Old Oil Palm Trunks as Promising Feedstock

for
Biofuel and Bioplastics
JIRCAS
4
th
BMWS 2007.11
In collaboration with University of Science Malaysia
and Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Yutaka Mori
Problems occurred by introduction of bio-ethanol fuel
„ Competition
with food
„ Shortage of feedstock
„ Price hike in grain and
feedstock
Feedstock: corn, wheat, cassava, sugar cane, molasses
Second-generation ethanol that
does not compete with food
0
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t
Source:USDA PSD Online 2008
Worldwide Palm Oil Production
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Palm Oil Production in Each Country (2007)
Source:USDA PSD Online 2008
Indonesia
Malaysia
Country
„ 1911: Introduced from Africa
„ 1917: Commercial Production started
„ Exports: 2007
36,292M RM=13 billion US dollars
„ Employment: more than 500,000
„ Cultivation area: 430M ha (2007: 13% of total land)
peninsula(236Mha), Saba(128Mha), Sarawak(66Mha)
„ Palm oil production (2007): 17.7M ton
„ Kernel oil production (2007): 2M ton
„ Productivity: 3.4-4.9 ton/ha (palm oil)
0.7-1.2 ton/ha (kernel oil)
Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia
Re-plantation of Old Oil Palm
Plywood Production from Old Palm Trunk
Young’s Modulus
2 4 (GPa)
16 7 6 2
4 3
11
10
9
15
14
13
Young’s Modulus
2 4 (GPa)
16 7 6 2
4 3
11
10
9
15
14
13
16 7 6 2
4 3
11
10
9
15
14
13
Moisture Content of Oil Palm Trunk
A
B
C
Bark
Inner part of the stem
Moisture
A
(core)
83%
B
(middle)
75%
C
(outer)
68%
HPLC Profile of Sugar Analysis on Sap
S
u
c
r
o
s
e
G
a
l
a
c
t
o
s
e
Glucose
F
r
u
c
t
o
s
e
A B C
Sucrose 20.6 23.6 22.1
Glucose 68.4 60.8 54.7
Fructose 23.3 27.0 30.9
Total sugars 113 112 108
Sugars contained in oil palm sap
(g / L)
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4.0
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Time, h
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e
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r
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%
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5.0
6.0
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t
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,

%
Reducing sugar, %
EtOH, %
Ethanol production from oil palm sap
Lactic Acid Production from Oil Palm Sap
○,●:sap □,■:reference
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70
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l
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(

,

)
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5
inches
2
ft
Upper
most
(centre)
half
half
5
inches
5
inches
5
inches
8
ft
Sugar content and
composition at
different height
„ Same amount and
composition throughout the
height except uppermost
part
„Approximately 20% less at
uppermost part
0 1 3 7 15 30 60 90 120
days
2


2


2


2


Accumulation of sugars during storage of OPT
2
inches
L
1/2
L
1/2
L
A B C
We found out:
sugars in the sap increase significantly during storage.
Comparison of Oil Palm Trunk with Sugar Cane
Sugar
Cane
Oil Palm Trunk
( after proper aging)
A (中心) B (中間) C (外層)
Moisture content
70% 83% 75%
68%
×0.8
Sugar content in juice
or sap
16% 16% 14% 15%
Amount of sugars
contained
112g/kg 95.4g/kg ⇒107.8 kg/trunk
Cane or trunk
produced per area
60-90
ton/ha
154-168 ton/ha
(136-148 trunks/ha)
Possible ethanol yield 4.5-7.2
kL/ha
9.5-10.3
kL/ha
Sugar
Cane
Oil Palm Trunk
( after proper aging)
A (Core) B (Middle) C (Outer)
Moisture content
70% 83% 75%
68%
×0.8
Sugar content in juice
or sap
16% 16% 14% 15%
Amount of sugars
contained
112g/kg 95.4g/kg ⇒107.8 kg/trunk
Cane or trunk
produced per area
60-90
ton/ha
154-168 ton/ha
(136-148 trunks/ha)
Possible ethanol yield 4.5-7.2
kL/ha
9.5-10.3
kL/ha
Oil palm sap squeezing system
Trunk
Sap Tank
Fermentation
water
Plywood material
Shredder
Squeezer
Peeler
right side
Prototype Shredding machine
Shredded oil palm trunk
trunk
Capacity; 550 kg/h
Squeezer
Specs:
3 roller hydraulic press
Size of roller:φ240mm, 340 w
Capacity: 500kg/h
7.5kw x 2 (AC415Vx50Hz)
8RPM variable
2450 x 2030W x 1800H
Parenchyma Vascular bundles
Solid residues of sap-squeezed trunks
Cross-section
55%
45%
Ethanol production from parenchyma hydrolysate
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time, h
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l
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1.5
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%
A5
A6
A7
A8
Ethanol yield A8) 86%
control: 80%)
A5 hydrolysate
A6 hydrolysate + 1% polypeptone, 0.5% yest extract
A7 hydrolysate + 1% (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
A8 hydrolysate + 1% polypeptone, 0.5% yeast extract
Control glucose + 1% polypeptone, 0.5% yeast extract)
Parenchyma separating equipment
Parenchyma and vascular bundles
separated by the separator
Possible amount of ethanol and lactate produced from oil palm trunk
Heat
etc.
Fermentable sugars:
16.8kg(core)
39.7kg(middle)
51.3kg(outer)
From one trunk
Solids(317kg)
Parenchyma
(174kg)
Vascular bundles
(143kg)
Fermentable
sugars
(63.9kg)
Fermentable
sugars
(59.6kg)
Fermentable sugars
(107.8kg)
Ethanol 69.8L
41.4L
Diameter:38cm
Length:10m
sp. gr.:1.0
Sap
Lactate: 107.8kg
63.9kg
Characteristics and advantages of the OPT as the
resource for fuel ethanol and lactic acid production
• Large amounts of sap
• High sugar content
• Easily degradable
parenchyma
Promising feedstock for ethanol and lactic acid
• Constantly discharged waste
• Very large amount
• Available all year around
Potential: Malaysia (4.3M ha) 2.7M kL (1.7M kL ) ethanol /year
4.2M ton (2.6M ton) lactate /year
Indonesia (7.0M ha)* 4.4M kL (2.8M kL) ethanol /year
6.8M ton (4.3M) lactate /year