maà¤bad ik ib¯an?

-ibpåb

Zara pâiTbIet ÷eàgr pãitSã›it ide¬C, tara† pâiTbIFaek nrk baineyeC|
-sYar kaàl ppar

ŸSex Vmaek† maà¤baedr speQ ilKet He¬C| …ek dSŸkaiF Ÿlak HtYar
ApraeD, ViDka„S Ÿlak maà¤bad ìnel GâNa ker, tarper Ÿstara HaeSemr
mtn †slaimk Aió»tÔtabaed ŸBaga ibkát r›icr Ÿlaekra Zid maà¤badI
iHsaeb inejedr dabI ker gàdBamât ilKet Taek, maà¤baedr pãit Ÿlaekedr
ibtâx—a baReb|
pãTmt ŸZFa jana drkar, VDuink ob¯aink pÁit, Za iney Vim ilKlam,
AàTa‡ pãkæp, ibr›Á pãkæp …b„ ibkæp pãkæp …r prIQa …b„ s„KYatai¹Ôk
ibeSåxn, ŸsFa ÃaiÆdk bó¼baedr ba maà¤baedr ob¯aink …b„ ˆÊttr rœp|
Zara ÃaiÆdk bó¼bad jaenn, taedrek Vmaek bel idet Heb na ŸZ, pãkæp
…b„ ibr›Á pãkæp He¬C-iTiss …b„ ViÆFiTiss| Zar ÃeÆdr maDYem iseÇùiss
Hy| ŸsFa† ÃaiÆdk bó¼bad| ciF b† peR, ŸsFa Ÿstara HaeSemr janar kTa
ny, …b„ Ÿs† jnY ib¯anbadŸk pirt¹¡Y bel ideln! tarmaen ŸZ tar
pãaeNr maà¤badek pirtYag kra ŸsFa AbSY B¸ maà¤badIedr janar kTa
ny!
Ÿs Zak| Ÿkan manisk r›gIek VGat idey, Vmar Ÿkan laB Ÿn†| br„
…kTa janaena pãŸyajnW
(1) maà¤bad ib¯anbaedr puàbasUrI ikǼ ib¯aenr VDuink s„¯aBu¹¡ nyW
ib¯aenr saeT Apib¯an, praib¯an †tYaidr paàTkY inrœpn kern
ob¯aink pÁitr ŸSãò daàSink sYar kaàl ppar(1902-1994)| ŸsFa†
bàtmaen ibSÿibdYaly§ilet '…kmaº' gãHnŸZagY s„¯a| maà¤bad Ÿkn
ib¯aenr s„¯aBu¹¡ Heb na, ŸsFa iney gebxna kret igey† ppar ib¯aenr
pÁitr VDuink s„¯a Vibôar kern| Vim öanePaeàhr ibSÿibdYaleyr
dàSnSaeó½r pfn ŸTek tuel idi¬CW
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/popper/
The Marxist account of history too, Popper held, is not scientific, although it differs in
certain crucial respects from psychoanalysis. For Marxism, Popper believed, had been
initially scientific, in that Marx had postulated a theory which was genuinely predictive.
However, when these predictions were not in fact borne out, the theory was saved from
falsification by the addition of ad hoc hypotheses which made it compatible with the facts.
By this means, Popper asserted, a theory which was initially genuinely scientific

degenerated into pseudo-scientific dogma.
(AàTa‡ maià¤yte¹Ô iTiss ba pãkæpek º›iFpUàN Dra Hy beF ikǼ imeTY bel Dra Hy na| …r
Pel Ÿkan prIQa (ba †itHas) maà¤Iy bYaKYar ibr›eÁ Ÿgel, Vera ikCu puàbinàDairt
maà¤Iy pãkæp Ÿzakaena Hy| Ÿs† pãkæpek baitl kra Hy na| …† na-baitl Anumaenr
jnY maà¤Iy t¹Ô Deàm pirnt Hy| Ÿs†jnY Ÿkan t¹Ô ib¯ansÚmt Hwyar pãaTimk sàt
He¬C, Ÿs† t¹Ôek baitleZagY Het Heb| ŸsFa† VDuink ob¯aink pãkeæpr s„¯a|
maà¤baed 'baitleZagY iTiss' bel ikCu Ÿn†| ta† AEb¯aink|)
These factors combined to make Popper take falsifiability as his criterion for demarcating
science from non-science: if a theory is incompatible with possible empirical observations
it is scientific; conversely, a theory which is compatible with all such observations, either
because, as in the case of Marxism, it has been modified solely to accommodate such
observations, or because, as in the case of psychoanalytic theories, it is consistent with all
possible observations, is unscientific. For Popper, however, to assert that a theory is
unscientific, is not necessarily to hold that it is unenlightening, still less that it is
meaningless, for it sometimes happens that a theory which is unscientific (because it is
unfalsifiable) at a given time may become falsifiable, and thus scientific, with the
development of technology, or with the further articulation and refinement of the theory.
Further, even purely mythogenic explanations have performed a valuable function in the
past in expediting our understanding of the nature of reality.
( AàTa‡ te¹Ôr baitleZagYta† inàDarN ker Ÿkan pÁit ob¯aink …b„ Ÿkan pÁit ny|
100% gãHneZagY t¹Ô Vsel† AEb¯aink t¹Ô Het baDY| br„ 50% baitlŸZagY t¹Ô
ob¯aink!)

t¹Ô baitlŸZagY na Hel ib¯aenr t¹Ô Hy na!
bYaparFa …kFu Baba Zak| Vmra Zara lYaebrFarIet kaj kir, tara …†
bYapaer isjnh| bYaparFa Hl …† ŸZ, Dr›n ŸKeF KueF …kFa Baela Zui¹¡badI
t¹Ô dƒaR kralam| Aenk giNt …b„ kÚpuFaer ismuelSn ker| ikǼ
lYaebrFarIet prIQa krar smy, Ÿs† t¹Ôek Zt† º›iFmu¹¡ Baib na Ÿkn,
Vim ŸdeKiC, prIQalÁ Pel …kFa na …kFa cmk Taek†| maen ŸbS ikCu
ŸrjalF sb smy Ÿmel na| …† na Ÿmla Pl§ela ibeSåxn kret igey, Vera
ikCu t¹Ô dƒaR kraet Hy| ŸsFaera prIQa kret Hy| …baera ŸdKa Zay te¹Ôr
ikCu Bul VeC| Vbar …mena Hy, t¹ÔFa pueraFa† Bul| tKn baitl kret Hy|
…† Baeb Ÿkan iseöm sÜeÉ Vmar ¯an …igey cel| …Fa Vmar intYidenr
AiB¯ta| …kFu Babel† ŸbaJa Zaeb, t¹Ô baitlŸZagY na Hel prIQa krar
drkar Ÿn†|
Vera …igey igey blel, Ÿkan t¹Ô ib¯aenr t¹Ô Heb tKin Zid, tar ibr›eÁ
(peQ na) nUnYtm …kFa pãman pawya Zay! Vr Zid sb pãman† ibr›eÁ
Taek? taHelw ŸsFa ib¯aenr t¹Ô ikǼ, baitlt¹Ô! Zid 100% Bag pãman
peQ Taek? taHel Ÿs† t¹Ô AEb¯aink! Zaet 100% na Ÿmel Ÿs† jnY
inàBrtar % Ÿdwya Hy| AàTa‡ …kFa t¹Ô 95% ba 99% inàBreZagY na Hel (

maen 95% ba 99% ŸQeº na imlel), Ÿs† t¹Ôw ob¯aink pãkæp ikǼ
baitl pãkæp | te¹Ôr …† ŸZ 5% ba 1% Bul, …Far jnY† …ek ob¯aink
pãkæp bel|
1934 sael sYar ppaerr …Fa† iCl ZugaÇ»karI Vibôar (The logic of
Scientific discovery)| b†Fa ŸbeRaenar saeT saeT† sara per Zay …b„
rsaynibd wyacarescar …b„ mHakaSt¹Ôibd Òaªk iFplar b†iFek Sta×Ir
sbecey §r›¹ÔpUàN dàSn bel bàNna kern| …k Daqay maà¤bad, ŸÒeyihyan
menaib¯an, ÷Babbad †tYaid AEb¯aink ba VDaob¯aink
(pseudoscience) bel ŸGaixt Hl|
(2) maठ…b„ …eªgls pãTm jIben (1870 …r pUeàb) ib¯aenr …kinò
Ÿsbk iCeln| ŸsFa sYar pparw ÷Ikar kereCn| ikǼ maà¤badek
rajnIitet Ÿzakaet igey, …Faek h¢äIn ba Dàm baineyiCeln| ŸSx byes …†
paepr AenkFa ÷Ikarw keriCeln|
"There is no royal road to science, and only those who do not dread the fatiguing climb of
its steep paths have a chance of gaining its luminous summits".
-Das Capital Vol-1, 1872

maeà¤r pãTm idekr rcnay ŸdKa Zaeb, itin …† prIQar wpr inàBr ker
baitleZagYtar idek Ÿjar idetn| …b„ tar ŸTek† ˆÊttr te¹Ôr sÉan
kretn| …† jnY maeà¤r pãTm idekr rcnablI ZtFa ob¯aink, perr idekr
kaj ttFa† AEb¯aink| sYar ppar ŸdiKey iCeln, perr idek maà¤, tar
inejr bó¼baedr †itHaesr (Historical materialism) te¹Ôr baitlŸZagYtay
ibSÿas kretn na| Pel, t¹Ôemlaet Buir Buir †itHas ibkáit GFaetn maà¤
(Open Societies and Its Enemies,1941)|
'What I wish to show is that Marx's "materialist interpretation of history", valuable as it
may be, must not be taken too seriously; that we must regard it as nothing more than a
most valuable suggestion to us to consider things in relation to their economic
background'
-Sir Popper

ìDu ta† ny, maठŸZ Baeb †itHaesr BibxYt kæpna keriCeln, ŸsFaekw
sÚpUàN AEb¯aink bel pãman keriCeln sYar ppar ( The poverty of
Histoicism,1945)

Vsel smsYa ìr› Hy 1870 sael ŸTek| …eªgls isÁaÇ» Ÿnn Sãimkedr
meDY maà¤baed jnipãyta baRaet Heb| Zaedr AiDka„S† iCl DàmBIr›
KãIöan| Pel maà¤badek Deàmr ibkæp iHsaeb dƒaR kraenar pãŸyajnIta
…eªgls buJet paern ( ŸZ kareN Vim ib¯anbadek Deàmr ibkæp iHsaeb
dƒaR kraet ca†)|
"We, at that time, were all materialists, or, at least, very advanced free-thinkers, and to us
it appeared inconceivable that almost all educated people in England should believe in all
sorts of impossible miracles, and that even geologists like Buckland and Mantell should
contort the facts of their science so as not to clash too much with the myths of the book of
Genesis; while, in order to find people who dared to use their own intellectual faculties
with regard to religious matters, you had to go amongst the uneducated, the "great
unwashed", as they were then called, the working people, especially the Owenite
Socialists".
Socialism: Utopian and Scientific - Frederick Engels,1881

…Kan ŸTek† rajEnitk maà¤baedr ˆ¾an …b„ ob¯aink maà¤baedr ptn
ìr› Hy| AàTa‡, maà¤baedr …† DàmIy pirnit iCl supirkiæpt| baitlŸZagY
te¹Ôr Anuman ŸTek ìr› na krel sb t¹Ô† Deàm pirnt Hy …b„ ŸsFa ib¯an
Taek na| Ÿs† jnY kaàlmaठŸSx byes bletn "Vim maà¤badI n†" ( maen
Vim Vr ob¯aink Ÿn† !)| Ÿs Za†eHak maeà¤r rcnablI smajteǽr Ÿcey
pƒuijbaedr ibeSåxen AnbdY …b„ taet Vr Za† ŸHak pƒuijbad iney Ÿkan
Cƒuicba† Ÿn†| pƒuijbadek kaæpink Sº› banay B¸ maà¤badIra | maठikǼ
pƒuijbadek smaejr ibbàtenr Dap iHsaeb† ŸdeKeCn, Sº› iHsaeb ŸdeKn in!
In a word, the free trade system hastens the social revolution. It is in this revolutionary
sense alone, gentlemen, that I vote in favor of free trade.
-Karl Marx: Speech to the Democratic Association of Brussels at its public meeting of
January 9, 1848

…r per Ÿliln ba maw, maià¤ö-Ÿlilinjm ba maià¤ö-mawijm naem ŸZ sb
t¹Ô ideyeCn, Ÿs§ela ib¯aenr VDuink s„¯ay AEb¯aink| Zidw maw …†
VDa-ob¯aink pÁitr ibr›eÁ Aenk ileKeCn, ikǼ tar inejr te¹Ôr
baitlŸZagYta iney Ÿkan ibeSåxn kern in| ta† tar inejr t¹Ô† ŸTek
ŸgeC AEb¯aink ba VDaEb¯aink| Ÿlilenr rcnaetw ŸdKa Zaeb Ÿliln
inejr te¹Ôr ibr›eÁ Ÿkan pãman ŸKƒajar Ÿcöa kern in| tar te¹Ôr smàTen†
smó» Zui¹¡ …b„ niT dƒaR kireyeCn| inejr te¹Ôr ibr›eÁ …kFaw pãman na
Ÿjagar kra pÁitgt Baeb AEb¯aink|
We all remember how many religious wars were fought for a religion of love and

gentleness; how many bodies were burned alive with the genuinely kind intention of
saving souls from the eternal fire of hell
-Sir Karl Popper

kYailePaiànya
12/10/2005