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Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources "A Pretty But Sad Picture." Beloit Daily 22 Nov. 1909: 7. Print.

The Beloit Daily Newspaper, provided by the Kansas Museum Of Historys archives, contained an article about an Orphan Train that had stopped in Beloit, KS. The article is a primary source because it was published during the Orphan Train era, in 1909. The article was added to my gallery to add historical value and also to show how orphans were viewed by society at that time. "A Reunion Marks Memories of the Orphan Trains." n.d.: n. pag. Print. Unlike other articles with quotes, this article contains quotes obtained by the author while interviewing Orphan Train riders making it a primary source. This article was helpful in completing my website because I used the quotes to support my explanation of the Orphan Trains. The article also helped by adding personal information about Orphan Train riders stories giving the reader a broader knowledge of the topic. Advertisement. Evening Herald [Ottawa] Apr. 1915: n. pag. Print. Unlike the rest of my sources, this primary source was posted in the time period of the Orphan Trains. It was an advertisement in a newspaper for impending orphans coming to town. This makes the advertisement a primary source because it was written during the Orphan Train era. This source was helpful because I posted a picture and additional facts contained in the article to my website. "Have Three Of One Family." Salina Daily Union 2 July 1912: n. pag. Print. In the

Kansas Museum Of Historys Archives I was able to pull many articles on the Orphan Trains, but this particular article was from a 1912 newspaper, advertising for an incoming Orphan Train. Since it was published in 1912, during the Orphan Train era, this is a primary source. The article is valuable because it helped me see how people viewed the orphans on these trains, and having it in my gallery adds to the historical value of my website. "Interview With Executive Director, Children's Alliance Of Kansas." Personal interview. 2 Jan. 2014.This interview enlightened my knowledge on how the foster care system works and how it ties back to the Orphan Trains. This source is primary because I went and interviewed Mr. Linhos in person. I can use quotes from Mr. Linhos to support my thesis. Johnson, Mary E. Orphan Train Riders Their Own Stories. Vol. 2. Springdale: OTHSA, 1993. Print. Not only does this source contain 39 factual personal stories of orphan train riders, but these storys authors are the original train riders or their descendants making it a primary source. Reading this gave me information to include as to why the Orphan Trains started the foster care system we have today. This source provided me with examples of how the Orphan Trains were successful to add to my thesis argument that the Orphan Trains were not all bad and that it shaped todays foster care system. Johnston, Laurie. "Children's Aid Society: 125 Years of Giving 'Street Kids' a Fair Chance." n.d.: n. pag. Print. The quotes from this newspaper article are what make this source a primary source. The author interviewed the Orphan Trains riders personally instead of finding the quotes from other sources.

This article gave me useful information and quotes on the Orphan Trains that can add to my website's background information. Martin, Douglas. "Leafing Back: When Orphans Were Sent West." About New York n.d.: n. pag. Print. Though the article's purpose is to remember the Orphan Trains, it also contains quotes by Charles Loring Brace, founder of the Orphan Train movement. The author of this article also provides quotes form children and grandchildren of the train riders making this source primary and moving the article from informational to personalized informational. Reading this made my writing more effective because of my new understanding of the emotional aspect of the Orphan Trains. "Seven Orphans Find Home And Happiness." Evening Herald [Ottawa] Apr. 1915: n. pag. Print. This newspaper article was posted during the Orphan Train period and are about seven orphaned children finding loving homes. This source is used in the website to show the reader that not all adoptions ended badly. This article is considered a primary source because it was written and published during the Orphan Train era. Sherman, Suzan. "The Nearly Forgotten Phenomenon of the Orphan Train: A Dispatch from the Annual "Celebration" of Riders, Descendants, and the Enthusiasts Who Love Them." The Gettysburg Review (n.d.): 387-401. Web. This source is one of my most unique sources because it is a journal of the author's journey to Concordia, Kansas to attend an Orphan Train riders reunion. The reason I considered this journal entry a primary source is because the author interviewed Orphan Train riders and descendants at the

reunion and added it to the journal. The author provided their stories which I used to help describe the Orphan Train experiences on my website. Warren, Andrea. Orphan Train Rider One Boys True Story. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996. Print. I considered this book an primary source because it is all about an Orphan Train riders experience. The author obtained all the information from the train rider, which included quotes from the rider. This book also has pictures from the Orphan Train era and provided factual information which can be used to provide background information on my website.

Secondary Sources "Adoption History: Orphan Trains." Adoption History: Orphan Trains. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013. The short article is concise and to the point with explaining the Orphan Trains. Though it contained no quotes, it demonstrated how to affectively arrive at the point on the website for easier reading. If the website is short and straightforward then the readers will understand the topic. Berman, Kate. Orphan Orphan N.p., 22 July 2010. Web. 19 Jan. 2014. This documentary is about the history of the Orphan Trains. I used a clip that describes some of the events that caused the Orphan Trains to end. This adds more historical content and detail to my website. Blau, Eleanor. "Rescue Mission." Spotlight [Washington D.C.] n.d.: n. pag. Print. This newspaper article provided information on how the orphan trains functioned. The information helped by connecting todays process of adopting children to the process during the orphan train era, which will

support my thesis statement. The article also contained information on the Orphan Trains main goal and the founder of the Orphan Trains. Chandler, Barbara A. "The History Of White House Conferences On Children And Youth." CWLA. N.p., n.d. Web. This website was helpful towards my project because it provided me with information on the history of the White House Conferences on Children and Youth. This information helped prove how the government began taking action and responsibility for keeping children safe. The information was added to my main event so it could help support my thesis. "Children's Bureau Timeline." CHILDREN'S BUREAU. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2014. This website contained a timeline of the laws created that prevented child labor. I utilized the information on The Fair Labor Standards Act from this timeline and added it to my consequences page. Adding this information helped explain what the Act was for and how it handed responsibility to the government to support underprivileged children. Collins, Glenn. "Archives Reveal a History of the City's Abandoned Children." n.d.: n. pag. Print. This article focused on the main reasons why children became homeless during this era. Some reasons were; because children ran away from abuse, the parents died, or they were abandoned by their parents who could no longer care for them. The article explained how the Orphan Trains were started. Adding this to the website provided information on the extent of the problem of orphaned children. Colwell, Harry. Growing Up In Old Kansas. N.p.: n.p, n.d. Print. Written by an actual Orphan Train rider, this book contains numerous personal accounts on the Orphan

Trains. From this book I utilized a few of the pictures and added them to my gallery. These pictures added historical value to my site and provided visual aids of the Orphan Trains. Herndon, Ruth W. "Keep 'Em Moving." [Boston] n.d.: n. pag. Print. This article included much needed information for the project. The article had helpful descriptions of the Orphan Train program from the beginning to the end. This article also supported the thesis statement by identifying positive effects of the Orphan Trains. Hill, Kim. "The Orphan Trains." Missouri Life Feb. 2007: 36. Web. This magazine article is divided into different sections. This information includes different reasons why the Orphan Trains began, information on the founder, stories from Orphan Train riders, and how the Orphan Trains operated. What proved to be most helpful was how the Orphan Trains worked. This information is included in the website to connect to today's foster care system. Holt, Marilyn I. The Orphan Trains Placing Out In America. N.p.: University of Nebraska, 1994. Print. As one of the larger sources, this book contained numerous amounts of information such as quotes from Orphan Train riders, pictures, and factual information. The information made the website more detailed and added a broad range of facts. The pictures provided throughout the book added to the website by giving the viewer a visual aid to the Orphan Train period. "Homeless Children, Then and Now." New York Times [New York] n.d.: n. pag. Print.

Making the connection between foster care today and when the Orphan Trains ran is what the entire website revolves around. This newspaper article helped make that connection. This information also helped by adding to the facts on the website of how the Orphan Trains began the foster care system we have today. Those facts also helped support the thesis statement. Johnson, Kristin F. The Orphan Trains. Minneapolis: ABDO, 2012. Print. This book was very helpful because it provided timelines, photos, and information on the orphan train era. This added to the website by providing facts and stories to the summary of the Orphan Trains. Most importantly, this book included information on foster care today and the effects the Orphan Trains had on the current foster care system. This information helped support my thesis statement. "Kansas Children's Service League." Kansas Children's Service League. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Jan. 14. Kansas Children's Service League is one of the largest child welfare programs in Kansas. Information about this program is included into my website because it gives an example of child welfare today compared to the Orphan Trains. This connection shows how the Orphan Trains still affect our lives today. Larner, Mary B., Carol S. Stevenson, and Richard E. Behrman. "The Future of Children, Princeton - Brookings: Providing Research and Analysis to Promote Effective Policies and Programs for Children." - The Future of Children -. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2014. This website provided information on the Social Security Act of 1935. The information on this law was added to the website

to help support my thesis statement, which in turn made the website stronger. This law also proves that the Orphan Trains had a legal impact on society. McClain, Mary. "The Orphan Train." Interview. Youtube. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 14. <>. Interviews are a critical part in making a project historically accurate. This interview was with the daughter of an Orphan Train rider who did extensive research on the topic. The interviewee provided basic and factual background information that supports my historical context. N.d. Photograph. Google. Web. 14 Dec. 2013. Google provided many images for my site. Some photos include, two different photos of orphans in a line to be viewed, a photo of Charles Loring Brace, a photo of a train arriving into a station, and many more in the photo gallery. These photos helped give the website viewer a visual aid of the Orphan Trains. N.d. Photograph. National Orphan Train Museum, Concordia. This photo depicts four young homeless boys getting into a heated argument in the street. This image helps show the viewer that even young children became violent with each other. This helps the reader understand that homelessness of children was of great concern. N.d. Photograph. Program Source International. Web. 16 Nov. 2013. As one of the more famous images of the Orphan Trains, this photograph was an obvious pick to include in my website. This image is a photo of a large group of Orphans by their train before traveling west. This photo helps the viewer see

what kind of trains these children road on, and how many children road together. O'Connor, Stephen. Orphan Trains. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. Print. This source contained numerous helpful quotes and stories. The main bits of information I pulled from this book were the information on how the Orphan Trains worked and compared it to todays foster care system. This comparison helped me support my thesis statement. "Orphan Trains." Orphan Trains. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013. This website contained helpful background information on the Orphan Trains. Though it does not contain any quotes, it provided dates and descriptions of the Orphan Train system to help form arguments to support the thesis. Finally, this source provided pictures that were added into the website gallery. "Orphan Trains Placed 200,000 Homeless Children during 19th Century." Gardner News. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013. Unlike other sources, this source gave numerous dates, places, and facts on the Orphan Trains while also provided stories from Orphan Train riders adding an emotional element. These facts made the website more informative which helped support the overall project and thesis. The stories in the book provided an insight to what the Orphan Trains were like through the eyes of a child, which gives a new understanding of the Orphan Trains. "Orphan Train Riders to Iowa." Orphan Train Riders to Iowa. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2013. Orphan Train riders to Iowa provided useful information. It explained why the Orphan Trains began, what the placing out system was,

and it also gave an overall description of how the Orphan Trains operated. This article added to the factual information in the website. Patrick, Michael D. Orphan Trains to Missouri. Columbia: University of Missouri, 1997. Print. This historical book proved many facts and true stories from the Orphan Train riders. This source has provided insight to the Orphan Trains on both an informational and emotional level. The information made writing more effective to persuade the reader to agree with the projects thesis. This source was also used to add to the background information on the website. PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013. PBS is known for factual information. This article added to that statement because this source contained many quotes including some from the founder of the Orphan Trains, Charles Loring Brace. This websites article also provided detailed information on what the ordeal was like for the orphans with supporting quotes. This added to the website by learning more about the founder and the orphans to provide additional background information. Russell, Tom. Rider On an Orphan Trains. Tom Russell. 1999. MP3.Rider On an Orphan Train by Tom Russell is my only audio source. This audio was posted to the home page and plays a piece of the song that talks about two brothers being separated on the Orphan Trains. This audio also adds an emotional aspect to my website. Sebastian, Megan. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. Http:// N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. This Fair Standards Labor Act of 1938 documentary provided an explanation of the act. This explanation helped the

viewer understand what the act was about. The video clip was added into the consequences portion of my website to support how the Orphan Trains affected the legal aspect of childcare. The Children's Aid Society: Keeping the Promise. The Children's Aid Society: Keeping the Promise. N.p., 14 Aug. 2012. Web. 20 Jan. 2014.The Children's Aid Society created this video called Keeping the Promise. This video explains how the Society has adapted to children's needs over the past 150 years since the Society was established. This video was included in the website because it supports my thesis statement. "The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, As Amended." U.S. Wage and Hour Division. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2014. The U.S. Wage and Hour Division website contains a PDF file copy of The Fair Standards Act of 1938. This file was attached to my website to have proof of the law. This added factual and legal reality to my topic. "The Orphan Trains." The Children's Aid Society. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2013. The Children's Aid Society website was a beneficial source because The Society was the organization that operated the Orphan Trains. The information provided in the website was detailed, factual, but also realistic. This website did not disregard the evil that occurred within the Orphan Trains. Instead, the website gave the positive and negative aspects letting the reader form their own opinion of the trains effect on history which helped support the thesis.

"Timeline of Child Labor Developments in the United States." Stopchildlabor. N.p., 20 Oct. 2010. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. Provided in this website is a timeline of Child Labor laws. One law listed on the timeline was the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938; it also included a description of the act. I included this act in my website because it helped support the thesis statement. Trammell, Rebecca S. "Orphan Train Myths And Legal Reality." The Modern American (2009): 3-13. Web. The bulk of the information taken from this article was in its conclusion. The conclusion describes how the Orphan Trains shaped child labor laws, foster care, the rights of children and the responsibilities as a nation to protect these children. All these things are still in effect today helping prove the thesis statement. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2014. This website contributed information about the rights of a child to my website. Adding information about the rights of a child is critical to my website because it connected the topic to the history day theme, Rights and Responsibilities. This information on child rights also supported my thesis statement. "USA TODAY." USATODAY.COM. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2013. This source provided many stories and quotes from the Orphan Train rider descendants. These stories gave a personal understanding of the effects of the Orphan Trains. All of this information added to supporting arguments by taking the quotes about the Orphan Trains successes and connecting it to todays foster care. Wexler, Richard. "Misguided 'Orphan Trains' Idea Rolls On." Letter to The Editor. 29

Nov. 1990. MS. N.p. This letter to the editor includes information about the fact the Orphan Trains "never really stopped". Through that statement, the author indicates the Orphan Trains started the placement of homeless children and developed laws for children that are still in effect today. It also provided information to back his argument up. This applied to the website because it supported the thesis.