are many, many ?nglish words used in 3rench, but some of them have a different meaning than in ?nglish. <ometimes the 3rench pronunciation is radically different from the ?nglish pronunciation, so you may only be able to understand the word in writing but not in speech. >lmost all ?nglish nouns borrowed into 3rench are masculine, unless otherwise noted below. 58ve marked which words are used as ad)ectives in 3rench, even though the original ?nglish word may be a noun. (>lso check out Informa$ Frenc) 7 S$an, as many words borrowed from 3rench are considered slang.

a,enda /a/KGfoot /arman /as5et /as5ets /erm"des /$ac5 Iad9. ' no"nJ /odK /o3$in, /rea5 /r"s)in, caddie campin, campin,Gcar catc) c$ean Iad9.J c$ip cornf$a5es dancin, dressin,

planner ( calendar foosball bartender basketball sneakers bermuda shorts refers to skin color onesie ( body suit bowling alley station wagon blowdry (shopping cart campground motorhome ( camper pro wrestling sober music video cereal dance hall walk$in closet

mai$ meetin, nic5e$ par5in, peop$e p$annin, p$aKG/ac5 pomGpom ,ir$ pressin, radio IfJ recordman re$aE re$oo5in, ro$$ers scotc) se$f Iad9.J s)ortK

e$mail rally clean ( perfect parking lot celebrities schedule lip$synching cheerleader dry cleaner8s b$ray record holder lounge chair makeover rollerblades

tape self service boy shorts bo"ers ( briefs ( s$ip underwear smo5in, tu"edo speed Iad9.J hectic, busy

drive ento"ra,e fas)ion Iad9.J fastGfood f$ipper foot footin, )ard disco"nt Iad9.J 9o,,in, $iftin, $i,)t Iad9.J $oo5 $ov Iad9.J CR(N4MS

drive$thru group of friends trendy fast food restaurant pinball soccer )ogging discount )ogging suit facelift diet style cuddly ( snuggly

strin, s3eat tennisman ton,s $e top trenc) t"/e t"nin, tKpe vo$$eK :appin, :en Iad9.J

thong underwear sweatshirt tennis player flip$flops the best trench coat hit song tune up guy volleyball channel surfing cool ( laid$back

Those marked in color are pronounced as a word, rather than each letter individually. >gence 'ationale de N EM l8>ccueil des ?trangers et des Eigrations >gence nationale pour NPEa l8emploi >ssociation pour l8emploi SSE!ICa dans l8industrie et le commerce 8C8? bon chic bon genre 8! 8N 8NP 8P C F PC P!? P1 PS Parti communiste prsident$directeur gnral pi*ces )oints

Parti socialiste Postes, tlgraphes et bande dessine PTT tlphones Ciblioth*+ue nationale F? +uartier gnral 4gie autonome des Can+ue nationale de Paris R TP transports parisiens boSte postale R!C re2$de$chausse -aisse d8allocations RER 4seau e"press rgional

C!! C!I C!S ! &F !E

familiales -ontrat dure dtermine

RF

-ontrat dure indtermine RMI -arte de s)our diplcme approfondi de langue fran&aise diplcme d8tudes approfondies R# S!F SI!

4publi+ue fran&aise 4evenu minimum d8insertion rende2$vous <ans domicile fi"e

syndrome immunodficitaire ac+uis <alaire minimum diplcme d8tudes en langue !E&F SMIC interprofessional de fran&aise croissance ,partements d8outre$mer <ocit nationale de !(MGT(M SNCF et Territoires d8outre$mer chemin de fer <ocit protectrice des E!F ?lectricit de 3rance SP animau" ?cole 'ationale EN S#P s8il vous plaSt d8>dministration 3ront de la libration du Transport e"press F&F TER 9ubec rgional 3dration nationale des FN C T?8 Tr*s grande biblioth*+ue achats de cadres ?!F Da2 de 3rance T?# Train Q grande vitesse <&M ;abitation Q loyer modr TTC toutes ta"es comprises 5nstitut 'ational de la INSEE <tatisti+ue et des ?tudes T# ta"e Q la valeur a)oute ?conomi+ues Eutuelle Dnrale de M?EN =E Union europenne l8?ducation 'ationale Eaison des Reunes et de la Union pour la dmocratie M1C =!F -ulture fran&aise Eouvement pour la Union pour un M&F =MP libration de la femme Eouvement Populaire Eouvement contre le MR P racisme et pour l8amiti #F version fran&aise entre les peuples (MI @ffice des Eigrations #( version originale

(N= (T N (#NI P#

5nternationales @rganisation des 'ations Unies @rganisation du trait de l8>tlanti+ue du 'ord @b)et volant non identifi proc*s$verbal

#(ST #TT Z

version originale sous$ titre vlo tout terrain l8Xcole Polytechni+ue

d >'P? and ><<?,5- no longer e"ist. They were merged together in MKK` to form Pcle ?mploi. RE?I(NS 7 !EP RTMENTS (F FR NCE

R,ions de France mtropo$itaine >lsace >+uitaine >uvergne Casse$'ormandie Cretagne Courgogne -entre -hampagne$>rdenne -orse 3ranche$-omt ;aute$'ormandie 5lle$de$3rance 0anguedoc$4oussillon 0imousin 0orraine Eidi$Pyrnes 'ord$Pas$de$-alais

En,$is) Trans$ations >lsace >+uitaine >uvergne 0ower$'ormandy Crittany Curgundy -enter -hampagne$>rdenne -orsica 3ranche$-omte Upper$'ormandy Paris$5sle$of$3rance 0anguedoc$4oussillon 0imousin 0orraine Eidi$Pyrenees 'orth$-alais

Pays$de$la$0oire Picardie Poitou$-harentes Provence$>lpes$-cte d8>2ur 4hcne$>lpes R,ions'!partements d2o"treG mer Duadeloupe Eartini+ue Duyane 0a 4union

Pays$de$la$0oire Picardy Poitou$-harentes Provence$>lpes$>2ur 4hone$>lps (verseas Re,ions'!epartments Duadeloupe Eartini+ue 3rench Duiana 4eunion

?ach rgion is divided into dpartements, e"cept for the overseas regions (they e"ist as rgions as well as dpartements. ?ach dpartement is assigned a two$digit number that begins the 2ip code (the numbers somewhat correspond to alphabetical order . 3or e"ample, the dpartement of >in is KI and the dpartement of !osges is VV. ,@E$T@E means dpartements d8outre$mer and trritoires d8outre$ mer. 3rench territories (also called collectivities include Po$Knsie franVaise, MaKotte, SaintGPierreGetGMi+"e$on, 6a$$isGetGF"t"na, SaintGMartin and SaintG8art)$emK. No"ve$$e Ca$donie has a special status (su! gener!s and will vote for independence from 3rance in the ne"t ten years.

The `J departments of mainland 3rance, grouped according to their region, are# >@ 8asGR)in >A <a"tGR)in %4 !ordo,ne 00 ?ironde 4C &andes >lsace >+uitaine 11 "de 0C ?ard 04 <ra"$t 4A &o:*re >> PKrnesG (rienta$es

0anguedoc$ 4oussillon

4@ &otGetG ?aronne >4 PKrnesG t$anti+"es C0 $$ier 1; Canta$ 40 <a"teG&oire >0 P"KGdeG!Dme 14 Ca$vados ;C Manc)e >1 (rne Casse$ 'ormandie >uvergne

1B Corr*:e %0 Cre"se A@ <a"teG#ienne ;4 Me"rt)eGetG Mose$$e ;; Me"se ;@ Mose$$e AA #os,es CB ri*,e 1% veKron 01 <a"teG ?aronne 0% ?ers 4> &ot >; <a"tesG PKrnes A1 Tarn A% TarnGetG ?aronne 0imousin

0orraine

%1 CDteGd2(r ;A Ni*vre @1 SaDneGetG &oire AB 4onne

Eidi$Pyrnes

Courgogne

%% CDtesG d2 rmor %B Finist*re Cretagne 0; I$$eGetG#i$aine ;> Mor/i)an

;B Nord 'ord$Pas$de$ >% PasGdeGCa$ais -alais 44 &oireG t$anti+"e 4B MaineGetG&oire Pays de la ;0 MaKenne 0oire @% Sart)e A; #ende C% isne Picardie

1A C)er -entre %A E"reGetG&oir 0> Indre 0@ IndreGetG&oire 41 &oirGetGC)er 4; &oiret

CA rdennes 1C "/e ;1 Marne ;% <a"teGMarne

>C (ise AC Somme -hampagne$ >rdenne 1> C)arente 1@ C)arenteG Maritime @B !e"EGS*vres A> #ienne C4 $pesGdeG <a"teGProvence C; <a"tesG $pes C> $pesG Provence$ Maritimes >lpes$ 10 8o"c)esGd"G -cte d8>2ur R)Dne A0 #ar A4 #a"c$"se

Poitou$ -harentes

% CorseGd"G S"d -orse %8 <a"teGCorse

%; !o"/s 0B 1"ra @C <a"teGSaDne BC Territoire de 8e$fort %@ E"re @> SeineG Maritime ;aute$ 'ormandie 3ranche$-omt

C1 in C@ rd*c)e %> !rDme 0A Is*re 4% &oire >B R)Dne @0 Savoie @4 <a"teGSavoie 4hcne$>lpes

@; Paris @@ SeineGetG Marne @A 4ve$ines B1 Essonne ele$de$3rance B% <a"tsGdeG Seine B0 SeineGSaintG !enis B4 #a$GdeGMarne B; #a$Gd2(ise

0isten to the $a ,o,rap)ie - $es !(MGT(Ms mp1 and try the clo2e (fill$in$the$blank e"ercise from 3rench 0istening 4esources. M 1(R CITIES 7 ?E(?R P<IC & FE T=RES (F FR NCE The LK most populous cities in 3rance (including the ,@E$T@Es are# <!ty Paris Marsei$$e &Kon To"$o"se Nice Nantes Stras/o"r, Montpe$$ier 8ordea"E &i$$e Rennes Reims &e <avre SaintGbtienne To"$on ?reno/$e n,ers !i9on 8rest NUmes &e Mans iEGenGProvence Depart%ent Paris 5eg!on ele$de$3rance Provence$>lpes$-cte Couches$du$4hcne d8>2ur 4hcne 4hcne$>lpes ;aute$Daronne Eidi$Pyrnes Provence$>lpes$-cte >lpes$Earitimes d^>2ur 0oire$>tlanti+ue Pays de la 0oire Cas$4hin >lsace ;rault 0anguedoc$4oussillon Dironde >+uitaine 'ord 'ord$Pas$de$-alais 5lle$et$!ilaine Cretagne Earne -hampagne$>rdenne <eine$Earitime ;aute$'ormandie 0oire 4hcne$>lpes Provence$>lpes$-cte !ar d^>2ur 5s*re 4hcne$>lpes Eaine$et$0oire Pays de la 0oire -cte$d8@r Courgogne 3inist*re Cretagne Dard 0anguedoc$4oussillon <arthe Pays de la 0oire Couches$du$4hcne Provence$>lpes$-cte

C$ermontGFerrand SaintG!enis To"rs &imo,es #i$$e"r/anne miens Met: a 8esanVon Perpi,nan (r$ans M"$)o"se Caen 8o"$o,neG 8i$$anco"rt Ro"en NancK r,ente"i$ Montre"i$ SaintGPa"$ Ro"/aiE SaintG!enis vi,non To"rcoin, FortGdeGFrance Crtei$ Poitiers Nanterre #ersai$$es Co"r/evoie

Puy$de$,cme 0a 4union 5ndre$et$0oire ;aute$!ienne 4hcne <omme Eoselle ,oubs Pyrnes$ @rientales 0oiret ;aut$4hin -alvados ;auts$de$<eine <eine$Earitime Eeurthe$et$Eoselle !al$d8@ise <eine$<aint$,enis 0a 4union 'ord <eine$<aint$,enis !aucluse 'ord Eartini+ue !al$de$Earne !ienne ;auts$de$<eine .velines ;auts$de$<eine

d^>2ur >uvergne 0a 4union -entre 0imousin 4hcne$>lpes Picardie 0orraine 3ranche$-omt 0anguedoc$4oussillon -entre >lsace Casse$'ormandie ele$de$3rance ;aute$'ormandie 0orraine ele$de$3rance ele$de$3rance 0a 4union 'ord$Pas$de$-alais ele$de$3rance Provence$>lpes$-cte d^>2ur 'ord$Pas$de$-alais Eartini+ue ele$de$3rance Poitou$-harentes ele$de$3rance ele$de$3rance ele$de$3rance

People who live in Eet2 pronounce the city more like %ess, whereas most other 3rench people pronounce it %etz.

Deographical 3eatures of 3rance# $a &oire $a ?aronne $e R)Dne $a Seine $es $pes IfJ 0oire river Daronne river 4hcne river <eine river the >lps Eont Clanc (highest $e MontG8$anc mountain in =. ?urope $e 1"ra the Rura $es PKrnes IfJ the Pyrenees $e Massif Centra$ the Eassif -entral $es #os,es IfJ the !osges $a mer Mditerrane Eediterranean <ea $2ocan t$anti+"e ImJ >tlantic @cean $a Mer d" Nord 'orth <ea $a Manc)e ?nglish -hannel $e ?o$fe de ?asco,ne Cay of Ciscay

6RITIN? &ETTERS .our name and address should be placed in the top left corner. The receiver8s address is placed below yours, on the right. The city you are in and the date is placed below the addresses, and on the left. (4emember to use 3rench date formats# le \ octobre MKKV .
.our name .our address aip -ode ] -ity 4eceiver8s 'ame 4eceiver8s >ddress aip -ode ] -ity

-ity, le f mois MKK` Eadame ou Eonsieur,

<o%%on for%al en"!ngs*


,ans l^attente de votre rponse, )e vous prie d^agrer, Eonsieur, l^e"pression de mes sentiments respectueu". !euille2 agrer, Eadame, Eonsieur, l^e"pression de mes salutations distingues. Re vous prie de croire, Eonsieur, Q l8assurance de mes sentiments distingus.

'otice that you should not use sent!%ents with Eadame because it8s considered rude. 5n less formal situations, such as in certain e$mails, you can )ust use cor"!ale%ent.