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Overview on S-Box Design Principles

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Debdeep Mukhopadhyay Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur INDIA -721302

What is an S-Box?

S-Boxes are Boolean mappings from {0,1}m{0,1}n

m x n mappings

Thus there are n component functions each being a map from m bits to 1 bit

in other words, each component function is a Boolean function in m Boolean variables

Boolean Function

A Boolean function is a mapping from {0,1}m{0,1}

A Boolean function on n-inputs can be represented in minimal sum (XOR +) of products (AND .) form:

f(x1,,xn)=a0+a1. x1 ++an. xn+ a1,2.x1.x2++ an-1,n.xn-1.xn+ +a1,2,..,n x1.x2 ...xn

The ANF form is canonical If the and terms have all zero co-efficients we have an affine function If the constant term is further 0, we have a linear function

Boolean Function

A Boolean function is a mapping from {0,1}m{0,1}

f : n {0,1} be a Boolean Function. Binary sequence ( f ( 0 ), f (1 ),..., f ( 2n 1 )) is called the Truth Table of f

{(1) f (0 ) , (1) f (1 ) ,..., (1)

f (

2n 1

} is called sequence of f

Balanced Function

A Boolean function is said to be balanced if its truth table has equal number of ones and zeros. The Hamming weight of a binary sequence is the number of ones

Consider f and g as two Boolean functions. Consider, be the sequence of f and be the sequence of g. Define, < , >= (# no of cases when f=g)-(#no of cases when f g)

Non-linearity

The non-linearity of a Boolean function can be defined as the distance between the function and the set of all affine functions.

N

f

= m in g n d ( f , g )

w h e re A n is th e s e t o f a ll a ffin e fu n c tio n s o v e r n

d ( f , g ) = 2n 1

1 < , > 2

Hadamard Matrix: Any rxr matrix with elements in {-1,1} if HHT=rIr, where Ir is the identity matrix of dimension rxr. Walsh Hadamard Matrix:

H H 0 = 1, H 1 = n 1 H n 1 H n 1 , n = 1, 2,... H n 1

Each row of Hn is the sequence of a linear function in x belonging to {0,1}n Each row, li is the sequence of the Boolean function,

g ( x) =< i , x >, i is the binary representation of i Note that i and x are not sequences, but they are binary tuples of length n

If a Boolean function, f(x) is balanced, then so is g=f(xB ^ A), A is an n-bit vector and B is an nxn 0-1 invertible matrix Non-linearity of f and g are same.

Informally, if one bit input is changed in an SBox, then half of the output bits should be changed For a function, f to satisfy SAC the following condition is satisfied:

Higher order SAC, when more than one input bits change Both the SAC and the higher order SAC together make Propagation Criteria (PC)

Consider a Boolean function, f(x) Consider a non-singular {0,1} matrix of dimension nxn. If for each row of the matrix A if:

f ( x) f ( x ) is balanced, is a row of the matrix A

Example

f(x)=x1x2 ^ x3 does not satisfy SAC? Why? Consider =(001) f(x)^f(x^e1) is balanced, e1=(100) f(x)^f(x^e2) is balanced, e2=(010) f(x)^f(x^e3) is balanced, e3=(111)

1 0 0 A= 0 1 0 1 1 1

Bent Functions

Non-linearity of Boolean functions have an upper bound

N f 2 n 1 2 2

n 1

Functions which achieve this are called Bent functions They satisfy PC for all But they are always unbalanced Bent functions exist for even values of n

Example

f(x)=x1x2 ^ x3x4 is a Bent function in 4 variables If f is a Bent function

so is f ^ (affine function) f(xA ^ B) for a non-singular binary matrix A is also Bent

Take 2n-k, k-variable linear function, where k>n/2 Concatenate the truth-tables Thus, we obtain a nxk mapping which is non-linear

Nf2n-1-2k-1

Not only the component functions are good:

high non-linearity satisfy PC etc.

Challenging problem

Good S-Boxes from the cryptographic point of view when put in hardware are found to leak information, like power consumption etc They thus lead to attacks called Side Channel Attacks, which can break ciphers in minutesafter all the hard-work Then there are Algebraic Attacks So, what to do? Open Research Problem(s)

Balanced Component functions Non-linearity of Component functions high Non-zero linear combinations of Component functions balanced and highly non-linear Satisfies SAC High Algebraic degree

Exercise

Enumerate 8 distinct linear functions in 5 variables, x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 Concatenate their Truth-tables to obtain an 8 input, 5 output function. Store the resultant mapping as a 8x5 SBox. What is the non-linearity of your SBox? Does is satisfy SAC? If not, modify the function to do so.

Further Reading

J. Seberry, Zhang, Zhang, Cryptographic Boolean Functions via Group Hadamard Matrices, AJC Journal of Combinatorics, vol 10, 1994 K. Nyberg, Differentially Uniform Mappings for Cryptography, Eurocrypt 1993 K. Nyberg, Perfect Non-linear SBoxes, Eurocrypt 1991

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Modes of operation of Block Ciphers

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