Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
!pdated: %& "o' (%))

SLAC Computin !"#$ at SLAC Linux at SLAC

*here are se'eral steps to settin up a full+,inte rated Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 -RHEL6. s+stem at SLAC "ational Accelerator La/orator+: ). 0efore +ou 0e in o 1inimum S+stem Re2uirements o 3reparin to #nstall (. #nstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 o Create an #nstallation C4R51 o 0oot the #nstallation 3ro ram o "6S #nstall 1ethod o #ntroductor+ Screen o 4is7 3artitions o Selectin #nstallation 8. 3ost #nstall o Red Hat 9elcome :. SLAC Confi uration o Runnin *a+lor o Access to SLAC;s 1A#L Spool and other "6S ser'ers o Superuser 3ri'ile es <. Rescue from +our C4 iso ima e 6. =nown #ssues 3lease note: *hese are not complete Red Hat Enterprise Linux install instructions> o to the Red Hat 9e/ site for more complete information.

Before you Begin
System Requirements Architecture *hese instructions are for installin Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 -RHEL6. on an #A,8( s+stem -i.e.? a 8(,/it #ntel, or A14,/ased s+stem. and 5pteron 6:,/it s+stems -x@6_6:.. 1inimum 1emor+ Red Hat recommends for 8( /it a minimum of )A0 memor+/lo ical C3!? and for 6: /it a minimum of )A0 of memor+? )A0/lo ical C3!. At SLAC? RHEL6 has /een successfull+ installed on s+stems with <)( 10? /ut such s+stems ha'e a tendenc+ to /o down /adl+ due to excessi'e swappin when too man+ applications are open at once. 1inimum 4is7 Space

Consider su/mittin a re2uest to ha'e 5C#5 do the installation for +ou. Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 *he installation pro ram is mostl+ self. admin a/out that if +ou ha'e 2uestions.s+stem partition? e. 6. 5therwise? it is +our responsi/ilit+ to /ac7up +our data /efore /e innin the installation. Ha'e an #3 address and node name for +our s+stem.: #3 address? atewa+? netmas7 and 4"S ser'er -pro'ided /+ +our 4es7top admin when +ou o/tain +our #3 address.stanford. Preparing to Install ). Ha'e a'aila/le the networ7 and host information re2uired /+ a Red Hat Linux install? which includes -/ut ma+ not /e limited to.explanator+ if +ou ha'e installed !"#$ or Linux /efore.specific issues /elow.. Dour s+stem will need a /oot.. <.s s+stem dis7? this should not /e a pro/lem. 9e will onl+ mention either complex or SLAC. siBe of a/out & A0. *his is the tool 5C#5 uses to adapt s+stems to the SLAC en'ironment and we stron l+ encoura e +ou to use it.> 'ideo card/monitor specs -includin siBe of 'ideo RA1.https://www. #f necessar+? request an IP Address and Node Name from your Desktop admin.html 5C#5 recommends a minimum dis7 siBe of a/o'e )( A0? and a minimum root partition -C/C. #f +ou do ha'e some data +ou want to preser'e on this dis7? /ut it is all stored in a non. Ha'e pre'ious experience installin Red Hat Linux? or else read the Red Hat #nstall document.capa/le C4R51 dri'e? or a 0#5S which 7nows how to 3$E /oot -as7 unix. #f +ou are installin on a machine that was pre'iousl+ taylored? +ou should print a cop+ of the file /etc/taylor. C4R51 4ri'e Red Hat does not include a flopp+ 'ersion of the /oot ima es for RHEL6.slac.opts /efore /e innin . Dou ma+ want to wor7 next to a machine with a we/ /rowser and access the Red Hat installation manual from the documentation area of the Red Hat we/ site.> dis7 dri'e siBe> etc. *his procedure does a Cclean installC? not an up rade.? /u)? +ou mi ht /e 5=? pro'idin +our s+stem partitions are lar e enou h to accommodate RHEL6 with sufficient room for future updates -see 4is7 3artitions? /elow. 8. . (. #f +ou are an experienced Linux user and intend to retain some responsi/ilit+ for administerin +our s+stem? +ou ma+ want to familiariBe +ourself with *a+lor /efore /e innin . Create an Installation CDRO . #f +ou follow 5C#5 recommendations a ainst storin permanent data on a wor7station. #f +ou must restore it to a local files+stem after the installation? we stron l+ ur e +ou to /u+ a second dis7 and 7eep permanent data off the s+stem dis7.

" *he first field in this example? C)?%?%C? is +our C4R51 de'ice address.html *o ma7e a /oota/le C4R51 for installin RHEL6? +ou will need to /urn an #S5 &66% ima e file onto C4. cdrecord "scan!us de$%/de$/hdc Dou. *his is the information +ou.1"i#86"!oot."R.*R".A*A3#:. <. or .iso for 8(.? or +ou ma+ need additional options on the cdrecord command line.ll et a line that includes some text identif+in +our specific C4R51 de'ice? alon with the de'ice address> for example: R34 1&'&' 1''( )_*E+ ) )+. .isoC will /rin up a C9rite to 4is7C dialo /ox which can /e used to /urn a cop+ of the file to a C4.line tool./it cd /nfs/slac/g/scs/redhat/RedHat/RHEL6/6u1/workstation/i#86/!ootiso/ ls rhel"workstation"6. or cdrecord -a''/ ) )1'01) Re2o$a!le +. Run a command li7e the followin : 6. 5n Linux? +ou can use an application li7e $cdroast -re2uires $ 9indows.1"x86_6 "!oot. *o create an installation /oot C4R51 under Linux? usin the cdrecord utilit+: ).A*A:.R9.R dis7. 5n a RHEL< des7top s+stem? dou/le clic7in on a file endin in C. disc into the C4R51 dri'e. See the man pa e for cdrecord for details.iso (.R -or C4. cdrecord "$ "speed%5 de$%1&'&' "e6ect "data !oot./it cd /nfs/slac/g/scs/redhat/RedHat/RHEL6/6u1/workstation/x86_6 /!ootiso/ ls rhel"workstation"6. 3ut a /lan7 C4. 8.R -or C4.. media.slac.ll need. 1ac 5S$ can successfull+ create /oota/le C4R51s usin the C4R51 /urnin utilit+. *o et information a/out +our C4R51 dri'e? run the command: .R9.iso 5n some s+stems +ou ma+ need to prefix the de'ice address with a transport layer indicator? such as .https://www. 6ind the #S5 &66% disc ima e for an installation /oot C4R51 for +our architecture and the current RHEL6 !pdate le'el: for 6:.

choice? the installation proceeds to C#nstallation 1ethod.. *he 'arious 0#5S screens 'ar+ 2uite a /it? e'en within a sin le 'endor. menu? choose 'Install or upgrade an existing system'.)E.) includes a . . *he #S5 ima e for RHEL6. recommended 7ernel and R31s are installed. Boot t!e Installation Program Stic7 the C4R51 in the dri'e and re/oot +our machine.Rescue.https://www. earl+ in the /oot process. 5ther possi/le choices include 'Install system with basic video driver' '!escue installed system' '"oot from local drive' ? or a '#emory test$' "#B# #f +our initial installation attempt fails with a won7+ 'ideo displa+? retr+ with the 'basic video driver'. Dou should ma7e sure it loo7s at the C4R51 dri'e /efore the hard dis7. !nchec7 'nable IPv+ support. -1o'ement and select directions are at the /ottom of the screen. option to the cdrecord command line. "ext? after 2uestions re ardin . !nder 'nable IPv( support !nchec7 )se dynamic IP configuration /+ chec7in the #anual *onfiguration.=e+/oard.s a ood idea to run some tests first /+ addin the . At the introductor+? . Choose '%kip' to s7ip the media test.t /urned an+ C4R51s /efore? it. "ext? +ou will /e as7ed to confi ure *C3/#3.html #f +ou ha'en.s products.dumm+.s pro/a/l+ a ood idea to read throu h the rest of this section /efore proceedin . option. #f +our machine i nores the C4R51 at /oot time? and simpl+ re/oots the existin s+stem on the hard dis7? there is most li7el+ a pro/lem with the /oot order in the 0#5S.C "$S Install et!od #n the C#nstallation 1ethodC screen? choose N&% directory to insure that the latest SLAC.9elcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux Howe'er? there is usuall+ a place where +ou can specif+ the order in which the 0#5S should loo7 for a /oota/le de'ice. "#B# *here ma+ /e some 'ariations in the order of the screens in the installation pro ram dependin on +our exact hardware confi uration and/or the choices +ou ma7e? so it. and .Lan ua e.slac..stanford. #f +ou install from a C4R51? +ou ma+ need to up rade the 7ernel after installation in order to compl+ with SLAC securit+ re2uirements. #t will ta7e a minute or two to load. Dou can usuall+ et into the 0#5S /+ pressin a function 7e+ -usuall+ 6(. See /elow 6or Rescue 1ethod instructions.

scs.screenshots/ for +ou. *he N&% server name is lnxinstall and the !ed . *he screen cop+ will /e stored in /root/anaconda.: /$ol/$ol1/g. *he primar+ nameser'er is )8:. Introdu(tory s(reens "ote) #f +ou want to capture a particular screen displa+ in the installation? to refer to later? +ou can press ..3lease name this computer.16. 6or all other s+stems-3entium? Athlon? etc.Shift. Choose '*reate *ustom -ayout' *he default partitionin scheme used /+ the the other options is not suita/le for use in the SLAC en'ironment.t /e mounted tr+ usin lnxinstall. %&R"I"': 3lease /e careful to enter this information accuratel+? /ecause errors can disrupt the networ7.filled in.. 3lease select the nearest Cit+ in +our time Bone *he root password screen.7? instead of its name. Dou should not need to .html 5n the next screen C1anual *C3/#3 Confi urationC enter the IP Address? Netmask? Default gateway and Primary nameserver information i'en to +ou /+ +our 4es7top admin when +ou re2uested +our node name and #3 address.9hich t+pe of installation would +ou li7eH.G.s post.scs. • directories are: • • 6or 5pteron and E1*6: s+stems: /$ol/$ol1/g.redhat/RedHat/RHEL6/6u1/i#86.https://www. Choose '"asic %torage Devices' #f an existin installation is disco'ered on the s+stem? +ou.installation tool taylor will o'erride this password.. After the splash RHEL6 screen? the next 2uestions are: • • • 9hat t+pe of de'ices will +our installation in'ol'e.s #3 address? 175. Partitions .slac.redhat/RedHat/RHEL6/6u1/x86_6 .edu/comp/unix/linux/install_RHEL6. .F&.3rint. Either wa+? assumin +ou ha'e /ac7ed up an+ important files? choose '&resh Installation' *he . "ext +ou will enter "6S setup information.5#.)@. should /e auto. Choose a ood root password and DO"*+ $OR'E+ I+E SLAC.:%.ll /e as7ed if +ou want a '&resh Installation' or ')pgrade an 'xisting Installation'. #f the director+ can.Confi ure "etwor7.stanford.

"ote that older files in /t2p are periodicall+ remo'ed /ut files in /scratch will remain until remo'ed /+ +ou unless the s+stem is re. adminJslac.up stora e at a reasona/le cost. Also? the actual siBes of allocated partitions ma+ 'ar+ a little /it from what +ou .'B root partition. !se the new? ext: files+stem t+pe on all partitions except swap and /usr/'ice/cache/cache.install the s+stem dis7 on short Dou should also create a swap partition at least as lar e as the memor+ -twice the main memor+ is a ood rule of thum/ for the siBe of the swap partition. #f +our root partition is less than a/out & A0? +ou should omit installin some of the software pac7a e roups recommended /elow? in order to allow room for future up rades and securit+ patches.s 5= to repartition and re. !se the rest for scratch space> for example? +ou mi ht want to create a lar er /t2p or add a separate /scratch director+. Similarl+? if +ou install more pac7a e roups than su ested /elow? +ou will pro/a/l+ need a lar er root partition . ext: is a Iournalin files+stem and will permit much faster reco'er+ followin crashes. #f possi/le the root partion should /e at least (% A0 for modern machines with )%% A0 and lar er dis7s. Small root partitions can ma7e it difficult or impossi/le to install re2uired securit+ patches later on.. Alwa+s choose to format +our Linux partitions. #f there is sufficient space? we recommend that +ou allocate an /scswork partition of ) A0? to /e reser'ed for the exclusi'e use of 5C#5. *he /est wa+ to ma7e use of extra space on +our s+stem dis7 is to allocate a lar e /tmp or /scratch partition.stanford.. perhaps )%. S+stems that cannot appl+ re2uired securit+ patches in a timel+ fashion ma+ /e denied access to the SLAC networ7.ill 0e your responsi0ility to sa1e and restore your data t!e next time your system needs to 0e re2installed# "ote that partition names and num/ers? and the order of the partitions? are assi ned automaticall+. 0ecause of the lar e siBes of currentl+ a'aila/le dis7s? +ou ma+ /e stron l+ tempted to i nore this warnin . #f +ou need additional permanent space? please contact> we will do our /est to help +ou ac2uire relia/le? /ac7ed. WARNING! Dou should not allocate an+ partitions on the s+stem dis7 for permanent data.class machines are much less relia/le than those we /u+ for our fileser'ers> and? our support model assumes that it. -#n earlier 'ersions of A6S? /usr/'ice/cache needed the ext( files+stem? /ut ext: is now compati/le with the A6S cache.)( A0 if +ou install nearl+ e'er+thin .https://www.slac.installed..stanford. "ewer s+stems usuall+ ha'e su/stantiall+ lar er s+stem dis7s.arning/ it . 1a7e sure to i'e Linux at least a . Howe'er? it is 'er+ ris7+ to do so? /ecause: • • • we do not /ac7up the data on local dis7s attached to wor7stations> the dis7s installed in wor7station.html *he ta/le /elow shows su ested partitionin schemes for two different siBe dis7s? representin t+pical siBes of dis7s a'aila/le on older hardware still in ser'ice here at SLAC. If you ignore t!is ..

ext: 9hen +ou /e in? +ou. & A0 647 'B or larger dis.html re2uest in the A!# interface.slac. *he 5C#5 recommendation is to use LK1s and to lea'e extra room which can /e used later.stanford.https://www. )( A0 ) x memor+ or ( x memor+ or at least <)( 10 at least ) A0 <)( 10 <)( 10 <)( 10 omit omit : A0 ( A0 : A0 ) A0 remainder /scratch -or extra /tmp ha'e a screen that appears this wa+: . Su Partition ount Point / swap /'ar /usr/'ice/cache /tmp /scswor7 ested partition schemes for t+pical hard dis7s: Partition +ype ext: swap ext: ext: ext: ext: Partition Si3e 45 'B dis. *his ma+ ma7e it difficult to allocate e'er+ last /loc7 on the dis7.

edu/comp/unix/linux/install_RHEL6.https://www.slac.stanford.ll ha'e a confi uration somethin li7e this: .html 9hen +ou are done? Dou.

edu/comp/unix/linux/install_RHEL6.https://www.stanford.html *here will /e two dialo /oxes confirmin +ou want to reformat the dis7. Sele(ting Installation As stated /+ the installer? ..*he default installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux is a des7top install.slac. Boot Loader Configuration Accept the defaults for the other options on this screen. 5ther choices include? '#inimal Desktop'? '.orkstation'? '%oftware .eb Devlopment .

slac.alone s+stems and uides +ou throu h a num/er of first time s+stem administration tas7s such as: • License #nformation Dou.ll /e presented with a '*ongratulations' screen.admin local! RH"# If you plan to taylor t!e system/ you do not need to (reate a lo(al a((ount# Please do not# $or t!e Create User s(reen *$or. the Red Hat %el(ome s(reens ma+ automaticall+ run.https://www. #t ma+ ta7e )< minutes to o'er an hour to install the pac7a es dependin on the speed of +our machine and networ7.orkstation'? and '#inimal' 3lease do not install the . #f +ou are plannin to ta+lor +our s+stem +ou can s7ip most or all of these steps! no additions or ad:ustments# Dou. /ottom on the ri ht corner.t /oot /ac7 to the /oot iso ima e. unless +ou reall+ 7now what +ou are doin and o7a+ it with 5C#5 first. After this? the installation will /e in. 4on.ard* 0utton .installed s+stem in the raphical run le'el -run le'el <.it! t!e same username as your SL&C 8"I9 a((ount or registering personally . "O+E +ou. 5nce complete? +ou.. In parti(ular/ a1oid (reating a lo(al a((ount .re/ need to confirm +ou want to continue without a user account.t worr+ too much a/out ettin e'er+ pac7a e +ou mi ht e'er want .stanford. • 4ate and *ime .ll want to eIect +our /oot C4R51 prior to re/ootin so +ou don.9e/ 4e'elopment 9or7station..ll need to a ree to the License a reement. • Create !ser? -a non.ll need to confirm . +ou can alwa+s add additional pac7a es later."o *han7s. A ain? ma7e sure to remo'e an+ C4R51 left in the dri'e from the initial /oot of the installation pro ram. Post Install Red Hat %el(ome *he first time +ou /oot +our newl+. *he welcome screens are intended for stand. -Dou. *he final installation screen has a .html Devlopment . • Set !p Software !pdates #f runnin *a+lor? then choose 'no'.. the+ are either unneeded or will /e handled /+ ta+lor.

5n the next screen? +ou.slac.html Accept the defaults.. 4o not choose to re/oot to ena/le 7dumps.5ther.. enter .stanford.s not ideal? /ut this o7a+ for this one time. • =dump Accept the defaults.ll see messa es related to /ein lo ed in as root? and how it. as the user and password +ou pic7ed earlier.ll clic7 on .https://www. Dou.root.ll also see missin entitlements messa e .edu/comp/unix/linux/install_RHEL6. Dou.

commands and metadata.? and lo ical 'olume roups "otice the KAs can /e an a re ate of 3Ks from multiple ph+sical dis7s. Introduction Lo ical 'olume mana ement is a widel+...6 7ernelLon which the Red HatM Enterprise LinuxM : 7ernel is /asedLis the Linux Lo ical Kolume 1ana er? 'ersion ( -or LK1 (.html +!e Linux Logi(al . O*>eefe #ntroduction 0asic LK1 commands 4ifferences /etween LK1) and LK1( Summar+ A/out the authors Stora e technolo + pla+s a critical role in increasin the performance? a'aila/ilit+? and mana ea/ilit+ of Linux ser'ers. LK1 internal or aniBation. = auels!agen and att!e.stanford. A ph+sical dis7 is di'ided into one or more ph+sical 'olumes -3's.used techni2ue for deplo+in lo ical rather than ph+sical stora e. are created /+ com/inin 3Ks as shown in 6i ure ). .https://www.slac. 5ne of the most important new de'elopments in the Linux (. #t com/ines a more consistent and ro/ust internal desi n with important new features includin 'olume mirrorin and clusterin ? +et it is upwardl+ compati/le with the ori inal Lo ical Kolume 1ana er ) -LK1 ). *his article summariBes the /asic principles /ehind the LK1 and pro'ide examples of /asic operations to /e performed with it.olume 0y Hein3 • • • • • anager <L. 9ith LK1? Clo icalC partitions can span across ph+sical hard dri'es and can /e resiBed -unli7e traditional ext8 CrawC partitions.

Each 3K consists of a num/er of fixed.siBe lo ical extents -LEs. 1appin lo ical extents to ph+sical extents shows how the lo ical 'olumes are mapped onto ph+sical ' 6i ure ). -LEs and 3Es are alwa+s the same siBe? the default in LK1 ( is : 10. .. LK1 internal or aniBation 6i ure (.https://www.> similarl+? each LK consists of a num/er of fixed. *hese mappin s can /e constructed to achie'e particular performance? scala/ilit+? or a'aila/ilit+ oals.siBe ph+sical extents -3Es. An LK is created /+ mappin lo ical extents to ph+sical extents? so that references to lo ical /loc7 num/ers are resol'ed to ph+sical /loc7 num/ers.slac..

from alternate 3Ks are mapped to a sin le LK? as shown in 6i ure :.html 6i ure (. *he striped mappin allows a sin le lo ical 'olume to nearl+ achie'e the com/ined performance of two 3Ks and is used 2uite often to achie'e hi h. LK1 striped mappin .slac. 1appin lo ical extents to ph+sical extents 6or example? multiple 3Ks can /e connected to ether to create a sin le lar e lo ical 'olume as shown in 6i ure 8.stanford. *his approach? 7nown as a linear mappin ? allows a file s+stem or data/ase lar er than a sin le 'olume to /e created usin two ph+sical dis7s. An alternati'e approach is a striped mappin ? in which stripes . 6i ure 8. of conti uous ph+sical extents. LK1 linear mappin . LK1 linear mappin ./andwidth dis7 transfers.

html 6i ure :.time? allowin accurate /ac7ups to proceed simultaneousl+ with re ular s+stem operation . LK1 striped mappin -: ph+sical extents per stripe. or redundanc+ -'ia dis7 mirrorin and #/5 multipathin . Lo ical 'olumes can /e resiBed while the+ are mounted and accessi/le /+ the data/ase or file s+stem? remo'in the downtime associated with addin or deletin stora e from a Linux ser'er (. *hrou h these different t+pes of lo 4ata from one -potentiall+ fault+ or dama ed. Lo ical 'olume snapshots can /e created to represent the exact state of the 'olume at a certain point. :.https://www. Lo ical 'olumes can /e constructed /+ a re atin ph+sical de'ices to increase performance -'ia dis7 stripin .ph+sical mappin s? LK1 can achie'e four important ad'anta es o'er raw ph+sical partitions: ). ph+sical de'ice ma+ /e relocated to another de'ice that is newer? faster or more resilient? while the ori inal 'olume remains online and accessi/le