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# S GIA O DU C VA A O TA O KY THI CHON I TUYN HOC SINH GIOI

## THANH PH H CHI MINH LP 12 THPT NM HO C 2012-2013

MN THI: TOAN
Ngay thi: 18 - 10 - 2012
CHINH THC Th

i gian la

m ba

i: 180 phut.

Bi 1. (4 im)
Gii h phng trnh
3 2 3
1
4 12 9 6 7
xy x y
x x x y y
=

+ = + +

Bi 2. (4 im)
Cho dy s ( )
n
u xc nh bi
1
*
1
1
2
3 4
,
2 1
n
n
n
u
u
u n N
u
+

= e
+

Chng minh dy s ( )
n
u c gii hn hu hn v tm gii hn .

Bi 3. (4 im)
Cho , , x y z l cc s dng

tha mn
1 1 1
1
x y z
+ + = . Chng minh:
x yz y zx z xy xyz x y z + + + + + > + + +

Bi 4. (4 im)
Cho tam gic nhn ABC vi cc ng cao , AH BK ni tip ng trn (O). Gi
M l mt im di ng trn cung nh BC ca ng trn (O) sao cho cc ng
thng AM v BK ct nhau ti E ; cc ng thng BM v AH ct nhau ti F .
Chng minh rng khi M di ng trn cung nh BC ca ng trn (O) th trung im
ca on EF lun nm trn mt ng thng c nh.

Bi 5. (4 im)
Tm tt c cc a thc ( ) P x h s thc tha mn :
2
( ). ( 3) ( ), P x P x P x x = e

HT

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AP AN VNG 1
Bi 1. (4 im)
Gii h phng trnh
3 2 3
1
4 12 9 6 7
xy x y
x x x y y
=

+ = + +

Gii
t 1 z x = H phng trnh tng ng
3 3
2
3 ( 2) 4 0
yz z
y y z z
= +

+ + =

3 2 3
2
3 4 0
yz z
y y z z
= +

+ =

2
2
yz z
y z y z
= +

= v =

1 17 1 17
4 4
1 17 1 17
2 2
z z
y y

+
= =

v

+

= =

5 17 5 17
4 4
1 17 1 17
2 2
x x
y y

+
= =

v

+

= =

Bi 2. (4 im)
Cho dy s ( )
n
u xc nh bi
1
*
1
1
2
3 4
,
2 1
n
n
n
u
u
u n N
u
+

= e
+

Chng minh dy s ( )
n
u c gii hn hu hn v tm gii hn .
Gii
T gi thit ta suy ra
*
0,
n
u n N > e
Xt
3 4 3 5
( )
2 1 2 2(2 1)
x
f x
x x
+
= = +
+ +
, vi 0 x >
,

2
5
'( ) 0, 0
(2 1)
f x x
x

= < >
+

Ta c
1
1
1
2
( ), *
n n
u
u f u n N
+

= e

3
( )
2
f x > , 0 x > v
5
( ) 4 0, 0
2 1
x
f x x
x

= < >
+

3
4, 2
2
n
u n < < > dy ( )
n
u b chn
t
2 1
2
n n
n n
x u
y u

=

Do f(x) nghch bin trn (0; ) + nn g(x) = f(f(x)) ng bin trn (0; ) +
2 1 2
( ) ( )
n n n n
f x f u u y

= = = ;
2 2 1 1
( ) ( )
n n n n
f y f u u x
+ +
= = =
1
( ) ( ( )) ( )
n n n n
g x f f x f y x
+
= = =
1 2 3
1 11 49
; ;
2 4 26
u u u = = = .. Ta thy
1 3 1 2
u u x x < <
Gi s rng
1 1
( ) ( )
k k k k
x x g x g x
+ +
< <
1 2 k k
x x
+ +
< . Vy
*
1
,
n n
x x n N
+
< e
Suy ra ( )
n
x tng v b chn trn ( )
n
x c gii hn hu hn a .
Do
1 1 1
( ) ( )
n n n n n n
x x f x f x y y
+ + +
< > > dy ( )
n
y gim v b chn di
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( )
n
y c gii hn hu hn b.
Ta c
1
3 3 3
, ; 4 , 2 , ; 4 , ; 4
2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) (1) ( )
n n
n n
n n
x y n a b a b
f x y f a b f a b I
f b a f b f a a b f y x
+

| | ( (
e > e e
|
( (
\ .

= = =

= = =

| |
5 1 1
(1) ( ) (2 1)(2 1) 5 0
2 2 1 2 1
a b a b a b a b
b a
| |
= + + = =
|
+ +
\ .

(do (2 1)(2 1) (3 1)(3 1) 16 5 a b + + > + + = > )
Vy t (I)
3
; 4
2
2
3 4
2 1
b a
a b
a
a
a

(
= e

= =

+
.
Vy lim 2
n
u =

Bi 3. (4 im)
Cho , , x y z l cc s dng

tha mn
1 1 1
1
x y z
+ + = . Chng minh:
x yz y zx z xy xyz x y z + + + + + > + + + (*)
Gii
(*)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 (**)
x yz y zx z xy xy yz zx
+ + + + + > + + +
Ta cn chng minh:
1 1 1 1
x yz x yz
+ > +
2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2
1
x yz x x yz x yz x y z yz x yz yz yz
+ > + + > + + > + > (ng)
Chng minh tng t ta c:

1 1 1 1
y zx y zx
+ > + ,
1 1 1 1
z xy z xy
+ > +
Cng ba bt ng thc trn ta thu c (**).
Bi 4. (4 im) Cho tam gic nhn ABCvi cc ng
cao , AH BK ni tip ng trn (O). Gi M l mt
im di ng trn cung nh BC ca ng trn (O) sao
cho cc ng thng AM v BK ct nhau ti E ; cc
ng thng BM v AH ct nhau ti F . Chng minh
rng khi M di ng trn cung nh BC ca ng trn (O)
th trung im ca on EF lun nm trn mt ng
thng c nh.
Gii

E
F
H
K
O
B
C
A
M
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Ta chng minh hai tam gic EHK v FHK c din tch bng nhau.
Ta c

MAC MBC o = =

1 1 1
. .sin . . tan .sin . .cos . tan .cos
2 2 2
EHK
S KH KE BKH KH KA BAH KH AB A B o o = = =
1 1 1
. .sin . tan . .sin .cos . tan . .cos
2 2 2
FHK
S HF HK FHK BH HK AHK AB B HK A o o = = =
EHK FHK
S S = suy ra E, F cch u HK m E,F nm v hai pha ca HK
Trung im ca EF nm trn ng thng HK.

Bi 5. (4 im)
Tm tt c cc a thc ( ) P x h s thc tha mn :
2
( ). ( 3) ( ), P x P x P x x = e
Gii :
Ta tm cc a thc P(x) h s thc tha P(x)P(x 3)=P(x
2
) xeR (1)
Trng hp P(x) C ( C l hng s thc ) :
P(x) C tha (1) C
2
= C C = 0 v C = 1 P(x) 0 hay P(x) 1
Trng hp degP > 1
Gi o l mt nghim phc ty ca P(x) . T (1) thay x bng o ta c P(o
2
)=0 x= o
2
cng
l nghim ca P(x) . T c o , o
2
, o
4
, o
8
, o
16
, l cc nghim ca P(x) . M P(x) ch c
hu hn nghim (do ang xt P(x) khc a thc khng)

0
1
o =

o =

(I)
T (1) li thay x bng o +3 ta c P((o+3)
2
)=0 x=(o+3)
2
l nghim ca P(x)
T x = (o+3)
2
l nghim ca P(x) tng t phn trn ta c (o+3)
2
, (o+3)
4
, (o+3)
8
,
(o+3)
16
,l cc nghim ca P(x) . M P(x) ch c hu hn nghim

2
2
3 0
3 1

o + =

o + =

3 0
3 1
o + =

o + =

(II)
Nh vy , nu o l nghim ca P(x) th ta c o tha h
(I)
(II)

1 3
y
x
O
I

Biu din cc s phc o tha (I) v tha (II) trn mt phng phc ta c h
(I)
(II)

khng c
nghim o
Khng tn ti a thc h s thc P(x) bc ln hn hoc bng 1 tha (1)
Kt lun Cc a thc P(x) h s thc tha P(x)P(x 3)=P(x
2
) x gm P(x) 0 , P(x) 1

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