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Sound and Noise Activity No.

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Background: Sound is created when the air around us gets pushed quickly (compressed) and then the push stops. This air compression produces what scientists call a sound wave. Our ears can detect that wave and through the ear's eardrum, some small bones, and some nerves, and tells our brain that a sound was just heard. Our brain can determine quickly all kinds of different sounds. Notice how just very small differences in the sound are just enough to figure out a familiar o bjects sound out of a maracas-type of setup/experiment. Knowing that every kind of matter has its own frequency called natural frequency. Once, this frequency gets in contact with a similar frequency it causes a constructive interference (resonance). Thus, the amplitude of the two frequencies merges to form larger amplitude. We now called that amplification (loudness). A kazoo is an instrument that resonates (vibrates with) the sound of your voice. Your voice is a complex sound wave that contains lots of different sounds all put together so that it sounds like one sound. Scientists call the different sounds harmonics, and all those harmonics together is what makes your voice sound different than someone else's. Not all the harmonics get amplified the same amount, so the kazoo actually changes the way your voice actually sounds. When you hum a tune into the kazoo, you get a completely different sound. Some people call this music, some call this noise. In this activity, we will experiment on some properties of sound using the Easter egg and kazoo experiment. Objectives: The activity is purposed to ensure the student will be able to: Remember how sound is produced; Explain why there are different sounds created by different materials;

Identify what object/ materials are used by observing sound (maracas type) created by vibrating unknown objects inside an enclosed object; and Explain how an object/material amplifies a sound (vibration) using the kazoo.

Materials: 2 different projects to help demonstrate some of the physics of sound: 1) 12 plastic 'Easter' eggs, 2) Rice grains 3) Paper clips 4) Mongo seeds 5) Small rocks 6) Dried beans 7) A marble 8) Staple wires (segregated) 9) Toilet paper roll 10) cardboard inner tube 11) Wax paper 12) rubber band

Reference/s: http://www.fatlion.com/science/sound.html Procedure: Part1. Experiment on the Easter eggs. 1) Group the class into 2- 3 groups. Step them temporarily outside while the facilitators sets up the Lab stations (setups). 2) Have one person (facilitator) fill each of the plastic eggs with a different item. Put some rice in one, some dried beans in another, etc. 3) For the facilitator, keep track of what you put in each egg by writing numbers on the egg.

4) Bring the group 1 at a time. Have a person in the group (observer) try to see if he can figure out what is inside each egg by shaking and listening to the sound generated (you can make one observer per egg). 5) For the observation, after taking a first guess, show the person the list of what items are in each egg (note: dont set the list in a sequential order so as to increase difficulty in guessing) and have them guess again. See if the person changes their mind about some of the previous guesses. 6) Now open the eggs and see how close the guesses were to what was actually inside each egg. Questions: 1. On shaking the eggs, what did you notice on your hand/s while shaking the object? My hands felt a vibration. 2. What could you infer about the creation of sound? Sound is created whenever there is a vibration from the object itself or against another object. 3. Basing on the sound produced, how did you come up with that guess? (you might relate the pitch or any characteristic you premised on the vibration) We made guesses basing from how the sound was produced. Some were high in pitch and some were low. Some, stroke under a beat, were relatively heavy and some are light in beating. 4. When you were given the list of the items, what made you change or unchanged your guess? (you might relate a previous acquaintance on the said sound or the knowledge on the characteristics of the items on the list) We guessed some through their relative sound produced that we have encountered before such as the sound of rice grains beating shaken against a bigao. So we inferred that one of the unknown substances were rice grains. 5. When the actual items were revealed to you, aside from intuition, what other things did you consider that lead you to your answer?

Some of those evidences we had was the size of the items revealed, some vibrations had tremendous impact against our palms so we inferred it to be a big heavy object and matched it with the list given to us. Another is the consistency of the objects inside of the container; some sounded to be in granules and thus, influenced our inferences. Part2. Experiment on the Kazoo. Now, let's make a musical instrument called a kazoo. 1. Cut a small square of wax paper about one inch larger than the end of the cardboard tube. 2. After doing that, wrap the wax paper over one of the ends of the tube. 3. Put a rubber band over the paper to hold it in place. 4. Try to make a hum or any sound at a constant pitch. (you can do tune into it) 5. Now, put the open end of your kazoo up to your mouth and hum/do the previous sound. Questions: 1. Notice the wax paper on the kazoo. What is happening to it? It is vibrating to and fro. 2. What do you think is the reason why the wax paper is behaving that way? It is imitating the vibration made by the voice at the other end. 3. Notice the difference between your hum/voice before you used the kazoo and your hum/sound while using the kazoo. What did you observe? The voice became louder than before the kazoo was used. However, the sound is a little different from the original voice. 4. What do you think is the relation of the kazoo to the sound of your voice? The kazoo amplifies the sound created at the other end by resonating the wave frequency and that is called constructive interference. 5. What do call that property of sound? It is called the wave amplification of sound.

Application: 1. Explain why humans can guess different sounds basing from the egg experiment. Our brain can determine quickly all kinds of different sounds. Small differences in the sound are just enough to figure out a familiar objects sound. In some cases, we can also distinguish sound that we commonly hear. One example is how you know that the one speaking is your mother without even looking at her while she is talking. 2. Explain why we hear someones voice louder when using a microphone. A microphone is capable of imitating/resonating your voice thus, when the frequency of your voice collides with the frequency made by the microphone similar to your voice, it builds up a wavelength with higher amplitudes that would make your voice sound louder on the microphone. This process is called sound constructive interference. Generalization: Reflect on what you have discovered and distinguish the summary of the activities learning. State what properties of sound you have learned and give your own understanding why we can recognize different sounds. We discovered how to guess or identify an object inside a container by just using sound properties and evidences to reveal the objects characteristics. The kazoo is a device that amplifies sound waves but causes some changes with the sounds harmonic thus, makes the vibration sound a little different from the original vibrations sound. In this activity, we identified the some properties of sound like frequency, amplification, sound wave constructive interference.