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Black Cotton Soil in Construction Industry

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Black Cotton Soil in Construction Industry

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A black cotton soil occurs mostly in the central and western parts and covers approximately 20% of the total area of India. Most of black-cotton soils of India are spread across the Deccan Lava Plateau, the Malwa Plateau, and interior Gujarat, where there is both moderate rainfall and underlying basaltic rock. Because of their high clay content, black soils develop wide cracks during the dry season, but their iron-rich granular structure makes them resistant to wind and water erosion. They are also highly moisture-retentive, thus responding well to irrigation. . 1.0 MERITS & DEMERITS . Merits: The enrich agro-friendly contents make black cotton soil fertile. These soils are highly moisture retentive, thus responding well to irrigation. These are enriched with calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime which are all nutrients. Poor phosphoric contents render rich production of corps like cotton. The iron-rich granular structure makes them resistant to wind and water. Fertility, erosion resistance, and properties of retaining moisture in their grain are the most useful condition for better crops growth. So these soils are the best option for farmers who like to produce plenty of crops. . Demerits: These soils contain fine clay particles. This property induces a great affinity to water of such type of soil. Alternate swelling and shrinkage in extensive limit during wet and dry process respectively results cracks in soil without any warning. These cracks may sometimes extent to severe limit like wide and 12 deep. So building to be founded on this soil may suffer severe damage with the change of atmospheric conditions . Highway and construction of structures on Black cotton soils has been a challenge to the respective engineers and designers because of its high swelling and shrinkage characteristics. This major group of soil consists of inorganic clays of medium to high compressibility. The Black cotton soil is very hard when dry, but loses its strength completely when in wet condition. . Foundations for buildings and structures founded on black Cotton

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Foundations for buildings and structures founded on black Cotton Soils shall be designed in accordance with Section 1.2 or 1.3. . 1.1 Exception: Foundation design need not comply with Section 1.2 or 1.3where one of the following conditions is satisfied: . a) Removal of Black Cotton Soils: Where black Cotton Soil is removed- the soil shall be removed to a depth sufficient to ensure constant moisture content in the remaining soil. Fill material shall not contain black Cotton Soils. . Exception: Black Cotton Soils need not be removed to the depth of constant moisture, provided the confining pressure in the black Cotton Soils created by the fill and supported structure exceeds the swell pressure. . b) Stabilization approved building official: Where the active zone of black Cotton Soils is stabilized, the soil shall be stabilized by chemical, dewatering, pre-saturation or equivalent techniques. . 1.2 Foundations: Foundations placed on or within the active zone of black Cotton Soils shall be designed to resist differential volume changes and to prevent structural damage to the supported structure. Deflection and racking of the supported structure shall be limited to that which will not interfere with the usability and serviceability of the structure. Foundations placed below where volume change occurs or below black Cotton Soils shall comply with the following provisions: . 1. Foundations extending into or penetrating black Cotton Soils shall be designed to prevent uplift of the supported structure. 2. Foundations penetrating black Cotton Soils shall be designed to resist forces exerted on the foundation due to soil volume changes or shall be isolated from the black Cotton Soils. 1.3 Slab-on-ground foundations: Moments, shears and deflections for use in designing slab-on-ground, mat or raft foundations on black Cotton Soils shall be determined in accordance with WRI/CRSI Design of Slab-on-Ground Foundations or PTI Standard Requirements for Analysis of Shallow Concrete Foundations on black Cotton Soils. Using the moments, shears and deflections determined above, nonprestressed slabs-on-ground, mat or raft foundations on black Cotton Soils shall be designed in accordance with WRI/CRSI Design of Slabon-Ground Foundations and post-tensioned slab-on-ground, mat or raft foundations on black Cotton Soils shall be designed in accordance with PTI Standard Requirements for Design of Shallow Post-Tensioned Concrete Foundations on black Cotton Soils. It shall be permitted to analyse and design such slabs by other methods that account for soil-structure interaction, the deformed shape of the soil support, the plate or stiffened plate action of the slab as well as both centre lift and edge lift conditions. Such alternative methods shall be rational and the basis for all aspects and parameters of the method shall be available for peer review. .

Black Cotton Soil in Construction Industry

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Black Cotton Soil in Construction Industry

(This post was last modified: 07-06-2012 10:52 PM by civilord.) 07-05-2012 10:31 PM

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Black Cotton Soil in Construction Industry - _F3 - 07-05-2012 10:31 PM RE: Black Cotton Soil in Construction Industry - civilord - 07-06-2012, 10:50
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RE: Black Cotton Soil in Construction Industry - civilord - 07-06-2012, 10:53


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RE: Black Cotton Soil in Construction Industry - civilord - 07-06-2012, 10:54


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RE: Black Cotton Soil in Construction Industry - _F3 - 07-06-2012, 11:23 PM RE: Black Cotton Soil in Construction Industry - _F3 - 08-24-2012, 08:03 PM

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