- HYSYS Upstream Guide
- Rheology of extrusion.pdf
- Lect 2 - 4 - Momentum Transport
- To draw graph
- Ajos Pasta
- 122 Keralastic Gb
- Fluid Mechanics My Book
- FractureFlow(1)
- vf1999_d44_din53211
- J. B. Barlow, W. H. Rae, Jr, A. Pope-Low Speed Wind Tunnel Testing. 1-John Wiley & Sons (1999).pdf
- Elective 2 - Process Audit (HGG)
- 12093 - Fluid Mechanics & Machinery Question Paper
- Haake+TPV
- mathematical modeling of viscosity
- Haake+TPV.pdf
- Two Dimensional Systems REPORT
- Viscosity_ratio of Slurries
- Drainage Equation
- 1-s2.0-S0022247X00967416-main
- Stability Test
- A+SURVEY+ON+SEMI-TENSOR+PRODUCT+OF+MATRICES
- Dinamica Lineare FEM 3
- Cpi-1005 Series Pds v1
- Feature Extraction of the Fabric Defects Image
- appB
- spatial structure of wood
- Term Paper
- Problems on Fluid Properties
- Scc - Deebrphd
- Wind Tunnel Testing - Barlow, Rae, Pope
- 00062562
- SPE-157830-PA-P
- Optimizing a Cfd Fortran Code for Grid Computig
- Fortran
- SPE-147306-PA-P.pdf
- Sweep Efficiency in Steamflooding
- SPE-150147-MS-P

**DOI 10.1007/s11242-010-9555-2
**

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability in Porous

Media. Part 1: Linear Stability Analysis

M. N. Islam · J. Azaiez

Received: 14 April 2009 / Accepted: 17 February 2010 / Published online: 9 March 2010

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Abstract The development of the thermo-viscous ﬁngering instability of miscible

displacements in homogeneous porous media is examined. In this ﬁrst part of the study

dealing with stability analysis, the basic equations and the parameters governing the problem

in a rectilinear geometry are developed. An exponential dependence of viscosity on temper-

ature and concentration is represented by two parameters, thermal mobility ratio β

T

and a

solutal mobility ratio β

C

, respectively. Other parameters involved are the Lewis number Le

and a thermal-lag coefﬁcient λ. The governing equations are linearized and solved to obtain

instability characteristics using either a quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA) or initial

value calculations (IVC). Exact analytical solutions are also obtained for very weakly diffus-

ing systems. Using the QSSAapproach, it was found that an increase in thermal mobility ratio

β

T

is seen to enhance the instability for ﬁxed β

C

, Le and λ. For ﬁxed β

C

and β

T

, a decrease

in the thermal-lag coefﬁcient and/or an increase in the Lewis number always decrease the

instability. Moreover, strong thermal diffusion at large Le as well as enhanced redistribution

of heat between the solid and ﬂuid phases at small λ is seen to alleviate the destabilizing

effects of positive β

T

. Consequently, the instability gets strictly dominated by the solutal

front. The linear stability analysis using IVC approach leads to conclusions similar to the

QSSA approach except for the case of large Le and unity λ ﬂow where the instability is seen

to get even less pronounced than in the case of a reference isothermal ﬂow of the same β

C

,

but β

T

= 0. At practically, small value of λ, however, the instability ultimately approaches

that due to β

C

only.

Keywords Thermo-viscous ﬁngering · Linear stability analysis · QSS approach ·

IVC approach · Porous media

M. N. Islam · J. Azaiez (B)

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

e-mail: azaiez@ucalgary.ca

Present Address:

M. N. Islam

Conventional Oil and Natural Gas Business Unit, Alberta Innovates–Technical Future,

Calgary, AB, Canada

1 3

822 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

List of Symbols

a Function of wavenumber, solutal viscosity ratio, and quasi-static growth rate

A

i

, B

i

, C

i

Coefﬁcients to be determined in initial growth rate calculation using QSSA

b Function of wavenumber, thermal viscosity ratio, and m

i

—function of

thermal-lag coefﬁcient

C Concentration (kg/m

3

)

c Dimensionless concentration

cas Cosine plus Sine of an angle

cos Cosine of an angle

Cp Heat capacity (kJ/kg

◦

C)

d Inﬁnitesimal increment in value of a variable

D Diffusion coefﬁcient (m

2

/s); total derivative operator

dt Inﬁnitesimal increment in time

EOR Enhanced oil recovery

e Gap between two plates in a Hele-Shaw cell (m)

erfc Complimentary error function

exp Exponential function

f Arbitrary function

g(x, t ) Arbitrary function in x and t

h Function of quasi-static growth rate, Lewis number, and wavenumber

H Heaviside step function operator

H Hartley transform operator

I Identity matrix

IVC Initial Value Calculation

k Dimensionless wavenumber in y direction

K Permeability of the medium (Darcy, m

2

)

k

x

, k

y

Discrete wavenumbers in x and y direction, respectively

l Function of quasi-static growth rate and wavenumber

log Logarithm function

L Length of the Hele–Shaw cell (m)

Le Lewis number (dimensionless)

m Fraction of cold ﬂuid left on the wall; function of thermal-lag coefﬁcient,

Lewis number, h, and sign indicator

N

x

, N

y

Number of spectral modes in x and y direction, respectively

p Pressure (Pa)

Pe Peclet number (dimensionless)

QSSA Quasi-Steady-State Approximation

rand Random number between −1 and +1

s Sign indicator: s

1

= +1(i.e.x < 0) and s

2

= −1(i.e., x > 0)

SAGD Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage

sin Sine of an angle

t Time (s, dimensionless after scaling)

T Temperature (

◦

C)

U Average velocity (m/s, dimensionless after scaling)

v Velocity vector (m/s, dimensionless after scaling)

u, v Velocity components in x and y direction, respectively

(m/s, dimensionless after scaling)

W Width of the Hele–Shaw cell (m)

1 3

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability 823

x x-Direction in rectangular coordinates

y y-Direction in rectangular coordinates

z z-Direction in rectangular coordinates

Greek Symbols

α Viscosity ratio

β Natural logarithm of the viscosity ratio; function of thermal-lag coefﬁcient and

Lewis number

∂ Partial derivative operator

δ Dirac Delta function operator, small distance (m); magnitude of the dimensionless

disturbance

φ Porosity

γ Quasi-static growth rate; algebraic growth rate (dimensionless)

Coefﬁcients of quadratic equation in k

η IVC growth rate (dimensionless)

Λ Function of wavenumber, solutal viscosity ratio and l

λ Thermal-lag coefﬁcient; ratio of the ﬁnger width to the channel width; average

wavelength

µ Viscosity of the ﬂuid (Pa.s, dimensionless after scaling)

π π = 3.14159. . .

θ Dimensionless temperature

ϑ Temperature perturbation eigenfunction

ρ Density of the ﬂuid (kg/m

3

)

χ Concentration perturbation eigenfunction

ψ Velocity perturbation eigenfunction

Small increment; function of wavenumber and thermal viscosity ratio

Function of l, k and β

C

Function of many variables in initial growth rate calculation

∞ Inﬁnity

√

Square root

* Multiplication indicator

· Scalar product operator

L2 norm

∇ Gradient operator

∇

2

Laplacian operator

Superscripts

− Base state solution; average value, L2 norm

∗

Scaled variable in moving reference

Perturbation

+, −

Positive and negative direction along x axis, respectively

Subscripts

0,o

Initial time for IVC and time at which base state is considered to be frozen in

QSSA, respectively

1, 2

Displacing ﬂuid and displaced ﬂuid, respectively

C1 and C2

Indicator for critical β values

1 3

824 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

C, T

Concentration and temperature, respectively

cutoff

To denote cutoff wavenumber

eff

Effective

i Counter used for sign indicator (1 for x < 0 and 2 for x > 0)

I, II

Displacing phase and displaced phase, respectively

mean

Mean

max

Maximum

s, f

Solid and ﬂuid, respectively

tip

Tip of the ﬁnger

x

x direction

ϑ Temperature perturbation eigenfunction

χ

Concentration perturbation eigenfunction

ψ

Streamfunction; velocity perturbation eigenfunction

1 Introduction

Flow displacements in porous media can result in the development of an interfacial insta-

bility between the two ﬂuids involved in the displacement process. This instability, known

as the Saffman–Taylor instability (Saffman and Taylor 1958; Chuoke et al. 1959), manifests

itself in the form of ﬁnger-shaped intrusions of the displacing ﬂuid into the displaced one

and can have a dramatic impact on the displacement process (Bensimon et al. 1986). When

the driving factor behind the instability is the viscous mismatch between the two ﬂuids, the

instability is referred to as the viscous ﬁngering instability.

The viscous ﬁngering instability is observed in a variety of processes including second-

ary and tertiary oil recovery, ﬁxed bed regeneration in chemical processing, hydrology, soil

remediation, and ﬁltration. In most applications, viscous ﬁngering is undesirable as it results

in reduced sweep efﬁciency of the displacement process. Any process aimed toward the

elimination of the instabilities or the control of the growth rate of the viscous ﬁngers is of

high technological importance.

The majority of existing studies have focused on isothermal displacements where both ﬂu-

ids are at the same temperature. Extensive reviews of theoretical, experimental, and numerical

simulation studies can be found in the study of Homsy (1987), McCloud and Maher (1995),

and Islam and Azaiez (2005).

Viscosity, which is the main physical property behind the instability, may vary as a result

of a change in the ﬂow temperature. The resulting instability is usually referred to as thermo-

viscous ﬁngering which may be observed under two conditions. In the ﬁrst one, a ﬂuid ﬂows

through a medium (porous medium or slot) having a temperature different than that of the

ﬂuid. Such instability may be observed in magma ﬂowin ﬁssure eruptions, geo-thermal ﬂows

as well as ﬂow of polymer melts in injection molding. In the second one, the two ﬂuids are at

two different temperatures resulting in two traveling fronts, a ﬂuid front and a thermal front

along which the instability may be observed. Such ﬂows are encountered in many thermal

enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as hot water ﬂooding, steam ﬂooding, Steam-

Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), and hot solvent injection, as well as in some polymer

processing systems. The focus of the present study is on the latter type of thermo-viscous

ﬁngering.

The thermo-viscous ﬁngering instability has not received as much attention as its isother-

mal counterpart and only a very limited number of studies can be found in the literature.

1 3

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability 825

Kong et al. (1992) conducted one of the ﬁrst studies on this topic. These authors visualized

steamdisplacement of heavy oils in vertical and horizontal rectilinear Hele–Shawcells. Even

though the study suffered fromdifﬁculties in heat transfer control and operational problems at

high temperatures and pressure, it allowed the authors to reach many important conclusions.

In particular, they reported that steam tended to condense in contact with the cold resident

oil. A trailing residual oil ﬁlm was left coating the glass plates of the Hele–Shaw cell behind

the water–oil front. The authors also compared isothermal water–oil and non-isothermal

steam–oil displacements and reported major structural differences.

In a similar study, Sasaki et al. (2002) examined the microscopic phenomena and drainage

mechanisms at the steam chamber interface during the initial stage of a SAGD process. The

authors found that the stable vertical boundary between the steam and oil phases moved

side-ways with time. Fine droplets produced at the interface due to condensation, moved into

the oil creating water–oil emulsion. The authors also suggested that the ﬁne water droplets

accelerated heat transfer from the interface to the oil phase by releasing heat as they pene-

trated the oil. Such dynamic interactions may have accelerated heat transfer and improved

the oil production by decreasing the oil viscosity.

In a more relevant study, Kuang and Maxworthy (2003) analyzed displacements in cylin-

drical capillary tubes of a high-viscosity ﬂuid at low temperature by the same ﬂuid at a

higher temperature and lower viscosity. A parameter m = 1 − U

mean

/U

tip

where U

mean

represents the mean velocity and U

tip

is the tip velocity, was used to represent the fraction

of cold ﬂuid left on the walls of the tube after passage of the advancing front. Three dif-

ferent ﬂow regimes were identiﬁed: a diffusion dominated for Pe < 1, 000 with m = 0.5;

a viscously dominated for Pe > 3, 000 with m averaging a value of 0.62 and a transition

regime for 1000 < Pe < 3000 in which both diffusion and viscous effects are important.

In a subsequent study, Holloway and de Bruyn (2005) examined ﬂow displacements of cold

glycerin with hot glycerin in a radial Hele-Shaw cell and analyzed the effects of the cell gap

on the instability.

In terms of mathematical or numerical modeling of the thermo-viscous ﬁngering instabil-

ity, one is forced to recognize that there is a real dearth of studies. The ﬁrst serious numerical

study attempting to examine this instability was conducted by Saghir et al. (2000). These

authors considered nonlinear double-diffusive convection in a vertically mounted homoge-

neous porous medium, and used the ﬁnite element technique to solve the ﬂow equations.

Isothermal, non-isothermal, and microgravity displacements were considered. Variations of

the distance traveled by the base and the tip with time were presented for each case, how-

ever only minor differences were observed between the isothermal and non-isothermal cases.

Comparisons with microgravity tests intended to eliminate the effects of buoyancy did not

reveal major differences either. It should ﬁnally be mentioned that aside from the distance

traveled by the base and the tip, the authors did not show any other quantitative or qualitative

characterizations of the instability.

A subsequent numerical simulation study by Sheorey et al. (2001) analyzed both iso-

thermal and non-isothermal immiscible displacements in rectangular porous formation. The

authors reported that the numerical solutions experienced growth of errors during long time

integration, particularly in large regions. Still, from the laterally averaged saturation proﬁles,

the authors reported that in non-isothermal displacements the saturation proﬁles are front

dominated and correlate well with the temperature proﬁles. Although the study of Sheorey

et al. (2001) involved immiscible displacements, the stabilizing effect of thermal transfer was

found to be similar to that reported by Saghir et al. (2000). Finally, Holloway and de Bruyn

(2005) compared experimental results of thermal displacements in a radial Hele-Shaw cell

with numerical simulations using FLUENT

.

1 3

826 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

Only one relevant linear stability analysis study was found in the literature. In this study,

Pritchard (2004) analyzed the stability of non-isothermal miscible displacements in a porous

medium of radial geometry. The author focused on the stability of the ﬂuid and thermal trav-

eling fronts and since viscosity may change across each front, viscous ﬁngering instability

may arise on either front. The major conclusion of this study was that to determine the ﬂow

instability, the viscosity changes associated with thermal and composition differences must

be considered separately: in general, if either change promotes ﬁngering, then instability is

likely to develop, although its rate of growth may be modiﬁed significantly by the coupling

between the two mechanisms.

From the above studies, it is clear that the viscous ﬁngering instability for non-isothermal

displacements has not received as much attention as its counterpart for isothermal ﬂows.

It is in fact surprising that except of the stability analysis of Pritchard (2004) for a radial

geometry, there are no other studies that have attempted to explain the inherent mechanisms

of the instability or to characterize the nonlinear evolution of the ﬁnger structures when both

heat and mass transfer are involved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst study

that attempts to address these issues in the case of rectilinear ﬂow geometry. The rectilinear

geometry is different from the radial one, in that the latter involves a point source injection

and contact interface that expands as the ﬂow evolves, while the former has a ﬁxed initial

interface deﬁned by the cell width. Therefore, the developments of the ﬂows in the early

stages are different in the two geometries. This justiﬁes the ﬁrst part of this study dealing

with the linear stability analysis. The second part will focus on the nonlinear development of

the ﬂow. Finally, it should be noted that even though most of the practical applications cited

above deal with immiscible ﬂows, the present study focuses on the miscible case.

This part is organized as follows: right after this introductory section a mathematical

model along with the physical problem will be presented. Linearization of the model equa-

tions will then be given with the appropriate formulations concerning the Quasi-Steady-State

Approximation (QSSA) and Initial Value Calculation (IVC) approaches. In the results sec-

tion, theoretical estimation of the initial growth rate will be shown ﬁrst, which will then be

followed by numerical results. Finally, some conclusions will be drawn from this study and

will be linked to the nonlinear simulation results to be presented in the next part.

2 Mathematical Model

2.1 Physical Problem

A two-dimensional miscible displacement in a horizontal rectilinear homogeneous medium

of constant porosity φ and permeability K is considered. A ﬂuid of viscosity µ

1

and uniform

temperature T

1

is injected with a uniform velocity U to displace a second one of viscosity

µ

2

and uniform temperature T

2

. Here, the direction of the ﬂow is along the x-axis and the

y-axis is parallel to the initial plane of the interface (Fig. 1). The length, width, and thickness

of the medium are L, W, and e, respectively.

2.2 Governing Equations

The ﬂow is governed by the equations for the conservation of mass, the conservation of

momentum in the form of Darcy’s law, and the volume-averaged mass and energy balance

equations.

1 3

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability 827

L

e

W

1 1

,T µ

2 2

,T µ

y

x

z

Average velocity U

Fig. 1 Schematic of rectilinear Hele-Shaw cell/two-dimensional porous medium

∇ · v = 0 (1)

∇p = −

µ

K

v (2)

∂C

1

∂t

+

1

φ

(v · ∇)C

1

= D

c

∇

2

C

1

(3)

∂T

∂t

+

λ

φ

(v · ∇)T = D

T

∇

2

T. (4)

In the above equations, v = (u, v) is the velocity vector with u and v representing the x and

y components, respectively, while ∇ and ∇

2

stand for the gradient and Laplacian operators

in the (x,y) plane. The other variables are the pressure p, the viscosity µ, the permeability K,

the porosity φ, the concentration of the solvent (displacing ﬂuid) C

1

, and the temperature of

the solid–ﬂuid system, which is assumed to be in local thermal equilibrium, T. The effective

mass and thermal dispersion coefﬁcients are referred to by D

C

and D

T

, respectively. The

above equations model the propagation of two fronts, one associated with temperature and

will be referred to as the thermal front, while the other corresponds to mass transport and

will be called the solutal front. The parameter λ that shall be referred to as the thermal-lag

coefﬁcient, represents the ratio of the speed of the thermal front to that of the solutal front

(Pritchard 2004):

λ =

φρ

f

Cp

f

φρ

f

Cp

f

+(1 −φ)ρ

s

Cp

s

. (5)

In the above equations, ρ

s

, Cp

s

, ρ

f

, and Cp

f

are the density and heat capacity of the solid

phase, and the density and heat capacity of the ﬂuid phase, respectively. Throughout this

study, changes in the ﬂuid density and heat capacity will be assumed to be sufﬁciently small

such that λ can be considered constant.

The ﬂow model offers two characteristic velocities, U/φ and λU/φ associated with the

mass and temperature transport, respectively. The former will be used as the characteristic

1 3

828 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

velocity in the present study. This choice has been dictated by the fact that U/φ usually

referred to as interstitial velocity, is the most commonly used velocity to characterize such

ﬂows. Furthermore, this choice will allow for easy comparison with numerous previous

studies that have focused on the isothermal case. Finally, in the case of a double solutal and

thermal fronts, the former will be less diffuse than the latter and is expected to contribute

more to the overall instability of the system.

The model equations are expressed in a Lagrangian reference frame moving at the velocity

U/φ (Tan and Homsy 1986; Manickam and Homsy 1995; Azaiez and Singh 2002). Further-

more, the equations are made dimensionless using D

C

φ/U, D

C

φ

2

/U

2

, and U/φ as the

characteristic length, time, and velocity. The constant permeability K is incorporated in the

expression of the viscosity by treating µ/K as µ, and ratios of µ shall be referred to as either

viscosity or mobility ratios. The viscosity and pressure are scaled with µ

1

and µ

1

D

C

φ,

respectively, and the concentration with that of the displacing ﬂuid C

1

. Finally, deﬁning

the dimensionless temperature as θ

∗

= (T − T

2

)/(T

1

− T

2

), the following dimensionless

equations are obtained:

∂u

∗

∂x

∗

+

∂v∗

∂y

∗

= 0 (6)

∂p

∗

∂x

∗

= −µ

∗

(u

∗

+1),

∂p

∗

∂y

∗

= −µ

∗

v

∗

(7)

∂c

∗

∂t

∗

+u

∗

∂c

∗

∂x

∗

+v

∗

∂c

∗

∂y

∗

=

_

∂

2

c

∗

∂x

∗2

+

∂

2

c

∗

∂y

∗2

_

(8)

∂θ

∗

∂t

∗

+(λ −1)

∂θ

∗

∂x

∗

+λ

_

u

∗

∂θ

∗

∂x

∗

+v

∗

∂θ

∗

∂y

∗

_

= Le

_

∂

2

θ

∗

∂x

∗2

+

∂

2

θ

∗

∂y

∗2

_

(9)

Here, Le is the Lewis number, Le = D

T

/D

C

= Pe

C

/Pe

T

where Pe

C

and Pe

T

are the

solutal and thermal Peclet numbers. For convenience, in all that follows, the asterisks will

be dropped from all dimensionless variables. In order to complete the model, a form for the

dependence of the viscosity on concentration and temperature must be speciﬁed. Following

Tan and Homsy (1986) and Pritchard (2004), exponential dependence is adopted:

µ(c, θ) = exp (β

c

(1 −c) +β

T

(1 −θ)) . (10)

In an isothermal miscible displacement, β

C

corresponds to the natural logarithm of the vis-

cosity ratio (µ

2

/µ

1

), while in a thermal displacement involving a single ﬂuid β

T

represents

the natural logarithm of the ratio of the viscosity (µ

T2

/µ

T1

) at two different temperatures,

and will be referred to as the thermal mobility ratio.

3 Linearized Equations

3.1 Perturbation Equations

The system of Eqs. 6–9 admits the following base state solutions:

¯ u(x, t ) = ¯ v(x, t ) = 0, ¯ c(x, t ) =

1

2

erfc

_

x

2

√

t

_

,

¯

θ(x, t ) =

1

2

erfc

_

x −(λ −1)t

2

√

Let

_

(11)

¯ µ(x, t ) = exp

_

β

c

(1 − ¯ c) +β

T

(1 −

¯

θ)

_

, ¯ p(x, t ) = −

x

_

¯ µ(x

, t )dx

. (12)

1 3

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability 829

In order to conduct a linear stability analysis of the problem, small disturbances noted with

a prime are added to the ﬂow at the base state. The linearized equations in terms of the

perturbations are:

∂u

∂x

+

∂v

∂y

= 0 (13)

∂p

∂x

= −µ

− ¯ µu

,

∂p

∂y

= −¯ µv

(14)

∂c

∂t

+u

∂ ¯ c

∂x

=

∂

2

c

∂x

2

+

∂

2

c

∂y

2

(15)

∂θ

∂t

+(λ −1)

∂θ

∂x

+λu

∂

¯

θ

∂x

= Le

_

∂

2

θ

∂x

2

+

∂

2

θ

∂y

2

_

, (16)

where µ

= c

∂ ¯ µ

∂ ¯ c

+θ

∂ ¯ µ

∂

¯

θ

. The linearized equations can be expressed in terms of c

, θ

and u

**only. For this purpose, the pressure is eliminated by taking the curl of Darcy’s law (Eq. 14):
**

¯ µ

_

∂v

∂x

−

∂u

∂y

_

−

∂µ

∂y

+v

∂ ¯ µ

∂x

= 0. (17)

The transverse component of the velocity v

**is eliminated by taking the derivative of Eq. 17
**

with respect to y, and using Eq. 13:

_

∂

2

u

∂x

2

+

∂

2

u

∂y

2

_

+

1

¯ µ

∂ ¯ µ

∂x

∂u

∂x

+

1

¯ µ

∂

2

µ

∂y

2

= 0. (18)

Equations 15, 16, and 18 will then be used in the ensuing linear stability analysis. Since the

base state depends only on the x-coordinate and time, it is possible to use a normal mode anal-

ysis of the perturbations where the disturbances are expanded in terms of Fourier components

in y:

(u

, c

, θ

) (x, y, t ) = (ψ, χ, ϑ) (x, t ) e

i ky

(19)

where k is the wavenumber of disturbances in the y direction. Substituting the above expres-

sions for the perturbations in Eqs. 15, 16, and 18, along with the use of Eq. 10 one gets:

_

∂

∂t

−

∂

2

∂x

2

+k

2

_

χ = −

∂ ¯ c

∂x

ψ (20)

_

∂

∂t

+(λ −1)

∂

∂x

− Le

∂

2

∂x

2

+ Le k

2

_

ϑ = −λ

∂

¯

θ

∂x

ψ (21)

_

∂

2

∂x

2

−k

2

−

_

β

C

∂ ¯ c

∂x

+β

T

∂

¯

θ

∂x

_

∂

∂x

_

ψ = −k

2

(β

C

χ +β

T

ϑ) (22)

−

1

¯ µ

∂ ¯ µ

∂x

= β

C

∂ ¯ c

∂x

+β

T

∂

¯

θ

∂x

. (23)

Since the base state solutions depend on both time and the spatial component x, it is not

possible a priori to further simplify the above system of partial differential equations. One

approach that has been used extensively for isothermal ﬂows is based on the so-called QSSA

(Tan and Homsy 1986; Rogerson and Meiburg 1993; Manickam and Homsy 1995; Azaiez

and Singh 2002). This approximation is based on the assumption that the growth rate of

perturbations is asymptotically faster than the rate of change of the background state. As

such, one should be able to determine the most dangerous wavelengths at any point in time

1 3

830 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

at which the base state was “frozen”. As one may have expected, the use of such an approxi-

mation raises questions regarding its limitations and conditions of applicability. This has led

to a number of studies that attempted to solve the initial partial differential equations using

a number of techniques including direct solutions using pseudo-spectral methods (Tan and

Homsy 1986) and the projection of the disturbances into a suitable space of eigenfunctions

(Ben et al. 2002; Pritchard 2004). The solution of the original set of partial differential equa-

tions will be referred to as IVC. In this study, we will use both the QSSAand IVCapproaches

to analyze the ﬂow instability. Since both approaches have advantages and disadvantages,

the analysis and comparison of the results of both methods should allow one to determine the

extent of applicability of QSSA for studying the instability in double diffusive–convective

thermo-viscous ﬂows.

3.2 Step-Proﬁle Approximation

The limiting case of very short time such that on the timescale considered, diffusion has no

effects on the ﬂow which effectively behaves as immiscible (Rakotomalala et al. 1997), is

considered ﬁrst. Under such limiting case, both thermal and solutal fronts are represented by

a step-proﬁle; c(x) = θ(x) = 1 −H(x), where H(x) represents the Heaviside step function

(Tan and Homsy 1986; Yortsos and Zeybek 1988). In this case, an exponential growth in time

for the perturbations is assumed:

(ψ, χ, ϑ)(x, t ) = (ψ, χ, ϑ)(x) exp[γ t ]. (24)

With such formulation, the following equations are obtained:

[D

2

−l

2

]χ = −δψ (25)

[LeD

2

+(1 −λ)D −h

2

]ϑ = −λδψ (26)

_

1

µ

D(µD) −k

2

_

ψ = −k

2

(β

C

χ +β

T

ϑ) (27)

In the above equation, h

2

= γ + Le k

2

, l

2

= γ + k

2

, D = d/dx, and δ(x) stands for

Dirac Delta function. Solutions that decay far from the fronts are sought in the form:

χ(x) = A

1

· exp(s

1

l x) x < 0

χ(x) = A

2

· exp(s

2

l x) x > 0

(28)

ϑ(x) = B

1

· exp(m

1

x) x < 0

ϑ(x) = B

2

· exp(m

2

x) x > 0

(29)

ψ(x) = aA

1

· exp(s

1

l x) +b

1

B

1

· exp(m

1

x) +C

1

· exp(s

1

kx) x < 0

ψ(x) = aA

2

· exp(s

2

l x) +b

2

B

2

· exp(m

2

x) +C

2

· exp(s

2

kx) x > 0.

(30)

The solutions are valid for x = 0 with s

1

= +1 for x < 0 and s

2

= −1 for x > 0.

The remaining parameters are deﬁned as:

m

1

=

(λ −1) +

_

(λ −1)

2

+4Leh

2

2Le

; m

2

=

(λ −1) −

_

(λ −1)

2

+4Leh

2

2Le

(31)

a = −

k

2

β

C

γ

(32)

b

1

= −

k

2

β

T

m

2

1

−k

2

; b

2

= −

k

2

β

T

m

2

2

−k

2

. (33)

1 3

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability 831

The unknown constants A

i

, B

i

, and C

i

are determined using the following conditions:

χ(0

+

) = χ(0

−

) (34)

ϑ(0

+

) = ϑ(0

−

) (35)

ψ(0

+

) = ψ(0

−

) (36)

Dχ(0

+

) − Dχ(0

−

) = −ψ(0) (37)

Le(Dϑ(0

+

) − Dϑ(0

−

)) = −λψ(0) (38)

αDψ(0

+

) = Dψ(0

−

), (39)

where α = exp(β

C

+β

T

). The above equations are obtained by requiring the perturbations

to be continuous at 0 and by integrating Eqs. 25–27 between 0

−

and 0

+

. Equations 34–39

lead to a homogenous system of equations for the six unknowns A

1

, B

1

, C

1

, A

2

, B

2

, and C

2

.

For non-trivial solutions, the determinant of the corresponding matrix must be zero, which

after some algebra leads to (see Appendix):

3

m

3

1

+

2

m

2

1

+

1

m

1

+

0

= 0 (40)

3

= 2(1 +α)Le (41)

2

= (1 +α)Le(4k −3β) (42)

1

= (1 +α)[Le(2k

2

+β

2

−4kβ) −2kl(1 + Leβ)β

T

] (43)

0

= (1 +α)[Leβk(β −k) −2k

2

l(1 + Leβ)β

T

]

+2kl(1 + Leβ)ββ

T

, (44)

where = 2l −kβ

C

/(l +k), while β = (λ −1)/Le is always negative. It is worth stressing

here that the above equation is not a cubic equation since the coefﬁcients

i

depend on m

1

through l:

m

1

(β −m

1

) =

(1 − Le)k

2

−l

2

Le

(45)

Equation 45 is obtained by taking the product m

1

· m

2

= m

1

(β − m

1

) using Eq. 31 and

simplifying the result using the relationship h

2

− l

2

= (Le − 1)k

2

. Equation 45 and the

definition of l

2

will be used to ﬁnd the growth rate γ once m

1

is determined.

3.3 Formulation Based on QSSA

In QSSA, one assumes that the small perturbations change in time much faster than the base

state, allowing treatment of the base state as if it were steady by freezing it at a time t

o

. When

QSSA is applied, the perturbation functions of Eqs. 19 are deﬁned as:

(ψ, χ, ϑ)(x, t ) = (ψ, χ, ϑ)(x, t

o

) exp[γ (t

o

)t ], (46)

where γ (t

0

) is the quasi-static growth rate. Here, it has been assumed that the disturbances

grow exponentially with time. Substituting the above expression in Eqs. 20–22, and simpli-

fying transforms the system of partial differential equations into a corresponding system of

ordinary differential equations:

1 3

832 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

_

γ (t

o

) −

d

2

dx

2

+k

2

_

χ = −

d¯ c

dx

(x, t

o

)ψ (47)

_

γ (t

o

) − Le

d

2

dx

2

+(λ −1)

d

dx

+ Lek

2

_

ϑ = −λ

d

¯

θ

dx

(x, t

o

)ψ (48)

_

d

2

dx

2

−k

2

−

_

β

C

d¯ c

dx

(x, t

o

) +β

T

d

¯

θ

dx

(x, t

o

)

_

d

dx

_

ψ = −k

2

(β

C

χ +β

T

ϑ).

(49)

The above systemof equations represents an eigenvalue differential problemwith the bound-

ary conditions (ψ, χ, ϑ) → (0, 0, 0) as x → ±∞. The quasi-static growth rate represented

by the eigenvalue γ (t

0

) is a function of the parameter t

0

, and depends on the values of the

wavenumber k, the two viscosity parameters β

C

and β

T

, the thermal-lag coefﬁcient λ and

the Lewis number Le. Thus, through ﬁnite difference discretization of Eqs. 47–49 one can

obtain the eigenvalue at any time t

0

. A non-uniform geometric grid is used which is very

ﬁne near the origin where the concentration and temperature gradients are large, and spacing

increases geometrically with the distance from the origin. All three eigenfunctions (ψ, χ, ϑ)

are discretized using this technique, and the computation domain is chosen wide enough to

capture all the eigen-solutions. Finite difference discretization of the above equations results

in the forms:

(A −γ I)χ = Cψ (50)

(B −γ I)ϑ = Tψ (51)

Kψ = Lχ +Mϑ, (52)

where A, B, and K are the tri-diagonal matrices, C, T, L, and M are diagonal matrices and

I is the identity matrix. The above set of equations is rearranged to obtain the appropriate

eigenvalue problem:

_

A −CK

−1

L −CK

−1

M

−TK

−1

L B −TK

−1

M

_ _

χ

ϑ

_

= γ

_

χ

ϑ

_

(53)

3.4 Formulation Based on IVC

This approach consists in solving the initial partial differential equations without invoking

the QSSA and determining the growth rate from the solution (Tan and Homsy 1986). Thus,

the set of coupled partial differential Eqs. 20–22 are solved directly and the growth rates of

individual perturbations are determined using the following expression:

η

f

=

1

t

log

_

f

t +t

f

t

_

, (54)

where f may represent ψ, χ, or ϑ. Determination of the growth rates of the perturbations using

the initial value calculation introduced an additional feature—it recognized the difference

of the growth rates for velocity, concentration, and temperature perturbations. The partial

differential equations are solved with decaying boundary conditions and the following initial

conditions:

χ(x, t

o

) = δ ∗ rand(x) (55)

ϑ(x, t

o

) = δ ∗ rand(x) (56)

1 3

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability 833

The perturbation terms (Eqs. 55 and 56) consist of a random noise obtained from a random

number generator between −1 and 1, and a parameter δ that determines the amplitude of

the perturbation. In order to capture the growth dynamics of the perturbations at very early

time, t

0

is set to 10

−24

and perturbations of very small amplitude are introduced by setting

δ = 10

−8

.

Since the perturbations are required to decay far from the interface, periodic boundary

conditions can be used. Such conditions allow using the highly accurate spectral methods. In

this study, the Hartley transformbased pseudo-spectral method (Canuto et al. 1987; Bracewell

2000) is used. With this transform the ﬂow variables are expanded in the one-dimensional

Hartley series, which for an arbitrary function g(x, t) has the form:

H[g(x, t )] =

1

√

N

x

N

x

i =1

g(x

i

, t )cas(k

x

x

i

) (57)

where x

i

=

2πi

N

x

, cas(u) = cos(u) + sin(u), k

x

is the discrete wavenumber, and N

x

is the

number of spectral modes in the x direction. The most prominent feature of using such trans-

formation is that it allows recasting the partial differential equations in space and time for

the concentration and temperature into ordinary differential equations in time with algebraic

constraints. The implementation of the numerical method is similar to the work of and Singh

and Azaiez (2001) which the readers are referred to for details.

Once the partial differential equations are integrated up to a certain time t for a particular

wavenumber k, the growth rates η

ψ

, η

χ

and η

ϑ

are calculated using Eq. 54. The largest of

the growth rates η

ψ

, , η

χ

, and η

ϑ

is chosen to represent the growth rate of the instability.

Repeating the calculations for varying k allows one to obtain a full instability characteristics

curve. All simulations were run up to a time t = 10 around which the growth rates of the

perturbations were found to reach a plateau.

4 Results

In linear stability analysis, the model equations describing a dynamic system are ﬁrst linear-

ized and then solved to determine the growth rates of the associated wavenumbers—deﬁning

the perturbations introduced into the system. This way, it is possible to set criteria based

on which the stability of a dynamic system can be determined and possibly explained. In

what follows, determination of the initial growth rates for unstable wavenumbers will be

discussed ﬁrst. Later, results of numerical solutions of the eigenvalue problem as well as

IVC formulation will be presented.

4.1 Analytical Solution for Step Base State Proﬁles

Before discussing the results, the case of an isothermal ﬂow (β

T

= 0) is examined ﬁrst.

In this special case, Eq. 40 reduces to:

(1 +α)Le(m

1

+k)(m

1

−β +k)(2m

1

−β) = 0. (58)

The solution of the above equation is obtained by requiring = 0, which leads to the expres-

sion of growth rate obtained by Tan and Homsy (1986), which from now on, will be referred

to as TH86. The case of a pure thermal ﬂow displacement will be now examined.

1 3

834 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

4.1.1 Flow displacement with a single thermal front

The special case of a thermal ﬂow (β

C

= 0, Le = 1) involving the same ﬂuid, but at two

different temperatures is considered here. The condition Le = 1 is simply implying that, in

this case, the thermal diffusivity is used instead of the mass diffusivity in the scaling of the

original equations. In this case, Eq. 40 reduces to:

2m

3

1

+(4k −3β)m

2

1

+[2k

2

+β

2

−4kβ −k(1 +β)β

T

]m

1

+kβ(β −k) −k

2

(1 +β)β

T

+

k(1 +β)ββ

T

1 +α

= 0. (59)

The above equation, expressed in a reference frame moving with the superﬁcial velocity is

different from that for an isothermal ﬂow. It is, however, easy to see that expected results

for an isothermal ﬂow with β

T

replacing β

C

are readily obtained when a reference frame

moving at the thermal front velocity is used (β = 0). Equation 59 where the thermal front

lags behind the perturbation (β = 0) will be now examined.

4.1.1.1 Long Wave Expansion and Cut-Off Wavenumbers A long wave expansion of m

1

using Eq. 59 leads to:

m

1

= −[1 +

(1 +β)

β

β

T

1 +α

]k +o(k) (60)

γ = β[1 +

(1 +β)

β

β

T

1 +α

]k +o(k). (61)

The above expression indicates that for any logarithmic thermal mobility ratio β

T

, there

is a critical lag coefﬁcient β

C1

=

−β

T

1+β

T

+e

β

T

, such that the ﬂow is unstable to long wave

disturbances only if β > β

C1

. Furthermore, since f (β

T

) =

β

T

1+e

β

T

reaches a maximum

of f

max

= 0.278 at β

Tc

= 1.278, the ﬂow will be unstable to long wave disturbances if

β > −0.218 or λ > 0.782.

In order to determine whether the ﬂow is stable or unstable over the whole spectrum of

wavenumbers, the wavenumbers at which the growth rate is zero are examined. Such growth

rates are given by:

k

2

(

2

k

2

+

1

k +

0

) = 0 (62)

2

= 4[(1 +β)β

T

(α

2

−1) −β(1 +α)

2

] (63)

1

= −(1 +β)

2

β

2

T

(α

2

−1) (64)

0

= β(β

T

+α +1)(αβ

T

−α −1)(β −β

C1

)(β −β

C2

), (65)

where β

C2

=

−β

T

e

β

T

β

T

e

β

T

−e

β

T

−1

. It is easy to see that one recovers the cut-off wavenumber β

T

/4

in the case β = 0 (TH86). Furthermore, one should note that

2

is always positive while

1

is always negative. One can showthat if β > β

C1

,

0

is negative and Eq. 62 will have two

real roots (one negative and one positive), the latter corresponding to the cut-off wavenum-

ber of the unstable ﬂow. On the other hand, if β < β

C1

then

0

is positive and Eq. 62 may

either have two real positive roots or two complex roots. In the latter case, the ﬂow will be

stable for all wavenumber, while for the former it will be unstable for a ﬁnite spectrum that

does not include long waves.

Figure 2 depicts instability characteristics obtained by solving numerically Eq. 59 for

β

T

= 5 and various values of β. The three curves illustrate the three possibilities discussed

earlier where the ﬂow may be unstable (β = −0.2), unstable for a spectrum that does not

1 3

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability 835

β = -0.6

k

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

γ

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

β = -0.4

β = -0.2

Fig. 2 Growth rate for a step-size thermal base state front with β

T

= 5.0

include long waves (β = −0.4) and stable (β = −0.6). Such dispersion curves are remi-

niscent of the turning-type instabilities for which a critical value of a parameter has to be

crossed for the instability to set in. While studying the effect of heat loss on density ﬁngering

of downward propagating exothermic reaction–diffusion fronts, D’Hernoncourt et al. (2005)

observed similar instability which can be characterized by a band of unstable modes that

excludes long waves.

4.1.1.2 Porosity Expansion The effects of small deviations in the porosity from the case of

a Hele-Shaw cell (porosity φ = 1 or b = λ −1 = 0) are examined here. The solution for a

Hele-Shaw cell is obtained from Eq. 62 and a series expansion around b = 0 leads to:

γ =

−k

2

+kβ

T

−k

2

+

_

k((1 −α)/(1 +α) +3β

T

/2) −((5 +3α)/(1 +α) −β

T

/2) +β

2

T

/2

+k +2β

T

_

×(−k)b +o(b), (66)

where =

_

k

2

+2kβ

T

.

The corresponding cut-off wavenumber is k

cut-off

=

β

T

4

+

_

5α+7

8(α+1)

+

5

16

β

T

_

b + o(b),

indicating that as the porosity is decreased, the instability characteristics are shifted toward

longer waves. As shall be seen later, this result is also true when either the QSSA or IVC

method is used to analyze the ﬂow instability.

4.1.2 Flow Displacement With Double Solutal-Thermal Fronts

In this section, a displacement where the viscosity of the two ﬂuids involved in the displace-

ment varies with both the concentration and the temperature is considered. In order to obtain

the growth rate for step proﬁles, Eq. 40 is solved numerically for different values of the

parameters β

C

, β

T

, Le, and λ.

At ﬁrst, the effect of increase in β

T

for constant β

C

= 1 is examined in the case of a

Hele-Shaw cell (λ = 1) for two values of the Lewis number (Fig. 3). For a hypothetical

1 3

836 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

β

T

= 0

k

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

γ

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

β

T

= 1.0

β

T

= 2.0

(a)

β

T

= 0

k

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

γ

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

β

T

= 1.0

β

T

= 2.0

(b)

Fig. 3 Variation of analytical growth rate with β

T

for β

C

= 1 and λ = 1.00 (a) Le = 1, (b) Le = 50

value of Le = 1, an increase in β

T

increases the quasi-static growth rate by both increasing

the maximum growth rate and the cut-off wavenumber k

cut-off

(Fig. 3a). This is not surpris-

ing since for such values of the thermal-lag coefﬁcient and Lewis number, β

C

and β

T

have

additive effects on instability, and the ﬂow is equivalent to an isothermal displacement with

an effective mobility ratio β

eff

= β

C

+β

T

. As depicted by Fig. 3b, similar enhancement in

instability with the increase in β

T

is observed for a large Le (i.e., 50). However, it should

be noted that the characteristic curves now approach that for the isothermal case (β

T

= 0).

Also note that the spectrum of unstable wavenumbers gets larger with increasing β

T

, while

the wavenumber corresponding to the maximum growth rate tends to be smaller.

The effect of increasing β

T

for ﬁxed β

C

is also examined in the case of a homogeneous

porous medium at both unity and a large value of Le and for λ = 0.25. In the case of unity

Le, again larger values of β

T

result in a more unstable ﬂow (Fig. 4a). Inspection of Figs. 3a

and 4a reveals that an increase in solid content induces similar stabilizing effects on both the

maximumgrowth rate and the cut-off wavenumber. Hence, the characteristic curves for larger

β

T

values approach the isothermal curve quite uniformly. On the other hand, at Le = 50

and λ = 0.25 (see Fig. 4b), the combined effect of strong thermal diffusion and higher solid

content reduces the destabilizing role of β

T

to such an extent that the characteristic curves

for larger β

T

are virtually indistinguishable from the curve for the isothermal case (β

T

= 0).

1 3

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability 837

β

T

= 0

k

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3

γ

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

β

T

= 1.0

β

T

= 2.0

(a)

k

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3

γ

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

β

T

= 0

β

T

= 1

β

T

= 2

(b)

Fig. 4 Variation of analytical growth rate with β

T

for β

C

= 1 and λ = 0.25, (a) Le = 1, (b) Le = 50

Thus, at large Le, the instability in porous media is mostly dominated by the viscosity varia-

tion due to concentration change with little or no effects due to β

T

. Results for intermediate

values of λ and Le showed that similar and monotonic trends; but will not be discussed for

brevity.

4.2 Results Based on the QSSA

The code developed to solve the eigenvalue problem (Eq. 53) was ﬁrst validated by compar-

ing the predictions with standard results published in the literature for isothermal miscible

displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell (TH86). Very good agreement was obtained.

With the adopted diffusive scaling, the width of the domain is set by the solutal Peclet

number, Pe

c

. For a domain size of 500, a 1,000-point mesh converges quickly with appro-

priate spacing. For a particular set of simulation parameters β

C

, β

T

and Le and at a particular

wavenumber k, the discrete eigenvalues are found to be insensitive to the width of the domain,

as long as the domain is chosen large enough to accommodate all the decaying eigenfunc-

tions. Among the set of discrete eigenvalues obtained, the largest one which leads to the

maximum growth rate is chosen.

1 3

838 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

β

T

= 0

k

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

γ

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

β

T

= 1.0

β

T

= 2.0

(a)

β

T

= 0

k

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

γ

0.000

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

β

T

= 1.0

β

T

= 2.0

(b)

Fig. 5 Quasi-static growth rate at different values of β

T

for β

C

= 1, λ = 1 and t

0

= 10; (a) Le = 1,

(b) Le = 20

Figure 5a depicts the variation of stability characteristics with β

T

in a Hele-Shaw cell for

β

C

= 1 and λ = 1 and Le = 1. Again, an increase in the parameter β

T

leads to a more

unstable ﬂowwhich is in complete agreement with the trends observed earlier. Similar trends

toward an increase in the ﬂow instability are observed for larger values of the Lewis number

(see Fig. 5b for Le = 20). However, the effects are less spectacular and the curves for the

non-isothermal ﬂow are closer to that for the isothermal case (β

T

= 0). In fact, for practical

application, it was found that for values of Lewis number larger than 50, all curves are almost

superposed indicating that for the ranges of the parameter β

T

examined here, heat transfer

has negligible effects on the instability. The above observations are qualitatively, similar to

those reported earlier in the special case of a step-size initial proﬁle.

4.3 Results Based on the IVC Approach

In this part, the stability of the thermo-viscous ﬂow is examined by solving the associated

initial value problem (Eqs. 20–22). The numerical code developed for this study has been

validated by simulating a case of isothermal miscible displacement (β

C

= 3, β

T

= 0, λ = 1,

and k = 0.2) that has been examined by TH86. Almost identical variation of the growth rate

1 3

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability 839

k

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

η

ψ

0.000

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

β

T

= 0

β

T

= 1

β

T

= 1.5

Fig. 6 IVC growth rate at different values of β

T

for β

C

= 1, λ = 1, Le = 20 and t = 10

with time for the concentration perturbation was found. However, there were differences in

the case of the growth rate for the velocity perturbation. TH86 presented initial value calcu-

lation (IVC) results based on averaging of 30 realizations of random noises, which implies

that the growth rates depended on the nature of the random initial perturbation. In the present

study, it was found that the growth rates are insensitive to the introduced initial noise. Our

result is actually supported by the study of Ben et al. (2002) where the authors noted that in

small amplitude miscible ﬁngering, the instability is dominated by the zero eigen-mode which

is selected from the initial random noise. Moreover, it has also been found that the growth

rates for the initial velocity perturbation ψ match closely the longtime growth rates presented

by Ben et al. (2002) for the same set of parameters. This again validates the accuracy of our

numerical results.

Furthermore, the convergence of the results has been checked systematically by vary-

ing the spatial resolution using 256, 512, and 1,024 nodes and adapting the time step size

accordingly. Plots of the variation of the different growth rates indicated that the growth rates

reached a plateau at a dimensionless time t = 10. Therefore, for brevity, the results will be

discussed only for the growth rates associated with the stream-wise velocity perturbations

(η

ψ

) at t = 10.

For a Hele-Shaw cell (λ = 1), instability characteristics for the hypothetical value of

Le = 1 are similar to the ones obtained in the previous section. Results for Le = 20 are

depicted in Fig. 6. In this case, the destabilizing trends are reversed and the ﬂow now gets

less unstable as β

T

is increased. It is worth noting here that the cut-off wavenumber remains

virtually unchanged, while the maximumgrowth rate is nowdecreasing instead of increasing

with increasing β

T

; although the change is quite nominal.

In order to study the effects of increasing the solid content of the porous matrix, the

parameter λ has been varied. Figure 7 shows instability characteristics as they vary with β

T

for β

C

= 1, Le = 1 and two representative values of λ. It is clear from Fig. 7a for λ = 0.75

as well as Fig. 7b for λ = 0.25 that irrespective of the value of the thermal-lag parameter

λ, an increase in β

T

leads to a more unstable ﬂow. However, for a given set of parameters,

the maximum growth rate as well as the cut-off wavenumber decrease with decreasing λ,

indicating that the ﬂow instability is attenuated as the thermal-lag coefﬁcient is reduced.

1 3

840 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

k

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

η

ψ

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

β

T

= 0

β

T

= 1

β

T

= 2

(a)

k

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25

η

ψ

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

β

T

= 0

β

T

= 1

β

T

= 2

(b)

Fig. 7 IVC growth rate at different values of β

T

for β

C

= 1, Le = 1 and t = 10, (a) λ = 0.75, (b) λ = 0.25

Instability characteristics at larger values of Lewis number (Le = 20) for β

C

= 1 and two

representative values of λ (i.e., 0.75 and 0.25) were examined. A trend toward less unstable

ﬂow as β

T

is increased is observed for λ = 0.75 (Fig. 8a). However, the effect is less impor-

tant than in the case of λ = 1, and the cut-off wave number is now virtually the same for all

considered values of β

T

. For λ = 0.25, the instability characteristics are unchanged when

the thermal mobility ratio β

T

is varied (Fig. 8b). Results at larger values of the Lewis num-

ber show similar trends. Thus, at large Le, the stabilizing effect of strong thermal diffusion

gets removed with the decrease in λ and the ﬂow attains the instability characteristics of the

reference isothermal case at practically small value of λ.

5 Conclusions

In this part, a linear stability analysis of thermo-viscous miscible ﬂowin both Hele-Shawcell

and in homogeneous porous media of rectilinear geometry has been carried out using two

distinct approaches, namely the QSSA approach and IVC approach. In QSSA approach, the

growth rates of the physical perturbations are obtained either analytically at zero time or by

solving the algebraic eigenvalue problem numerically at larger time, while in IVC approach,

1 3

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability 841

k

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

0.000

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

β

T

= 0

β

T

= 1

β

T

= 1.5

η

ψ

(a)

k

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

η

ψ

0.000

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

β

Τ

= 0

β

Τ

= 1

β

Τ

= 1.5

(b)

Fig. 8 IVCgrowth rate at different values of β

T

for β

C

= 1, Le = 20 and t = 10, (a) λ = 0.75, (b) λ = 0.25

the instability has been investigated numerically only. For both approaches, the effects of

solutal and thermal mobility ratio β

C

and β

T

, respectively, which represent the effects of

mass and heat transfer on the ﬂow viscosity, are analyzed. In addition, the roles of thermal

versus mass dispersion represented by the Lewis number Le and that of heat distribution in

the porous media through the thermal-lag coefﬁcient λ are examined.

Using QSSA approach, it has been found that for ﬁxed values of β

C

, Le, and λ; an

increase in β

T

always enhanced the instability. Moreover, keeping all other parameters ﬁxed,

an increase in Le and/or a decrease in λ is found to be stabilizing. These stabilizing effects

are attributed to stronger diffusion of heat and its distribution in the solid part of the porous

medium. In contrast, IVC approach led to some interestingly different results except at the

special case of unity Le where similar conclusions to those reported in the QSSA approach

are found. At large Le Hele-Shaw ﬂow, an apparent decrease in instability is observed with

the increase in β

T

for ﬁxed β

C

. At successively small values of λ, the stabilizing effect of

strong thermal diffusion gets reduced and the stability characteristics become insensitive to

the variation of β

T

. Consequently, the ﬂow instability becomes completely identical to that

of the reference isothermal case. These differences between the predictions obtained from

the QSSA and IVC approaches may be attributed to the differences in the heat and mass

diffusive time scales. For Le = 1, the similar trends can be explained by the fact that in

this case diffusive rates of heat and mass are the same at the time t

0

at which the instability

1 3

842 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

is determined. However, for large Le, heat diffuses faster than mass and the assumption of

a quasi-steady base state may be applicable to one, but not the other. Hence, the failure

of the QSSA approach to identify the strong stabilizing effects at large Le which can even

make the ﬂow less unstable than the reference isothermal case. Moreover, it will be shown in

the next part dealing with full nonlinear simulations that the conclusions obtained from the

IVC approach are in concordance with those attained from nonlinear evolution of ﬁngers.

Thus, it can be concluded that the IVC approach captures better the inherent features of the

thermo-viscous ﬂow instability.

In practical terms, the results of the analysis indicate that heat effects act toward making

the displacement less unstable in the sense that initial disturbances will have weaker growth

rates and, hence, one should expect slower growth of instabilities. However, the spectrum of

unstable wave-numbers is virtually unchanged by thermal effects implying that even though

weaker, the initial disturbances that develop in the ﬂow will have the same wavelengths.

Finally, it should be stressed that these trends will be less noticeable if the rate of heat loss

from the ﬂuids to the surrounding medium become important. In such a case, thermal effects

will cease to play a role in the displacement process which becomes simply dominated by

solutal effects.

Acknowledgments This study was supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of

Canada (NSERC) and the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In-Situ Energy (AICISE). The authors also acknowl-

edge the use of the computing resources of the West-Grid cluster.

Appendix

Applying the decay conditions at x → ±∞, the general solution for Eqs. 26 and 27 is:

ψ = A

1

exp(m

1

x) + B

1

exp(kx) x < 0

ψ = A

2

exp(m

2

x) + B

2

exp(−kx) x > 0

_

. (A1)

The continuity of u velocity at x = 0 yields:

ψ(0

−

) = ψ(0

+

). (A2)

While the jump in the normal stress at x = 0 results in:

µ(0

−

)

∂ψ

∂x

(0

−

) = µ(0

+

)

∂ψ

∂x

(0

+

)

or,

dψ

dx

(0

−

) = α

dψ

dx

(0

+

) (A3)

where α represents the viscosity ratio [α = µ(0

+

)/µ(0

−

) = exp(β

T

)].

The continuity of temperature at x = 0 yields:

θ(0

−

) = θ(0

+

). (A4)

Using Eqs. A2 and A4, Eq. 27 can be expressed in terms of the velocity disturbance eigen-

function as:

d

2

ψ

dx

2

(0

−

) =

d

2

ψ

dx

2

(0

+

) (A5)

1 3

Miscible Thermo-Viscous Fingering Instability 843

Furthermore, integrating combined equation resulting from Eqs. 26 and 27 from 0

−

to 0

+

leads to:

_

0

+

0

−

_

d

2

dx

2

−(λ −1)

d

dx

−l

2

__

d

2

dx

2

+β

T

δ(x)

d

dx

−k

2

_

ψdx

= λβ

T

k

2

_

0

+

0

−

δ(x)ψdx. (A6)

Satisfying Eqs. (A2–A5) in conjunction with the general form of the solution (Eq. A1) leads

to the following four equations relating the constant terms A

1

, B

1

, A

2

, and B

2

:

A

1

+ B

1

− A

2

− B

2

= 0 (A7)

m

1

A

1

+k B

1

−αm

2

A

2

+αk B

2

= 0 (A8)

m

2

1

A

1

+k

2

B

1

−m

2

2

A

2

−k

2

B

2

= 0 (A9)

_

m

3

1

−(l

2

+k

2

)m

1

+

β

T

2

(m

1

l

2

+λk

2

)

_

A

1

+

_

−l

2

k +

β

T

2

(l

2

k +λk

2

)

_

B

1

+

_

−m

3

2

+(l

2

+k

2

)m

2

+

β

T

2

(m

2

l

2

+λk

2

)

_

A

2

+

_

−l

2

k +

β

T

2

(−l

2

k +λk

2

)

_

B

2

= 0.

(A10)

A non-zero solution is obtained if and only if the determinant of the above matrix is zero:

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

m

1

m

2

1

m

3

1

−(l

2

+k

2

)m

1

+

β

T

2

(m

1

l

2

+λk

2

)

0

m

1

−k

m

2

1

−k

2

m

3

1

−(l

2

+k

2

)m

1

+

β

T

2

(m

1

l

2

+λk

2

)

+l

2

k −

β

T

2

(l

2

k +λk

2

)

0

m

1

−αm

2

m

2

1

−m

2

2

m

3

1

−(l

2

+k

2

)m

1

+

β

T

2

(m

1

l

2

+λk

2

)

−m

3

2

+(l

2

+k

2

)m

2

+

β

T

2

(m

2

l

2

+λk

2

)

0

(1 +α)k

0

−l

2

k +

β

T

2

(l

2

k +λk

2

)

−l

2

k +

β

T

2

(−l

2

k +λk

2

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 0. (A11)

Upon simpliﬁcation, the determinant of the above matrix will allow to determine the initial

growth rate of an inﬁnitesimal perturbation. In the following steps, two important relations

between the roots m

1

and m

2

are used

m

1

m

2

= −l

2

(A12)

m

1

+m

2

= λ −1 = b. (A13)

This leads to:

k(m

1

−k)(m

1

−b −k)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1 (1 +α) (1 +α)

m

1

+k b 0

m

1

b +m

1

k −

β

T

m

1

(b−m

1

)

2

2m

1

k +b

2

−bk 2m

1

b −2m

2

1

+λβ

T

k

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 0. (A14)

1 3

844 M. N. Islam, J. Azaiez

References

Azaiez, J., Singh, B.: Stability of miscible displacements of shear thinning ﬂuids in a Hele-Shaw cell. Phys.

Fluids 14, 1557–1571 (2002)

Ben, Y., Demekhin, E.A., Chang, H.-C.: A spectral theory for small-amplitude miscible ﬁngering. Phys.

Fluids 14, 999–1010 (2002)

Bensimon, D., Kadanoff, L.P., Liang, S., Shraiman, B.I., Tang, C.: Viscous ﬂows in two dimensions. Rev.

Mod. Phys. 58, 977–999 (1986)

Bracewell, R.N.: The Fourier Transform and its Applications. McGraw Hill, New York (2000)

Canuto, C., Hussaini, M.Y., Quarteroni, A., Zang, T.A.: Spectral Methods in Fluid Dynamic. Springer,

New York (1987)

Chuoke R.L., van Meurs P., Van der Poel, C.: The instability of slow, immiscible, viscous liquid-liquid dis-

placements in permeable media, Trans. AIME 216, 188–194 (1959)

D’Hernoncourt, J., Kalliadasis, S., De Wit, A.: Fingering of exothermic reaction-diffusion fronts in Hele-Shaw

cells with conducting walls. J. Chem. Phys. 123, 234503(1–9) (2005)

Holloway, K.E., de Bruyn, J.: Viscous ﬁngering with a single ﬂuid. Can. J. Phys. 83, 551–564 (2005)

Homsy, G.M.: Viscous ﬁngering in porous media. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 19, 271–311 (1987)

Islam, M.N., Azaiez, J.: Fully implicit ﬁnite difference pseudo-spectral method for simulating high mobility-

ratio miscible displacements. Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 47, 161–183 (2005)

Kong, X., Haghighi, M., Yortsos, Y.C.: Visualization of steam displacement of heavy oils in a Hele-Shaw

cell. Fuel 71, 1465–1471 (1992)

Kuang, J., Maxworthy, T.: The effect of thermal diffusion on miscible viscous displacement in a capillary

tube. Phys. Fluids A 15, 1340–1343 (2003)

Manickam, O., Homsy, G.M.: Fingering instabilities in vertical miscible displacement ﬂows in porous media.

J. Fluid Mech. 288, 75–102 (1995)

McCloud, K.V., Maher, J.V.: Experimental perturbations to Saffman-Taylor ﬂow. Phys. Rep. 260,

139–185 (1995)

Pritchard, D.: The instability of thermal and ﬂuid fronts during radial injection in a porous medium. J. Fluid

Mech. 508, 133–163 (2004)

Rakotomalala, N., Salin, D., Watzky, P.: Miscible displacement between two parallel plates: BGK lattice gas

simulations. J. Fluid Mech. 338, 277–297 (1997)

Rogerson, A., Meiburg, E.: Numerical simulation of miscible displacement processes in porous media ﬂows

under gravity. Phys. Fluids A 5, 2644–2660 (1993)

Saffman, P.G., Taylor, G.: The penetration of a ﬂuid into a porous medium or Hele-Shaw cell containing a

more viscous liquid. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 245, 312–329 (1958)

Saghir, M.Z., Chaalal, O., Islam, M.R.: Numerical and experimental modeling of viscous ﬁngering during

liquid-liquid miscible displacement. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 26, 253–262 (2000)

Sasaki, K., Akibayashi, S., Yazawa, N., Kaneko, F.: Microscopic visualization with high resolution optical-ﬁber

scope at steam chamber interface on initial stage of SAGD process. SPE paper no. 75241 (2002)

Sheorey, T., Muralidhar, K., Mukherjee, P.P.: Numerical experiments in the simulation of enhanced oil recovery

from a porous formation. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 40, 981–997 (2001)

Singh, B., Azaiez, J.: Numerical simulation of viscous ﬁngering of shear-thinning ﬂuids. Can. J. Chem. Eng.

79, 961–967 (2001)

Tan, C.T., Homsy, G.M.: Stability of miscible displacements in porous media: rectilinear ﬂow. Phys.

Fluids 29, 3549–3556 (1986)

Yortsos, Y.C., Zeybek, M.: Dispersion driven instability in miscible displacement in porous media. Phys.

Fluids 31, 3511–3518 (1988)

1 3

- HYSYS Upstream GuideUploaded byJahangir Malik
- Rheology of extrusion.pdfUploaded byEthan Kocan
- Lect 2 - 4 - Momentum TransportUploaded bySatyajit Samal
- To draw graphUploaded byIr Mathan Raj
- Ajos PastaUploaded bymarijo
- 122 Keralastic GbUploaded byRaman Iyer
- Fluid Mechanics My BookUploaded byAhmed Al-Amri
- FractureFlow(1)Uploaded byTariq Ali
- vf1999_d44_din53211Uploaded byInaam
- J. B. Barlow, W. H. Rae, Jr, A. Pope-Low Speed Wind Tunnel Testing. 1-John Wiley & Sons (1999).pdfUploaded byPrem Chand
- Elective 2 - Process Audit (HGG)Uploaded byRomel Bercero
- 12093 - Fluid Mechanics & Machinery Question PaperUploaded byaadhan
- Haake+TPVUploaded byEthan Kocan
- mathematical modeling of viscosityUploaded byellig1871638
- Haake+TPV.pdfUploaded byEthan Kocan
- Two Dimensional Systems REPORTUploaded byDavidSanRománTorrubia
- Viscosity_ratio of SlurriesUploaded bynazmul hasan
- Drainage EquationUploaded byviolist32
- 1-s2.0-S0022247X00967416-mainUploaded byKartika Nugraheni
- Stability TestUploaded byjobert
- A+SURVEY+ON+SEMI-TENSOR+PRODUCT+OF+MATRICESUploaded byCrepen Lemurios
- Dinamica Lineare FEM 3Uploaded bycarlo
- Cpi-1005 Series Pds v1Uploaded byAnonymous JY3oN7sop
- Feature Extraction of the Fabric Defects ImageUploaded bychotapower
- appBUploaded byBangkit Rachmat Hilca
- spatial structure of woodUploaded byMarius Bucea
- Term PaperUploaded byIan Fraser
- Problems on Fluid PropertiesUploaded byLucky Malihan
- Scc - DeebrphdUploaded bysivaram
- Wind Tunnel Testing - Barlow, Rae, PopeUploaded byslamienka

- 00062562Uploaded byfranciscowong
- SPE-157830-PA-PUploaded byfranciscowong
- Optimizing a Cfd Fortran Code for Grid ComputigUploaded byfranciscowong
- FortranUploaded byfranciscowong
- SPE-147306-PA-P.pdfUploaded byfranciscowong
- Sweep Efficiency in SteamfloodingUploaded byfranciscowong
- SPE-150147-MS-PUploaded byfranciscowong