You are on page 1of 93

IFDC Prof. Alberto G. Cavero Leovino D.

Martinez 160 (5360) Chilecito, La Rioja

Profesorado de Ingls

Fontica y Fonologa inglesa II


Segundo ao

Gonzalo Tapia 2011

http://ifdccavero.lrj.infd.edu.ar/

This document was created using LYX (http://www.lyx.org/)

Contents

Introduction

I.

Prominence

9
13 13 13 15 15 15 17 17 17 19 19 19 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 1

1. Pitch 1.1. Articulatory denition: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2. Auditory denition: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Quality 2.1. Articulatory denition: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2. Auditory denition: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Quantity 3.1. Articulatory denition: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2. Auditory denition: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Stress 4.1. Articulatory denition: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. Auditory denition: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. The elements of prominence 5.1. Syllables associated with prominence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1. Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.2. Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.3. Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.4. Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2. Syllables associated with a lack of prominence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3. The perception of prominence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Contents 5.4. Digitalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Pitch movement and accentuation 24 25

II. Accentuation
7. Types of accent 8. Word accentuation 8.1. Word stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2. Alternative accentuation patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1. 2-syllable words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2. 3-syllable words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.3. 4-syllable words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.4. 5-syllable words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Accentuation of compound words 9.1. two-root compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1. Single-accented compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29
31 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 37 37 37

9.1.1.1. The second element indicates the performer of the action (the "doer") 37 9.1.1.2. Noun + gerundive (-ing) = noun or adjective . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1.3. noun / adjective + noun = noun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1.4. adjective + noun = noun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1.5. adjective (-ing) + noun = noun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1.6. verb + noun = noun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1.7. noun + verb = noun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1.8. verb stem + particle = noun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2. Double-accented compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2.1. noun + noun = noun (the rst element indicates the location of the second) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2.2. noun + noun = noun (the rst element indicates the material of which the second is made) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2.3. noun + noun = noun (no semantic criteria) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2.4. adjective + noun = noun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2.5. adjective + past participle = adjective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 39 40 40 40 39 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39

Contents 9.2. Three-root compound words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.1. Single-accented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.2. Double-accented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 40 40

III. Accentuation in short strings


10.Rhythm 10.1.Pitch direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.Some rules of accentuation 11.1.Sequence of three content words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.Phrasal verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.1. Transitive transpositional phrasal verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.2. Intransitive phrasal verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.Double-accented compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41
45 45 47 47 47 48 48 49 50 50 50 51 51 53

11.3.1. Place names: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.Single-accented compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5.Semantic weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6.Accentuation and usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.7.Emphasis and Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.Sentence accent, English versus Spanish.

IV. Word Accentuation patterns


13.Two-syllable words 13.1.Primary accent + unaccented syllable ( 13.2.Primary accent + prominent syllable ( 13.3.Unaccented syllable + primary accent ( 13.4.Prominent syllable + primary accent ( 13.5.Secondary accent + primary accent ( 14.Three-syllable words 14.1.Primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( ). . . . . . . . . . ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55
59 59 60 60 61 61 63 63

Contents 14.2.Primary accent + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable ( cent + prominent syllable + unaccented syllable ( ) or Primary ac64 64

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . ) or unaccented

14.3.Unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( 14.4.Prominent syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( syllable + primary accent + prominent syllable (

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . .

65 65 66 67

14.5.Secondary accent + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( 14.6.Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent ( 15.Four-syllable words

15.1.Primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

15.2.Primary accent + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable + unaccented syllable ( ) or Primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + prominent ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

syllable (

15.3.Unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

15.4.Unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable ( ) or prominent syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

syllable (

15.5.Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6.Secondary accent + prominent syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.Five-syllable words 16.1.Primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 70 71 69

16.2.Unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

16.3.Unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable + unaccented syllable ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

16.4.Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Contents 16.5.Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable ( ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

16.6.Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

16.7.Unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

16.8.Secondary accent + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( 17.Six-syllable words 17.1.Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 75

17.2.Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

17.3.Unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

17.4.Unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

17.5.Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( 18.Seven-syllable words 18.1.Unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( ) . . 77 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 77

18.2.Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( 19.Single-accented compound words 19.1.Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2.Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . 77 79 79 80

V. More on lexical accent


20.Two syllable words

81
83

Contents 21.Distinctive function of accent 21.1.noun/adjective - verb distinction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2.Compounds versus phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3.Accent shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.Practice 85 85 86 87 89

Introduction

A segmental study of a string of sounds requires that each sound or segment is perceived as a entity separate from those elements which surround it. A segmental study perceives a string of sounds as a sequence of individual sounds produced over a time continuum. e.g. | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | etc. It is possible to produce fairly effective oral communication by uttering segments in sequence. In broad terms, in such strings of segments, the longer the gaps or silences between each segment, the clearer the speech segment perception. If you make the gaps between the segments longer in time it is more easily understood but it is unnatural. This type of speech communication would be associated with robotic or machine speech. The phenomenon of leaving gaps between segments is called "segmentation". But human speech communication involves not just the production of sounds as segments but a complex of acoustic variants which are called supra-segmental features. Such acoustic variants include accent, pitch, rhythm and intonation. Given that they come together in varying degrees in a mixture of acoustic features, such variants are difcult to identify and study as separate entities and to quantify. Prosodic or supra-segmental features cannot conveniently be studied as digitalised concepts as can segmental features. Supra-segmental features are more difcult to study and to quantify because we cannot look at them as digital concepts. Supra-segmental features are a complex system of acoustic features which result in differentiated auditory perceptions. 7

Introduction The basic parameter of a complex of supra-segmental features is the duration of the airstream. The basis of the study of supra-segmental features cannot be the single segment in isolation. Instead, the smallest basic unit for the analysis of supra-segmental features is the syllable. The minimal syllable is a string comprising one vowel. The concepts used for the study of prosodic features are usually expressed in terms of the textualisation of the strings, as follows: 1. shortest string > syllable (minimal syllable = one vowel) 2. relatively longer string than 1. > word 3. relatively longer string than 2. > compound-word, made up of two or three elements 4. relatively longer string than 3. > phrase 5. relatively longer string than 4. > clause 6. relatively longer string than 5. > sentence In phonetic terms, these concepts are differentiated only on the basis of differing airstream duration, e.g. a sentence is produced on an airstream of longer duration than that of a syllable.

Part I.

Prominence

A string of syllables can be uttered on a monotone, that is, giving equal accentuation weighting to each syllable, or we can give more accentuation weighting to some syllables relative to other syllables in the same string. Giving more accentuation weighting to one syllable relative to another in the same string is what what makes that syllable prominent. Prominent syllables stand out from the other syllables in the same string. Most utterances used in human speech communication, unless they imitate mechanistic robot speech, use the phenomenon called prominence. The fundamental prosodic features which cause a syllable to stand out relative to other syllables are pitch, quality, quantity and stress. These elements employed together generate variations in accentuation, rhythm and intonation. The description of pitch, quality, quantity and stress in terms of the movement of the organs in the vocal tract and the nature of the airstream is extremely difcult. The most convenient method for studying these elements is by analyzing the physical properties of the acoustic wave-form, i.e. the wave-form as generated by the vocal tract in its trajectory to the listeners ear. However, for an initial description of these elements, we can make a supercial articulatory denition together with a supercial auditory denition. These denitions are not scientically adequate. Scientically adequate denitions must involve the instrumental analysis of the sound wave. However, those supercial denitions will give us some idea of the nature of the elements which produce prominence.

11

1. Pitch

1.1. Articulatory denition:


In acoustic phonetics it is called frequency. The tenser the vocal folds, the faster they vibrate as an airstream passes between them and the higher the perceived note that is produced. As speakers, we cannot feel our vocal folds vibrating faster or more slowly. The kinaesthetic feedback is imperceptible, but through our inner ear the speaker can perceive a higher or a lower tone. So, in articulatory terms, pitch depends on the tension and consequent rate of vibration of the vocal folds.

1.2. Auditory denition:


From the listeners perception, the pitch of a sound can be placed on a scale running from high to low (vertical parameter). We should note that a change of pitch is possible only on some syllables in an utterance. Alternatively, some syllables in an utterance cannot support pitch variation, e.g. a syllable with a short centralised vowel (schwa).

13

2. Quality

The vibration of the vocal folds produces an almost inaudible note which is amplied by the resonators of the human respiratory system as the air passes through the vocal tract, and is modied to produce differentiated sounds by the conguration of the articulators in the oral cavity, thereby varying the quality of the sound.

2.1. Articulatory denition:


In articulatory terms, the quality of the sound depends on the conguration of the articulators as well as the shape of the oral cavity and of the resonators.

2.2. Auditory denition:


In auditory terms, quality is that feature in terms of which, two sounds similarly presented and having the same loudness, quantity and pitch are dissimilar, e.g. the difference between [S] and [s] or [I] and [e].

15

3. Quantity

3.1. Articulatory denition:


Quantity refers to the duration of the airstream which produces the sound. In articulatory terms this will depend on the duration of the pulmonic egressive airstream and the changes in air pressure which occur in the vocal tract during the production of a specic sound.

3.2. Auditory denition:


In auditory terms, quantity is the property of the sound which makes it possible for listeners to place the sound on a scale going from short to long. From the perceptual point of view, quantity is referred to as length or duration.

17

4. Stress

4.1. Articulatory denition:


Stress is caused by using greater muscular effort in the movement of the diaphragm, thereby causing air to be exhaled with greater force. The fundamental requirement for a syllable to be stressed is a relatively greater airstream force.

4.2. Auditory denition:


Stress is perceived as loudness and in auditory terms we dene stress as that property of a sound which makes it possible for listeners to place it on a scale going from loud to soft. Briey, the speaker feels more energy, the listener hears a louder sound.

In summary,
- pitch is quantied on a vertical parameter running from low to high and is quantiable as frequency and is measured in Hertz (hz). - quality is the factor which differentiates sounds at the segmental level. - quantity is quantied on a horizontal parameter running from short to long and is quantiable as duration or time and is measured in milliseconds (ms). - stress is quantied on a third-dimension parameter running from soft to loud and is quantiable as: amplitude and is measured in decibels (db).

19

5. The elements of prominence

These four elements, i.e. pitch, quality, quantity and stress, either separately or in conjunction with other elements, can make a syllable stand out or become more prominent relative to other syllables in the same string. Very basically, if a syllable has a higher pitch than another, it will be prominent. If a syllable has longer duration than another, it will be prominent. If a syllable is louder than another, it will be more prominent. It may also be contended that syllables which include voiced or strident consonants, that is, consonants produced with greater breath force, may be perceived as more prominent.

5.1. Syllables associated with prominence


What kinds of syllables are associated with prominence in terms of these four elements?

5.1.1. Pitch
In terms of pitch, those syllables which can act as pitch movement initiators are prominent. All syllables can be uttered on a high pitch. But a syllable produced on a high pitch is not necessarily prominent. What makes a syllable prominent in terms of pitch is that the syllable can support either pitch movement nor pitch variation. Those syllables which can support pitch movement or which initiate pitch movement are considered prominent and are called pitch movement initiators.

21

5. The elements of prominence

5.1.2. Quality
In terms of quality, syllables which contain a strong vowel are prominent. Strong vowels are located on the periphery of the Cardinal Vowel trapezium. They are [i:]; [e]; [A:]; []; [O:]; [u:].

5.1.3. Quantity
Syllables which contain a long vowel and / or a long consonant are prominent, e.g. fricatives and nasals can be longer than plosives.

5.1.4. Stress
Syllables which contain a loud sound, that is, which are produced with relatively greater breath force, are considered as prominent.

5.2. Syllables associated with a lack of prominence


Those syllables which are non-prominent normally have one or a combination of the following characteristics: 1. cannot usually support pitch movement. 2. contain weak vowels or syllabic consonants. 3. contain short sounds. 4. contain soft sounds.

5.3. The perception of prominence1


All these elements (pitch, quality, quantity and stress) can play a part in making a syllable stand out in comparison with its neighbours. However, they do not all play an equal part, nor are all four of them always present together. Thus, prominence is a graded scale.
1

scalar notation: ( ) = primary accent; ( ) = secondary accent; ( ) = prominent syllable; ( ) = unaccented syllable

22

5.3. The perception of prominence Formerly, stress was considered to be the most important and effective element in producing prominence. However, deeper study has shown this to be untrue. A word like dictation /dIk"teISn/ has three syllables, the nal syllable being a syllabic consonant. " It is generally perceived that the second syllable is the stressed one and that it is stressed because it is pronounced with a greater degree of breath force than the surrounding syllables. However, stress is not the only factor that makes this syllable prominent. We can demonstrate this by interfering with the normal pitch pattern of the word. The normal pitch pattern of the word dictation is the following: [ on the second syllable. However, if the word is uttered on a monotone, i.e. stressing the second syllable but making no pitch movement, the pitch pattern is thus: [ ]. ], i.e. with pitch movement

It is clear that, when uttered on a monotone, it is not so easy to distinguish which syllable is the most prominent. It is concluded, therefore, that stress is not the major element causing prominence. It is incorrect, therefore, to say that syllables are made prominent by stress alone. Instead, pitch movement is the most powerful element which causes prominence. Pitch movement on syllables can be far more important than stress in conveying prominence. Pitch movement cannot be supported on short and / or weak vowels, e.g. [I]; [2]; [6]; [U]; [@]; [3:]. Short, weak vowels are [- prominent]. Pitch movement can be supported on long and / or strong vowels. Long, strong vowels are [+ prominent]. Pitch movement is closely related with semantics. Pitch movement has important implications in the meaning of some words. With some words, the accentuation pattern will determine the meaning of the word. For example, the two-syllable word /In s2lt/ can be a noun or a verb. If insult is uttered on a monotone - [ a noun or a verb. 23 ], then it is impossible to decide whether the utterence is

5. The elements of prominence On the other hand, if pitch movement occurs on the rst syllable of /"Ins2lt/ - [ noun. If pitch movement occurs on the second syllable of /In"s2lt/ - [ ], then it is a verb. ], then it is a

The semantics of the uttered word is dependent entirely on pitch movement.

5.4. Digitalization
Prominence can be digitalized. At the segmental level, one of the major criteria for digitalization is voicing [+ / - voice]. In fact, there is no real division between words; as speech sounds, they are merely divided by periods of devoicing. At a suprasegmental level, for digitalization, prominence [+ / - prominent] can be used as a distinctive feature. e.g. a sound can be [+ voice] and [- prominent] as with /@/ or [+ voice] and [+ prominent] as with /A:/. The difference between /@/ and /A:/ is that /A:/ is prominent whereas /@/ is not.

24

6. Pitch movement and accentuation


Only certain syllables can support pitch movement. Pitch movement can be initiated only on certain syllables. A syllable on which pitch movement is initiated is called a pitch movement initiator. For example, the rst syllable of in | sult (noun) is a pitch movement initiator. Likewise, the second syllable of in | sult (verb) is a pitch movement initiator. When a syllable is a pitch movement initiator, OR HAS THE POTENTIAL TO BE ONE, we shall say that it is accented. Pitch movement initiators are accented syllables. Accent is an element of prominence. A syllable which is a pitch movement initiator is accented irrespective of whatever other elements are present. Consequently, the only condition necessary for a syllable to be accented is that it is a pitch movement initiator. In such cases, the other elements of prominence, i.e. quality, quantity and stress, are irrelevant. Therefore, in order to identify the accented syllable in any string, it is necessary to determine the syllable that can support or which supports pitch movement in that string. When any of the elements of prominence - quality, quantity and stress - are present in a syllable which is incapable of acting as a pitch movement initiator, that syllable will be said to be simply prominent, that is, not accented. All accented syllables are prominent, but not all prominent syllables are accented.

Note: Diacritics (text format): 25

6. Pitch movement and accentuation "=Primary stress = secondary accent Prominent and unaccented syllables are not marked in text format. For example: (6.1) In the word install, written form install syllabic divisions in | stall diacritics in | "stall transcription /In"stO:l/ scalar notation ( )

The second syllable is accented because it contains a long, strong, stressed vowel which supports a change of pitch and which acts as a pitch movement initiator. The rst syllable is unaccented and not prominent. (6.2) In the word ability, written form ability syllabic divisions a | bi | li | ty diacritics a | "bility transcription /@"bIlIti/ scalar notation ( )

The second syllable is accented, primarily because it supports pitch movement and because it is a pitch movement initiator. The rst, third and fourth syllables are unaccented and not prominent. I MPORTANT HINT: T O LOCATE THE ACCENTED SYLLABLE IN A STRING, IT IS USEFUL TO SAY THE WORD WITH A
QUESTIONING INTONATION.

(6.3) In the word millionaire, written form millionaire syllabic divisions mi | llio | naire diacritics millio| "naire transcription /mIlj@"ne@/ scalar notation ( )

the last syllable is accented because of stress and the potential of the diphthong [e@] to act as a pitch movement initiator. The rst syllable is secondary accented, and the second syllable is unaccented. (6.4) In the word afternoon, written form afternoon syllabic divisions af | ter | noon diacritics after| "noon transcription /A:ft@"nu:n/ scalar notation ( )

the third and nal syllable is usually accented because it contains a long, strong vowel and supports (or can support) pitch movement. 26

However, the rst syllable also contains a long, strong vowel, [A:], and is therefore prominent. But since in normal pronunciation the rst syllable of af | ter | noon does not support pitch movement, it is said to be secondary accented. The second syllable of af | ter | noon, a schwa [@], is unaccented and is not prominent. N OTE : I T IS POSSIBLE TO HAVE TWO ACCENTED SYLLABLES IN A WORD. T HE ACCENTED SYLLABLE WHICH SUPPORTS PITCH MOVEMENT, I . E . THE PITCH MOVEMENT
INITIATOR , WILL BE SAID TO BE PRIMARY ACCENTED.

O THER ACCENTED SYLLABLES IN THE SAME WORD WILL BE SAID TO BE SECONDARY AC CENTED.

Note too that afternoon has an alternative accentuation pattern, namely, with the pitch movement occurring on the rst syllable instead of the nal syllable, i.e. ( (6.5) In the word diagram, written form diagram syllabic divisions dia | gram diacritics "dia|gram transcription /"daI@grm/ scalar notation ( ) )

the rst syllable, a triphthong, supports the pitch movement and is therefore the accented syllable. However, the nal syllable /grm/ contains a strong vowel which is produced with considerable breath force. For these reasons, the nal syllable of dia | gram is said to be prominent but not accented. Both syllables are prominent, but only the rst syllable is accented. It should be noted, too, that the second syllable in dia | gram is semantically loaded and is like a sufx or an element in a compound word, cf. photogramme, spectrogramme, etc. Syllables which are semantically loaded, if not accented, are usually prominent. All accented syllables are prominent, but not all prominent syllables are accented.

27

Part II.

Accentuation

29

7. Types of accent

Accentuation is gradable. In English, when a word has two or more accents - or accented syllables - pitch movement will naturally start on the last of the accented syllables. Such an accent, i.e. an accented syllable on which pitch movement starts is called the primary accent and is marked with a diacritic ["], which precedes the primary accented syllable, or is marked ( ) in scalar notation.

Other accented syllables in the word, which naturally preced the primary accent are called secondary accents and are marked [] or ( ) in scalar notation. ) in scalar notation, whereas

Syllables which are prominent but not accented, will be marked ( non-prominent syllables will be marked ( ). A.C. Gimson writes on accentuation:

The most common relationship of pitch and stress in word accentuation may be summarised as follows: Primary accentuation is associated with a potential change of pitch direction. Secondary accentuation is not normally associated with a change of pitch direction, but may be: prominent (i.e. signalled by a potential change of pitch level). rhythmic (i.e. having no pitch prominence, but with rhythmical stress and often quality / quantity prominence. Stress and pitch variations combined may, therefore, be said to constitute a complex which is most powerful in signalling the situation and degree of accent in a word. Note that Gimson includes rhythm as an element of prominence.

31

8. Word accentuation

We have seen that a syllable, in the context of a word, has its own inherent pitch and stress. The combination of these two elements - pitch and stress - is the primary source of accent. However, we must distinguish between word stress and sentence stress - or more precisely, the accentuation patterns of words as opposed to the intonation patterns of sentences. For example, a word spoken in the context of a list of words (e.g. a dictionary) will have its own inherent accentuation pattern. The same word in the context of a sentence may undergo a change in that pattern. Word stress is concerned with the stressing of individual words of two or more syllables when they are uttered in isolation.1 S ENTENCE STRESS, ON THE OTHER HAND, IS THE STRESS THAT IS PUT ON WORDS OF ONE OR
MORE SYLLABLES IN ORDER TO INDICATE THEIR IMPORTANCE IN RELATION TO OTHER WORDS IN THE SENTENCE .

8.1. Word stress


In English, we nd that simple words consisting of two or more syllables have a strong accent on one of those syllables as well as a weak accent on the remaining syllables. In general, any syllable which has as its vowel [I] or [@] is weakly accented. Gimson writes on this: "In addition to the prominence of sounds, due to their nature or the character of the context in which they occur, certain English phonemes are particularly associated with unaccented situations.
1

That is, in their citation form.

33

8. Word accentuation Thus, R.P. /@/ does not normally occur in accented syllables, and /I/ and /U/ though both of them may receive full accentual prominence have a high frequency of ocurrence in unaccented syllables. So, basically, if the syllable in a word contains as its vowel an /@/ or an /I/ or an /U/ it will tend to be non-prominent / unaccented.2 We can categorise words for the purpose of analysing their accentuation patterns, in terms of the number of syllables they contain. Accentuation is a relative concept. A prominent syllable is prominent only in relation to other syllables that are not prominent. Therefore, we cannot discuss prominence in words consisting of only one syllable - if they occur in isolation. Thus, the smallest unit that can be used to analyse word-accentuation patterns is the twosyllable word.

8.2. Alternative accentuation patterns


8.2.1. 2-syllable words
a. ( )~( ) - *a | dult; *bro | chure; *bu | reau; *chau | ffeur; con | tact (n ~ v);

de | fect (n ~ v); de | tail (n ~ v); nance (n ~ v); *mean | while.3 b. ( )~( ) - bou | quet; dis | charge; else | where; per | fume; r | gime; re |

search; wee | kend.

8.2.2. 3-syllable words


a. b. c. ( ( ( )~( )~( )~( ) - ex | qui | site; up | ri | sing; son | o | rous. ) - dis | co | theque; sou | ve | nir; sub | ma | rine. ) - ci | ga | rette; ca | vi | are; E | cua | dor.

2 3

They may, however, be accented in some cases. For example: input, /"InpUt/, or football, /"fUtbO:l/ The normal accentuation pattern is the rst one, but if you use the second, it is also correct.

34

8.2. Alternative accentuation patterns

8.2.3. 4-syllable words


a. ( )~( ) - con | tro | ver | sy; for | mi | da | ble; ki | lo | me | tre; no |

men | cla | ture; e | xi | gen |cy. b. c. ( ( )/( )/( ) - de | mon | stra | ble; hos | pi | ta | ble. ) - te | le | vi | sion.

8.2.4. 5-syllable words


a. ( )/( ) - ne | ces | sa | ri | ly; mo | men | ta | ri | ly.

35

9. Accentuation of compound words

A compound word is a short string made up of two or three words. There are two-element and three-element compound words. When words are elements forming a compound word, their accentuation pattern as words in isolation may be varied. So, the accentuation patterns of compound words must be analysed as a distinct category - distinct from word and from sentence (or phrase) accentuation. The most common type of compound words are what are called single-accented compounds. With almost all single-accented compounds, the primary accent is carried by the rst syllable of the compound. e.g. "baby-sitter, "stage-coach Exception:stage-"manager

9.1. two-root compounds


9.1.1. Single-accented compounds
Element 1 + element 2 e.g. "baby-sitter - /"beIbIsIt@/

9.1.1.1. The second element indicates the performer of the action (the "doer") e.g. "car-dealer /"kA: di:l@/ "pain-killer - /"peIN kIl@/ 37

9. Accentuation of compound words 9.1.1.2. Noun + gerundive (-ing) = noun or adjective e.g. adjective - "breathtaking - /"breTteIkIN/ noun - "window-shopping - /"wInd@US6pIN/

9.1.1.3. noun / adjective + noun = noun e.g. "headache - /"hedeIk/ de"posit account - /dI"p6zIt @kaUnt/ "current account - /"k2r@nt @kaUnt/

9.1.1.4. adjective + noun = noun e.g. "blackberry - /"blkb@ri/ Exception: grand"duke - /grnd "dju:k/

9.1.1.5. adjective (-ing) + noun = noun e.g. "driving-test - /"draIvIN test/

9.1.1.6. verb + noun = noun e.g. "cookbook - /"kUk bUk/ Exception: cease"re - /si:s "faI@/

9.1.1.7. noun + verb = noun e.g. "re-escape - /"faI@r IskeIp/ 38

9.1. two-root compounds 9.1.1.8. verb stem + particle = noun1 e.g. "hold-up - /"h@Uld 2p/ "take-off - /"teIk 6f/ Exception: lie-"down - /laI "daUn/

9.1.2. Double-accented compounds


9.1.2.1. noun + noun = noun (the rst element indicates the location of the second) e.g. country-"house camp-"bed shop-"window kitchen-"cupboard

9.1.2.2. noun + noun = noun (the rst element indicates the material of which the second is made) e.g. apple-"sauce cotton-"wool cherry-"brandy Exceptions: "corn-akes "orange-juice

These are nouns derived from phrasal verbs.

39

9. Accentuation of compound words 9.1.2.3. noun + noun = noun (no semantic criteria) bank-"holiday city-"centre Exceptions: "mother-tongue "mother-land "father-land

9.1.2.4. adjective + noun = noun e. noun + adjective = adjective (the noun maximises the adjective) e.g. stone-"deaf

9.1.2.5. adjective + past participle = adjective e.g. high-"minded

9.2. Three-root compound words


9.2.1. Single-accented
e.g. "merry-go-round "forget-me-not

9.2.2. Double-accented
e.g. bed-"sitting room audio-visual"aids 40

Part III.

Accentuation in short strings

41

9.2. Three-root compound words In sequences of short strings of connected speech, some words are emphasised more than other words. The reasons for this are what we might call natural sentence stress or rhythm. Another reason involves semantic criteria - some words are more important than others in terms of the meaning that is being communicated. Another reason relate to the context or the circumstances of the speech act or communication. Another reason may be the emotional state of the speakers. Obviously, to communicate effectively, a speaker must know which words in the string to accentuate, apart from knowing how each syllable is accentuated. A knowledge of word stress does not lead automatically to a knowledge of sentence accentuation. Whereas as an isolated element in the utterance a word may be accentuated in a specic way, when that word is part of a string, the same speaker may give that word a different accentuation pattern. In general, content words, i.e. semantically-loaded words, e.g. nouns, main verbs, adjectives and adverbs, are likely to be accented in an utterance. On the other hand, structural words, e.g. auxiliary verbs, personal / reexive / relative pronouns, prepositions, articles, possessive adjectives and conjunctions, are likely to be unaccented. However, some structural words are frequently accented, e.g. demonsatrative and possessive pronouns, interrogative words, negative and anomalous verbs, modal verbs. However, when dealing with the accentuation of strings, one can never be prescriptive but only descriptive. You can never say that a certain utterance is always accentuated in a certain way, i.e. being prescriptive. You can only say that when a specic utterance was spoken by a specic speaker, it was accentuated in a certain way. In fact, no two utterances are ever accentuated exactly in the same way. Thus, the study of accentuation is a descriptive study, not prescriptive. There are certain variables that make this true. The same utterance may be uttered by different speakers. 43

9. Accentuation of compound words The same utterance may be uttered by the same speaker but in a different context. Another factor would be the emotional state of the speaker, which can make accentuation patterns vary even within the same utterance. So, one can never be dogmatic. Nevertheless, there are some criteria that we can use to study accentuation patterns in general terms. One of the aspects we can study is the direction of pitch movement, which can be analysed once we have already identied the primary accents contained within the uttered string. Another aspect is the range of pitch movement on the primary accented syllable, i.e. narrow band or wide band. So, the rst task in any analysis is to identify the primary accented syllable, and then to determine the direction and range of the pitch movement.

44

10. Rhythm

Accentuation in short strings depends on the natural rhythm of the language, and this leads to the study of intonation (changes of pitch range and direction). The second aspect in any analysis is the natural rhythm of the language and the modications that occur during the utterance. English is what is called a stress-timed language, which means that the natural segmentation of the elements depends on the differentiated changes of air pressure in the vocal tract. Stressed syllables will always be separated by unstressed or unaccented syllables. Other languages can be syllable-timed. In syllable-timed languages, each syllable is produced on one chest pulse, so that each syllable is of equal duration and equal stress. It is sometimes difcult for syllable-timed language (e.g. Castilian) speakers to get used to stress-timed language (e.g. English) speakers.

10.1. Pitch direction


Pitch direction in strings in strings is indicated using diacritics which signal pitch direction on primary-accented syllables. List of diacritics for pitch direction in strings The following diachritics mark pitch direction on primary accented syllables. [] rising pitch movement [] falling pitch movement [] falling-rising pitch movement

45

10. Rhythm Do + you al + ways have + to speak + with your mouth + full? +

By means of chest pulses, we generate bursts of increased air pressure in the vocal tract, viz. chest pulse > relaxation > chest pulse > relaxation > chest pulse > relaxation > ... These chest pulses are used to produce syllables. Each syllable has approximately equal duration which affects the periodicity of the utterance, that is, the rhythm. In an anatomical sense, a syllable-timed rhythm is a more natural rhythm than a stress-timed rhythm. There is an alternative type of pulse, which we call "stress pulse." Stress pulses are a method for controlling air pressure by means of which some syllables are given more emphasis than others, such that the intervening syllables, i.e. those between the stressed ones, are of reduced duration and usually centralised. In a sense, this is a mental organisation of stress patterns - a mentally-controlled activity. In English, there are many ways of accentuating sentences. e.g. Dont + pulse stress go + pulse stress there un til Sa + pulse stress tur day "mor + pulse stress ning -

There is reduced compression between stressed syllables. Rhythm is the perceived regularity of prominent units in speech. Rhythm is a question of perception. In English there is a real anarchy in stress.

46

11. Some rules of accentuation

11.1. Sequence of three content words


In a sequence of three content words, the second will lose its stress if not more than 2 syllables. e.g. a I nice + cant + old speak "man + Chi "nese +

If the second word is longer than two syllables, it will retain its stress a I nice + cant + com + trans for late + table Chi "chair + "nese +

(The most regular pattern you can expect in English.)

11.2. Phrasal verbs


There are two main divisions: Transitive - It can take an object. a.Transpositional b.Non-transpositional Intransitive - It cant take an object. 47

11. Some rules of accentuation

11.2.1. Transitive transpositional phrasal verbs


Transitive phrasal verbs in a sentence which includes a direct object (when we speak) will adopt different accentuation patterns according to whether the particle of the phrasal verb is transposed or not, and if it is, according to whether the direct object is a full noun or a pronoun. If it is a pronoun, it has to be transposed to the end of the sentence. e.g. turn off the "tap +--+ turn the "tap off +-+turn it "off +-+

11.2.2. Intransitive phrasal verbs


In intransitive phrasal verbs, both the verb stem and the particle are normally stressed. e.g. come "in ++ go a"way +-+ However, if the verb stem is preceded by another stressed word, then the verb stem can lose its stress. e.g. You cant come "in -+-+ Wake "up // He soon woke "up ++ -+-+

Alternatively, if we put a stressed word at the end of the sentence, this will alter the accentuation pattern on the verb stem and particle. e.g. You can come in "now --+-+ 48

11.3. Double-accented compounds He woke up "early -+-+-

11.3. Double-accented compounds1


e.g. week"end during the week"end +---+ a weekend "party -+-+Some words may also change according to usage. e.g. on Friday after"noon (noun)| - + - - - + | semantic usage an afternoon "concert (adj)| -+--+-| He often inter"rupted -+---+An interrupted "visit -+---+be + complement: e.g. she is good-"looking - - + + - (the complement is double-accented) Shes very sweet-"tempered - + - - + - (it varies with the intensier) If you use the adjective attributely, i.e. you place it next to a noun, then it loses its primary accent.
1

(Depending on the context, double- accented compounds can undergo a variation in the accentuation pattern, depending on the stress status of words close to them in the utterance.)

49

11. Some rules of accentuation e.g. a good-looking "girl -+--+ Alternatively, if you use the double-accented adjective predicatively, i.e. if it is part of the predicate, then it loses its secondary accent. e.g. I nd her good-"looking -+--+-

11.3.1. Place names:


In Hyde Park "Corner -+-+On Piccadilly "Circus -+---+opposite Hyde "Park +---+ she lives near Picca"dilly -+---+-

11.4. Single-accented compounds2


e.g. excess Heeats in ex"cess Did you pay excess lug"gage? hello He said hel"lo

11.5. Semantic weight


e.g. Japa"nese as an adjective:
2

(There are some single-accented words which may undergo rhythmical modications in certain contexts.)

50

11.6. Accentuation and usage but: a Japanese "picture a Japa"nese lesson

11.6. Accentuation and usage


Accentuation patterns in general depends on usage. The objective of the communication can dictate certain accentuation patterns. For example, in the area of announcements there are fairly well established accentuation patterns: public address, railway station, airport, sports stadium. In announcements, the tendency is for the topic noun to be stressed and not the following content word. e.g. There are no "trains today. The same happens in simple statements: e.g. Im doing "English this year. The "phones ringing. As for the usage of names of places, the constant reference establishes the accentuation pattern: e.g. "Oxford Street "Regent Street Oxford "Circus Regents "Park Vic"toria Street Victoria "Station

11.7. Emphasis and Contrast


Accentuation patterns can be used to signal emphassis or contrast. The rst category is when structural words are accented for emphasis: 51

11. Some rules of accentuation e.g. You were driving "fast (non-emphatic) You "were driving fast (emphatic) Come "in (non-emphatic) "Do come in (emphatic) Explicit contrast is when two ideas are juxtaposed by contrast. e.g. I didnt say Oxford "Street, I said Oxford "Road. In this case, the elements or the concepts which are explicitly contrasted -street and road- attract the primary accent, whereas the rest of the elements lose their accents or are left unaccented.

52

12. Sentence accent, English versus Spanish.

The characteristics of English sentence accent can be summarized in two main rules: 1. Given information, that is, information which is already present in the listeners mind, mainly because it has been previously mentioned, is normally deaccented. 2. Nouns are more accentable than any other items (verbs, adjectives, etc.) Spanish sentence accent, on the contrary, follows a much simpler pattern: 1. The last accent occurs normally on the last lexical item no matter whether this item conveys new information, or if it is a noun or a verb, etc.

53

Part IV.

Word Accentuation patterns

55

scalar notation: ( ) = primary accent; ( ) = secondary accent; ( ) = prominent syllable; ( ) = unaccented syllable Diacritics: ( )=secondary accent, ( " )=primary accent

57

13. Two-syllable words

13.1. Primary accent + unaccented syllable (


word: teacher apple senate ilness Monday husband chocolate colour little region circus island preface mountain entrance transcription: syllabic division:

)
scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

diacritics:

59

13. Two-syllable words

13.2. Primary accent + prominent syllable (


word: female empire conduct expert epoch access colleague climax aspect forecast fortune borrow contrast contact proverb catholic transcription: syllabic division:

)
scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

diacritics:

13.3. Unaccented syllable + primary accent (


word: again alone fatigue career above remark believe caress patrol offence 60 transcription: syllabic division: diacritics:

)
scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

13.4. Prominent syllable + primary accent (

13.4. Prominent syllable + primary accent (


word: canteen arcade cartoon boutique brunette champagne augment although campaign shampoo donate technique transcription: syllabic division:

)
diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

13.5. Secondary accent + primary accent (


word: unknown Chinese decode non-stop misuse mayonnaise farewell eighteen elsewhere rewrite rebuild violin transcription: syllabic division:

)
diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

61

14. Three-syllable words

14.1. Primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable (


word: fortunate lunatic comparable generally literature necessary decorative subsequent commentary comortable fashionable transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

63

14. Three-syllable words

14.2. Primary accent + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable ( or Primary accent + prominent syllable + unaccented syllable ( )
word: corridor absolute catalogue caravan handicap paragraph subtitle corpuscle pullover cucumber rectangle triangle transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

14.3. Unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable (


word: important behaviour confusion abandon jalopy substantial advantage determine develop consider horizon historic 64 transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

14.4. Prominent syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable (

) or unaccented syllable + primary a

14.4. Prominent syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( or unaccented syllable + primary accent + prominent syllable ( )
word: ambition fantastic partition authentic optician transmission tomato tobacco attach distribute ance contribute transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

14.5. Secondary accent + primary accent + unaccented syllable (


word: substandard prejudgement remarry non-ction scientic non-smoker upcountry subconcsious transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

65

14. Three-syllable words

14.6. Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent (


word: guarantee seventeen cigarette picturesque serviette recommend understand orangeade millionaire refugee volunteer transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

66

15. Four-syllable words

15.1. Primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable (


word: category arbitrary delicacy eligible preferable irritable memorable testimony transcription:

)
syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

67

15. Four-syllable words

15.2. Primary accent + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable + unaccented syllable ( ) or Primary accent + unaccented )
scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

syllable + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable (


word: centimetre commentator calculator demonstrator architecture operator characterize capitalize transcription: syllabic division: diacritics:

15.3. Unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable (


word: geography obligatory combustible accompaniment demonstrative laboratory praparatory certicate transcription:

)
syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

68

15.4. Unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable (

) or promine

15.4. Unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable ( ) or prominent syllable + primary accent )
scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

+ unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable (


word: preoccupied appreciate enthusiast apologize similitude economize orthography authority transcription: syllabic division: diacritics:

15.5. Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable (


word: variation circulation explanation elementary demonstration cafeteria idiotic adolescence transcription:

)
syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

69

15. Four-syllable words

15.6. Secondary accent + prominent syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable (


word: acceptation conurbation expectation retardation departmental relocation demarcation importation transcription:

)
syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

70

16. Five-syllable words

16.1. Primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable (
word: capitalism puritanism guratively cannibalism transcription: syllabic division: diacritics:

)
scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )

16.2. Unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable (
word: inevitable inadequacy catholicism communicative transcription: syllabic division: diacritics:

)
scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )

16.3. Unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable + unaccented syllable (
word: accelerator refrigerator incinerator sophisticated transcription: syllabic division: diacritics:

)
scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) 71

16. Five-syllable words

16.4. Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable (
word: curiosity aristocracy archaeology university transcription: syllabic division: diacritics:

)
scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )

16.5. Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + prominent syllable (
word: diferentiate underestimate rehabilitate decontaminate transcription: syllabic division: diacritics:

)
scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )

16.6. Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable (
word: classication characteristic Mediterranean qualication transcription: syllabic division:

)
diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )

72

16.7. Unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllabl

16.7. Unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable (
word: continuation consideration appreciation enthusiastic transcription: syllabic division:

)
diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )

16.8. Secondary accent + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable (
word: predisposition preoccupation self-preservation transcription: syllabic division:

)
diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ) ) )

73

17. Six-syllable words

17.1. Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( )
word: unexceptionable individualism indistinguishable transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ) ) )

17.2. Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( )
word: irritability characteristically etymological transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ) ) )

75

17. Six-syllable words

17.3. Unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable ( )
word: familiarity availability inferiority responsibility transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )

17.4. Unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( )
word: electrication solidication experimentation transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ) ) )

17.5. Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable ( )
word: differentiation insubordination individualistic transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ) ) )

76

18. Seven-syllable words

18.1. Unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable (
word: intelligibility inevitability invulnerability transcription:

)
syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ) ) )

18.2. Secondary accent + unaccented syllable + secondary accent + unaccented syllable + primary accent + unaccented syllable + unaccented syllable (
word: irresponsibility individuality unconventionality transcription:

)
syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ) ) )

77

19. Single-accented compound words

19.1. Nouns
word: baby-sitter car-dealer pain-killer holiday-maker book-seller dish-washer housekeeper record-player tin-opener typewriter lawn-mower bartender lie-detector taxi-driver egg-beater vacuum-cleaner hair-drier ballet-dancer stamp-collector leave-taking bee-keeping book-keeping ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 79 transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: ( ( ( ) ) ) )

19. Single-accented compound words

house-keeping window-dressing window-shopping car-cleaning

( ( ( (

) ) ) )

19.2. Adjectives
word: transcription: syllabic division: diacritics: scalar notation: breathtaking painstaking timesaving timeconsuming ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )

80

Part V.

More on lexical accent

81

20. Two syllable words

Most two-syllable words are derived from one-syllable words. For example, artist is derived from art, remove is derived from move. Most derivational morphemes do not carry the accent. Thus, these two-syllable words carry the accent on the syllable of the original word: artist remove ++-

Some other words that follow this pattern (+ -): drive friend fame like build come driver friendly famous dislike rebuild become Most two-syllable NOUNS and ADJECTIVES follow this pattern even if they are not derived from a one-syllable word. For example, brother is not derived from *broth, but it still has the pattern + - . (20.1) Underline the stressed syllables in the following sentence: The artists most famous picture shows some women and children in a lovely forest with a purple mountain behind. As usual, there are exceptions to this general rule. For example: mistake, asleep, machine, alone, etc. are all accented on the second syllable. Most two-syllable VERBS are accented on the second syllable.

83

20. Two syllable words (20.2) Underline the stressed syllables in the following sentence. Notice they are all stressed on the second syllable: Escape to Scotland, forget about work, just relax and enjoy the scenery! There are a number of exception to this general rule. For example: cancel, copy, and two-syllable verbs ending in -er and -en are all accented on the rst syllable, answer, enter, widen, offer, listen, happen, open, etc.

84

21. Distinctive function of accent

21.1. noun/adjective - verb distinction


In some cases, the accent is the only difference between words acting as nouns/adjectives or verbs1 . For example, increase (n) /"INkri:s/, and increase (v) /IN"kri:s/. In addition, there is, sometimes, phonemic variation due to change in accent. word absent accent addict compound conduct conict contract contrast convict decrease desert export frequent import increase object perfect permit
1

noun/adjective /"bs@nt/ /"ks@nt/ /"dIkt/ /"k6mpaUnd/ /"k6nd@kt/

verb /@b"sent/ /@k"sent/ /@"dIkt/ /k@m"paUnd/ /k@n"d2kt/

There is not always a change in the lexical accent in words that are both nouns and verbs. For example: answer, picture, promise, reply, travel, visit, etc. are always accented on the same syllable.

85

21. Distinctive function of accent

present project protest rebel record produce protest rebel

(21.1) Write two sentences for each pair, place the stresses and transcribe them. For example: His "conduct was satisfactory. They con"duct themselves very well.

21.2. Compounds versus phrases


As previously mentioned, compound nouns tend to be single accented on the rst syllable. On the other hand, in a simple adjective + noun combination, both words would be accented. To illustrate this point, lets use the compound blackboard. There is a difference between: (21.2) (a) a "blackboard. (b) a black "board. The main characteristic of compounds is that they form a new word, for a new concept. In this case a blackboard is no longer a board that is black. The same applies for greenhouse and green house: (21.3) (a) a "greenhouse. (b) a green "house. In both cases the compound is even written as a single word. Lets now examine: (21.4) (a) an "English teacher (a teacher of English). (b) an English "teacher (a teacher who happens to be from England). What about toy factory and moving van?

86

21.3. Accent shift

21.3. Accent shift


With most morphemes, there is no accent shift i.e. the accent remains on the same syllable. For example: -ness "happy = "happiness

These are some of the morphememes that do not shift the accent pattern of the words (complete thw list with examples of your own): -able drinkable, consumable, etc. -al musical, logical, etc. -er player, catcher, etc. -ful helpful, beautyful, etc. -hood childhood, neighbourhood, etc. -ing boring, singing, etc. im- impossible, -ise civilise -ish childish -less careless -ly friendly -ment employment -ness happiness -ship fellowship un- unhappy under- underpay But there are some which do shift the accent. For example: ed ed u u cate ca tion

For -ion or -ian, the accent moves to the syllable preceding them. Some examples: electric electrician 87

21. Distinctive function of accent decorate music decoration musician

communicate communication The same happens with -ic: scientist economy atom artist scientic economic atomic artistic

For -y, the accent falls on the second syllable before the end of the word. For example: na na tion tio al na li ty

Consider: public publicity

photograph photography climate chemist climatology chemistry

88

22. Practice
(22.1) Circle the word with an accent pattern different from the others. money answer middle compare garden complete pronounce shampoo reason machine agree minute correct guitar common provide shoulder remove mountain allow mission copy granny careful prefer shower review message attract mistake collect grammar crazy promise shopping receive

Accentuate the italicized words in the following sentences: (22.2) (a) I got my rst record as a present. (b) Youve progressed this year, but I would like to see even more progress. (c) We import too much petrol, and the export gures are going down. (d) It started as a student protest, but now the army has rebelled against the government. (e) In the desert there is a big contrast between temperatures in the day and at night. (f) These companies produce household objects such as fridges and washing machines. Transcribe: (22.3) (a) How many had he had? (b) One over the eight, I should think. (22.4) (a) What am I wanted for? (b) You are not wanted at all. Neither am I. (22.5) (a) Billy will go with you. 89

22. Practice (b) Billy is going nowhere. Not tonight. (22.6) It would be nice if it would stop raining,| would not it? (22.7) (a) There is nothing for it. We will have to pay the ne. (b) How can we? (22.8) (a) That is kind of you. (b) Far from it. (c) No. It really is very kind. (22.9) (a) Has he had his hair cut? (b) Of course he has, silly! Long ago. (22.10) England and Dwales? Never heard of those! What are dwales? (22.11) (a) Where is he at this moment? (b) At the hospital A and E department. (22.12) (a) They must try them themselves, then. (b) They had better not. (22.13) Did they say they were Joe and Ann| or Jo and Dan? (22.14) I am going to the ball as Napoleon. Who are you going as? (22.15) (a) Does this train |stop at all stations. (b) It does not stop at all. (22.16) (a) Why is a short negro| like a white man? (b) Because hes not a tall black. (22.17) At the village church |they ate Dutch cheeses| and drank orange juice. (22.18) We had some Scottish beef |and some red wine| and some cheese or other. (22.19) (a) Fathers bringing home some missionary for dinner. (b) That will be nice. (22.20) Shes giving him a painting| that she will have done by Christmas. 90

(22.21) Hes going to give them to me is not he? Tell him his father said to. (22.22) We are on our own from here on, are not we? Not that that matters. (22.23) (a) I was wondering what it was that was keeping them. (b) So was I. (22.24) (a) We lost our way| and got ourselves terribly muddy. (b) So were we. (22.25) If you want some| take some. They are perfectly wholesome. (22.26) We saw him in his house. He always has his hands| in his pockets. (22.27) (a) Will you let us have a party, please? (b) Let us see what Father says.

91