CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
Biodiversity in the Wayanad is threatened by a variety of human pressures and development “priorities”. The incursion of human development into these forests is rapidly and dangerously pushing back its boundaries, fracturing the evergreen stretches into unviable fragments.. Today, a large part of the range has been logged or converted to agricultural land for commercial plantations of tea, coffee, rubber, or cleared for livestock grazing, roads. Mining, industries, highways, dams are increasing threats. The growth of populations around protected areas and other forests has also led to habitat destruction, increased fragmentation, wildlife poaching and humanwildlife conflict. Tourism is widely conceived to be a service which results in considerable degree of sharing between the host community and the visitors. The natural environment as well as the cultural heritage of a community becomes selling products in tourism. The interaction between the hosts and visitors leaves its mark on the environment, people and culture of the hosts.

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cultural and environmental effects.Wayanad is a unique geographical and environment unit. In Wayanadu. Socio-cultural environment of the district is also unique as the tribal people constitutes one-fourth of the total population and the high degree of agricultural orientation of the people. Wayanadu. 2 . waterfalls. mountains. Reserved forests. The tourism industry is promoted by professionals and entrepreneurs who are mostly outsiders. well being of the indigenous people and on the fragile environment needs analytical attention. hill stations and dams are the major tourist spots in the district. It is into this peculiar sociocultural framework that tourism enters as an entirely exogenous variable. But the industry decisively produces certain economic. The effects of tourism on the agrarian economy. climate and other environmental features. The microclimate of the district is classified as cloud forest. the dominant players in the tourism industry are the resort owners and the home stay providers. wild life sanctuaries. Ecology is highly fragile due to its tropical nature coupled with intensive agricultural activity. rock caves. as a tourism destination is known for its scenic beauty. riverine islands.

environment of the Wayanad is at high risk.This study is an attempt to examine the impact of tourism development on environment in Wayanad District. Tourism development in Wayanad can put pressure on natural resources when it increases consumption in areas where resources are already scarce. Now. 3 .

 To identify the most important factors which affect the environment.  To know about current environmental issues of Wayanad.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  To study the impact of tourism development on environment in Wayanad District.1. 4 .  To evaluate tourists’ contribution to reduce environmental pollution.

This is collected from the websites. Primary data is gathered through direct interview. Secondary data Secondary data are the second hand information collected by the investigator from the published sources. Primary data The primary data are those. 5 .2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a way to solve the research problem. observation and questionnaire etc.1. The advantage of primary data is that they are truthful and further suit the purpose. books. It is attained by the researcher from the field directly for the first time. In it the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them is explained. Tools for analyzing data Simple percentage method is used as a tool for analysis to derive the tables and draw charts to prepare the report. which the investigator originates for the purpose of specific enquiry in hand. reports etc. The data required for this study was mostly collected directly from the tourists who visited in Wayanad.

6 .3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY  The study must be completed within a short period of time.  Some of the respondents were non co-operative. there is non-availability of sufficient time for the study.1.  Coverage of a small area is another drawback of the study.

The negative impacts of tourism development can gradually destroy the environmental resources on which it depends. However. THREE MAIN IMPACT AREAS OF TOURISM Negative impacts from tourism occur when the level of visitor use is greater than the environment's ability to cope with this use within the acceptable limits of change. tourism has the potential to create beneficial effects on the environment by contributing to environmental protection and conservation.CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE The quality of the environment. On the other hand. It can put enormous pressure on an area and lead to impacts such as 7 . both natural and man-made. and of tourism facilities. is essential to tourism. It involves many activities that can have adverse environmental effects. including resorts. restaurants. golf courses and marinas. tourism's relationship with the environment is complex. It is a way to raise awareness of environmental values and it can serve as a tool to finance protection of natural areas and increase their economic importance. hotels. Many of these impacts are linked with the construction of general infrastructure such as roads and airports. shops. Uncontrolled conventional tourism poses potential threats to many natural areas around the world.

soil erosion. natural habitat loss. and it can force local populations to compete for the use of critical resources. is one of the most critical natural resources. discharges into the sea. In recent years golf tourism has increased in popularity and the number of 8 . the amount used can run up to 440 liters a day. The tourism industry generally overuses water resources for hotels. Because of the hot climate and the tendency of tourists to consume more water when on holiday than they do at home. This can result in water shortages and degradation of water supplies. In some dryer regions. swimming pools. and especially fresh water. the issue of water scarcity is of particular concern. Water resources Water. increased pollution. golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. DEPLETION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Tourism development can put pressure on natural resources when it increases consumption in areas where resources are already scarce. It often puts a strain on water resources. increased pressure on endangered species and heightened vulnerability to forest fires. Golf course maintenance can also deplete fresh water resources. as well as generating a greater volume of waste water.

Greater extraction and transport of these resources exacerbates the physical impacts associated with their exploitation. Because of the seasonal character of the industry. If the water comes from wells.golf courses has grown rapidly. A high demand is placed upon these resources to meet the high expectations tourists often have (proper heating. forests. both renewable and nonrenewable. Land degradation Important land resources include minerals. overpumping can cause saline intrusion into groundwater. fertile soil. Direct impact on natural resources. wetland and wildlife. Local resources Tourism can create great pressure on local resources like energy.). etc. Golf courses require an enormous amount of water every day and. many destinations have ten times more inhabitants in the high season as in the low season. exacerbating their impacts. in the provision of tourist facilities can 9 . Golf resorts are more and more often situated in or near protected areas or areas where resources are limited. food. as with other causes of excessive extraction of water. hot water. fossil fuels. and other raw materials that may already be in short supply. this can result in water scarcity. Increased construction of tourism and recreational facilities has increased the pressure on these resources and on scenic landscapes.

POLLUTION Tourism can cause the same forms of pollution as any other industry: air emissions. One study estimated that a single transatlantic return flight emits almost half the CO2 emissions produced by all other sources (lighting.) consumed by an average person yearly.be caused by the use of land for accommodation and other infrastructure provision. releases of sewage. solid waste and littering. even architectural/visual pollution. and rail is continuously increasing in response to the rising numbe reported that the number of international air passengers worldwide rose from 88 million in 1972 to 344 million in 1994.and area already suffering the effects of deforestation . For example. oil and chemicals. (Mayer Hillman. and the use of building materials. etc. heating. Forests often suffer negative impacts of tourism in the form of deforestation caused by fuel wood collection and land clearing. 10 . Air pollution and noise Transport by air. noise. one trekking tourist in Nepal . One consequence of this increase in air transport is that tourism now accounts for more than 60% of air travel and is therefore responsible for an important share of air emissions. car use. road.can use four to five kilograms of wood a day.

Noise pollution from airplanes. tour buses often leave their motors running for hours while the tourists go out for an excursion because they want to return to a comfortably air-conditioned bus. For example. noise generated by snowmobiles can cause animals to alter their natural activity patterns. especially in sensitive areas. especially from carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions related to transportation energy use. waste disposal is a serious problem and 11 . For instance. it causes distress to wildlife. global warming and photochemical pollution. Air pollution from tourist transportation has impacts on the global level. and buses. Source: MFOE ). In addition to causing annoyance. as well as recreational vehicles such as snowmobiles and jet skis. and even hearing loss for it humans. September 1996. Transport emissions and emissions from energy production and use are linked to acid rain. Solid waste and littering In areas with high concentrations of tourist activities and appealing natural attractions. stress.Town & Country Planning magazine. especially in very hot or cold countries. Some of these impacts are quite specific to tourist activities. is an evergrowing problem of modern life. cars. And it can contribute to severe local air pollution.

In mountain areas. hindering their ability to survive. trekking tourists generate a great deal of waste.improper disposal can be a major despoiler of the natural environment . Solid waste and littering can degrade the physical appearance of the water and shoreline and cause the death of marine animals. damaging the flora and fauna. Wastewater has polluted seas and lakes surrounding tourist attractions.rivers. Tourists on expedition leave behind their garbage. . in remote areas that have few garbage collection or disposal facilities. and roadsides. Sewage runoff causes serious damage to coral reefs because it stimulates the growth of algae. Changes in salinity and siltation can have wideranging impacts on coastal environments. oxygen cylinders and even camping equipment. recreation and other facilities often leads to increased sewage pollution. which cover the filter-feeding corals. Such practices degrade the environment with all the detritus typical of the developed world. Sewage Construction of hotels. And sewage pollution can threaten the health of humans and animals. 12 . scenic areas. Today some cruise lines are actively working to reduce waste-related impacts.