Practical Food Microbiology

Microbiological Examination of Milk

General notes: • Milk - an excellent medium for bacteria, yeasts and molds. • Microorganisms are important in milk and dairy products for three principal reasons: 1. Pathogens or their toxins may constitute health hazards. 2. Spoilage microorganisms or their metabolites may cause spoilage. 3. Lactic acid bacteria and others may contribute in the preservation of milk and in the production of desirable flavor and physical characteristics. Three sources contribute to the M.O. in milk: udder (interior), teat (exterior), milking and equipment. Five major parameters are routinely checked by regulatory agencies for quality raw milk production: 1. Mastitis diagnosis through somatic cell counts and microbiological analyses. 2. Determination of microbial counts in bulk tank milk for verification of hygiene (cleaning, disinfection, cooling). 3. Testing for veterinary drugs and aflatoxins. 4. Spoilage/ Determination of total viable counts 5. Determination of psychrotrophic or thermoduric microorganisms Milk Examination  Microbiological tests are applied to detect poor hygiene conditions and to evaluate the microbial quality of raw and processed milk.  Total bacterial load is used to get an overview of the microbial contamination.  Psychrotrophs are assessed to prevent potential spoilage.  Coliforms to evaluate the hygiene history of milk.  Specific pathogens (e.g. Salmonella spp., S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis) to prevent potential health hazards.  Thermoduric bacteria to assess the hygiene of the production system.

Dye.000 Bacteriological quality Good Fair Poor Very poor 2.000 > 20.4.000. The Standard Plate Count (SPC): B. The Breed count: 0. The microbiological tests of milk 1. (methylene blue.01 ml sample spread over 1cm2 of a microscopic slide film is dried Xylene to remove the fat (1 min) Wash with alcohol to remove the xylene Enumeration Fix by steam in the boiling water bath (5 min) wash with D. Methylene blue Reduction test (Reductase test.000.000.000 500. 15 sec) scanned under microscope Counting the organisms in microscopic field: Count the number of organisms in several fields covering the entire area of the film. the more bacteria present. Reduction test):  This is a rapid test to find relative amount of bacteria in a milk sample.reduction test a. Quality of milk: The following standards are tentatively suggested for the bacteriological quality of milk supplies based on DMC.000.B. Screening the quality of milk 1. . Calculate the average number of clumps per field and multiply this by microscopic factor to get direct microscopic count per ml milk.000.  The length of time for a color change in a specific dye is proportional to the number of bacteria in the sample. the faster the reduction.A.000. DMC clump count/ ml Less than 500.000 4.W to remove the alcohol stain with M.20.

b. 1 ml of milk sample (phosphatase) Incubation for 2 hr.8 Milk Quality Acceptable Moderate poor Dihydroresorufin colorless 2.fever organism) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis bacterium).5 N) in a water bath Yellow Imperfect pasteurization Colorless Perfect pasteurization . The reductase test is based on the oxidation. 1 ml Resazurin Incubation at 37oC 10 ml milk In Water bath Record the result Reading the results: Dye Resazurin Resarufin color Blue (violet) Pink pH 6. Phosphatase test The phosphatase enzyme which is normally present in raw milk is destroyed by pasteurization and a test for residual phosphatase activity should be used to check that effective heat treatment has been achieved. The heat tolerance of this enzyme is similar to Coxiella burnetti (Q. Resazurin test Resazurin undergoes a series of color changes from normal slate blue to pink to colorless form depending on O/R potential. 37oC 5 ml Di sodium p-nitrophenyl phosphate (0.3 4.reduction (O/R) activities of the viable bacteria present in milk.6 5.

3. Turbidity test 20 ml of sterilized Milk Not turbid (clear) Adequate sterilization Filterate & when 5 ml of filterate have collected Shaking for 1 min Stand for 5 min Stand for 5 min Boiling in water bath for 5 min 4 gm ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 Turbid (cloudy) Inadequate sterilization .