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name motivation primary interest how knowledge is gained

Piaget equilibration wanted to create a universal theory of biology and living things intelligence what happens after individual senses information interations with and adaptations to environment through active discovery biological maturation and experience (no primary cause identified) maturity through stages (mental readiness). Development precedes learning.

cognitive development

role of language language acquisition stages

symbols which don't affect thinking structures. 2-7 egocentric. Language reflects mental operations already formed. autism dominant --->egocentrism-->social speech fixed pattern, timing flexible sensory motor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operations evolving units of intelligent behavior called schemas (organizational systems) assimilation (fit experience with schema) accomodation (adjust to changed idea) genetically based, invariant activity most important part of knowledge

how mind works how mind develops


implications social importance subjects of study common ground

action, self-directed problem solving disequilibrium forces new accomodations and assimilations individuals

Genesis and history are inseparable General laws govern development Opposition is the cause of progress as human beings transform their learning to meet their needs Both are stage theorists, not associationists Vygotsky saw development as the transformation of old knowledge structures and criticized Piaget for saying old were replaced with new ones. But Piaget's theory of equilibration through regulation seems agreeable to this. There is a change from structure to structure by expanding, enriching an stabilizing the thinking that already exists. Ontogenic and social/cultural development two lines that continuously interact History important, but can not account alone for thinking structures Development takes cue from material world, results from experience in an environment but can be transformed through internal reflection. Development is through qualitative transformation of thinking Pace of development susceptible to social milieu Piaget thought of egocentrism as a developmental stage, which Vygotsky thought was a matter of Piaget failing to differentiate the lower animals from social human beings, where Piaget was in the process of developing this notion that a period existed when a child could not understand the point of view of others. Piaget did not believe that thinking was determined by history. Piaget thought oppositional forces caused progress Piaget did not believe that knowledge systems were historically inherited, he believed they were controlled by haphazard events


Piaget did not link matter to thinking like Vygotsky other than to say that all thinking can be traced back to interacting with material, while Vygotsky believed that qualitative changes in thinking resulted in the ability to separate thought from material. Piaget believed everyday ideas could lead to formal thought rather than being in opposition. Vygotsky thought when we use social speech we change our development in quality. Vygotsky thought opposition led to transformation while Piaget thought contradiction was the mechanism (different focus) Vygotsky thought we cannot separate an individual's situation from the mind. Vygotsky thought ontology (the nature of being) and culture intersected Vygotsky considered the individual and social system history important, while Piaget concentrated on the individual's development within the life cycle. Vygotsky thought of development as a gradual quantitative progression leading to a qualitative leap. Vygotsky thought everyday and scientific concepts were opposite and separate, and were essential for development. Vygotsky thought scientific concepts had to have spontaneous base from everyday life. (eg a foreign language is based on understanding our everyday language, and helps us to understand how our everyday language works). Link of of zpd and actual development Physicist vs Engineer both start with same basic understanding but one explores what is is about itself that causes change, while the other explores how different aspects of the environment might cause the change. Vygotsky believed conscious instruction leads to the development of concepts, but Piaget saw instruction as a push. Vygotsky thought early learning could prepare students for later development by constructing the ability to learn it later. Piaget thought instruction had to happen at the right time to be useful. Vygotsky thought everyday learning had to be quite developed in order to be transformed into scientific concepts. Piaget focuses on peer interactions, Vygotsky on child-teacher.

Vygotsky focused on two ways of learning: general and specific, which develop separately, simultaneously, and move toward one another. True development is when they meet. Vygotsky saw society and the individual as playing key roles in development. Top down, general to specific. Piaget bottom-up, specific to general in theory development Piaget wanted to know why, Vygotsky to know how Material side of development very important to Vygotsky

Vygotsky sociohistorical wanted to understand human culture

culture cause of individual development is the word socialization by more capable others within culture ZPD, instruction Learning causes development.

speech allows children to develop thought and control world. Leads to inner speech, and self-regulation

social symbols precede language, language is reliant on social speech focus on language and culture

through culture and language learn about world

language creates thought genetically based, invariant activity important but language and culture moreso

communication, social interaction and instruction through instruction from an informed other, and action children learn group

liked Piaget's reliance on data and clinical method

thought Piaget misunderstood egocentric speech (Autistics could not use social speech in Piaget's view, but social speech is based in symbols, which according to Vygotsky, rely on social contact.