‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﻭ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﺟﺎﺳﻢ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ‬

‫‪@1‬‬

‫א‬

@ @
@ @
@ @ò߇Ôß

@2

‫א א‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪@3‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬
‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﺗﺘﻠﻘﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺜﻘﻔﻮﻥ‬

‫ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻲ‬

‫אא‬

‫}‬

‫)‪(1‬‬

‫{‬

‫ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ‪107 :‬‬

‫‪@4‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬

‫‪@5‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬

‫ƒ‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫؟‬

‫‪@6‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪@7‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫–‬

‫–‬

‫‪@8‬‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬

@ @Þëþa@lbjÛa
@ @
@ @õ‡jÛa@ÝjÓ
H„íŠbnÛa@òÐÜÏ@Šb gI

@9

‫א א‬
‫מא‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬

‫‪@10‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻟﻠﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺭﺃﻓﺖ ﻏﻨﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺩﺍﱐ ﻛﻮﻛﺲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪.‬‬

‫‪@11‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ‬

‫ﲢﺪﻱ ﻗﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬

‫ﲢﺪﻱ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﻔﺰ‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪@12‬‬

‫ﲢﺪﻱ ﺧﻼﻕ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻔﺰ ﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬
‫א‬
1
2
3
4

@ @ð‹ØÏ

@ïÐã

@ @pbí‡znÛa

@ïàîÄäm

@ @ð†bß

@13

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪@14‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪@15‬‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬

‫ﻧﺤﻮ اﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬

‫اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻧﺤﻮ اﻟﺘﻜﺮار‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺩﺍﱐ ﻛﻮﻛﺲ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻊ‪.‬‬

‫‪@16‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪@17‬‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

1

An out line History of England ‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬

@18

1

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫א‬

‫מא‬

‫א‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﳛﺪﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺮ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻃﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺪﺍﻭﺓ ﰒ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻃـﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤـﻀﺮ ﰒ ﻃـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻫﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﻀﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﺣﻲ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﻭﻳﻨﻤﻮ ﰒ ﻳﻬﺮﻡ ﻟﻴﻔﲎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻠﺤﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪@19‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫–‬

‫‪@20‬‬

‫–‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫}‬
‫{‬

‫) ‪(1‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ﺹ‪45 :‬‬

‫‪@21‬‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫–‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫–‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻻﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺎﺳﻴﺲ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺎﺳﻴﺲ ﻛﻌﺎﱂ ﺭﺍﺑﻊ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﺟﻮﻩ ﲢﺖ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺳﺔ ﻛﺎﳌﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﺯﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪@22‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫‪@23‬‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫–‬
‫–‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻮﺑﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪@24‬‬

‫)‬

‫א‬

‫(؟‬

‫א א‬
‫א מ‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬
‫–‬

‫‪900‬‬
‫‪100‬‬

‫–‬

‫–‬

‫–‬

‫–‬
‫–‬

‫–‬

‫–‬
‫–‬

‫‪1840‬‬
‫‪1895‬‬

‫‪1860‬‬

‫‪@25‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫–‬
‫–‬
‫–‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫‪@26‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪@27‬‬

‫א א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
‫‪:‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪@28‬‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪@29‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬

‫ƒ‬

‫‪@30‬‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬

@ @
@ @ïãbrÛa@lbjÛa
@ @
@ @ñŠb›¨a

@31

‫א א‬
‫מא‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫‪@32‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫מא‬

‫‪@33‬‬

‫א א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬

‫‪300‬‬
‫‪600‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫‪5000‬‬

‫‪1500‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪400‬‬
‫‪80‬‬

‫‪240‬‬
‫‪12‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻄﻮﻱ‪ .‬ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺻﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﳉﺰﻳﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻄﻮﻱ‪ .‬ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺻﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪@34‬‬

‫‪70‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺳﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﺠﻌﻞ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﳐﺰﻧﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺳﻄﹰﺎ ﻃﺎﺭﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪@35‬‬

‫א א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫ﺣﻀﺎرة ﺷﺮﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻀﺎرة ﻏﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ‬

‫‪2000‬ﻡ‬

‫‪1600‬ﻡ‬

‫‪1492‬ﻡ‬

‫‪476‬ﻡ‬

‫‪622‬ﻡ ‪ -‬ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ‬

‫‪1000‬ﻡ‬

‫‪330‬ﻡ‬

‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﻴﺢ‬

‫‪ 486‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ‬

‫‪ 509‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ‬

‫‪ 1100‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ‬

‫‪ 612‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ‬

‫‪ 1000‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 2000‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ‬

‫‪ 2000‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ‬

‫‪ 3000‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ‬
‫‪ 4000‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬‫ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺮﻳﻦ‬‫)ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻣﺮﻳﻮﻥ–‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺑﻠﻴﻮﻥ ‪(...-‬‬

‫‪@36‬‬

‫‪ 4000‬ﻕ‪.‬ﻡ‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪1566 – 622‬‬

‫‪@37‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫–‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫–‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫‪@38‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪@39‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫اﻟﺸﺮق‬

‫اﻟﻐﺮب‬

‫اﻟﻐﺮب‬

‫اﻟﺸﺮق‬

‫اﻟﻐﺮب‬

‫اﻟﺸﺮق‬

‫اﻟﺸﺮق‬

‫اﻟﻐﺮب‬

‫اﻟﺸﺮق‬

‫‪@40‬‬

‫א א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫ﻫﺠﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫–‬

‫–‬

‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻲ‬
‫–‬
‫ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻲ‬

‫ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻡ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﻲ ﻭﺇﺒﺩﺍﻉ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬

‫ﻫﺠﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻲ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫ﺗﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺗﺎﺭﳜﻲ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬

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@ @sÛbrÛa@lbjÛa
@ @
@ @„íŠbnÛa@áîÔm

@43

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‫‪1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3500‬‬
‫‪3500‬‬

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‫‪476‬‬

‫‪476‬‬

‫‪1453‬‬

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‫‪1‬‬

‫‪571‬‬

‫‪610‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪622‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪@45‬‬

‫א א‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪3500‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪476‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪1453‬‬

‫‪476‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪@46‬‬

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‫א‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪1453‬‬

‫‪@47‬‬

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‫א‬

@„íŠbnÛa@ÝjÓ

3.500
@áí‡ÔÛa@„íŠbnÛa

476
@ÁîìÛa@„íŠbnÛa


1453

@s퇨a@„íŠbnÛa



@48

‫א‬

‫א‬

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@ @Éia‹Ûa@lbjÛa
@ @
@ @ïiëŠëþa@Šb¾a

@49

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‫‪2‬‬
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‫‪7‬‬

‫‪@50‬‬

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‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪336‬‬

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‫ﻣﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻧﺸﻬﺪﻩ ﰲ ﲪﻠﺔ ﻧﺎﺑﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻮﻑ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪@51‬‬

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‫‪509‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫‪146‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪@52‬‬

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‫א‬

‫ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﻤﺎﻨﻲ‬

‫‪@53‬‬

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‫‪31‬‬

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‫‪476‬‬

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‫א‬
‫‪1453 – 473‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1291 1097‬‬

‫‪@56‬‬

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‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪N‬‬

‫‪1016‬‬
‫‪1035‬‬

‫‪1066‬‬

‫‪1066 1042‬‬

‫‪N‬‬
‫‪511 486‬‬

‫‪714‬‬
‫‪987‬‬

‫‪732‬‬
‫‪1789‬‬
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‫‪711‬‬

‫‪420‬‬
‫‪1492‬‬

‫‪@57‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ‬

‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﰊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫)א‬

‫א‬

‫(‬

‫‪N‬‬

‫‪N‬‬

‫‪N‬‬

‫‪@58‬‬

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‫‪476‬‬
‫‪604 590‬‬

‫‪1075‬‬
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‫‪1‬‬

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1

(MAGNA CARTA)

An out line History of England

@62

1

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‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪@63‬‬

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3

Frederick Bart mind of middle ages
The University of Chicago press
261 222
The Revival of the west 1000 1500
16

“The First Important steps beyond an elementary type of scientific
writing had been taken by the Muslims“

1087

“He either conceals the names of the authors from whom he borrows or
given them in correctly, a common trick with later Translator“

@64

‫א‬

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1150
Aldard
“Natural

Questions”

Arab
Robert

science
1160

Gerard
92

1187

“By the end of thirteenth century, much of the surviving corpus of Greek
science, the best of Muslim scientific work, and most of Aristotle was
circulating in the west in various translation“.

“The New Greek and Arabic works circulating in western Europe were
usually the starting point for fresh development in philosophy and in the
various science. Before 1000, Western Europe knew scarcely any thing in
medicine, its astronomy and mathematics were very rudimentary; chemistry
and physics hardly existed … They did take over from Arabs a large number

@65

‫א‬

‫א א‬

of chemical techniques that were of use later in turning chemistry into a real
science. …. In mathematics and physics the starting point of new

@66

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‫א א‬

developments in the west was a gain the Introduction of Greek and Islamic
writing….

1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

1

@67

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-

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:

1453
Renaissance

@68

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‫‪1542‬‬

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‫‪@69‬‬

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‫א‬
‫‪1572‬‬

‫‪.2‬‬

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‫–‬

‫‪1769‬‬

‫–‬
‫–‬

‫‪@70‬‬

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‫א‬

‫@ @‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
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‫‪@71‬‬

‫א‬

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‫א‬

1924
@ @Z¶ëþa@òî¾bÈÛa@l‹¨a

@ @¶ëþa@òî¾bÈÛa@l‹¨a@À@òßbç@ta‡ydi@‹×‰Žm@Ûa@„íŠaìnÛa@Œ‹ic
@æa‹íy@28
@ @1914


@1914@Œì¸@28
@ @1914@le@1
@ @1914@le@3
@ @1914@le@4
@1917@æbîã@2

@ @1918@Šaˆe@3

@H2I@åí‹“m@11
@ @1918
@H2I@æìãb×@18
@ @1919

@72

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‫א א‬

@ @ZH1945–1939I@òîãbrÛa@òî¾bÈÛa@l‹¨a

1939

@ @Zl‹¨a@æýÇg
@ @ZÒ‡a

@ @Zbîãb¾c@Šb—nãa

@ @Zl‹¨a@ÝuŠ

@ @Z‹—nä¾a@‹Ünç
@ @Z@òbnÛa@òİÜÌÛa

1945

@ñ‡zn¾a@pbíüìÛa
@ @ZòîØí‹ßþa
@ @Zbîãb¾c

1945

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‫א‬

‫‪@74‬‬

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‫א‬

‫א א‬

‫‪324‬‬

‫‪476‬‬
‫‪1291 – 1097‬‬
‫–‬
‫–‬

‫‪1453‬‬

‫‪@75‬‬

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‫א‬

‫א‬
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‫ƒ‬
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‫‪1453‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫‪476‬‬

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‫‪@76‬‬

‫א‬

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@ @ßb©a@lbjÛa
@ @
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@77

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‫א‬

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‫א‬

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‫‪2‬‬
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‫‪@78‬‬

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‫א‬

‫)‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
‫(‬

‫‪‬‬

‫}‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺳﻮرة اﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎء‪107 :‬‬

‫‪@79‬‬

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‫{‬

‫‪2‬‬

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‫‪622‬‬

‫‪661 622‬‬

‫‪N‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﺳﻮرة ﺁل ﻋﻤﺮان‪110 :‬‬

‫‪@80‬‬

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‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪7‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪8‬‬

‫‪N‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﻭﻋﺒﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﺧﻼﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺩﻳﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻈﺎﱂ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪@81‬‬

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‫‪:‬א‬

‫א‬

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‫א‬

‫( ‪661‬מ‪750−‬מ‬

‫‪743‬‬
‫‪750‬‬

‫‪@82‬‬

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‫‪:‬א‬

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‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪750‬‬
‫‪1258‬‬

‫‪847‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪756‬‬
‫‪1100‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪815‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪819‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪905 868‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

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‫‪1452‬‬

‫‪969‬‬

‫‪1171‬‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫‪1055 949‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪969 935‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪1003 944‬‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫‪1258 1055‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫‪1250 1172‬‬

‫‪@83‬‬

‫‪847‬‬

‫א א‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪1516 1250‬‬
‫‪1299‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫‪1924‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪1382 1250‬‬

‫‪N‬‬
‫‪1517– 1382‬‬

‫‪N‬‬

‫‪1382‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪@84‬‬

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‫א‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫‪@85‬‬

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‫א‬

‫‪@86‬‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬
‫א‬
1512 1299
1595 1512
1924 – 1595

‫א‬:
1
2
3
N
N
N
N

1444
1453
1517

1512
1514
1517

1517

@87

1
2
N

‫א‬

‫א א‬

1566

1566

N

N
1808 1595
N

1876
N
N

1

N
1909

1877

@88

(1)

‫א‬

‫א א‬

N

1924 – 1909
N
N
N
1924
1924 1299

N

1
2

@89

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪@90‬‬

‫א א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪@91‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴ ﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺭﺱ‬

‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬

‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﻀﻠﺔ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﳑﺜﻠﺔ ﺑﻘﻠﺐ ﺻﻐﲑ ﻭﺟﻨﺎﺣﲔ ﻋﻤﻼﻗﲔ‬
‫<<‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪@92‬‬

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‫א‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪@93‬‬

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‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺌﺩ‬

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‫‪1‬‬
‫‪705‬‬
‫‪833‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪847‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪815‬‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪819‬‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫‪6‬‬
‫‪1291– 1095‬‬

‫‪1258‬‬
‫‪1260‬‬
‫‪1320‬‬
‫‪1393‬‬
‫‪1401‬‬

‫‪101‬‬

‫א א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪102‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬
‫‪622‬‬

‫‪661 – 622‬‬

‫‪661‬‬

‫‪680‬‬
‫‪720 – 717‬‬

‫‪661‬‬

‫‪743‬‬

‫‪750 – 661‬‬

‫‪750‬‬

‫‪750‬‬
‫‪756‬‬
‫‪847‬‬
‫‪1100‬‬

‫‪1258 – 750‬‬

‫‪1187‬‬
‫‪1250‬‬
‫‪1258‬‬
‫‪1260‬‬
‫‪1513 – 1288‬‬
‫‪1382‬‬
‫‪1389‬‬
‫‪1452‬‬
‫‪1444‬‬
‫‪1453‬‬

‫‪1924 – 1288‬‬

‫‪1517‬‬
‫‪1566‬‬
‫‪1808 – 1595‬‬
‫‪1876‬‬
‫‪1909‬‬
‫‪1924‬‬

‫‪103‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
‫ƒ‬

‫‪622‬‬

‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬
‫ƒ‬

‫‪1382 – 1250‬‬
‫‪1517 – 1382‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫‪1299‬‬

‫‪– 1512‬‬

‫‪1924‬‬

‫‪1595‬‬
‫ƒ‬

‫‪1452‬‬
‫‪1453‬‬

‫ƒ‬

‫‪104‬‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬

@ @‘†bÛa@lbjÛa
@ @
@ @åíŠb¾a@É bÔm
@ @ïiëŠëþaë@ïßý⁄a@

105

‫א א‬
‫מא‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫‪106‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪622‬ﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬

‫)‪1097‬ﻡ – ‪1291‬ﻡ( ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻭﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺘﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ ﻋﺸﺭ )ﻗﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻻﺕ(‬

‫‪1452‬ﻡ ﻁﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﺩﻟﺱ‬

‫‪1453‬‬

‫‪107‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫ﺍﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ)‪1488‬ﻡ( ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﺘﻴﻥ )‪1492‬ﻡ(‬

‫‪1453‬ﻡ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻁﻨﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪1769‬ﻡ ﺍﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭ‬

‫‪108‬‬

‫א א‬
‫מא‬
‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫א‬
‫מא‬

‫‪109‬‬

‫א‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫א‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬
N

N

476

-

@ @
@ @
@ñ‹iaÛa
@ @µîiëŠëþa
@ @
@ @âýÄÛa@‹—Ç
@Hâ1500–â476I

622

-

N

N

N

N

N

@ @
@ @
@ïßý⁄a@‹—ÈÛa
@ @‡îa
@ @
@Hâ1000–@â622I
@ñŠb›¨a@w›ã
@ @òîßý⁄a

1097
1291
@ @
@pb×bjn’üa

-

1769

-

110

@µi@òb¨a
@µàÜ¾a
@ @µîiëŠëþaë
@ @

‫א‬

‫א א‬

@ @ÉibÛa@lbjÛa
@ @
ïßý⁄a@bÈÛa@òibvna

111

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫–‬

‫‪112‬‬

‫–‬

‫–‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫–‬

‫–‬

‫‪113‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫‪114‬‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

‫–‬
‫–‬

‫–‬

‫‪115‬‬

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