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Chemistry lab report

Analysis of antacid Aim

The aim of this lab is to find how much 1 moldm-3 of HCl is neutralized for different brands of antacids, per recommended dosage (1 tablet or 5ml of suspension)

Independent variable: The brand of the antacid, there will be 5 brands, either one tablet or 5ml of suspension is used Dependent variable: The amount of 1 moldm-3 of HCl that is neutralized, which will be measured b! titrating the antacids with the HCl Controlled variable: The concentration of HCl The amount of antacid, which will be measured beforehand using measuring pipette for the suspension "ame temperature, pressure, as the e#periment is conducted in the same space

1 ' 3 ) 5 * , $repare fi%e brands of antacids, use one tablet, or 5ml of antacid &or suspensions it will be measured beforehand using measuring pipette Crush the antacid that is in tablet form using mortar and pestle so it become in powder form prepare some 1(( ml HCl in the burette in the antacids prepared, gi%e a few drops of meth!l orange as an indicator Titrate the antacid with the HCl until the indicator has turned from !ellow to red +t that point stop the titration and record the amount of HCl used Carr! out the titration for ' times for increased accurac!

5(cm-3 of 1 moldm-3 HCl 5 different brands of antacid -eth!l orange .ea/er .urette 0ron clamp

Improvised method
1ater, 0 ha%e decided that in order to answer m! aim, the method needs to be impro%ed The process that 0 am using now is called the titration3 in which 0 gi%e an e#cess amount of HCl (15cm-3 of 1 moldm-3 concentration) to neutralize the specified amount of antacid, and then titrate the e#cess with 1 moldm-3 4a5H and record the amount used &rom that, 0 can deduce how much HCl the antacid could neutralize

Data collection
Quantitative data
starting point (in ml) ( !"!#) %ough 1st refined (nd refined &"' 1(") ending point (in ml) ( !"!#) 1(") 1$"$ excess 1 moldm-3 NaOH present (in ml) ( !"1) )"$ )"( Net 1 moldm-3 of HCl neutralized by the acid (in ml) ( !"$) 1!") 1!"' 1!"*

1$"$ (!"& )"1 +n order to ensure that excess NaOH ,as mixed- 1#"!( !"#) ml of 1 moldm -3 ,as gi.en

Qualitative data
6hen the meth!l orange indicator turned !ellow indicating that the solution has now got an e#cess of 4a5H, we can still see the solution is %er! haz!, filled with the non reacting antacid powder &or the li7uid antacid, the solution8s color is whitish (due to the color of antacid suspension) which ma/es it harder to distinguish the color change using meth!l orange 0t appears that e%en when e#cess 4a5H has been gi%en (93(ml of 1 moldm-3 4a5H) a color change could not be spotted

Data Processing
Theoretical %alue of the amount of HCl neutralized b! the antacid: Contents of one tablet of antacid written on the label in the bac/ 5ne tablet of antacid contains: '(( mg of +l(5H)3 '(( mg of -g(5H)' 1(( mg of "imethicone The neutralization formulas used are the following:

Al(OH)3 + 3HCl AlCl3 + 3H2O Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl MgCl2 + 2H2O

4ow this should theoreticall! neutralize the following amount of HCl: ;sing the data for +tomic mass in the data boo/let, the molecular mass of +l(5H)3 is:

Al(OH)3 (26. !"#.#$)%3($6.##"#.#$ % $.#$"#.#$)& '!.#$"#.#'

+nd the molecular formula of -g(5H)' is:

()(OH)2 (2*.3$"#.#$) % 2($6.##"#.#$%$.#$"#.#$) & +!.33"#.#+

"o the number of moles of HCl that should ha%e been neutralized would be: ( 'g ( 'g 3( ) + '( ) = 1 )55( x1( ' <( (((1 moles ,= (1 ( (, 5= 33<( (5 Howe%er, from the e#periment, the antacid neutralizes 1( >(<( *) ml of 1 moldm-3 HCl, which means it neutralizes 1 (>(<( (*) # 1(-' moles of HCl

Therefore, from the e#periment, we /now that one tablet of antacid will neutralize 1 (>(<( (*) # 1(-' moles of HCl This misses the theoretical %alue 1 )55((<( (((1) # 1(-' moles of HCl, b! '5? (<)?) +lthough there might be some slow reacting residue, or that some substance might be stuc/ in the mortar and pestle that might e#plain partl! wh! the e#perimental %alue is less than the theoretical one, an error margin of '5? (<)?) is a %er! significant one Howe%er, whether it is 1 (> or 1 )55, both the %alues still ma/es sense as if we assume that the $H of the stomach is around ', it means that 1 (> or 1 )55 #1(-' moles of HCl is the e7ui%alent of 1(>-1)5 ml of HCl Considering that our stomach could hold ' liters of food, an e#cess amount of HCl of 1(> ml or 1)5 ml would still ma/es sense &urthermore, as these antacid will not dissol%e in water, the e#cess amount of it should be able to be secreted accordingl! Hence, the amount of HCl neutralized b! a tablet of antacid, obtained from the e#periment, could be considered plausible, though it is not what is e#pected

6hen grinding the tablet into fine powder, 7uite a lot of the substance stic/s to the mortar and pestle These couldn8t be rinsed easil! as the! couldn8t be dissol%ed in water This ma! e#plain @to an e#tent- wh! the e#perimental %alue is less than the theoretical one 6hen we tr! to neutralize antacid in the suspension form, it is hard to distinguish whether the color has changed, this ma/es it almost impossible to distinguish whether the end point is reached (when all the acid has been neutralized) This is because the color of the suspension is white, which ma/es the color of indicator rather blurr! and haz!

Suggestion for improvement

There are se%eral possible wa!s to pre%ent the substance from stic/ing to the mortar and pestle 5ne of the wa! is that we could tr! to rinse the mortar and pestle using HCl (measured beforehand) which is then transferred to the bea/er The HCl used for rinsing, howe%er, must be ta/en into account as the HCl that has been neutralized b! the antacid pills 6e could also grind the pills gentl! inside the bea/er that we are going to use for the e#periment +s the pills are rather soft, it is still attainable, although it needs to be grind with care so as to not brea/ the bea/er There are se%eral wa!s to still recognize the end point &irst of all, more drops of meth!l orange could be included in order to ma/e the color more %ibrant The indicator could also be changed to another indicator that has more %ibrant color Howe%er, the most realistic approach would be to use a %er! small sample of the antacid suspension (needs to be measured %er! accuratel!) This is then mi#ed with lots of distilled water so as to ma/e the solution more clear This wa!, an! color changes would be easier to spot