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E @ = JDHAA @E A IE = IE K =JE AJD @ J FHA@E?J JDA >AD=LE H B = FEIJ HE C E = =HE A JM IJH A @EAIA A CE A X +HA=JA = =KJ X ) = O A JDA FEIJ ? @EJE I =JE? IE K =JE FH ?AII MDE?D A => AI JDA HIJ > A?JELA HE C K @AH @E AHA J M H E C HE C JMEIJ >AD=LE H B = FEIJ .H JDA HAIK JI CELA E IE K =JE I EJ ID K @ >A F IIE> A J = = O A = @ @EIJE CKEID JDA ?D=H=?JAHEIJE? >AD=LE H B JDA FEIJ HE C E H@AH B H EJ J >A KIABK E BKJKHA @ALA F A J 6DA > A?JELAI MDE?D ID K @ >A FAHB H A@ @KHE C JDA JDAIEI M H =HA X ." > A?JELAI  FEIJ HE CI E JDA HE C F=? >KJ O JDA J F HE C EI ? IE@AHA@ DAHA >A?=KIA EJ EI IJ DA=LE O =@A@ = @ JDA A MDE?D EI M H E C K @AH JDA D=HIDAIJ ? @EJE I *A?=KIA B JDA HE C JE E IE@A JDA FEIJ HE C CH LA EJ EI @E ?K J J IFA?EBO =??KH=JA > K @=HO ? @EJE I E A FHAIIKHAI = @ JA FAH=JKHA JDA FEIJ HE C * K @=HO ? @EJE I =HA = I I AMD=J IE F E A@ @KA J E EJ=JE I E JDA AID GK= EJO B JDA EJA A A A J @A ) IOI % 1 JDA IE K =JE I O IJA=@O IJ=JA =@I =HA ? IE@AHA@ " > A?JELAI 6DA =E > A?JELA EI J @AIEC = IE K =JE J MDE?D A => AI JDA ? F= O J FAHB H JDHAA @E A IE = ?= ?K =JE I = @ = = O AI B = FEIJ HE C F=? ) = OIEI J I J AL= K=JA JDA ? J=?J FHAIIKHA JDA IKHB=?AI B JDA FEIJ HE C = @ JDA J J= @AB H =JE E ? K@E C JMEIJ ME >A E ? K@A@ .

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+D=FJAH 6DA HO 6DEI ?D=FJAH ? =HE AI JDA K @AH OE C JDA HO E JDA =FF EA@ ?D=FJAH ! AJD @ 6DA FKHF IA EI J CAJ = K @AHIJ= AGK=JE I B JDA FH > A = @ J =?DEALA >AJJAH E IECDJ MDA -GK=JE I B I E@ A?D= E?I ME >A @AI?HE>A@ = @ JDA A I LA JDA FH > A ME >A @A? =HA@ @KHE C JDA ?D=FJAH AJD @I E ANJ ?D=FJAH @E C B JDA C LAH E C = = O E C JDA HAIK JI CE AAHE C JA?D EGKA J + JA JI  .E EJA A A A J   ! " # .E EJA A A A J B H K =JE .EIF =?A A J = @ IJH=E I B E A=H A =IJ IJ=JE?I % & ' '     ! = B H K =JE J=JE .E EJA A A A J 6DA AJD @ EJA A A A J AJD @ EI = =FFH NE =JELA =FFH =?D B @A E C =JKH= FDA A = @AI?HE>A@ >O F=HJE= @E AHA JE= AGK=JE I 1J EI IJH=ECDJ O @ALA FA@ BH JDA =MI B =JDA =JE?I = @ BJA =FF EA@ FDOIE?= FH > A I IK?D =I I E@ A ?D= E?I 6DA >=IE? ? ?AFJI B JDA EJA A A A J AJD @ =FF EA@ = FDOIE?= FH > A =HA X .CE AAHE C E A=HEJO ! E A=H ? J=?J A?D= E?I !  .ELE@A JDA @ A A A JI =E E J I = AH IK>@ =E I MDE?D =HA @A A@ =I JDA EJA .K ?JE HJD C 1 JAHF =JE = FH A?JE B AGK=JE I E A=H IOIJA 1 F A A J=JE AJD @ ! " # # $ % IF=?A 5 E@  ! " # $ % & A?D= E?I 5J=JE? AGKE E>HEK * K @=HO ? 6DA AGK=JE 8=HE=JE @EJE = @ IJHAII I .

.ECKHA  6DA >=IEI BK ?JE I ϕ0 (x) = @ ϕi (x) -=?D A B JDA D=J BK ?JE I EI ? JE K KI FEA?AMEIA E A=H = @ D=LA JDA L= KA A =J JDA ? HHAIF @E C @A F E J = @ AH =J = JDAH 6DA E JAHL= MDAHA JDA D=J BK ?JE EI AH EI ?= A@ JDA IKFF HJ B JDA BK ?JE = @ JDA IKFF HJ B ϕi EI JDAHAB HA Ii ∪ Ii+1 9EJD JDEI >=IEI ? IEIJE C B D=J BK ?JE I = BK ?JE I v ∈ Vh . N = @ A=?D MEJD JDA E @ELE@K= A CJD hi = xi − xi−1 1 JDA EJA A A A J AJD @ JDEI F=HJEJE B IK>E JAHL= I EI HABAHHA@ J =I JDA AID B JDA @ =E = @ A=?D IK>E JAHL= =I = A A A J 6DA @AI ? J=E JDA E B H =JE B JDA @A 1 JH @K?A JDA BK ?JE IF=?A Vh B ? JE K KI FEA?AMEIA E A=H BK ?JE I LAH JDA ? IA@ E JAHL= I =I Vh = {v : v ∈ C (I ). v |Ii ∈ P1 (Ii )} MEJD JDA IF=?A C (I ) B ? JE K KI BK ?JE I Ii 6DA BK ?JE I E = @ ? JE K KI I . ." +D=FJAH 6DA HO X . H A=?D IAJ BK ?JE v ∈ Vh MEJD AN=?J O JDAIA {ϕj }N j =0 ⊂ Vh EI E JH @K?A@ MDAHA   BK ?JE I I = @ JDA IF=?A P1 (Ii ) B E A=H Vh JDKI >A? A E A=H A=?D IK>E JAHL= Ii B @= L= KAI E JDA E JAHL= I JDAHA ANEIJI = @= L= KAI 9EJD JDEI M A@CA JDA AM >=IEI ϕj (xi ) = 6DA ID=FA B JDA >=IEI BK ?JE 1 EB i = j 0 EB i = j B HE   CKHA    I =HA @EIF =OA@ E . b] EI = A @E A IE = E JAHL= MEJD N + 1 @EIJE ?J @A F E JI @A JA@ N >O {xi }i=0 JDA E JAHL= I ? K @ >A @ELE@A@ E J N IK>E JAHL= I Ii = [xi−1 .K ?JE IF=?A 1B I = [a. xi ] B H i = 1.. 2.. H A=?D A A A J B H K =JA E JKEJELA HA =JE I = C JDA FDOIE?= L=HE=> AI IK?D =I A?D= E?= B H?AI @EIF =?A A JI = @ JA FAH=JKHA X + >E A JDA A A A JI MEJD CELA HA =JE IDEFI = @ >J=E JDA L=HE=> AI B E JAHAIJ B H A=?D @EI?HAJA A A A J = @ >O JD=J JDA MD A IOIJA 6 ? =HEBO B H JDA EJA A A A J AJD @ HIJ B = JDA KIA@ BK ?JE IF=?A = @ JDA =FFH NE =JE AJD @I =HA AA@A@ J >A @A? =HA@ 6DA JDA E A=H IOIJA B AGK=JE I = @ D M JDA FH > A = O ? K @ >A I LA@ EI @AI?HE>A@  .

 . w) = I vw dx. ∀v. w ∈ L2  % .E EJA A A A J AJD @ >E =JE N # ? K @ >A @AI?HE>A@ =I = E A=H ? v (x) = i=0 ai ϕi (x)  ! MDAHA ai EI JDA L= KA B JDA BK ?JE v =J A=?D ? HHAIF @E C @A >IAHLA JD=J ϕ0 = @ ϕN =HA @E AHA J E ID=FA ? F=HA@ J JDA JDAH >=IEI BK ?JE I IE ?A JDAO =HA ?=JA@ =J JDA > K @=HEAI B JDA E JAHL= 0ECDAH H@AH >=IEI BK ?JE 6DEI >=IEI B D=J BK ?JE I ? K @ =?JK= O >A = O BK ?JE MDE?D =?DEALAI = K EJ L= KA =J JDA ? HHAIF @E C @A = @ AH =J = JDAH @AI 6DA BK ?JE IF=?A ? K @ B H AN= F A ? J=E IA? @ H@AH F O E= I P2 = @ JDA D=J BK ?JE I ? K @ JDAHA>O >A HA I JD 6DEI ? K @ D=LA = >EC E KA ?A E A ?EA ?O = @ AII @A F E JI =HA BJA AA@A@ EB v EI = I JD BK ?JE MDE?D ? K @ >A @AI?HE>A@ >O DECDAH H@AH F O E= I LAH @EI?HAJA IK>E JAHL= I ) E F HJ= J JE?A JD KCD MDA @AI?HE>E C = IA? @ H@AH F O E= EI JD=J EJ EI A?AII=HO MEJD JDHAA @A F E JI B H A=?D BK ?JE E IJA=@ B JM B H = E A=H @AI?HEFJE I  1 JAHF =JE B=? JE K KI BK ?JE 6DA E A=H E JAHF =JE f EI >O @A EJE CELA >O  " πf = f (x0 )ϕ0 + f (x1 )ϕ1 MDAHA JDA E JAHF =JE πf = @ JDA BK ?JE f =?DEALA JDA I= A L= KAI =J JDA @AI x0 = @ x1 *O ANJA @E C JDA E JAHF =JE J JDA HA KIABK ?=IA MEJD ? JE K KI FEA?AMEIA E A=H BK ?JE I JDA E JAHF = J EI @A A@ =I N πf = i=0 f (xi )ϕi EI ID M E CKHA =  # = @ = AN= F A B = E A=H E JAHF =JE ! HJD C = FH A?JE ) JDAH = JAH =JELA =FFH NE =JE B = ? JE K KI BK ?JE EI HJD C = FH A?JE 1 ? F=HEI MEJD E JAHF =JE JDA FH A?JE AJD @ CELAI = C @ =FFH NE =JE =LAH=CA E IJA=@ B AN=?J L= KAI =J JDA @A F E JI ) >EC =@L= J=CA B KIE C JDA AJD @ B HJD C = FH A?JE EI = I JD=J EJ @ AI J HAGKEHA ? JE K KI BK ?JE I 5J=HJ >O @A E C JDA IF=?A L2 (I ) >O IGK=HA E JACH=> A BK ?JE I LAH JDA E JAHL= I =I L2 (I ) = {v : v 2 dx < ∞}  $ I MEJD JDA I?= =H FH @K?J (v.

∀v ∈ Vh  ' = @ = HJD C = FH A?JE EI ID MA@ = @ ? F=HA@ J JDA ? HHAIF @E C E A=H E JAHF =JE E CKHA . 1] = @ MEJD f (x) = x · cos(πx) AID LAH JDA ? IA@ E " E A=H IOIJA B AGK=JE I *A?=KIA AGK=JE ' EI I=JEI A@ B H ALAHO ?D E?A B BK ?JE v ∈ Vh JDA AGK=JE ME = I >A L= E@ B H = E A=H ? >E =JE B BK ?JE I v ∈ Vh 6DAHAB HA JDA AGK=JE ? K @ >A ANFHAIIA@ =I I (f − Ph f )ϕi dx = 0 B H E     6DA FH A?JE Ph f ? K @ >A MHEJJA =I = E A=H ? >E =JE B D=J BK ?JE I >A?=KIA JDA @A EJE EI =@A KF BH JDA ? JE K KI FEA?AMEIA E A=H BK ?JE I 1J ? K @ MEJD JDA K M ? A ?EA JI ξj B H   >A ANFHAIIA@ =I N Ph f = j =0 ξj ϕj   . w) = 0 JDA JM BK ?JE I v = @ w =HA HJD C = J A=?D JDAH 6DA FH A?JE Ph f B JDA BK ?JE f ∈ L2 (I ) J JDA IF=?A Vh EI @AI?HE>A@ >O I (f − Ph f )v dx = 0.ECKHA 6M @E AHA J =FFH NE =JE I MEJD = K EB H JAHL= I = [0. v )  & 1B JDA I?= =H FH @K?J (v.$ = @ H +D=FJAH 6DA HO v = v L2 = (v. H > JD AJD @I JDA I= A AID EI KIA@ = @ JDA @EB BAHA ?A >AJMAA E JAHF =JE = @ HJD C = FH A?JE EI ? A=H BH JDA CKHA 6DA E JAHF =JE =FFH NE =JA JDA HECE = BK ?JE AN=?J JDA @AI = @ JDA FH A?JE =FFH NE =JA JDA =LAH=CA LAH JDA MD A E JAHL= = 1 JAHF =JE > HJD C = FH A?JE .

5 E@ -GK=JE A?D= E?I  ξj ϕj (x) ϕi dx j =0 %  ? K @ >A HAMHEJJA =I  I N f ϕi dx =  I N = j =0 ξj I ϕj ϕi dx B H E      = @ >O @A E C mij = I ϕj ϕi dx B H E f ϕi dx B H E      !  " bi = AGK=JE  EI IE F E A@ J I N bi = j =0 mij ξj . B H E   M ? A ?EA JI ξj = @ E  # =JHEN  $ 6DEI EI = IOIJA B E A=H AGK=JE I MEJD JDA K B H AGK=JE # EI ANFHAIIA@ =I b = Mξ 6DA =JHEN M = @ JDA LA?J H b EI ?= A@ JDA =II =JHEN = @ =@ LA?J H HAIFA? JELA O = @ JDA HJD C = FH A?JE B JDA BK ?JE f EI B K @ >O E A=H = CA>H= ξ = M −1 b  %  # 1 F A A J=JE 6 ?= ?K =JA JDA =II =JHEN = @ JDA =@ LA?J H = K AHE?= E JACH=JE AJD @ EI AA@A@ J >A E JH @K?A@ 6DAHA =HA @E AHA J JOFAI B K AHE?= AJD @I J FAHB H ?= ?K =JE I B E JACH= I MDAHA JDA E@F E J HK A JH=FA E@= HK A 5E FI I 4K A = @ /=KII GK=@H=JKHA =HA JDA IJ ? 6DA >=IE? BA=JKHA B JDAIA GK=@H=JKHA HK AI =HA JD=J JDAO = ? K @ >A @AI?HE>A@ >O n QI (f ) = j =1 ωj f (qj ) =HI  & % MDAHA wj EI JDA MAECDJ B JDA GK=@H=JKHA = @ qj JDA GK=@H=JKHA F E J 5 E@ A?D= E?I 6DA >=IE? BA=JKHA B I E@ A?D= E?I EI J @AI?HE>A JDA JE = @ @AB H =JE B = I E@ L K A K @AH ANJAH = =@I 1J EI = F=HJ B ? JE KK A?D= E?I = @ = >EC >H= ?D E > JD A?D= E?I FDOIE?I = @ =JDA =JE?I 1 JDEI IA?JE JDA C LAH E C AGK=JE I ME >A @A? =HA@ = @ D M JDAIA =HA =FF EA@ MEJD JDA EJA A A A J AJD @ ME >A ID M .

& +D=FJAH 6DA HO  5J=JE? AGKE E>HEK = @ IJHAII 6DA >=IE? ? ?AFJ MEJD I E@ A?D= E?I EI JD=J JDA AJ B H?A =?JE C = O I E@ L K A KIJ L= EID E JDA AGKE E>HEK IJ=JA 6DAHA =HA JM @E AHA J E @I B B H?AI MDE?D =?JI = L K A = @ JDAIA =HA L K A B H?AI = @ ? J=?J B H?AI 6DA L K A B H?AI FA AJH=JAI JDA MD A L K A = @ ? K @ >A @AI?HE>A@ >O = B H?A @A IEJO f ) AN= F A B = JOFE?= L K A B H?A EI JDA CH=LEJO =?JE C = I E@ > @O 6DA ? J=?J B H?A JDA JDAH D= @ =?JI JDA IKHB=?A B JDA I E@ L K A ) JD KCD JDA B H?A O =?J @EHA?J O JDA IKHB=?A EJ EI @AI?HE>A@ >O LA?J H A @I JD=J ANEIJ E JDA MD A L K A A IE F A E JKEJELA AN= F A B = ? J=?J B H?A EI =FF EA@ FHAIIKHA B H AN= F A BH = C=I MEJD B H?AI =?JE C H = J JDA IKHB=?A 6DA ? J=?J B H?AI =HA @AI?HE>A@ >O JDA IJHAII JA I H σ MDE?D E B=?J EI = 3 × 3 =JHEN MDAHA A=?D A A A J σij @AI?HE>A JDA B H?A FAH K EJ =HA= =?JE C E JDA @EHA?JE xi = IKHB=?A MEJD H = @EHA?JE xj 6 J= B H?A =?JE C = L K A V MEJD IKHB=?A S EI JDA JDA ? >E =JE B L K A = @ IKHB=?A ? JHE>KJE I F = V f dV + S σ · n dS  ' 6DA IKHB=?A E JACH= ? K @ >A ? JDA HA = @ JDA HAIK J >A? A LAHJA@ E J = L K A E JACH= MEJD JDA @ELAHCA ?A F = V (f + ∇ · σ ) dV   MDAHA JDA B ME C J=JE EI KIA@ 3 (∇ · σ )i = j =1 ∂σij B HE ∂xj  !   6 =?DEALA B H?A AGKE E>HEK MEJDE JDA I E@ L K A JDA J J= B H?A F J AH MDE?D ME >A =?DEALA@ MDA KIJ >A AGK=   f +∇·σ =0 6DEI AGK=JE EI = I ?= A@ +=K?DOI AGK=JE B AGKE E>HEK 6DA E F HJ= J A= E C B JDA AGK=JE EI JD=J JDA AJ B H?A B ALAHO E @ELE@K= F=HJE? A E = =JAHE= JDH KCD KJ JDA L K A V L= EIDAI 6DEI HAIK J ? K @ = I >A ? F=HA@ = @ ID MA@ ' J >A ? IEIJA J MEJD AMJ I IA? @ =M B =JKHA =HI 1 =@@EJE J AGK=JE JDA BK @= A J= AGK=JE B H EI JH FE? E A=H A =IJE? I E@I AA@I J >A @AI?HE>A@ 6DEI AGK=JE @AI?HE>A JDA ?= HA =JE I >AJMAA JDA IJHAIIAI = @ JDA ?= IJ=JA B =JJAH B JDA I E@ *O A B H?E C ? IAHL=JE B JDA = CK =H A JK JDA IJHAII JA I H ? K @ >A ID M J >A IO AJHE? = @ JDEI HA@K?AI JDA JA I H J IEN E @AFA @A J ? F A JI σ = σT  ! .

.EIF =?A A J = @ IJH=E *O @AI?HE>E C D M A=?D E @ELE@K= F=HJE? A E = L K A EI @EIF =?A@ BH EJI E E JE= F IEJE u = x − x0  JDA J J= @AB H =JE B JDA > @O ? K @ >A AL= K=JA@ 6DA E @ELE@K= @AB H =JE I =HA @AI?HE>A@ >O JDA IJH=E JA I H MDE?D K @AH I = @EIF =?A A JI ? K @ >A @A A@ =I JDA 3 × 3 =JHEN ε= 1 ∇u + ∇uT 2  " ) O @AB H =JE E JDA I E@ > @O EI ?=KIA@ >O JDA @EIF =?A A J u = @ JDAHAB HA JDA IJH=E JA I H @ AI J L= EID EB u = 0 6DEI ? K @ >A ? F=HA@ MEJD ? =IIE?= HECE@ > @O JH= I =JE I = @ H J=JE I MDE?D A B H?A ε = 0 6DA @E=C = ? F A J εii B JDA IJH=E JA I H @AI?HE>AI JDA HA =JELA ?D= CA E A CJD = C JDA xi =NEI = @ JDA @E=C = A A A J εij @AI?HE>AI JDA ?D= CA E JDA @EHA?JE E EJE= O HJD C = J JDA =NAI xi = @ xj 9EJD M A@CA JD=J I A O JH= I =JE I = @ H J=JE I ? K @ J A A?J JDA > @O IJHAIIAI JDA IJHAIIAI O @AFA @ JDA ?= IJH=E I 1 B=?J MDA JDA IJH=E I =HA I = JDA HA =JE >AJMAA JDA IJHAII JA I H = @ JDA IJH=E JA I H ? K @ >A =IIK A@ J >A =FFH NE =JA O E A=H 6DEI EI J = =M B =JKHA >KJ E IJA=@ @A@K?A@ BH A FEHE?= A=IKHA A JI = @ ANFAHE A JI = @ JDA HA =JE EI BJA HABAHHA@ J =I 0 AI =M *O IO AJHO HA=I I E = EI JH FE? =JAHE= E @AFA @A J B IF=JE= @EHA?JE  = @ =IIK E C JD=J JDAHA =HA IJHAIIAI E JDA E EJE= K ? FHAIIA@ > @O JDA HA =JE IDEF >AJMAA JDA JM JA I HI EI σ = 2µε(u) + λ(∇ · u)I MDAHA I EI JDA 3 × 3 E@A JEJO F=H= AJAHI =HA @A A@ >O =JHEN 6DA A =IJE? E 2(1+ν )  # @K E µ = @ λ ?= A@ JDA =  $ µ= λ= Eν (1+ν )(1−2ν ) MDAHA . K CI A =IJE? @K KI @AI?HE>A JDA IJE AII B JDA =JAHE= = @ ν 2 EII I H=JE A=IKHA JDA JA @A ?O J =HH M JDA ?H II IA?JE B JDA =JAHE=  MDA EJ EI IJHAJ?DA@ + >E A JDA AGK=JE B B H?A AGKE E>HEK AGK=JE MEJD JDA E A=H HA =JE IDEF AGK=JE # JDA HAIK J ? IEIJ B = JM LA?J H L= KA@ F=HJE= @E AHA JE= AGK=JE MDE?D C LAH JDA @EIF =?A A J LA?J H u >O −∇ · σ = f σ = 2µε(u) + λ(∇ · u)I   %= %> ! * K @=HO ? @EJE I 6DA > K @=HO ? @EJE I B JDA FDOIE?= FH > A =HA LAHO E F HJ= J E H@AH J =?DEALA HAIK JI B E F HJ= ?A = @ JDA IFA?E ? > K @=HO ? @EJE I ? HHAIF @ J JDA K EGKA I KJE u B JDA FH > A 6DAHA =HA JM @E AHA J JOFAI B > K @=HO .5 E@ A?D= E?I ' .

EHE?D AJI EI @EHA?J O ? IJH=E A@ JDA @EIF =?A A J LA?J H u = @ H = O J= A JDA B H u = g D AK = I > K @=HO ? @EJE I ? JH JDA H = IJHAIIAI = @ J= A JDA B H σ · n = g N * JD g D = @ g N ID K @ >A CELA BH JDA B H K =JE B JDA FH > A " 6DA AGK=JE I B E A=H A =IJ IJ=JE?I B H K =JE . ∂vi ∂xj Ω = (f . ∀v ∈ V  ! . v )Ω . v )Ω 4AMHEJA JDA ANFHAIIE = @ JDA L=HE=JE ? JH=?JE FAH=J H >A MHEJJA = B H K =JE  ! ? K @ MEJD JDA E JH @K?A@ . v )∂ Ω = (f .j =1 −(σij . nj vi )∂ Ω + σij .j =1 3 − ∂σij . vi ∂xj Ω = i. v )Ω = i.E @ u ∈ V IK?D JD=J (σ : ∇u)Ω − (σ · n.EHE?D AJI = @ AK = I > K @=HO ? @E JE I . +D=FJAH 6DA HO ? @EJE I E I E@ A?D= E?I = A O .A 8=HE=JE = B H K =JE V = {v ∈ [H 1 (Ω)]3 }  ' A JDA IK>IF=?A MDAHA H 1 (Ω) = {v : ∇v + v < ∞} K JEF O AGK=JE BK ?JE v ∈ V = @ E JACH=JA >O F=HJI MDE?D CELA 3 &= MEJD JDA JAIJ (−∇ · σ .E @ JDA IJHAII JA I H σ = @ JDA @EI CA A KI EI JH FE? E A=H A =IJE? I E@ @AI?HE>A@ >O + IE@AH JDA B ME C FH > A F =?A A J LA?J H u B H JDA D JDA @ =E Ω IK?D JD=J −∇ · σ = f σ = 2µε(u) + λ(∇ · u)I u = gD σ · n = gN x∈Ω x∈Ω x ∈ ΓD x ∈ ΓN     &= &> &? &@ MDAHA ΓD = @ ΓN =HA > K @=HO IAC A JI IK?D JD=J JDA K E ΓD ∪ ΓN = ∂ Ω = @ JDA E JAHIA?JE ΓD ∩ ΓN = 6DA ? >E =JE B JDAIA AGK=JE I EI HABAHHA@ =I ' JDA AGK=JE I B E A=H A =IJ IJ=JE?I =HI # .

CE AAHE C J=JE .A A JDA IF=?A V h = {v ∈ [Vh ]3 } MEJD Vh @A A@ E AGK=JE  6DA EJA A A A J B H K =JE EI  !  . v )Ω . v )∂ Ω = (f . H JA?D E?= A CE AAHE C JDA B H K =JE B JDA HA =JE IDEFI =HA ?KIJ =HO HAMHEJ JA =I JDA FH @K?J B = ? KF A B =JHE?AI *O HA=HH= CE C JDA E @AFA @A J AH ? F A JI B JDA IJHAII JA I H = @ JDA IJH=E JA I H E J LA?J HI JDEI E @K?A σ = ε = 6DA HA =JE # >KJ σ11 σ22 σ33 σ12 σ23 σ31 T T  !"  !# AI =M AGK=JE  !$ ε11 ε22 ε33 2ε12 2ε23 2ε31 >AJMAA IJHAIIAI = @ IJH=E I =HA IJE @AI?HE>A@ >O 0 M ANFHAIIA@ MEJD LA?J H J=JE I =I σ = Dε MDAHA D EI JDA A =IJE? IJE AII @K KI =JHEN B H JHAA  λ + 2µ λ λ 0  λ λ + 2 µ λ 0   λ λ + 2µ 0  λ D=  0 0 0 µ   0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 @E A IE  0 0 0 0   0 0  0 0  µ 0 0 µ I  !% 1 =@@EJE J JDEI JDA I E@ =JAHE= ? K @ D=LA E JAH = IJH=E I ?=KIA@ >O JDAH = ANF= IE 6DAIA JDAH = IJH=E I =HA IK>JH=?JA@ BH JDA HECDJ D= @ IE@A B AGK=JE !$ = @ HAIK J E σ = Dε − Dε0  !& 6DA JDAH = IJH=E JA I H EI @AI?HE>A@ >O ε0 = α∆T 1 1 1 0 0 0 T  !' MDAHA α EI JDA ? A ?EA J B JDAH = ANF= IE = @ ∆T JDA @E AHA ?A E JA FAH=JKHA >AJMAA JM @E AHA J IJ=JAI /H=D ' 1 A CE AAHE C J=JE I JDA EJA A A A J = I=J U ∈ V h ? K @ >A MHEJJA =I .5 E@ A?D= E?I  $ . ∀v ∈ Vh  !! % .E EJA A A A J B H K =JE .E @ U ∈ V h IK?D JD=J (σ : ∇U )Ω − (σ · n.

EIF =?A A JI B JDA @AI = @ JDA IJH=E A @ " H E A CE AAHE C J=JE I =HA HA =JA@ >O AGK=JE   ∂   0 0 ε11 ∂x1 ∂ ε   0 0   22     ∂x2   0  ∂  u1 0 ε   ∂x3  u  = ε =  33  =  ∂  2 ∂ 2ε12   ∂x2 ∂x 0  1     ∂ ∂  u3 2ε23   0 ∂x3 ∂x2 ∂ ∂ 2ε31 0 ∂x3 ∂x1 ˜u = ∇ 6DEI A=@I J JDA E JH @K?E C B JDA IJH=E =JHEN B MDE?D EI  ∂  0 0 ∂x1 ∂  0 0    ∂x2 0 0 ϕ2 0 0 ···  0 ∂  ϕ1 0   ∂x 3 B =  ∂ 0 ϕ2 0 · · ·  0 ϕ1 0 ∂  ∂x2 ∂x 0  1   0 0 ϕ 0 0 ϕ2 · · · 1 ∂ ∂   0 ∂x3 ∂x2 ∂ ∂ 0 ∂x3 ∂x1 CELA >O  " ϕN 0 0 0 ϕN 0  0 0 = ϕN ˜ϕ = ∇ = @ JDA @EI?HAJA IJH=E I = @ IJHAIIAI ? K @ MEJD JDA AM J=JE  "  I >A ANFHAIIA@ =I  "!  "" ? K @ JDA >A MHEJJA =I ε = Bd σ = DBd 6DA Ω EJA A A A J B H K =JE B JDA FH > A B T DB dΩ d = Ω ϕT f dΩ + ∂Ω ϕT g ∂ (∂ Ω) + Ω B T Dε0 dΩ  "# .+D=FJAH  6DA HO U    U1 ϕ1 0 0 ϕ2 0 0 · · · ϕN = U2  =  0 ϕ1 0 0 ϕ2 0 · · · 0 0 0 ϕ1 0 0 ϕ2 · · · 0 U3 0 ϕN 0  d11  d12    d   13      d21   0 d  22   0   d23  =   ϕN       dN 1    dN 2  dN 3  " = ϕd MDAHA ϕi B H E  =HA JDA D=J BK ?JE I @A A@ E AGK=JE 8A?J H d ? J=E JDA @EIF =?A A JI B JDA @AI = @ B H = JDHAA @E A IE = FH > A JDAHA =HA JDHAA LA?J H A A A JI B H A=?D @A A=?D HAFHAIA JE C JDA @EIF =?A A J B H A=?D @EHA?JE E JDA ? H@E =JA IOIJA .

EHE?D AJI = @ AK = I > K @=HO ? @EJE I -GK=JE "# ? K @ E LA?J H = @ =JHEN J=JE I >A MHEJJA Kd = F = @ JDA @EIF =?A A JI =HA CELA MEJD E A=H = CA>H=  "$ d = K −1 F  "% & E A=HEJO 6DA C LAH E C B I E@ A?D= E?I EI JDA >IAHL=JE B I = @EIF =?A A JI = @ = E A=H HA =JE IDEF B H JDA @A 1 = O ?=IAI JDA E A=H HA =JE IDEF EI J JHKA EB =HCA @EIF =?A A JI ??KH E JDA @A >KJ E A=HEJEAI ? K @ = I =HEIA E JDA =JAHE= IJ=>E EJO H MEJD JDA IFA?E A@ > K @=HO ? @EJE I 6 =L E@ E A=H FH > A I = EJAH=JELA I LAH EI BJA KIA@ @KHE C JDA I KJE FH ?AII MDE?D FAH B H E A=H O =FFH NE =JA@ ?= ?K =JE I IJAF >O IJAF A B JDA IJ ? AJD @I EI AMJ I EJAH=JE AJD @ = @ JDEI AJD @ HA O ?= ?K =JE C JDA AH H H δ B = E EJE= CKAII B JDA @EIF =?A A JI 6DA E = EJAH=JELA = AH JDA @EIF =?A A J LA?J H KF@=JAI MEJD JDA ?= ?K =JA@ AHH H = @ I K JE JDA AHH H "% JDA AHH H δ B >A? AI ? @A JE= O I = *O FKJJE C d = d0 + δ E AGK=JE JDA CKAII d0 ? K @ >A ?= ?K =JA@ =I δ = K −1 F − d0 6DA KF@=JE C I?DA A B H X AMJ I EJAH=JE AJD @ M K @ E A  "& = A = E EJE= CKAII d0 B JDA @EIF =?A A JI X += ?K =JA JDA AHH H δ X 7F@=JA JDA @EIF =?A A JI MEJD d = d0 + δ 6DA FKJ d0 = d =I = AM CKAII X 4AFA=J IJAF JM = @ JDHAA K JE JDA @EIF =?A A J AHH H δ CAJ I = A KCD ! E A=H ? J=?J A?D= E?I ) IFA?E= BA=JKHA B E A=H I E@ A?D= E?I =FFA=HI =J JDA > K @=HO B JDA I E@ H HA FHA?EIA O MDAHA JDAHA EI ? J=?J =C=E IJ = O JDAH > A?J = @ FA AJH=JE ??KH 6DA FA AJH=JE B = ? J=?J IKHB=?A EI CA AH= O ? F IA@ >O = IKHB=?A =@A@ MEJD IFHE CI MDE?D A B H?A JDA I E@ J IJHE A =C=E IJ = O JDAH ? E@E C IKHB=?A 6DAHA =HA = O @E AHA J AJD @I B H JDEI FKHF IA >KJ JM B JDA IJ ? =HA JDA FKHA FA = JO AJD @ = @ =KC A JA@ =CH= CA AJD @ 6DA FKHA FA = JO AJD @ HAGKEHA H = = @ J= CA JE= ? J=?J IJE AII B JDA IKHB=?A = @ JDA =?JK= FA AJH=JE B = IKHB=?A @AFA @I JDA IJE AII B JDA IFHE CI ) E JH @K?A@ ? J=?J JH=?JE LA?J H EI ANFHAIIA@ =I P τ1 τ2 T  "' .! E A=H ? J=?J A?D= E?I ! MDAHA g ? HHAIF @ J JDA ? >E =JE B > JD .

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