CHAPTER 2

MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE

Select odd-numbered solutions, marked with a dagger (†), appear in the Student Solutions Manual, available for purchase. Answers to all solutions below are underscored.
2-1.

2-2. †2-3.

distance 30 = = 0.3 s 100 speed distance 100 yd 1 mi 3600 s = Avg speed = = 23 mi/h × × time 9.0 s 1760 yd 1h 20 m 1 year = 3.156 × 107 sec, so 20 m/year = = 6.34 × 10−7 m/s (6.3 × 1 year × 3.156 × 107 s/year
Time required, ∆t =

10−7 m/s to two significant figures). 1 day = 24 hr = 86,400 s. In cm/day the rate is 6.34 × 10−7 m/s × 8.64 × 104 s/day × 100 cm/m = 5.4 cm/day.
2-4. Assume the butterfly’s speed is 0.5 m/sec. Then the travel time is d 3500 × 103 m 1 = × ≈ 81 days. t= v 0.5 m/s 24 hr/day × 3600 s/hr

2-5.

2-6.

6 days 12 hrs = 156 hrs. dist. 5068 ν = = = 32.5 km/h time 156 d 1.4 × 109 ly t = = 7 2.16 × 10 m/s × 9.47 × 1015 m/ly × 1/(3.16 × 107 )yr/s ν

t = 1.9 × 1010 yr 2-7. Estimated distance (by sea) between Java and England is 20,000 km. d 20,000 km ν = = ≈ 600 km/h t 32 h 4000 nmi (a) Average speed = = 8.3 nmi/hr. (b) He must cover the remaining 1720 20 days × 24 hr/day 1720 nmi = 10.2 nmi/hr. This is nmi in 7 days, which requires an average speed of 7 days × 24 hr/day about the same as his maximum possible speed. Since it’s unlikely that he can maintain the highest possible speed for the entire 7 days, he should probably conclude that he will not be able to complete the trip within the 20-day limit. d 35 km = 14 km/hr Average speed = = 2.5 hr t Average speed = 110 km 110 × 103 m = = 1.27 m/s. Burst speed = 32 km/hour = 1 day 24 h × 3600 sec

2-8.

2-9. 2-10.

†2-11.

32 × 103 m = 8.9 m/s 3600 s d 1 km 1000 m t = ⇒ t1 = = = 2.5 × 104 years. Moving 1000 km will take v 4 cm/year 4 × 10−2 m/year 1000 times as long, or t2 = 2.5 × 107 years.

12

CHAPTER
Average speed =
d 402 m = = 16.9 m/s t 23.8 s 500 m Average speed = = 12.8 m/s, or 12.8 × 10−3 km/m × 3600 s/hr = 46.0 km/hr 39.10 s

2

2-12. 2-13.
2-14. †2-15. 2-16. 2-17. 2-18.

d 23.8 m = = 0.326 s v (263 km/hour × 1000 m/km / 3600 s/hr) d 5280 km 5280 km Use the formula: t = . tair = = 5.87 hr. tshiip = = 151 hr. 900 km/hr v 35 km/hour 100 m 200 m v1 = = 9.49 m/s. v2 = = 9.37 m/s 10.54 s 21.34 s 1 d = v i t = 6 m/s × (s) = 0.06 m 100 Time taken for the arrow to reach the deer is d 50 m 10 t= = = s = 0.77 s. v 65 m/s 13 t =

In this time the deer traveled from 40 m to 50 m, i.e., 10 m. Thus d 10 m v = = = 13 m/s. t (10/13s) †2-19. (a) Take x = 0 to be the cheetah’s starting position. Then the cheetah’s position is given by xc = vc t. The antelope’s starting position is 50 m from the cheetah’s starting position, so the position of the antelope is given by xa = va t + 50. When the cheetah catches the antelope, their positions are the same, and we get vc t = va t + 50. The speeds are νc = 101 km/h = 28.1 m/s and 50 m 50 m va = 88 km/h = 24.4 m/s. Solving the equation for t gives t = = = 28.1 m/s − 24.4 m/s vc − va

13.8 s, or 14 s to two significant figures. During this time, the cheetah travels (28.1 m/s)(13.8 s) = 380 m. (b) The cheetah must catch the antelope within 20 s. Call the antelope’s initial position x0. We use the same equation that says the cheetah catches the antelope, vc t = va t + x0 , but now we set t = 20 s and calculate what head start x0 the antelope needs. We get x0 = (vc − va )t = (28.1 m/s − 24.4 m/s) (20 s) = 72 m. If the antelope is farther away than 72 m, 2-20. †2-21. the cheetah will not be able to catch it. d 100 m Average speed = = = 10.1 m/s t 9.86 s d = 26 mi × 1.6 × 103 m/mi + 385 yd × 0.9144 m/yd = 4.195 × 104 m t = 2 hr 24 min 52 s = 2 hr × 3600 s/hr + 24 min × 60 s / min + 52 s = 8692 s average speed = 2-22.
vsecond = vminute = d second tsecond
d 4.195 × 104 m = = 4.83 m/s 8692 s t 2π × 0.9 cm = = 0.094 cm/s 60 s

d minute 2π × 0.9 cm = = 1.6 × 10−3 cm/s 60 min × 60 s/min tminute

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735 0.97 9.985 0.) The distance traveled at this time is x = 4.31 × 108 2.45 10.50t 2.46 hour moves at 80 km/hr for a shorter period of time than it does at 60 km/hr.CHAPTER vhour = 2 d hour 2π × 0. (This is the point at which the derivative equal to zero: dt runner turns around and moves back toward the starting line.50(4.69 9.98 × 109 1. differentiate with respect to t and set the dx = 4.0t − 0.65 × 109 5.1 13.8 35.43 4. To find the maximum value of x.74 log speed 1.21 × 109 7.0 s.83 × 1010 3. †2-25.46 hr average speed Distance = 100 km time = 60 km/hour 80 km/hr distance 100 km = = = 69 km/hr.38 1.16 9.57 1 The slope of the line through the nine points is − .54 1.11 0. that is when he comes back to the starting line.76 × 108 9.95 10.5 cm = = 7. x = 4.0 29.61 × 106 1.16 × 107 5.79 × 108 9.8 24.83 × 109 Speed (km/s) 47.676 log radius 8.0(4. time 8s 50 km 50 km + = 1.0) 2 = 8.0 9. Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Orbit circumference (km) 3.64 × 108 6.0) − 0.94 × 107 3.42 × 108 1.47 1.26 10.65 6.0 − t = 0.0 m/s.71 × 1010 Period (s) 7.43 × 109 4.0) − 0.0 m.832 0. Then average speed = distance 16 m = = 2.56 8.3 × 10−5 cm/s 12 hr × 60 min/hr × 60 s/min thour †2-23. x = 4.0) 2 = 0. The result is t = 4.0(8. At t = 8 seconds.83 8.93 × 107 3. The average speed is not exactly 70 km/hr because the car time 1.5(8. 2-24.89 × 109 8.80 × 1010 2.68 1. 2 14 . The total distance traveled is 16 m.79 5.

Total distance = 35 m + 22 m = 57 m.55 time displacement Avg velocity = = 0 m/s time 200 = 20 m/s Avg speed (for t = 0 to t = 10 s) = 10 270 − 200 = 16.3 s) = 14. The elapsed time = 14 min 5 s + 6 min 28 s + 3 min 40 s = 23 min 73 s = 1453 s. Then is time 8. The total displacement is ∆x = (12 blocks − 6 blocks + time 1453 s ∆x 729 m = = 0. The average speed distance 57 m = = 7. x(t = 10) = 4 × 10 − 0. The average velocity is v = ∆t 1453 s x(t = 0) = 0. The total time is = 4. Then average speed = distance 1207 m ∆x = = 12.3 m/s Avg speed (for t = 10 to t = 14. †2-29. †2-31. Thus Speed = C(radius) −1/2 where C is some constant.1 s.17 m/s. distance 8 + 8 = 6.0 m/s.1 s 15 .5 × 82 = 0. ∆t 50 s Distance = (12 blocks + 6 blocks + 3 blocks) × 81 m/block = 1701 m. distance 76 m = = 1.0 s is: 10s − 8s 2s Total distance = 3 × 0. Total time = 1 min 40 s = 100 s. ∆t 8.0 m/s. This means that log speed = − 2-26.5 × 102 = −10 m. Distance = (8 floors + 4 floors + 7 floors) × 4 m/floor = 76 m.6 s = 8. The average velocity is v = = 0. time 100 s ∆t 2-32.0 s to t = 10.6 m/s.CHAPTER 1 log radius + log C.27 m/s = 2. The total displacement is ∆x = 35 m − 22 m = 13 m.1 m/s. The average velocity is ∆x 44 m v = = = 0. Displacement = 0 m because the horse returns to the starting point.1 s average velocity is v = ∆x 13 m = = 1.88 m/s. 2-30.0 s is: = 0. 3 blocks) × 81 m/block = 729 m. x(t = 8) = 4 × 8 − 0. Average velocity between t = 8.3 − 10 Avg speed = 2 2-27. Then average distance 1701 m speed = = = 1. 2 −1/2 Therefore log speed = log[C(radius) ]. x(t = 8) − x(t = 0) Average velocity between t = 0 to t = 8.25 mile × 1609 m/mile = 1207 m.5 s + 3. 2-28.5 m/s.502 m/s. The total change in position is Average speed = time 50 s ∆x = (12 floors − 1 floors) × 4 m/floor = 44 m. 8−0 x(t = 10) − x(t = 8) −10 m − 0 = = −5.

5 m/s.0 s and 4. (a) t(s) a (m/s 2 ) 2-40. At 1. −3 8.2 s × 1 h/3600 s × 1000 m/km = 12 m/s 2 a = v2 − v1 27 m/s − 0 = = 3. ∆t 8. †2-37.050 2 a (gees) (b) t(s) a (m/s ) 0 −0. iii) Convert from km/h to m/s.0 s.5 s. This gives a slope of 11 m/s.5 + 6.56 0.1 s For 0 ≤ t ≤ 2 s.44 −0.22 m/s = −7. 2 From the graph.CHAPTER †2-33.1 0. v = displacement 25 m = = 12.0 s.0 ≤ t ≤ 4.5 t + 3.2 − 27.04 s ∆v = 32.0 s. For time 2s 2.0 × 10 s t2 − t1 v f − vi t 0 − 22.5 m/s. At 3. (This requires an estimate for the position displacement 15 m = = 7. Instantaneous dt acceleration = 6.2 × 0 − 13. Again.22 −0.5 × 02 = 2. ii) Get slope of line by counting squares to find ∆ν and ∆t.14 20 0. displacement = 25 m.49 0.8 s. so the instantaneous velocity will be the same as the average velocity between 2. or 7. vi = 80 (km/hr) = 22.3 s. a (in gees) 0 6.83 0.1 t 2 − 4.057 40 0. At t = 2.075 10 −0. 2-36.045 20 −0.5 t 2 . displacement = 40 m − 25 m = 15 m.4 m/s 2-34.) v = time 2s To find the instantaneous velocity at any time. the total distance traveled by the squirrel is 6 m + 6 m + 2 m + 6 m = 20 m.5 + 6.44 −0. 25 m). the position vs time graph is a straight line. 2-38.4 × 103 m/s 2 .6 gee × (9. 2-35.53 m/s. v f = 0.94 m/s 2 2. Your value may be slightly different. v = = dt At t = 0 s.022 dx x = 2. 82.2 m/s2.085 30 0.807 m/s 2 ) a = ∆ν/∆t ⇒ ∆ν = a ∆t = gee × 0. a = dv = 6. a= = 2-39.2 t − 13. so the average velocity is v = = = 0.032 40 −0.5 m/s.0 t.0 s.62 10 1. Then average speed = time 30 s ∆x 13 m displacement is ∆x = 16 m. dt dx |t = 0 = 2.22 m/s.0 s.67 m/s.8 s Method: i) Draw tangent to curve. 0 s. 0 m) and (2. t = 2.4 0. a = ∆ν/∆t = [(96 − 0) km/h]/2.31 −0. The distance 20 m = = 0. instantaneous velocity = 16 . your value may be slightly different if you estimate a different position at 4. instantaneous velocity = 2.74 −0. draw a tangent to the position vs time curve at that time and determine the slope of the line. at 4. Your numbers may be slightly different from the ones given here.5 m/s.045 30 −0. we get a tangent passing through points with coordinates (0.0 s. The total total elapsed time is 30 s.5 t 3.

0 s.2 t 2 = 0 ⇒ t = 0 s or t = 1.0 s. At t = 0. At t = 0. (Your value may be slightly For 0 ≤ t ≤ 5.2 t − 7. dx/dt = 0 when t = 0 and t = 1s. 2. 2-44.5(2) + 3.5 s) − (2. 0 m/s) and (5 s. Your estimate may be slightly different from ours.5(2)3 = = −9.5 s dv d .2 m. x = 3. (Again. draw a tangent to the curve at that time. 17 . To make a sketch.5 s) dt dt v0 − v f m/s dv 200 km/hr − 18 km/hr a= |t = 0 = − =− dt 2.5 s.CHAPTER dx |t = 2 = 2.5 s ] = − e (2. ν = (6.0 s.1(2) 2 − 4. x = 0. v = 0 if dt 7. a = 2−0 2s dx x = 3. v = 2 †2-41. The slope of this line is the instantaneous acceleration a = = 1.2 × 2 − 13.0 s. a = 0 if = = 3.4 = 1. a = 5s 5s different depending on how you read the values of ν at 0 and 5 s.1 m/s − 2.0 s. 3. dt Instantaneous acceleration = 6.6 − 2.5 × 22 = −39.) For 5.0 m/s 2 = B − 2Ct. plus when t = 1. a = 3 dt C 2. We get a tangent line that passes through the points (1 s.6 t 2 − 2. v = Bt − Ct 2 .) To find the instantaneous acceleration at 3 s. v(t = 5 s) − v(t = 0) 5 m/s − 0 ≈ = 1 m/s2. V = 0 if t = 0 or t = dv B 6.0 m/s3 ) (1.9 m/s 2 . 5 5 m/s − 0 m/s).4 Also.5 m/s − 5.5 s 182 km/hr × 1000 m/km =− = −20 m/s 2 . a= = [v f + (v0 − v f )e − t / 2. v(t = 10 s) − v(t = 5 s) 9.2 t 2 . To make a sketch: consider the 2C above information.5 s.5 s × 3600 s/hr †2-43.5 + 6.0 ≤ t ≤ 10.3 m/s 2.1 m/s (−39 m/s to two significant figures).5 s) 2 = 4.3 m/s. At t = 1.2 t − 7. your value may be slightly 5s 5s t = different depending on how you estimate the values of ν at 5 and 10 s.0 m/s 2 ) (1. x(t = 2 s ) − x(t = 0) 2.2 − 27. v = = 7. For 0 ≤ t ≤ 2 s.6 consider that x = 0 when t = 0 and t = = 1. 2−0 2 v(t = 2) − v(t = 0) −39.5 m/s = = – 21 m/s2.5 s 2. 5 s −1 s v0 − v f − t / 2. 2.0 m/s a = ≈ = 0.5 s.0(2) = −48 m/s 2 .4 t 3 .0 m/s B = 1.5 m/s. 2-42.

As t → ∞. = − 2.5 1.8−2. we 5 m/s have ∆x = v ∆t ≈ 30 km/h × 5 s × ≈ 42 m.0 Total distance traveled = 1722 m Distance traveled (m) 194 189 183 179 174 169 165 161 156 152 18 .5 0.0 2.5 0. †2-47.45 km.5−1.3 647.6−0.4 535.2 596.0 2.0 508. ⎢ 2 ⎥ 2 2 dt dt ⎣ (1 + At ) ⎦ (1 + At ) dt (1 + At 2 ) 2 2 Av t 2(25 m/s)(2 s −2 )(2 s) at t = 2 s.1−2. so a → 0.2−1.5 0. 18 km/h ⎡ 5 m/s ⎤ v (km/h) ∆x(m) ⎢ by v km / h × 5s × (b) Time interval (s) ⎥ 18 km / h ⎦ ⎣ a= 5−10 70 100 10−15 90 120 15−20 110 150 20−25 130 180 25−30 140 190 30−35 150 210 35−40 160 220 40−45 170 240 (c) Total distance traveled is the sum of the last column plus the 42 m traveled in the first 5 s: d = 1450 m = 1. a = 0.5 m/s 2 . a = − .9−1. 2-46. Because v = ∆x/∆t.4−2. ⎤ 2 Av0t v0 dv d ⎡ v0 d = =− ( At 2 ) = − .5 2.9 611. At t = 0.5 579.0 1.0 1.7 521.7−3. (a) (b) Time interval (s) Avg speed (m/s) 0−0.1 549.3−0.CHAPTER 2 †2-45.8 564. a → − 2 0 −2 2 2 A t4 ⎡ ⎤ 1 (2 s )(2 s) + ⎣ ⎦ (a) Estimated average velocity (by mid-point method) is about 30 km/h.6 628.

0 m/ s 2 a(2π) = −2.0 s = −61.3s.0 sin(π/2) = −2. (b) Calculus method: If x = 0.5) = −51.14 + (6.7 s.e. a = = −61.58 m/s 2 †2-49. when t = 0. 2 ν = 655.0 sin(0) = 0 m/ s v(π) = −2. Particle crosses x = 0 at t = 1.14 m/s 2 a |t = 1.0 m / s 2 2-50. ν = dx/dt = −2. so t = π/2 or 3π/2 s.14 + (6. v = −2.1s and 6.0 cos t a(0) = −2. then cos t = 0. i.9 − 61.0 m/s ν (3π/2 s) = −2.52) (3. 2π.0 sin(3π/s) = 2.0 sin(2π) = 0 m/ s a = dv/dt = −2. π.26t dv acceleration.5 s = −61.0 cos(π) = 2.CHAPTER (c) Counting the number of squares under the ν versus t curve gives the same answer within about ± 2 m.36 m/s 2 a |t = 3.14t + 3.52t dt a |t = 0 s = −61.14 + 6.0) = −41.52) (1. 3.0 cos(0) = −2.0 m / s 2 a(π) = −2.0 cos t a(π/2) = −2. v = dx/dt [1 − ln(1 − bt) − 1] −b ⎤ dx ⎡ = uex = uex + uex ⎢ − ln(1 − bt ) + (1/ b − t ) ⎥ 1 − bt ⎦ dt ⎣ v = −uex ln(1 − bt ) (b) a = u b d 2x = −uex[−bt(1 − bt)] = ex 2 dt 1 − bt 19 .0 sin(π) = 0 m/ s v(2π) = −2. or t = 0 s.0 sin t ν (π/2 s) = −2.6 s and 4.0 cos(3π/2) = 0 m / s 2 (c) Maximum distance achieved when cos t = ± 1..0 cos(π/2) = 0 m / s 2 a(3π/2) = −2.0 m/s a = dv/dt = −2.0 cos(2π) = −2. (a) 2 2-48. x = uext + uex(1/b − t) ln(1 − bt ) (a) Instantaneous velocity.0 sin t v(0) = −2.

46 × 1015 m/ly = 3.26 × 10 2-53.5 × 10−3 t 22. Use Equation (25): a(x − x0) = 1 2 2 (v − v0 ) 2 5 m/s = 100 m/s.0 × 10 ln 1 = 0 m/s ν(t = 120) = −3.0 yr 1 2 2 (v − v0 ) 2 ν0 = 0.9 1 − 7.9) m/s = −3.5 × 10−3t) m/s dt 3 ν(t = 0) = −3. Thus.CHAPTER 2 (c) dx = −3. a = 9.99 × 1016 m.5 × 10−3 22.2 × 108 m / s (This exceeds the speed of light!!) Speed at midpoint: Use a(x − x0) = 20 . v0 = 0 x − x0 = 2100 m.3 × 108 s ≈ 4.5 × 10−3 × 120) m/s ν(120) = −3.2 ly × 9.4 m/s 2 2-52.0 × 103 ln(1 − 7.5 m/s2 = m/s2 −3 1 − 0. is T = 2t 1/2 = 2 × 6.0 × 103 ln(1 − 7.63 v − v0 Time to travel the length of the barrel. T. v = 360 km/h × 18 km/h 2 v 2 − v0 1 1 1002 = × m/s2 a= × x − x0 2 2 2100 a = 2. the time for the second half is identical to that of the first half.0 × 103 ln(1 − 0.97 × 1016 m = 6.02 × 10−2 s 4 3.807 m / s 2 Because the magnitude of the acceleration is the same for both parts of the trip.2 ly = 4.0 × 103 × 7.90 × 1017 m2/s2 v = 6.0 × 103 × (−2. a = 2 v 2 − v0 (657) 2 = = 3.80) m/s v(120) = 6.5 22.5 m/s2 = 2 = m/s2 = dt dt 1 − 7.36 × 107 s 9.5 × 10−3 t 1 − 7.5 × 10 × 120 a(0) = 22.36 × 107 s = 1.807 × 1.2ly) 2 2 t 1/2 = 2x = a 3.97 × 1016 m 1 1 Use x − x0 = ν0t + (at 2 ) with x0 = ν0 = 0 and x = (4. 4. t = a 657 t= = 2.9 × 103 m/s (d) a = dυ d 2x 3. x − x0 = 1.5 m/s2 a(120) = a(120) = 225m/s 2 2-51.99 × 1016) m2/s2 ν2 = 3.26 × 104 m/s 2 2( x − x0 ) 2 × 6. the total time for the trip. Acceleration.807 m/s2 Then 2 v2 = 2a(x − x0) = (2 × 9.

2 m/s. or 170 mph. v0 = 96 km/h = 26.8 s.7 m. 1 5 m/s 2 Use (v 2 − v0 ) = a(x − x0) with v = 0. Use v = v0 + at with v = 0 m/s. and a = −5 m/s2. t = 2 2 2x = a 2 × 150 m = 16 s.6 × 103 m) = 3.2 m/s 2 2-59.74 m/s 2 (The minus sign denotes deceleration. Use 1 2 2 (v − v0 ) = a(x − x0) with x − x0 = 50 m. The time to stop is t = †2-57. and a = −7.0 m/s 2 )(4. The velocity is v = v0 + at = 3. and a = −1. 1 2 1 2 at = at (since v0 = 0). 2 18 km/h 1 2 1 2 (v − v0 ) (−22.5 m/s 2 × 20 s = 30 m/s 1 1 x = v0t + at 2 = 0 + × 1.2) 2 2 2 .6 × 103 m.1 m/s2.0 s) 2 2 2 2 ⇒ −4 m = 12 m + 8 a ⇒ a = −2.0 m/s i 4. v − v0 0 − 3. a v = v0 + at = 1. 1. 2 2a( x − x0 ) = v 2 − v0 ⇒ v0 = −2a ( x − x0 ) From the information given in the problem. x = v0 t + 21 .0 s + a i (4.0 m/s .0 m/s − (2. 2-60. Therefore a = = x − x0 0.2 m/s. x − x0 = 0. x − x0 = −2(−5 m/s 2 )(9. 2 2a( x − x0 ) = v 2 − v0 ⇒ v0 = 2 −2a( x − x0 ) From the information given in the problem.1 × 102 m/s. Then v t = − 0 = 3.5m/s 2 × (20 s) 2 = 300 m.CHAPTER 2-54. 2 v0 = 96 km/h = 26. Then v0 = 2-55.6 km = 9. a 2 v 2 − v0 (260 × 103 / 3600) a= =− 2( x − x0 ) 2 × 1500 a = − 1.7m/s 2 a = −350m/s 2 (will probably survive) 2-56.67 m/s 1 2 1 2 (v − v0 ) ( −26. x − x0 = −2(−10 m/s 2 )(290 m) = 76 m/s. about 270 km/h. 2-61. a −5 m/s 2 9. v = 0. Then v0 = which corresponds to about 700 mph.74 m/s2.1 × 102 m/s = = 62 s.0 m = 3. which corresponds to 290 m.67) 2 a= 2 = 2 50 m/s 2 x − x0 a = −7.5 s.) Use v = v0 + at with v = 0 m/s. v0 = 260 km/h = 72. 2 2 1 1 x − x0 = v0t + at 2 ⇒ 1. ν0 = 80 km/h × = 22.7 m/s. and a = −10 m/s2.0 m − 5.0 m/s.1m/s 2 2-58. Then v t = − 0 = 42.0 s) = − 5.

05 m/s × 30 s = 22.6 m/s. a = −4.5(t − 6) 2 = − 2. t 30 s at 2 2 2 2 2 = 550 m − 0.7 ft/s 60 × 60 22 . 2-66.CHAPTER 2 550 km/hr × 1000 m/km = 153 m/s.9 m/s + 0. x = v = 3 × 6 = 18 m/s. The sketch should be based on the following: For 0 ≤ t ≤ 6 s. Speed at the end of the 440-yard mark.9 m/s. and 2 v = v0 + a(t − 6) = 18 − 4. x = ∫ 0 t v dt = ∫ 3t dt = 2 t . For 6 ≤ t ≤ 10 s. v = v0 + at = 3600 s/hr 2-62.5 × 0. a = 3. †2-63.25(t − 6) 2 + 18(t − 6) + 54 2 2 At t = 10 s.6 m/s + 0. v = 45 − 4. x = v0 t + 1 2 at ⇒ v0 = 2 x− at 2 2 2 2 2 = 700 m − 0. t 15s v = v0 + at = 22. v = v0 + at = 0 + 3t . v0 = 550 km/hr = 153 m/s + (0.5 m/s2. 2 0 t 3 3 2 i 6 = 54 m.05 m/s 2 i 30 s = 24 m/s.5 × 0.60 m/s 2 )(90 s) = 2. 250. †2-65.5t m/s. 2-64. 1 1 x = x0 + v0 (t − 6) + a(t − 6) 2 = 54 + 18(t − 6) − i 4.5 (t − 6) m/s = 45 − 4.69 × 1760 × 3 v= = 367. At t = 6s. x = v0 t + 1 2 at ⇒ v0 = 2 x− v = v0 + at = 32. x = −2.5 m/s 2 i 15 s = 40.25 i 42 + 18 i 4 + 54 = 90 m.5 × 10 = 0.0 m/s2.5 m/s × 15 s = 32.4 m/s.1 × 102 m/s.

the distance traveled would be = avg speed × time = ⎛ 367. and decelerating.4 m/s (a) Average acceleration. respectively: accelerating.36 ft = 345.53 m/s 2 where a is the acceleration and −a is the deceleration. traveling at constant speed.3 10 18 27 39 2 2-67.1 4. ⎝ 2 ⎠ Therefore the acceleration was not constant.3 m/s 55 (b) For minimum values of acceleration and deceleration.8 25.875 m/s2 × 5 s vmax = 4. − Total stopping distance (m) 9. t2 and t3 are the times spent in the following. distance = 440 × 3 = t (5.0 2 v0 (m) 2a 1.7 25.0 v0 ∆t (m) 8. What is its significance?) v0 (km/h) 15 30 45 60 75 90 v0 (m/s) 4.5 m = a(5)2 + (a5)7 + (a5)5 − a52 2 2 52.53 × 2-69.CHAPTER ∆v 367.0 51.6 m/s 2 (This is twice the average speed.33 12. vt = 5. Therefore 2 1 ⎛ 55 ⎞ 200 = a ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ a = 0.637) = 1036.637) 2 2 × 440 × 3 = 463 ft/s = 319 mi/h.637 (b) For a constant acceleration.7 50.7 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (5. v (c) Assuming constant acceleration. 1 1 21 × 2.3 68.7 = = 65.0 33. a = (a) Average speed = 400 = 7.3 41.5 26. 55 = 14. t1. the elevator should travel half the distance in half the time.637 The distance traveled by the elevator is 1 1 2⎞ ⎛ x = at12 + vt2 + ⎜ vt3 − at3 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ where v = constant speed reached at at1.875m/s 2 The maximum speed of the elevator is vmax = at1 vmax = 0.0 23 .4 21.45 yd.7 89.3 16. 2-68. Maximum speed is given by vmax = at = 0.17 8.0 35.23ft/s 2 ∆t 5.7 20.5 m = 60 a a = 0.

67 m/s Divide equation (i) by (ii) to get t = 13. In this frame.67 m/s.8s and 6. e−t/τ = 1 − + τ 2τ2 t 1 t2 ) + gτ2 + x0 Therefore. 2 2-71.610 m) = 15. 2. a = 200 m/s2 also. Consider the position of the car in the reference frame of the truck x0c = −12 − 17 = −29 m The final position of the car is xc = 17 m. Table on Page 47: v2 v0 ∆t = 0 ⇒ v0 = 2at = 2 × 8 m/s 2 × 0.6 m/s. the exponential e−t/τ can be expanded as t 1 t2 +.8 v = −gτ + gτe−t/τ dv (a) acceleration.3048) m = 0.... 13.610 m. 1 xc = x0c + v0c t + at2 2 1 17 = −29 + 0 + at2 2 1 2 46 = at .9 m/s.0 ft = (2 × 0. = ge − t / τ dt Lim −t/τ = 0 . therefore. = 60 × 60 at = 6. x = −gτ t − gτ2(1 − + τ 2τ2 1 = −gτ t − gτ2 + gt τ − gt2 + gτ2 + x0 = − 1 gt 2 + x0 2 2 τ 24 . all velocities are zero. (d) for t << τ.48 m/s 2 . 2-72.67 a= = 0. (i) 2 The final speed of the car relative to the truck is 24 km/h 24 × 103 = 6.CHAPTER 2-70. In the inertial frame that is 50 km/h = 50 × 18 traveling at constant velocity with the car. therefore e (b) t→∞ Lim Lim − t/τ = − gt e v = −gτ + t→∞ t→∞ d (c) v = ( − gτ t − gt 2e−t / τ + gτ 2 + x 0 ) dt τ 2 − t/τ = − gτ + gτ e −t / τ e = −gτ + g (ii) †2-73. Therefore the speed with which the dashboard hits the passenger is v= 2a ( x − x0 ) = 2(200 m/s 2 )(0.75 s = 12 m/s. 2a 5 m/s = 13.

5 m.7 m) = 13 m/s. x − x0 = 200. so use 2 v 2 − v0 (36. t = 3. Neglecting air resistance. a = −g because the displacement is upward and the acceleration is downward.9 m) = 6. h = 2-82.000 m 2 v0 = 2 × 1.9 m v2 (20. This is the initial speed. h = v = 75 km/h = 20. 9.8 s. †2-83.1 m × = 8 floors.8 mgh = 2-79.0 s 2 1 x − x0 = 0 − (9.43 s/(3 half turns) = 0. t= tup = 2h = g 2h = g 2(10 m) = 1.81 m/s 2 2(9. g = 9. 130 km/h = 36.1 m/s. The acceleration of the freely falling falcon is g.8 m/s) 2 1 floor = = 22.80 m/s2. h = v2 (12. Here v0 = 0. 2 2 g 2(9.48 s per half turn. 2-80.6 s t = 8.9 m v = 105 km/h = 29.4 m × = 15 floors.CHAPTER x − x0 = v0t − 2 2-74.4 m × = 3 floors.81 m/s 2 ) 2 v 2 = v0 + 2ax.81m s 2 )(1. 2 g 2(9.0 s) 2 = 44 m 2 2 2 Use v − v0 = −2g(x − x0) with v = 0.80 m/s2 × 2 × 105 m = 7.8 m/s2 × 8. v = 45 km/h = 12.39 s.8 m/s. v0 = −2 gh = −2(−9.43 s. where h is the maximum height reached 2 1 ⎛ v2 ⎞ (366) 2 = 6834 m h= ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ g ⎠ 2 × 9. 2 gh = 2(9. 2-78.8 s = −86 m/s †2-75.5 m) = 1. The initial velocity is 14 m/s up.1 m/s) 2 − 0 2 v 2 − v0 = 2 g ( x − x0 ) ⇒ x − x0 = = = 66. 2-77. 1 2 gt with x − x0 = −380 m.1 m/s. we have 1 x − x0 = v0t − gt2 with v0 = 0.81 m/s ) 2. 2 v 2 = v0 + 2ax.81 m/s 2 )(1.8s For the impact velocity use v = v0 − gt v = 0 − 9. g = 1.8 m/s2 2 1 −380 m = − (9. g = 9. 25 .81 m/s ) 2.8 m/s 2 ) t2 2 2 2 t = 77. 1 2 mv . Here v = 0.9 m v2 (29.2 m/s.2 × 105 m2/s2 v0 = 849 m/s 2-81. 9.5 m/s. 2 2 g 2(9. v = 2-76.8 m/s2.39 s) = 2.81 m/s 2 ) 2.5 m/s) 2 1 floor = = 8.4 s) = 14 m/s.81 m/s 2 v0 = gtup = (9.8 m/s 2 ) (3. 2g 2(9. This is 1. a = g. Total time = 2(1.2 m/s) 2 1 floor = = 43. v0 = 0.81m s 2 )(8.

13 m/s. 2a 2(− g ) 2 g 2(9. and the ball is initially some distance h above the ground. at 2 d− 2 2 at 2 = d − at = −9. or 1.57 m/s. The speed t of the ball just before striking the ground is v = v0 + g . or 8. Thus tdown = 2 direction of the axis for the motion to point down. we get the height h can be found using v = v0 + 2 gh. a topic that obviously isn’t covered in this chapter.5 s.45 s) 2 ⇒ v0 = = = 1. a = −g. Thus the downward and upward travel times are each equal to half the total travel time.90 s = 0. v = 1 m/s + (9. 2 v0 = 1. (4. the time required to return to its starting point a distance h above the floor will be the same as the time required for it to reach the floor in the first place.5 s) = 8. (This concept will be introduced in a later chapter.5 m) − (9.0 m/s downward.2 m.68 m/s.7 m. which gives h = 2g †2-85. t = 2. 4.81 m/s 2 ) ⎝ 2 ⎠ Comment: This requires conservation of momentum! The ball will collide with the ground and rebound with a speed equal to its speed just before it hit.5 s 2 t t m/s (to two significant figures).6 ⇒ v0 = d = v0t + 2 2 2. Then 2 2 v 2 − v0 2 2 .57 m/s) 2 h=− 0 =− = 0 = = 3. where t is the total travel time. The velocity just before hitting the floor is v = v0 + gt = 1.CHAPTER 2-84.81 m/s 2 )(0. v = for constant acceleration. x = −h ⇒ v = v0 + 2ax = 2 gh . 2-86.68 m/s) 2 − (1 m/s) 2 ⎛ 0.45 s) figures.1 m/s to two significant 2t 2(0. 2 Assume that the collision of the ball with the floor simply reverses the direction of the ball’s velocity.45 s. h = v0t + gt 2 2 2 2 2h − gt 2(1.81 (m/s 2 ) v + v0 2 v0 = 0.81 m/s )(0. choose the started.5 m/s.45 s) = 5.) Since it starts moving back up with the same speed it had just before it hit the ground. Then the acceleration and initial velocity are 1 represented by positive numbers. Then the final displacement is −9.13 m/s + (9.2 m − (−9. and its speed upon returning will be the same as the speed with which it 0.1 m. †2-87. Take the coordinate axis to point up.81 m/s )(2. The height the penny reaches above its launch point is 2 v2 v0 v2 (8. Substituting.75 s ⎞ Then h = = 1. a = −g. and it will arrive at the distance h above the ground with same speed with which it was initially thrown. After falling that distance h. Since the ball begins by moving down.81 m/s 2 ) ⎜ = ⎟ 2(9. Then the time for the ball to reach the floor is the same as the time for the ball to return to its starting point. so 2 2 gh v = . 26 . the ball will strike the ground with some speed v and will rebound (reverse its direction of motion) at the same speed if the collision with the ground is elastic.

44.1.42m/s) = = 1.64 m/s ∆v 4. At t = 0. 1 y2 = y1 + v1t + at2 2 1 0 = 45 + 0 − (9.88 × 103 m/s. we can use the fact that the time for the projectile to climb from 100 km to 180 km is the same as the time for it to fall from 180 km back to 100 km. h = v0t + 2 t 10 cm 4 fingers × 2∆h ∆a ∆h 4 fingers ∆a = 2 = = × 100% = 0. the time must be known to within 5% or within 0.7 m. Given.15 s. at 2 2h .024 × 10−4)/2 − 5.4 m/s v −v −(43.64 m / s − (−5.3 s the distance fallen is 0. from 1 s to 2 s the distance traveled is 19.2.8m/s 2 ) (1.0318 cm/s2 × (1 + (53. 2-90.6 m − 4.22%.91 m gives the ratios 1:3:5 and so on.0318 cm/s2 × (1 + 53.4) = −254.91 m = 14. 1 2 gt . Dividing each of these by 4.) †2-93. v = (b) a = 2 2 2 2 × 9. g = 978.1 m. Likewise the distance traveled from 2 s to 3 s is 24.1m) = 4.81 m/s 2 )(180 × 103 m) = 1.CHAPTER x= 2 2-88.6 × 104 m/s 2 ∆t 6.81 m/s 2 so the total time above 100 km is 2t = 256 s.8) t2 2 t = 3.9 × 10−6 sin2 2 Θ) for Θ = 45° g = 978. Velocity of ball on impact = − 2 gx1 = − 2(9. (a) Impact speed. 2-92. (a) g = 978.2 × 10−4 s 2 gh = 2 2-91. The muzzle speed is given by v0 = find out how long the projectile remains above 100 km.5 m.03 s 2 y1 . An ordinary wristwatch will have an uncertainty of ±1 s. v0 = 0 ⇒ a = 2 . gt 2 ⇒t = 2 2y = g 2(80 × 103 m) = 128s.91 m. So we can just calculate the time to fall a distance of 80 km from rest and double that value.2177 cm/s 2 27 . The time to fall can be calculated from y = 2-94. 19.024 × 10−4 sin2 Θ − 5.9 × 10−6) = 980.0318 cm/s2 × (1 + 53.8 m/s 2 ) (1.91 m.6 m. 2-89. 9. 46 cm t a h 100 cubits × cubit Time taken to fall through a distance of 45 m. The distance 2 traveled from 0 − 1 s is 4.5m / s 2 = 2 × 3.7 2( x2 − x) 2 gh = 2(9. 78. 4. To (The minus sign denotes deceleration.6190 cm/s 2 At the pole Θ = 90°. Since t = g Therefore a stopwatch must be used.5 m) = −5.8 × 96 = 43. to measure y1 within 10%.5 m.42 m/s Velocity of ball after impact = a = 2 gx2 = 2(9.024 × 10−4) = 983.

300 km/h = 83.17 m/s)2 + 8(9. with x − x0 = −1500 m.81 × 7. gt 2 9. At the equator. 2 2 28 .8t 2 ⎟ m 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 4. ± 2 d Θθ 2 2 = A (B − 4C cos 2 Θ)sin 2 Θ = 0 gives extrema at Θ = 0. ± . so g = 978.662 ye = yp = y0 − = 335 − = 47. If down is negative.9s For the elevator. Θ = 0.3 m/s. ye = yp ⇒ vt = y0 − root is t = gt 2 .3t − 1500 = 0 t = 1. 2-96. where y0 = 335 m. C = 5.81 m/s 2 ) t = 7. v = 370 m/min = 6.CHAPTER 2 (b) Let g = A(1 + B sin2 Θ − C sin2 2 Θ) where A = 978.17 m/s. 1 2 ) = −g(x − x0) with g = 9. The height of the penny above the ground is y p = y0 − and penny meet. 1 ⎛ ⎞ −1500 m = ⎜ −783. v0 = −783.0318 cm/s2.3t − 9. which can be rearranged as gt 2 + 2vt − 2 y0 = 0.0318 cm/s2. Its distance above the ground is given by ye = vt. use x − x0 = v0t − 1 2 gt .3 m/s 2 2-95. When the elevator 2 gt 2 . ± π d 2g Θ = 0 = A(2 B cos 2Θ − 8C cos 4Θ sin 4Θ ) θ = 0 d Θ2 = 2AB > 0 (Thus at Θ = 0.81 m/s 2 )(335 m/s) 2(9. The condition dg = A( B sin 2Θ − 4C sin 2Θ cos 2Θ) dΘ 2 π d2g π To distinguish between extrema at Θ = 0.9t + 783.3 m/s. x − x0 = −1500 m Use (v 2 − v0 2 2 v2 = v0 − 2g(x − x0) = (783. then v0 = −83. Projectile speed relative to ground is −700 m/s − 83. B = 53.3)2 − 2 × 9.66 s (after dropping the negative root).2 m.17 m/s) ± 4(6. evaluate at Θ = 0.9 × 10−6. The 2 −2v ± (2v) 2 + 8 gy0 2g = −2(6.8 m/s2.3 m/s.8(−1500 m) m2/s2 v = ±802 m/s To find the time. g has a minimum.3 m/s for bomber. or −783.024 × 10−4.) Similarly d 2g = −2 AB < 0 d Θ 2 θ =±π / 2 shows g has maxima at ± π/2 (poles).

(a) The trajectory of the first stone is 1 x1 = x0 + v0t − gt2 = 15t − 4.9(0.9 m/s.84 − 1. we have 1 τ = (2h / g ) 1/2 = (h/2g)1/2.9(t − 1)2 We want the stones to collide at a height of 11 m.22 s: v0 = 2-99. the median height is the distance fallen by a drop in half the time needed for it to hit the ground. h = 10 m. where t′ is the time after the second stone is thrown.9 (t0 − 1) 2 1.0 s) 2 10 m − 2 = 2 = 14.30 m/s 1. the number of drops in the air at any one time is nt = n(2h / g )1 / 2 .9 m/s − (9.0 s.9t2.22 s corresponds to hitting it on the way up. so the collision can take place only on the way down.1 m/s.9t 0 = 11 m = v0(t 0 − 1) − 4. 11 + 4. h = v0t + 1 2 at ⇒ v0 = 2 h− at 2 ( −9.81 m/s2. Therefore 2 x1 = 15t 0 − 4.0 m/s 1.0 s) = 5. v = v0 + at = 14.84 m/s 11 + 4. the first stone has already passed 11 m on the way up.81 m/s 2 )(1.30 s after the first one.9(t0 − 1.81 m/s 2 )(1.30 m/s t0 − 1.84) 2 t0 − 1 = 0.22 s Using these values for t 0. Therefore x2 = v0(t − 1) − 4. we get for v0: 11 + 4. (a) Time taken for drops to fall is t = 2h / g .84 − 1.84 s: v0 = = 17. Calling this time τ. so t′ = t − 1. 2 so x2 = v0t′.84 or1.30) 2 11 + 4. The second stone is thrown 1. The impact speed is t 1. 2 1 1 1 Then x = v0t − gt 2 = − g(h/2g) = − h 2 2 4 1 Thus the position of the median is h below the edge of the spout 4 3 or h above the ground. whereas the 1. 2 tup = 1.84 s corresponds to hitting the stone on its way down.1m/s 0.30) 2 v0 = = = 23. (b) If the second stone is thrown 1. a = − g = 9.00 s later.22) 2 = 51. If there are n drops per second.2 m/s 11 + 4. (b) Since the drops are falling at a constant rate.9 (1.9(t 0 − 1)2 = x 2 Solving for t 0 gives t0 = 1.9 (0. 4 29 .0 s 2-98.CHAPTER †2-97.00 s.22 The 1.

3 m.0 s.0 m/s )t + 0 t (0. (This is also the change in position. ∫ 0 vdt = ∫ a0 (t − 0 2s v = ∫ adt = 0 v 2 ∫ ( At + Bt ) dt = 0 At 2 Bt 3 2 s 1 1 + |0 = i 15 m/s 2 i 22 s 2 + i 25 m/s 4 i 23 s3 2 3 2 3 = 96.0m/s ∫ v dv = ∫ Ct 2 dt ⇒ v − 8. Thus 1 1 . x = 8. so the velocity becomes constant at whatever value it had at t = 2 s.0 m. 0 0 = 20 m/s (1 − 4.0833 m/s 4 )t 4 4 †2-101. v = 10. = (8. Thus x ∫ 2 g (h − x) dx h = . since x = 0 at t = 0. Final result = 10 m/s. 2-102.0 m/s + (0.0833 m/s )t .0208 m/s 4 )t 4 At t = 1.0833 m/s)t ⎤ ⎦ dt = (8.) dv t2 At t = 1 s. the acceleration becomes zero.0 m/s + 0 Ct 3 3 C = 0. To find x.25 m/s. density ∼ = v 2 g ( h − x) The average height calculation must take into account the weighting factor of the density of drops. 1/ 2 2h 3 3 Ct 3 3 t 2-100. so that h ( h − ξ )dξ h = ∫ 0 ∫ h 0 ξ dξ ξ [2 / 3ξ 3 / 2 ] [2ξ 1 / 2 ] h 0 =h− h 0 =h− 2 / 3h3 / 2 1 2 = h − h = h. find its value at 2 s: 2s v t2 t3 8 2s v = ∫ adt = ∫ a0 (1 − ) dt = a ( t − ) |0 = 20 m/s 2 (2 − ) s = 26. At t = 3. dx ∫ 2 g ( h − x) Let ξ = h − x.0 s 2 v = ∫ adt = 0 v 1s ∫ a0 (1 − 0 t2 t3 1 s 2 ) dt = a ( t − ) |1 ) s = 18.0 s 12.0 s 2 12 After 2 s.25 m/s ⇒ v = 8. So to find v after a long time (t >> 2 s).0 m/s + (0.7 m/s 30 .7 m/s 0 2 2 4. a= dv = Ct 2 . dt 4 8.0 s 2 2 48 s 2 48 s 2 ⎦ ⎣ 2 x − x0 = = 33.0 s 12 0 0 The distance traveled is 2s 2s 2 t3 t2 t4 (2 s) 4 ⎤ 2s 2 ⎡ (2 s) ) dt a ( ) | (20 m/s ) = − = − 0 0 ⎢ ⎥ 12. integrate v: x= ∫ 0 t 3 vdt = ∫ ⎡ ⎣8.0 m/s = 0 4 3 t ⇒ v = 8.0 m/s )t + (0. a = = a0 (1 − ) dt 4.0 s. where v is the velocity of a particular drop.CHAPTER 2 (c) The density of drops is proportional to 1/v.0 s 2 12.3 m/s.

or 60 km/hr (b) Average speed = 1 time 60 min Define: t = time from when the sailfish spots the mackerel to when it catches the mackerel. The separation between the fish is 20 m.93 s. ⎛ ⎞ 1 1 1 − ⎜ ⎟ × 3600 s/hr −1 6. because the woman returns to her starting point. The time difference for the two runners 3 min 46.CHAPTER 2s 2s 2 Distance traveled ∆x = = †2-103. A v dv dv 1 a= = − Bv 2 ⇒ ∫ 2 = − B ⋅ ∆t ⇒ − |v v = − B∆t dt v v 0 v0 ⇒− ∆t = = ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛1 1 ⎞ 1 1 1 − ⎜ − ⎟= ⎟ −4 −1 ⎜ B ⎝ v v0 ⎠ 6.32 sec − 3 min 44.5 + 42. × 1.1 × 10 m ⎝ 90 km/hr 120 km/hr ⎠ −4 †2-105. †2-109. (a) d1 = 35 km/hr × 30 min = 35 km/hr × 60 min/hr 1 d 2 = 85 km/hr × 30 min = 85 km/hr × × 30 min = 42. 60 min/hr d + d2 (17. v → .32 s mile distance 1500 m 1500 m v= = = = 14. e − At → 0.39 sec = 1.43 m/s time 1min 43.53 × 10−3 mile × 226.0 km/min. 31 .5) km = = 1.1 × 10 m i 1000 m/km ⎝ 90 km/hr 120 km/hr ⎠ = 16. Then: distance for the sailfish = 109 km/hr × t . 2-107.93 s = 8. 2-106.32 s getting to the finish line is ∆t = 3 min 46.3 m/s Average speed = time (10 + 60 + 80) s Average velocity = 0. 1 × 30 min = 17.95sec 103.7 m.75 m 6 12 v dv dv dv a= = g − Av ⇒ =t = dt ⇒ ∫ dt g − Av g − Av v0 2-104. t >> 1/ A.5 km. so the time for the sailfish to catch the mackerel is given by 109 km/hr × t − 33 km/hr × t = 20 m 2-108. 1 g − Av g − Av ln =t⇒ = e − At ⇒ g − Av = ( g − Av0 )e− At A g − Av0 g − Av0 1 g ⇒ v = [ g − ( g − Av0 )e − At ] = (1 − e − At ) + v0 e − At A A g After a long time.32 s 226. distance for the mackerel = 33 km/hr × t.95 s distance (100 + 100) m = = 1. 1s ∫ vdt = 1s ∫ ( At 2 Bt 3 At 3 Bt 4 2 s + )dt = + |1 s 2 3 6 12 15 m/s3 (23 − 1) s3 25 m/s 4 (24 − 1) s 4 + = 48. So Cram is behind 1 mile 1609 m by a distance of vC ∆t = = 13.5 km.4 seconds 1 mile 1 mile Cram’s speed is vC = = .

0 m/s.0 s is xs . so the speeder is 332 m ahead of the police cruiser.0 m/s2 at all times. (b) The speed of the police cruiser goes from 0 to 120 km/hr (33.1 = vt1 = 27. At this time the position of 2 2 the speeder is xs .9 s.0 × 0. †2-115. (c) Let t be the time from when the cruiser reaches its final speed of 120 km/hr until it catches up to the speeder.0 − 6. Since the total elapsed time is 1 hr 25 after departure of the first plane. The distance traveled during the reaction time t1 = 0. so its acceleration is 3. The car’s acceleration as it travels this distance is a = −8. The position of the police cruiser after reaching its final speed is at 2 (3.0 i 0.42 hr) = 1022 km.8 m = 11. Thus 80 km/hr i t − 50 km/hr i t = (10 + 10 + 24 m 24 m i 3600 s/hr 4) m ⇒ t = = = 2. (a) x = 2. they meet at 11:25 AM.50)2 = 4.0 − 6. a 1. During this time the cruiser traveled a total distance of 168 m + (33. where t is measured beginning at 10:00. 2 v 2 − v0 (1052 − 0) km 2 /hr 2 = = 1. 3600 s/hr Distance traveled by the first plane = d1 = 720 km/hr i t .0 + 6.72 × 103 km/hr 2 a= †2-113. 2-112. So the total time that has elapsed since the cruiser began pursuit is 70 s.2 = 27.8 m. x = 2.3 m/s)(60 s) = 2. Distance that my car travels = 80 km/hr i t Distance that the other car travels = 50 km/hr i t.0 i (0. which gives t = 60 s.0610 hr.3 m. or 219 seconds. d1 + d 2 = 1286 km ⇒ 720t + 640(t − 1) = 1286 km ⇒ t = = 1. During this time. The position of the speeder after 8. 30 km/hr 30 km/hr i 1000 m/km †2-111.50 − 3.8 m/s)t + 332 m.1 = = = 168 m from the starting position.8 m/s × 18 s = 500 m. At t = 0. because of the length of the car.0 m/s2.18 km.8 m/s × 8 s = 222 m from the starting point.0 − 6.0t − 3.8 m/s. 2-114. The remaining distance to the cow is d2 = 30 m − 18. v = 6. 20 m 20 m i 3600 s/hr = 0.95 s.42 hr 1360 km/hr = 1 hr 25 min. Its 32 .33 m/s 2 )(10 s) 2 p .95 s distance d = 109 km/hr × 0. or 2. At t = 5.1 x p .3 m/s)t = (27.75 s) = 18. dx (b) v = = 6.18 × 103 m.0t 2 . The distance traveled by the first plane is d1 = (720 km/hr)(1.0 m/s dt dv d (c) a = = (6.3 m/s) in 10 s.2 = vts .0t ) = −6.33 m/s2. both vehicles have traveled the same distance from the point where the cruiser reached 120 km/hr. dt dt (a) 100 km/hr = 27. Distance traveled by the second plane = d2 = 640 km/hr i (t − 1 hr).0 s. Mathematically this means (33. The initial speed of the car is v0 = 90 km/hr = 25.CHAPTER ⇒t= 2 2-110. the sailfish travels a = 76 km/hr 76 km/hr i 1000 m/km 109 km/hr × 1000 m/km × 0.50 s.0t.2 km) v − v0 105 km/hr − 0 t = = = 0. so the planes meet 1022 km north of San Francisco.8 m.95 s = = 28. To go from 10 m behind the slower car to 10 m ahead of it requires traveling a total relative distance of 10 m + 10 m + 4 m. since that plane left one hour (1286 + 640) km later. When the cruiser catches up to the speeder.50 = 3.0 + 6.2 m.75 s is d1 = v0t1 = (25 m/s)(0.72 × 103 km/hr 2 2x 2(3.

1m/s 2-118.63 s. When the first ball hits the ground. v0 = 26 m/s x − x0 = (26 m/s) 2 = 34m −2 × 9.6 m/s 1 (a) ∆t = 1 s.81 m/s 2 )(0.1 = = 2209 m/s 2 t 0.9 s.3 s = 8.63 s = 16.) so the relative acceleration is zero.1 m above the ground when 2 the second ball is released. the second ball has been t1 = 9. = 842 m.66 + 15. (9.63 s) 2 = 1. v 55.18 m/s = 9.2) s = 20.63 s. The time for this part of the h 842 m fall is t2 = 2 = = 15.2 s ⇒ total time = (5. The distance she falls during this 9. or 2-116.81 m/s 2 i 0. 2 Use v2 − v 0 = −2g(x − x0) with v = 0. (c) Both balls have same acceleration. g = 9. v − v0 55. (b) v (1st) = gt1 = 9. v = Average deceleration.8 × 56 = 33. The distance the first ball falls in that interval is y1 = gt 2 2 1 = (9. a = 2 gh = 2 × 9.90 m.8 m/s 2 The discharge rate is 280 l/min so the total amount of water in the air after 5.0 m/s)(11.81 m/s2 down.0 m/s − 6.8 m/s down. Speed upon impact.8 m/s 2 The total time of flight for any particle of water is: 2v 2 × 26 m/s = 5.8 m/s2.6 m/s. so the second ball is 13 m − 1.62 (m/s) 2 = = 158 m.81 m/s 2 g falling for t2 = 0.2 m) = 21.63 s = 6. The time for the first ball to fall the total distance of 13 m is 2h 2 × 13 m = = 1. The distance second ball has fallen during this time is 1 2 1 y2 = gt2 = (9. v 33.84 × 10−2 min t= 0 = g 9.1 m/s. 33 .9 m = 8.84 × 10−2 min vol = 25 l 2-117.3 s is vol = 280 l/min × 8. 76 km/hr. so the first ball is 13 m − 4.81 m/s 2 i 1.95 m.66 s.015 The final speed of the part with acceleration g is v = 200 km/hr = 55.1 m 2 2 above the ground when the first ball lands.6 m/s. She falls the distance h2 with a constant speed of 55.6 m/s The time with acceleration is t1 = = = 5. The rest of the height is h2 = 1000 − 158 m 2g 2 × 9.81 m/s 2 )(1 s) 2 = 4.18 m/s ⇒ instantaneous velocity of the first ball relative to the second just before the first hits the ground is: 16.95 m = 11.0 m/s v(2nd) = gt2 = 9.CHAPTER final speed when it hits the cow is given by 2 v 2 − v0 = 2ad 2 ⇒ v = 2 v0 + 2ad 2 = 2 (25 m/s) 2 + 2(−8.81 m/s 2 g time period h1 = 2 v 2 − v0 55.81 m/s 2 †2-119.