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Chapter 5 Tissues and the primary growth of stems

Rossdvasquez 2013

The tallest living tree is the Stratosphere Giant in Humboldt Redwoods State Park, California. At 112.34 meters (308.62 feet) , it is five stories taller than the Statue of Liberty.

Plant Body is composed of primary and secondary tissues

PRIMARY PLANT BODY: - herbaceous plant body

SECONDARY PLANT BODY: - woody plant body

Plant Body is composed of primary and secondary tissues

Tissue group of of cells that perform specific function or functions.

Classification: 1. Based on stage of development a. Embryonic or meristematic b. Permanent 2. Based on composition

a. Simple
b. complex

Meristematic tissues where the cells are in the mitotic state

Classification: 1. Based on initiating cells a. Primary meristem (primordial meristem) b. Secondary meristem 2. Based on position in the plant body a. Apical b. Intercalary c. lateral 3. Based on function a. Protoderm (DERMATOGEN) b. Procambium (PLEROME) c. Fundamental or ground (PERIBLEM)

Overview of primary meristems and tissues

Permanent cells are stable, no longer dividing - differentiated into 2 types

Types: 1. Simple permanent tissue

composed of one type of cells

- differentiated into dermal or protective and ground or fundamental 2. Complex permanent tissue

composed of different kinds of cells but perform similar function.

(simple dermal) Outermost surface of a herbaceous stem, leaf, root Uses:
protection Regulate exchange of materials

Encrusted with cutin (cuticle) Contains guard cells,

Guard cells

Accessory cells serves as reservoir of water and ions Bulliform cells longitudinal rows of vacuolated cells - Loses loss turgor pressure

Epidermal hair elongation of the epidermal cell outward (trichome and root hairs)

1. Location
2. Function

3. structure

Trichomes Epidermal Outgrowths / Hairs


leaves from excess light

-protect plants from insects

-aid in nutrient uptake

-help disperses seeds

Cotton trichomes can be made into threads, which are then woven into cloth

Epidermal hairs
1. Glandular or Secretory 2. Non-Glandular / Nonsecretory







Root hairs epidermal outgrowth of roots epidermis - increase surface area for absorption

Root hairs of germinated seed

Cork or Phellem
(simple dermal) Outer covering of woody stems and roots Cell wall impregnated with suberin Produced by the cork cambium (secondary meristem) No intercellular spaces

Lenticels lens-shaped spot or pores on dicot stem for gaseous exchange


Parenchyma cells have uniformly thin cell walls.

Thin walled primary wall Alive at maturity Isodiametric shape large vacuole Specialized for photosynthesis (chlorenchyma) Specialized for gas exchange capacity - large intercellular spaces (aerenchyma) Specialized for short distance transport of solutes (transfer cells) Storage (storage parenchyma)

Chlorenchyma cells are parenchyma involved in photosynthesis

Cross section of a leaf blade (dicot)

Other types of parenchyma cells are glandular cells, transfer cells, storage cells.

Storage parenchyma cells of potato

Mucilage from Venus Flytrap

Mucilage from Okra

Collenchyma cells have primary walls that thickened in the corners.

Elongated cells with unevenly thickened non lignified primary wall Plasticity Found in elongating tips and vines Aerial roots of epiphytes

Collenchyma cells are usually found below the epidermis or bands next to the vascular tissues

Sclerenchyma has both a primary and thick secondary wall that is lignified.
Walls are elastic Arise from parenchyma due to tension Dead at maturity (in some) Support and strengthening tissues Two types of cells: 1. conducting 2. mechanical 2.1. sclereids 2.2. fibers

Sclereids are short and isodiametric, with strong walls, brittle and inflexible, protective in function

Fibers are long, flexible sclerenchyma, wood of most flowering plants

Flax fibers common source for paper and linen cloth

The Vascular Tissue System

Two complex tissues: 1. xylem brings water and mineral salts from the roots to the rest of the plants. 2. phloem- moves sugar and other organic nutrients

Complex permanent tissues

1. Xylem - transport water and minerals from the roots to stem and to the leaves - thick lignified wall , dead at maturity - primary xylem - procambium - protoxylem short lived, replaced by new protoxylem (outer) - metaxylem formed after elongation of stem/root (inner) - secondary xylem (wood) vascular cambium - inner layer of the bark - conducting cells (xylary elements) : tracheids and vessel elements

The conducting cells of Xylem

1. Tracheids

1. long cells with tapered ends. 2. Only type of water conducting cells in ferns, conifers and most other non flowering plants.
3. Dead at maturity

4. Secondary wall has pits

Pits are the gaps in the secondary walls. Bordered pits make the opening narrower, acting like a valve.

Secondary Wall thickenings in Tracheids and vessel elements

Vessel elements
1. Dead at maturity

2. Cell walls form hollow tubes,

3. Wider, shorter, and less tapered 4. With perforation plate 5. Joined together to form a pipe or tube

Phloem food conducting tissues

1. Sieve tube members
- alive and active - Presence of sieve plates - No nucleus - Forms continuous connection of cytoplasm from the top to bottom - 2. Companion cells nucleated, supply proteins to sieve tubes

Complex permanent tissues

1. Phloem - transport dissolved organic compounds (sucrose) - thin walled primary wall - primary phloem - procambium - protophloem elongating regions (outer); short - lived - metaphloem non elongating regions (inner) - secondary phloem vascular cambium - inner layer of the bark - sieve elements: sieve cells, sieve tube members (companion cell)

Sieve tubes vertical rows of elongated cells -Possess a protoplasm but no nucleus -Walls are perforated with pits -Perforated end walls serve as strainer (sieve plate) Companion cells small cells attached to the sieve cells -Possess a nucleus -Regulate the loading and unloading of carbohydrates from the sieve tubes

Secretory Cells
Not classified but incorporated with other tissues Two types
External (nectary, hydathodes, digestive glands, salt glands) Internal (resin ducts, laticifers)

Nectary (Floral)
- secrete nectar or sugary exudates 1. for attraction floral 2. for protection extrafloral

parenchyma hydathode

H yda thod es ( wa ter glan ds ) secrete water via guttation, relieve p r e s s u r e b u i l d - u p

Digestive glands
secrete enzymes that digest trapped insects

Salt glands

Salt glands dump sites for excess salt absorbed from a salty (saline) environment - leaf of mangroves.

Secretory cells (internal)

Internally located cells that exude protoplasmic products influenced by pressure or lysis of cell wall Secretory cells large cells contain substances ( oil, mucilage)

Secretory cells

Basil oil and fragrances

resin ducts
used as storage of secreted oils and resins.
RESINS- AMBER -flammable with turpentine and rosins. -aromatic

LATICIFERS secretory cells with primary wall secreting latex; seal wounds and protection


Articulated laticifers

Non articulated laticifers

End for Tissues! Thank you FOR LISTENING! Ross D. Vasquez, Ph.D.