ETSI Version

Copyright © 2012 by Ceragon Networks Ltd. All rights reserved.


FibeAir® IP-10G
Product Description
October 2012
Hardware Release: R2 and R3
Software Release: i6.9
Document Revision B.01
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Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 2 of 403
Notice
This document contains information that is proprietary to Ceragon Networks Ltd. No part of this
publication may be reproduced, modified, or distributed without prior written authorization of
Ceragon Networks Ltd. This document is provided as is, without warranty of any kind.
Registered Trademarks
Ceragon Networks® is a registered trademark of Ceragon Networks Ltd. FibeAir® is a registered
trademark of Ceragon Networks Ltd. CeraView® is a registered trademark of Ceragon Networks
Ltd. Other names mentioned in this publication are owned by their respective holders.
Trademarks
CeraMap™, PolyView™, EncryptAir™, ConfigAir™, CeraMon™, EtherAir™, and MicroWave Fiber™,
are trademarks of Ceragon Networks Ltd. Other names mentioned in this publication are owned
by their respective holders.
Statement of Conditions
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. Ceragon
Networks Ltd. shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential
damage in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this document or equipment
supplied with it.
Open Source Statement
The Product may use open source software, among them O/S software released under the GPL or
GPL alike license ("GPL License"). Inasmuch that such software is being used, it is released under
the GPL License, accordingly. Some software might have changed. The complete list of the
software being used in this product including their respective license and the aforementioned
public available changes is accessible on http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
Information to User
Any changes or modifications of equipment not expressly approved by the manufacturer could
void the user’s authority to operate the equipment and the warranty for such equipment.
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Revision History
Rev Date Author Description Approved by Date
A January 19,
2012
Baruch Gitlin First revision for release 6.9. Tomer Carmeli January 19,
2012
A.01 March 15,
2012
Baruch Gitlin Revise PDV value for PTP
optimized transport.
Tomer Carmeli March 15,
2012
A.02 March 22,
2012
Baruch Gitlin Revised RFU-C frequency bands. Rami Lerner March 26,
2012
A.03 April 2, 2012 Baruch Gitlin Revise RFU-C frequency
specifications.
Rami Lerner April 2, 2012
A.04 July 1, 2012 Baruch Gitlin Reorganized document structure,
updated feature descriptions.
Eran Shecter July 1, 2012
A.05 July 12, 2012 Baruch Gitlin Eliminated RADIUS server
priorities; modified explanation of
TDM protection in Multi-Radio.
Eran Shecter July 12, 2012
A.06 July 29, 2012 Baruch Gitlin Revise Licensing section. Eran Shecter July 29, 2012
B August 14,
2012
Baruch Gitlin Correct hardware version
compatibility information.
Eran Shecter August 14,
2012
B.01 October 29,
2012
Baruch Gitlin Revise RFU-C mediation device
losses.
Eran Shecter/Rami
Lerner
October 29,
2012
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Table of Contents
1. Synonyms and Acronyms .............................................................................. 23
2. Introduction .................................................................................................... 26
2.1 Product Overview ......................................................................................................... 27
2.2 IP-10G Advantages ...................................................................................................... 28
2.2.1 Efficient Utilization of Spectrum Assets ....................................................................... 28
2.2.2 Spectral Efficiency ........................................................................................................ 28
2.2.3 Radio Link .................................................................................................................... 28
2.2.4 Wireless Network ......................................................................................................... 29
2.2.5 Scalability ..................................................................................................................... 29
2.2.6 Availability .................................................................................................................... 29
2.2.7 Network Level Optimization ......................................................................................... 30
2.2.8 Network Management .................................................................................................. 30
2.2.9 Power Saving Mode with High Power Radio ............................................................... 30
2.3 Functional Block Diagrams .......................................................................................... 31
2.4 Nodal Configuration Option .......................................................................................... 33
2.4.1 Nodal Configuration Benefits ....................................................................................... 33
2.4.2 Nodal Design ................................................................................................................ 33
2.4.3 Nodal Enclosure Design............................................................................................... 34
2.4.4 Nodal Management ...................................................................................................... 35
2.4.5 Centralized System Features in a Nodal Configuration ............................................... 36
2.4.6 Ethernet Connectivity in a Nodal Configuration ........................................................... 36
2.5 Solution Overview ........................................................................................................ 37
2.6 System Overview ......................................................................................................... 41
3. Release and Version Information .................................................................. 42
3.1 New Features and Enhancements ............................................................................... 43
3.2 Hardware Compatibility ................................................................................................ 44
3.3 Version Matrix .............................................................................................................. 45
4. Hardware Description..................................................................................... 49
4.1 Hardware Architecture ................................................................................................. 50
4.2 Front Panel Description................................................................................................ 51
4.3 Ethernet Interfaces ....................................................................................................... 53
4.3.1 GbE Interfaces ............................................................................................................. 54
4.3.2 100Base-FX support .................................................................................................... 55
4.4 Management Interfaces ............................................................................................... 56
4.5 Link Aggregation (LAG)................................................................................................ 57
4.5.1 Creating a LAG Group ................................................................................................. 57
4.5.2 Adding Ports to a LAG Group ...................................................................................... 58
4.5.3 Removing Ports from a LAG Group ............................................................................. 59
4.6 TDM Interface Options ................................................................................................. 60
4.7 Radio Interface ............................................................................................................. 61
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4.8 Power Interfaces .......................................................................................................... 62
4.9 Additional Interfaces ..................................................................................................... 63
4.10 Front Panel LEDs ......................................................................................................... 64
4.11 External Alarms ............................................................................................................ 65
5. Licensing......................................................................................................... 66
5.1 License Overview ......................................................................................................... 67
5.2 Working with License Keys .......................................................................................... 67
5.3 Licensed Features ........................................................................................................ 67
6. Feature Description ........................................................................................ 69
6.1 Equipment Protection ................................................................................................... 70
6.1.1 Equipment Protection Overview ................................................................................... 71
6.1.2 1+1 HSB Protection ..................................................................................................... 72
6.1.3 2+0 Multi-Radio and 2+0 Multi-Radio with IDU and Line Protection ........................... 75
6.1.4 2+2 HSB Protection ..................................................................................................... 77
6.1.5 Switchover Triggers ..................................................................................................... 79
6.2 Ethernet Line Protection............................................................................................... 80
6.2.1 Ethernet Line Protection Options ................................................................................. 81
6.2.2 Multi-Unit LAG .............................................................................................................. 83
6.2.3 Ethernet Line Protection Using Splitters ...................................................................... 86
6.3 Capacity and Latency ................................................................................................... 87
6.3.1 Capacity Summary ....................................................................................................... 88
6.3.2 Ethernet Header Compression .................................................................................... 89
6.3.3 Latency ......................................................................................................................... 96
6.3.4 Asymmetrical Scripts .................................................................................................... 97
6.4 Radio Features ........................................................................................................... 100
6.4.1 Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM) ........................................................................... 101
6.4.2 ACM with Adaptive Transmit Power .......................................................................... 106
6.4.3 Radio Traffic Priority ................................................................................................... 108
6.4.4 Cross Polarization Interface Canceller (XPIC) ........................................................... 109
6.4.5 Multi-Radio ................................................................................................................. 113
6.4.6 Automatic State Propagation in Multi-Radio .............................................................. 116
6.4.7 Diversity...................................................................................................................... 117
6.4.8 ATPC Override Timer ................................................................................................. 123
6.4.9 Disabling the Radio .................................................................................................... 124
6.4.10 Behavior in Radio Disable Conditions ........................................................................ 125
6.5 Ethernet Features ...................................................................................................... 126
6.5.1 Ethernet Switching ..................................................................................................... 127
6.5.2 Ethernet Services ....................................................................................................... 130
6.5.3 Network Resiliency and xSTP .................................................................................... 134
6.5.4 Automatic State Propagation ..................................................................................... 144
6.6 Quality of Service (Traffic Manager) .......................................................................... 146
6.6.1 Integrated Quality of Service (QoS) Overview ........................................................... 147
6.6.2 Standard QoS ............................................................................................................ 149
6.6.3 Enhanced QoS ........................................................................................................... 152
6.6.4 Standard and Enhanced QoS Comparison................................................................ 164
6.7 TDM Solution ............................................................................................................. 165
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6.7.1 TDM Trails and Cross-Connect (XE) ......................................................................... 166
6.7.2 Smart TDM Pseudowire ............................................................................................. 170
6.7.3 Wireless SNCP .......................................................................................................... 179
6.7.4 Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery (ABR) ........................................................................ 184
6.7.5 ACM for TDM Services .............................................................................................. 194
6.7.6 AIS Signaling and Detection ...................................................................................... 196
6.8 Synchronization .......................................................................................................... 197
6.8.1 Synchronization Overview.......................................................................................... 198
6.8.2 IP-10G Synchronization Solution ............................................................................... 200
6.8.3 Available Synchronization Interfaces ......................................................................... 201
6.8.4 Synchronization Configuration ................................................................................... 202
6.8.5 Synchronization Using TDM Trails ............................................................................. 203
6.8.6 SyncE from Co-Located TDM Trails .......................................................................... 204
6.8.7 Synchronization Using Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) Optimized Transport ......... 205
6.8.8 Native Sync Distribution Mode ................................................................................... 207
6.8.9 SyncE PRC Pipe Regenerator Mode ......................................................................... 211
6.8.10 SSM Support and Loop Prevention ........................................................................... 212
7. Radio Frequency Units (RFUs) .................................................................... 213
7.1 RFU Overview ............................................................................................................ 214
7.2 RFU Selection Guide ................................................................................................. 215
7.3 RFU-C ........................................................................................................................ 216
7.3.1 Main Features of RFU-C ............................................................................................ 216
7.3.2 RFU-C Frequency Bands ........................................................................................... 217
7.3.3 RFU-C Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications............................. 228
7.3.4 RFU-C Mediation Device Losses ............................................................................... 229
7.3.5 RFU-C Antenna Connection ...................................................................................... 229
7.3.6 RFU-C Waveguide Flanges ....................................................................................... 230
7.4 1500HP/RFU-HP ........................................................................................................ 231
7.4.1 Main Features of 1500HP/RFU-HP ........................................................................... 231
7.4.2 1500HP/RFU-HP Frequency Bands .......................................................................... 233
7.4.3 1500HP/RFU-HP Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications ............ 234
7.4.4 1500HP/RFU-HP Functional Block Diagram and Concept of Operation ................... 235
7.4.5 1500HP/RFU-HP Comparison Table ......................................................................... 237
7.4.6 1500HP/RFU-HP System Configurations .................................................................. 238
7.4.7 1500HP/RFU-HP Space Diversity Support ................................................................ 238
7.4.8 Split Mount Configuration and Branching Network .................................................... 240
7.4.9 Split-Mount Branching Loss ....................................................................................... 245
7.4.10 1500HP/RFU-HP All Indoor Configurations and Branching Network ........................ 246
7.4.11 1500HP/RFU-HP All Indoor Compact (Horizontal) .................................................... 257
7.4.12 1500HP/RFU-HP Models and Part Numbers............................................................. 261
7.4.13 OCB Part Numbers .................................................................................................... 262
7.4.14 Generic All-Indoor Configurations Part Numbers ...................................................... 263
7.5 RFH-HS ...................................................................................................................... 267
7.5.1 Main Features of RFU-HS.......................................................................................... 267
7.5.2 RFU-HS Frequency Bands ........................................................................................ 268
7.5.3 RFU-HS Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications .......................... 269
7.5.4 RFU-HS Antenna Types ............................................................................................ 269
7.5.5 RFU-HS Antenna Connection .................................................................................... 270
7.5.6 RFU-HS Mediation Device Losses ............................................................................ 270
7.6 RFU-SP ...................................................................................................................... 272
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7.6.1 Main Features of RFU-SP .......................................................................................... 272
7.6.2 RFU-SP Frequency Bands ........................................................................................ 273
7.6.3 RFU-SP Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications .......................... 274
7.6.4 RFU-SP Direct Mount Installation .............................................................................. 275
7.6.5 RFU-SP Antenna Connection .................................................................................... 275
7.6.6 RFU-SP Mediation Device Losses ............................................................................. 276
7.7 1500P ......................................................................................................................... 277
7.7.1 1500P Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications ............................. 277
7.7.2 1500P Mediation Device Losses ................................................................................ 278
8. Typical Configurations ................................................................................. 279
8.1 IP-10G Configuration Options .................................................................................... 280
8.2 Point-to-Point Configurations ..................................................................................... 281
8.2.1 Basic 1+0 Configuration ............................................................................................. 282
8.2.2 1+1 HSB ..................................................................................................................... 283
8.2.3 1+0 with 32 E1s.......................................................................................................... 284
8.2.4 1+0 with 64 E1s.......................................................................................................... 285
8.2.5 2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s – No Multi-Radio ............................................................ 286
8.2.6 2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s – Multi-Radio .................................................................. 287
8.2.7 2+0/XPIC Link with 32 E1s + STM-1 Mux Interface, no Multi-Radio, up to 168 E1s over
the radio ..................................................................................................................... 288
8.2.8 1+1 HSB with 32 E1s ................................................................................................. 289
8.2.9 1+1 HSB with 64 E1s ................................................................................................. 290
8.2.10 1+1 HSB with 84 E1s ................................................................................................. 291
8.2.11 1+1 HSB Link with 16 E1s+ STM-1 Mux Interface (Up to 84 E1s over the radio) ..... 292
8.2.12 Native
2
2+2/XPIC/Multi-Radio MW Link, with 2xSTM-1 Mux (up to 150 E1s over the
radio) .......................................................................................................................... 293
8.3 Nodal Configurations .................................................................................................. 294
8.3.1 Chain with 1+0 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux .............................. 295
8.3.2 Node with 2 x 1+0 Downlinks and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink ............................................. 296
8.3.3 Chain with 1+1 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux .............................. 297
8.3.4 Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site ........................ 298
8.3.5 Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+1 HSB Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site ............... 299
8.3.6 Node with 1 x 1+1 HSB Downlink and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink with STM-1 Mux ........... 300
8.3.7 Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 Links, with STM-1 Mux ...................................................... 301
8.3.8 Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + Spur Link 1+0 ....................................................... 302
8.3.9 Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (5 hops total), with STM-1 Mux
................................................................................................................................... 303
8.3.10 Native
2
Ring with 2 x 2+0/XPIC MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (3 hops total), with 2 x
STM-1 Mux ................................................................................................................. 304
9. FibeAir IP-10G Management ........................................................................ 305
9.1 Management Overview .............................................................................................. 306
9.2 Management Communication Channels and Protocols ............................................. 307
9.3 Web-Based Element Management System (Web EMS) ........................................... 309
9.4 Command Line Interface (CLI) ................................................................................... 310
9.4.1 Text CLI Configuration Scripts ................................................................................... 310
9.5 Floating IP Address .................................................................................................... 311
9.6 In-Band Management ................................................................................................. 312
9.6.1 In-Band Management Isolation in Smart Pipe Mode ................................................. 312
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9.7 Out-of-Band Management ......................................................................................... 313
9.8 System Security Features .......................................................................................... 314
9.8.1 Ceragon’s Layered Security Concept ........................................................................ 314
9.8.2 Defenses in Management Communication Channels ................................................ 315
9.8.3 Defenses in User and System Authentication Procedures ........................................ 316
9.8.4 Secure Communication Channels ............................................................................. 318
9.8.5 Security Log ............................................................................................................... 321
9.9 Ethernet Statistics ...................................................................................................... 323
9.9.1 Ingress Line Receive Statistics .................................................................................. 323
9.9.2 Ingress Radio Transmit Statistics .............................................................................. 323
9.9.3 Egress Radio Receive Statistics ................................................................................ 324
9.9.4 Egress Line Transmit Statistics .................................................................................. 324
9.9.5 Radio Ethernet Capacity ............................................................................................ 324
9.9.6 Radio Ethernet Utilization........................................................................................... 324
9.10 Software Update Timer .............................................................................................. 325
9.11 CeraBuild ................................................................................................................... 325
10. Network Management ................................................................................... 326
10.1 OAM ........................................................................................................................... 327
10.1.1 Configurable RSL Threshold Alarms and Traps ........................................................ 327
10.1.2 Alarms Editing ............................................................................................................ 327
10.1.3 Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) ..................................................................... 328
10.2 Automatic Network Topology Discovery with LLDP Protocol .................................... 330
10.3 NMS Options .............................................................................................................. 331
11. Standards and Certifications ....................................................................... 332
11.1 Carrier Ethernet Functionality .................................................................................... 333
11.2 Supported Ethernet Standards .................................................................................. 334
11.3 MEF Certifications for Ethernet Services ................................................................... 334
11.4 Supported Pseudowire Encapsulations ..................................................................... 335
11.5 Standards Compliance ............................................................................................... 336
11.6 Network Management, Diagnostics, Status, and Alarms ........................................... 337
12. Specifications ............................................................................................... 338
12.1 General Specifications ............................................................................................... 339
12.1.1 6-15 GHz .................................................................................................................... 339
12.1.2 18-42 GHz .................................................................................................................. 339
12.2 Transmit Power Specifications ................................................................................... 340
12.2.1 RFU-C Transmit Power (dBm) ................................................................................... 341
12.2.2 1500HP/RFU-HP Transmit Power (dBm) .................................................................. 341
12.2.3 RFU-HS Transmit Power (dBm) ................................................................................ 342
12.2.4 RFU-SP Transmit Power (dBm) ................................................................................. 342
12.2.5 1500P Transmit Power (dBm) .................................................................................... 342
12.3 Receiver Threshold Specifications ............................................................................. 343
12.3.1 RFU-C Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6) .......................................... 344
12.3.2 1500HP/RFU-HP Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @BER = 10-6) .......................... 346
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12.3.3 RFU-HS Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6) ....................................... 348
12.3.4 RFU-SP Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6) ........................................ 350
12.3.5 1500P Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6) ........................................... 352
12.4 Radio Capacity Specifications ................................................................................... 354
12.4.1 Radio Capacity without Header Compression ........................................................... 354
12.4.2 Radio Capacity with Legacy MAC Header Compression .......................................... 358
12.4.3 Radio Capacity with Multi-Layer Enhanced Header Compression ............................ 362
12.5 Ethernet Latency Specifications ................................................................................. 366
12.5.1 Ethernet Latency – 3.5 MHz Channel Bandwidth ...................................................... 366
12.5.2 Ethernet Latency – 7 MHz Channel Bandwidth ......................................................... 366
12.5.3 Ethernet Latency – 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth ....................................................... 367
12.5.4 Ethernet Latency – 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth ....................................................... 367
12.5.5 Ethernet Latency – 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth ....................................................... 368
12.5.6 Ethernet Latency – 56 MHz Channel Bandwidth ....................................................... 368
12.6 E1 Latency Specifications .......................................................................................... 369
12.6.1 E1 Latency – 3.5 MHz Channel Bandwidth ............................................................... 369
12.6.2 E1 Latency – 7 MHz Channel Bandwidth .................................................................. 369
12.6.3 E1 Latency – 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth ................................................................ 370
12.6.4 E1 Latency – 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth ................................................................ 370
12.6.5 E1 Latency – 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth ................................................................ 371
12.6.6 E1 Latency – 56 MHz Channel Bandwidth ................................................................ 371
12.7 Interface Specifications .............................................................................................. 372
12.7.1 Ethernet Interface Specifications ............................................................................... 372
12.7.2 E1 Interface Specifications ........................................................................................ 372
12.7.3 Smart TDM Pseudowire Interface Specifications ...................................................... 372
12.7.4 Optical STM-1 SFP Interface Specifications .............................................................. 373
12.7.5 Auxiliary Channel Specifications ................................................................................ 373
12.8 Mechanical Specifications .......................................................................................... 374
12.9 Power Input Specifications ......................................................................................... 374
12.10 Power Consumption Specifications ........................................................................... 375
12.10.1 Power Consumption with RFU-HP in Power Saving Mode ....................... 375
12.11 Environmental Specifications ..................................................................................... 376
13. Components and Accessories .................................................................... 377
13.1 Cable and Accessory Overview ................................................................................. 378
13.2 IDU Unit ...................................................................................................................... 381
13.3 Nodal Enclosure Units................................................................................................ 381
13.4 T-Card Options ........................................................................................................... 382
13.5 SFP Options ............................................................................................................... 383
13.6 Additional IDU Accessories ........................................................................................ 383
13.7 Ethernet Cables and Splitters (Electrical) .................................................................. 384
13.7.1 Ethernet Cables and Splitters (Copper) ..................................................................... 384
13.7.2 Ethernet RJ45 - RJ45 Cables .................................................................................... 384
13.7.3 WSC Protection Cable ............................................................................................... 385
13.7.4 Ethernet Cross-Connect Cable .................................................................................. 385
13.7.5 Ethernet Y Cable ........................................................................................................ 386
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13.8 Ethernet Cables and Splitters (Optical) ...................................................................... 387
13.8.1 Optical Y Cables, Adaptors, and Extension Cables ................................................... 387
13.8.2 Optical H Cables ........................................................................................................ 388
13.9 E1 Cables ................................................................................................................... 389
13.9.1 E1 Open-End Extension Cable .................................................................................. 389
13.9.2 E1 Extension Cable with RJ-45 Female End ............................................................. 389
13.9.3 E1 RJ-45 Male-to-Male Extension Cable ................................................................... 390
13.9.4 E1 Termination Cables............................................................................................... 391
13.9.5 E1 RJ-45 - RJ-45 Cables ........................................................................................... 392
13.9.6 E1 MDR69 - MDR69 Cross Cables (for Chaining Applications) ................................ 392
13.9.7 E1 Special Cables ...................................................................................................... 393
13.9.8 E1 Y Cable ................................................................................................................. 394
13.10 E1 Expansion Panels ................................................................................................. 395
13.10.1 E1 Expansion Panel with RJ-45 Female Sockets ..................................... 395
13.10.2 E1 Expansion Panel to 75 ohm ................................................................. 396
13.10.3 E1 75 ohm Extension for 1+1 HSB Configurations ................................... 397
13.11 Alarms Cables ............................................................................................................ 398
13.12 User Channel Cables ................................................................................................. 399
13.13 IF Cable ...................................................................................................................... 400
13.14 Software License Marketing Models .......................................................................... 401
13.14.1 ACM License ............................................................................................. 401
13.14.2 L2 Switch License ...................................................................................... 401
13.14.3 Capacity Upgrade License ........................................................................ 401
13.14.4 Network Resiliency License ....................................................................... 402
13.14.5 TDM Traffic Only License .......................................................................... 402
13.14.6 Synchronization Unit License .................................................................... 402
13.14.7 Enhanced QoS License ............................................................................. 403
13.14.8 Asymmetrical Scripts License .................................................................... 403
13.14.9 Enhanced Header Compression License .................................................. 403



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List of Figures
Functional Block Diagram ................................................................................... 31
FibeAir IP-10G Block Diagram ............................................................................ 32
Main Nodal Enclosure .......................................................................................... 34
Extension Nodal Enclosure ................................................................................. 34
Scalable Nodal Enclosure ................................................................................... 35
IP-10G Complete Support for TDM and Packet Transport Networks ................ 37
IP-10G in Hybrid TDM and Ethernet Network ..................................................... 38
IP-10G All-Packet Solution with Integrated Switching and Pseudowire .......... 38
IP-10G in Wireless Native
2
Ring ......................................................................... 39
IP-10G End-to-End Service Management ........................................................... 39
Integrated Hybrid/All-Packed Solution Using FibeAir IP-10 Products .............. 40
Typical Point-to-Point Configurations ................................................................ 41
Typical Node Configurations .............................................................................. 41
IP-10G Front Panel and Interfaces ...................................................................... 51
IP-10G Front Panel with Dual Feed Power ......................................................... 51
IP-10G Front Panel with Dual Feed Power and 16 X E1 T-Card ........................ 51
1+1 HSB Protection – Connecting the IDUs ....................................................... 72
1+1 HSB Node with BBS Space Diversity ........................................................... 73
3 x 1+1 Aggregation Site ..................................................................................... 73
Multi-Radio 2+0 with Line Protection – Traffic Flow .......................................... 76
Hardware Protection with Single Interface Using Optical Splitter .................... 81
Full protection with Dual Interface Using Optical Splitters and LAG ............... 81
Full Protection Using Multi-Unit LAG ................................................................. 81
Multi-Unit LAG – Basic Operation ....................................................................... 84
Layer 1 Header Suppression ............................................................................... 90
Legacy MAC Header Compression ..................................................................... 91
Multi-Layer (Enhanced) Header Compression ................................................... 93
Symmetrical Chain Example ............................................................................... 97
Asymmetrical Chain Example ............................................................................. 97
Symmetrical Aggregation Site Example ............................................................. 98
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Asymmetrical Aggregation Site Example ........................................................... 98
Adaptive Coding and Modulation with Eight Working Points ......................... 102
Adaptive Coding and Modulation ..................................................................... 103
IP-10G ACM with Adaptive Power Contrasted to Other ACM Implementations
....................................................................................................................... 106
Channel Mask Comparison ............................................................................... 107
Dual Polarization ................................................................................................ 109
XPIC - Orthogonal Polarizations ....................................................................... 110
XPIC – Impact of Misalignments and Channel Degradation ........................... 110
XPIC – Impact of Misalignments and Channel Degradation ........................... 111
Typical 2+0 Multi-Radio Link Configuration ..................................................... 113
Typical 2+2 Multi-Radio Terminal Configuration with HSB Protection........... 114
Direct and Reflected Signals ............................................................................. 118
Diversity Signal Flow ......................................................................................... 119
Ethernet Switching............................................................................................. 127
Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10G ..................................................... 131
Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10G - Node Failure ............................. 131
Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10G - Node Failure (continued) ........ 132
Ring-Optimized RSTP Solution ......................................................................... 136
Resilient In-Band Ring Management ................................................................ 140
Resilient Out-of-Band Ring Management ......................................................... 141
Basic IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring ................................................... 141
IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring with Dual-Homing .............................. 142
IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring - 1+0 .................................................... 142
IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring - Aggregation Site .............................. 143
Smart Pipe Mode QoS Traffic Flow ................................................................... 147
Managed Switch and Metro Switch QoS Traffic Flow ...................................... 148
IP-10G Enhanced QoS ....................................................................................... 153
Classifier Traffic Flow ........................................................................................ 154
TrTCM Policers and MEF 10.2 ........................................................................... 155
TrTCM Policers – Leaky Bucket Mechanism .................................................... 156
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Synchronized Packet Loss ................................................................................ 159
Random Packet Loss with Increased Capacity Utilization Using WRED ....... 159
WRED Profile Curve ........................................................................................... 160
Queue Priority Configuration Example ............................................................. 161
Example 1 – Hybrid Scheduling – Illustration .................................................. 162
Example 1 – Hierarchical Scheduling – Illustration ......................................... 163
Basic Cross-Connect Operation ....................................................................... 166
Cross-Connect Configurations ......................................................................... 168
TDM Cross-Connect Aggregation Example ..................................................... 169
PW T-Card Connected to Ethernet Port (Eth3) ................................................. 170
Smart TDM Pseudowire Bandwidth Utilization with CESoP ........................... 171
Migration from Hybrid to All-Packet Network – PW processing T-Card in Tail
Sites ............................................................................................................... 173
Migration from Hybrid to All-Packet Network – PW processing T-Card in
Intermediate Aggregation Sites ................................................................... 173
Migration from Hybrid to All-Packet Network – PW processing T-Card in Fiber
PoP Sites ....................................................................................................... 174
Smart TDM Pseudowire with Native Service Stitching at Fiber Site ............... 174
Smart TDM Pseudowire End-to-End Overlay ................................................... 175
Smart TDM Pseudowire as part of Integrated CSG Solution .......................... 175
Wireless SNCP Operation.................................................................................. 180
Wireless SNCP - Branching Points ................................................................... 180
Wireless SNCP – Mixed Wireless Optical Network .......................................... 182
SNCP and ABR Comparison ............................................................................. 184
Dual Homing with ABR-Based TDM Protection ............................................... 187
TDM and Ethernet Aggregation Case Study .................................................... 188
TDM-only Aggregation Ring with 100% Protection Based on SNCP 1+1 ....... 189
TDM Aggregation Ring - SNCP 1:1 Protection Bandwidth is Used for Ethernet
....................................................................................................................... 189
A Native Ethernet Ring with 100% or Partial Protection Based on STP ......... 190
Normal State ....................................................................................................... 190
Non-Affecting Failure ......................................................................................... 190
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Medium Severity Failure .................................................................................... 191
Worst Case Failure............................................................................................. 191
A Native2 Ring with Protected-ABR at Work .................................................... 191
ABR Advantages: Double Data Capacity, with no Impact on TDM in Failure
State .............................................................................................................. 192
Ceragon’s Unique ACM Adaption for TDM ....................................................... 194
Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) Synchronization .......................................... 199
Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE)......................................................................... 200
Synchronization Configuration ......................................................................... 202
Synchronization using Native E1 Trails ........................................................... 203
Sync from Co-Located E1 Mode ....................................................................... 204
PTP Optimized Transport .................................................................................. 206
Native Sync Distribution Mode ......................................................................... 207
Native Sync Distribution Mode Usage Example .............................................. 208
Native Sync Distribution Mode – Tree Scenario .............................................. 209
Native Sync Distribution Mode – Ring Scenario (Normal Operation) ............. 209
Native Sync Distribution Mode – Ring Scenario (Link Failure) ....................... 210
Figure 1: 1500HP 2RX in 1+0 SD Configuration ............................................... 235
Figure 2: 1500HP 1RX in 1+0 SD Configuration ............................................... 235
Space Diversity with Multiple RFUs .................................................................. 239
Space Diversity with Single RFU ...................................................................... 239
All-Indoor Vertical Branching ............................................................................ 240
Split-Mount Branching and All-Indoor Compact .............................................. 240
Old OCB .............................................................................................................. 241
New OCB ............................................................................................................ 241
Old OCB – Type 1 ............................................................................................... 242
Old OCB – Type 1 and Type 2 Description ....................................................... 242
Block Diagram of Trunk System ....................................................................... 246
All-Indoor System with Five IP-10 Carriers ...................................................... 246
All-Indoor System with Ten IP-10 Carriers ....................................................... 247
All-Indoor Installations ...................................................................................... 247
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Subrack for ETSI Rack ....................................................................................... 248
RFU with Branching ........................................................................................... 248
ICB Branching Chain ......................................................................................... 249
ICC ...................................................................................................................... 250
ICCD .................................................................................................................... 250
Fan Tray in 19” Frame Rack .............................................................................. 251
T12 Rigid Waveguide ......................................................................................... 251
T13 Rigid Waveguide ......................................................................................... 251
4+1 XPIC Assembly Configuration.................................................................... 252
Additional Assembly Configuration Examples ................................................ 252
Lab Rack (Open Frame) Examples ................................................................... 253
19” Rack Example .............................................................................................. 254
ETSI Rack Example ............................................................................................ 254
Configuration with More than Ten Carriers – Two Connected Racks ............ 255
1500HP RFU All-Indoor 1Rx RF Unit ................................................................. 257
1500HP RFU All-Indoor Space Diversity ........................................................... 257
1500HP RFU All-Indoor 1Rx RF Unit, 11G 40MHz ............................................ 258
1+1 HSB Compact Front View ........................................................................... 258
1+1 HSB Compact Rear View ............................................................................ 258
PDU with 10 Switches PN: 32T-PDU10 ............................................................. 260
Basic 1+0 Configuration .................................................................................... 282
1+1 HSB Configuration ...................................................................................... 283
1+0 with 32 E1s .................................................................................................. 284
1+0 with 64 E1s .................................................................................................. 285
2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s – No Multi-Radio .................................................... 286
2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s – Multi-Radio .......................................................... 287
2+0/XPIC Link, with 32 E1s + STM-1 Mux Interface, no Multi-Radio, up to 168
E1s Over the Radio ....................................................................................... 288
1+1 HSB with 32 E1s .......................................................................................... 289
1+1 HSB with 64 E1s .......................................................................................... 290
1+1 HSB with 84 E1s .......................................................................................... 291
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1+1 HSB Link with 16 E1s+ STM-1 Mux Interface ............................................ 292
Native
2
2+2/XPIC/Multi-Radio MW Link, with 2xSTM-1 Mux (up to 150 E1s over
the radio) ....................................................................................................... 293
Chain with 1+0 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux .................... 295
Node with 2 x 1+0 Downlinks and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink .................................... 296
Chain with 1+1 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux .................... 297
Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site ............. 298
Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+1 HSB Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site ..... 299
Node with 1 x 1+1 HSB Downlink and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink with STM-1 Mux .. 300
Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 Links, with STM-1 Mux ........................................... 301
Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + Spur Link 1+0 ............................................. 302
Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (5 hops total), with STM-
1 Mux ............................................................................................................. 303
Native
2
Ring with 2 x 2+0/XPIC MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (3 hops total), with
2 x STM-1 Mux .............................................................................................. 304
Integrated IP-10G Management Tools .............................................................. 306
In-Band Management Isolation ......................................................................... 312
Security Solution Architecture Concept ........................................................... 314
OAM Functionality ............................................................................................. 327
IDU 1+0 ............................................................................................................... 378
Termination Cable .............................................................................................. 378
Adaptors ............................................................................................................. 378
IDU 1+1 ............................................................................................................... 378
Protection (Y) Cable ........................................................................................... 378
Termination Cable .............................................................................................. 378
Adaptors ............................................................................................................. 378
Ethernet + 32 E1s, 1+0 ....................................................................................... 379
Ethernet + 32 E1s, 1+1 HSB ............................................................................... 380
Basic IP-10G Unit ............................................................................................... 381
IP-10G Unit with Dual-Feed Power .................................................................... 381
Main Nodal Enclosure Unit ................................................................................ 381
Extension Nodal Enclosure Unit ....................................................................... 381
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E1 T-Card ............................................................................................................ 382
STM-1 T-Card...................................................................................................... 382
Pseudowire T-Card ............................................................................................ 382
SFP Optical Interface Plug-In ............................................................................ 383
WSC Protection Cable ....................................................................................... 385
Ethernet Cross-Connect Cable ......................................................................... 385
Ethernet Y Cable ................................................................................................ 386
Optical Y Cable, Adaptor, and Extension Cable .............................................. 387
E1 Open-End Extension Cable .......................................................................... 389
E1 Extension Cable with RJ-45 Female End .................................................... 389
E1 Male-to-Male Extension Cable ..................................................................... 390
E1 Y Cable .......................................................................................................... 394
E1 Expansion Panel with RJ-45 Female Sockets ............................................. 395
E1 75 ohm Expansion Panel .............................................................................. 396
E1 75 ohm Extension for 1+1 HSB Configurations .......................................... 397
Alarms Cable ...................................................................................................... 398
Alarms Y Cable ................................................................................................... 398
User Channel Cable ........................................................................................... 399
User Channel Cable with Y Cable ..................................................................... 399
User Channel Cable with Two Y Cables (Synchronous) ................................. 399

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List of Tables
FibeAir IP-10 Series Overview ............................................................................. 37
New Features in Version I6.9 ............................................................................... 43
Enhancements of Existing Features in Version I6.9 .......................................... 43
Feature Support in R2 and R3 ............................................................................. 45
Feature Support by Software Version ................................................................ 45
IP-10G Interfaces .................................................................................................. 51
Ethernet Interface Functionality .......................................................................... 54
Management Interfaces ....................................................................................... 56
T-Card in Add-In Slot ........................................................................................... 60
16 X E1 T-Card ...................................................................................................... 60
STM 1 Mux T-Card ................................................................................................ 60
16 x E1 TDM Pseudowire (PW) Processing T-Card ............................................ 60
License Types ...................................................................................................... 67
Comparison of IP-10G Protection Options ......................................................... 71
HSB Protection Switchover Triggers .................................................................. 79
Ethernet Line Protection Comparison ................................................................ 82
Multi-Unit LAG Failure Scenarios ....................................................................... 85
Header Compression ........................................................................................... 89
Ethernet Header Compression Comparison Table ............................................ 95
ACM Working Points (Profiles) ......................................................................... 102
BBS and IFC Comparison .................................................................................. 122
Managed Switch Mode ....................................................................................... 128
VLANs Reserved for Internal Use in Managed Switch Mode .......................... 128
Metro Switch Mode ............................................................................................ 129
Carrier Grade Ethernet Feature Summary ........................................................ 130
Provider Bridge RSTP PDUs in CN Ports ......................................................... 135
Provider Bridge RSTP PDUs in PN Ports ......................................................... 135
Per-Queue Counters Availability ....................................................................... 158
Example 1 – Hybrid Scheduling ........................................................................ 162
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Example 2 – Hierarchical Scheduling ............................................................... 163
IP-10G Standard and Enhanced QoS Features ................................................ 164
Ceragon's Unique ACM Adaption for TDM ....................................................... 195
RFU Selection Guide .......................................................................................... 215
RFU-C Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications ................. 228
RFU-C Mediation Device Losses ....................................................................... 229
RFU-C – Waveguide Flanges ............................................................................. 230
1500HP/RFU-HP Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications . 234
1500HP/RFU-HP Comparison Table .................................................................. 237
New OCB Component Summary ....................................................................... 244
All-Indoor Compact Placement Components ................................................... 259
RFU Models ........................................................................................................ 261
OCB Part Numbers............................................................................................. 262
OCB Part Numbers for All Indoor Compact ..................................................... 262
All-Indoor Configurations (1+0 /1+1 HSB) ........................................................ 263
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0/N+1 XPIC) ....................................................... 263
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0 / N+1 XPIC Space Diversity) .......................... 264
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0 / N+1 XPIC Space Diversity) .......................... 264
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0/N+1 Single Pol) .............................................. 265
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0/N+1 Single Pol Space Diversity) ................... 265
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0/N+1 XPIC Upgrade ready) ............................. 265
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0/N+1 XPIC Space Diversity Upgrade-Ready) . 266
All-Indoor Configurations (19" Without Rack) ................................................. 266
RFU-HS Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications ............... 269
RFU-SP Frequency Bands ................................................................................. 273
RFU-SP Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications ............... 274
RFU-HS-SP Antennas ........................................................................................ 275
1500P Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications .................. 277
1500P Mediation Device Losses ....................................................................... 278
1+1 Components ................................................................................................ 282
1+1 HSB Components........................................................................................ 283
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1+0 with 32 E1s Components (Each Side of Link) ........................................... 284
1+0 with 64 E1s Components (Each Side of Link) ........................................... 285
2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s (no Multi-Radio) Components (Each Side of Link)286
2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s (Multi-Radio) Components (Each Side of Link) ... 287
Required Components (Each Side of Link) ...................................................... 288
1+1 HSB with 32 E1s Components (Each Side of the Link) ............................ 289
1+1 HSB with 64 E1s Components (Each Side of the Link) ............................ 290
1+1 HSB with 84 E1 Components (Each Side of the Link) .............................. 291
1+1 HSB Link with 16 E1s+ STM-1 Components (Each Side of the Link) ...... 292
Native
2
2+2/XPIC/Multi-Radio MW Link, with 2xSTM-1 Components (Each Side
of the Link) .................................................................................................... 293
Chain with 1+0 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux Components
(Entire Chain) ................................................................................................ 295
Node with 2 x 1+0 Downlinks and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink Components (Entire
Node) ............................................................................................................. 296
Chain with 1+1 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux Components
(Entire Chain) ................................................................................................ 297
Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site
Components (Entire Ring) ........................................................................... 298
Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+1 HSB Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site
Components (Entire Ring) ........................................................................... 299
Node with 1 x 1+1 HSB Downlink and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink with STM-1 Mux
Components (Entire Node) .......................................................................... 300
Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 Links, with STM-1 Components (Entire Ring) ........ 301
Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + Spur Link 1+0 Components (Entire Ring) . 302
Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link with STM-1 Mux
Components (Entire Ring) ........................................................................... 303
Native
2
Ring with 2 x 2+0/XPIC MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link with 2 x STM-1
Components (Entire Ring) ........................................................................... 304
Dedicated Management Ports ........................................................................... 307
PolyView Server Receiving Data Ports ............................................................. 308
Web Sending Data Ports ................................................................................... 308
Web Receiving Data Ports ................................................................................. 308
Additional Management Ports for IP-10G ......................................................... 308
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Supported Ethernet Standards ......................................................................... 334
Ethernet Cable and Splitter (Copper) Marketing Models ................................. 384
Ethernet RJ45 - RJ45 Cable Marketing Models ................................................ 384
WSC Protection Cable Marketing Model .......................................................... 385
Ethernet Protection Cable Marketing Model .................................................... 385
Ethernet Y Cable Marketing Model ................................................................... 386
Optical Y Cables, Adaptors, and Extension Cable Marketing Models ............ 387
Optical H Cable Marketing Models .................................................................... 388
E1 Open-End Extension Cable Marketing Models ........................................... 389
E1 Extension Cable with RJ-45 Female End Marketing Models ...................... 389
E1 Male-to-Male Extension Cable Marketing Models ....................................... 390
E1 Open-End Termination Cables ..................................................................... 391
E1 RJ-45 Female (Socket) Termination Cables ................................................ 391
E1 RJ-45 Male Termination Cables ................................................................... 391
E1 MDR69 - MDR69 Cross Cables (for Chaining Applications) ...................... 392
E1 Special Cables .............................................................................................. 393
E1 Y Cable Marketing Models ........................................................................... 394
Expansion Panel, Adaptor, and Cable Marketing Models ............................... 395
75 ohm Expansion Panel Marketing Models .................................................... 396
75 ohm Extension Marketing Models................................................................ 397
Alarm Cable Marketing Models ......................................................................... 398
User Channel Cable Marketing Models ............................................................ 399
IF Cable Marketing Models ................................................................................ 400

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About This Guide
This document describes the main features, components, and specifications of
the FibeAir IP-10G high capacity IP and Migration-to-IP network solution. This
document also describes a number of typical FibeAir IP-10G configuration
options. This document applies to hardware versions R2 and R3 and software
version I6.9.
What You Should Know
This document describes applicable ETSI standards and specifications. A
North America version of this document (ANSI, FCC) is also available.
Target Audience
This manual is intended for use by Ceragon customers, potential customers,
and business partners. The purpose of this manual is to provide basic
information about the FibeAir IP-10G for use in system planning, and
determining which FibeAir IP-10G configuration is best suited for a specific
network.
Related Documents
 FibeAir IP-10G Installation Guide - DOC-00023199
 FibeAir IP-10G and IP-10E User Guide, DOC-00034612
 FibeAir IP-10 MIB Reference - DOC-00015446
 FibeAir IP-10 License Management System - DOC-00019183
 FibeAir CeraBuild Commission Reports Guide, DOC-00028133
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1. Synonyms and Acronyms

ABR Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery
ACM Adaptive Coding and Modulation
ACR Adaptive Clock Recovery
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
AIS Alarm Indication Signal
ATPC Automatic Tx Power Control
BBS Baseband Switching
BER Bit Error Ratio
BLSR Bidirectional Line Switch Ring
BPDU Bridge Protocol Data Units
BWA Broadband Wireless Access
CBS Committed Burst Size
CCDP Co-channel dual polarization
CFM Connectivity Fault Management
CIR Committed Information Rate
CLI Command Line Interface
CoS Class of Service
DA Destination Address
DSCP Differentiated Service Code Point
EBS Excess Burst Size
EIR Excess Information Rate
EOW Engineering Order Wire
FTP (SFTP) File Transfer Protocol (Secured File Transfer Protocol)
GbE Gigabit Ethernet
HSB Hot-standby
HTTP (HTTPS) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (Secured HTTP)
IFC IF Combining
IDC Indoor Controller
IDU Indoor unit
LANs Local area networks
LLDP Link Layer Discovery Protocol
LMS License Management System
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LOF Loss Of Frame
LTE Long-Term Evolution
MAID Maintenance Association (MA) Identifier (ID)
NMS Network Management System
NTP Network Time Protocol
OAM Operation Administration & Maintenance (Protocols)
OOF Out-of-Frame
PDV Packed Delay Variation
PM Performance Monitoring
PN Provider Network (Port)
PSN Packet Switched Network
PTP Precision Timing-Protocol
PW Pseudowire
QoE Quality of-Experience
QoS Quality of Service
RDI Reverse Defect Indication
RFU Radio Frequency Unit
RMON Ethernet Statistics
RSL Received Signal Level
RSTP Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
SD Space Diversity
SFTP Secure FTP
SLA Service level agreements
SNCP TDM trails protection OR Wireless Sub-Network Connection Protection
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SP Strict Priority
STP Spanning Tree Protocol
SSH Secured Shell (Protocol)
SSM Synchronization Status Messages
SyncE Synchronous Ethernet
TC Traffic Class
TOS Type of Service
VC Virtual Containers
Web EMS Web-Based Element Management System
WG Wave guide
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WFQ Weighted Fair Queue
WRED Weighted Random Early Detection
WRR Weighted Round Robin
XC Cross-Connect
XPIC Cross Polarization Interference Cancellation

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2. Introduction
This chapter includes:
 Product Overview
 IP-10G Advantages
 Functional Block Diagrams
 Nodal Configuration Option
 Solution Overview
 System Overview
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2.1 Product Overview
FibeAir IP-10G is a high capacity carrier-grade wireless Ethernet backhaul
product. Combining advanced Ethernet and TDM networking functionality
with best-in-class microwave radio performance, a FibeAir IP-10G system
facilitates cost-effective, risk-free migration to IP/Ethernet and can be
integrated in any pure IP/Ethernet, Native
2
(hybrid), or TDM network.
FibeAir IP-10G features a powerful, integrated Ethernet switch for advanced
networking functionality, as well as a comprehensive set of QoS tools and
functionality and many other advanced networking features.
For TDM, IP-10G includes built-in native TDM support, with an option to add
Ceragon’s Smart TDM Pseudowire, channelized STM-1, or additional native
TDM capacity through the addition of a T-Card. IP-10G also includes an
optional TDM Cross-Connect for nodal site applications. These features and
options provide a flexible and scalable converged all-packet solution for legacy
TDM services.
With advanced service management and Operation Administration &
Maintenance (OA&M) tools, IP-10G simplifies network design, reduces CAPEX
and OPEX, and improves overall network availability and reliability to support
services with stringent SLA.
The FibeAir IP-10G family covers the entire licensed frequency spectrum and
offers a wide capacity range, from 10 Mbps to 1 Gbps over a single radio
carrier, using a single Radio Frequency Unit (RFU), depending on traffic
scenario based on legacy MAC and enhanced Multi-Layer header compression.
Additional functionality and capacity, including Multi-Layer header
compression, can be enabled via license keys without any need to upgrade the
hardware.
By enabling more capacity, at lower latencies, to any location, with proper
traffic management mechanisms and an optional downstream boost, FibeAir
IP-10G is built to enhance end user Quality of Experience.
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2.2 IP-10G Advantages
The following are just some of the advantages that IP-10G provides.
2.2.1 Efficient Utilization of Spectrum Assets
IP-10G provides efficiencies at three levels -- spectral efficiency, radio link,
and wireless network. By combining superior radio performance, advanced
compression, and a holistic end-to-end approach to capacity, operators can
effectively provide up to five times more traffic to their users. In other words,
IP-10G enables more revenue-generating subscribers in a given RAN.
2.2.2 Spectral Efficiency
IP-10G provides a high degree of spectral efficiency in a given spectrum
channel by optimizing link capacity using adaptive coding and modulation
techniques. In addition, IP-10G provides several options for header
compression:
 Legacy MAC header compression – Provides up to 45% in additional
Ethernet throughput.
 Multi-Layer (Enhanced) header compression (license-enabled) –
Provides up to 300% additional effective Ethernet throughput, depending
on frame size, channel bandwidth, and modulation.
2.2.3 Radio Link
 Latency – IP-10G boasts ultra-low latency features that are essential for
3G and LTE deployments. With low latency, IP-10G enables links to
cascade further away from the fiber PoP, allowing wider coverage in a
given network cluster. Ultra-low latency also translates into longer radio
chains, broader radio rings, and shorter recovery times. Moreover,
maintaining low packet delay variation ensures proper synchronization
propagation across the network.
 System Gain – IP-10G’s high system gain enables the use of small
antennas and long link spans, resulting in high overall capacity while
maintaining critical and real-time traffic, saving on both operational and
capital expenditures by using smaller antennas for a given link budget.
 Power Adaptive ACM – IP-10G sets the industry standard for Advanced
Adaptive Code and Modulation (ACM), increasing network capacity over
an existing infrastructure while reducing sensitivity to environmental
interferences. In addition, IP-10G provides a unique technological
combination of ACM with Adaptive Power to ensure high availability and
unmatched link utilization. IP-10G’s ACM implementation includes the
ability to configure a minimum modulation profile below which the system
may not step down.
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2.2.4 Wireless Network
 Enhanced QoS – IP-10G enables operators to deploy differentiated
services with stringent SLAs while maximizing the utilization of network
resources. IP-10G enables granular CoS classification and traffic
management, network utilization monitoring, and support of EIR traffic
without affecting CIR traffic. Enhanced QoS provides a larger selection of
classification criteria, color-awareness, up to 255 MEF 10.2-compliant
TrTCM policers that offer per service (VLAN+CoS) granularity, WRED for
improved congestion management, eight priority queues with configurable
buffer length, improved congestion management using WRED protocols,
enhanced counters, and other enhanced functionality.
 Protected ABR –IP-10G uses Protected ABR to effectively double the
capacity of wireless rings. Protected ABR is a unique network-level
method of dynamic capacity allocation for TDM and Ethernet flows. By
using the bidirectional capabilities of the ring, TDM-based information is
transmitted in one direction and unused protection capacity is allocated to
Ethernet traffic.
 OA&M – With advanced service management and Operation
Administration & Maintenance (OA&M) tools, IP-10G simplifies network
design, reduces operational and capital expenditures, and improves
overall network availability and reliability to support services with
stringent SLA.
2.2.5 Scalability
FibeAir IP-10G is a scalable solution that is based on a common hardware that
supports any channel size, modulation scheme, capacity, network topology,
and configuration. Scalability and hardware efficiency simplify logistics and
allow for commonality of spare parts. A common hardware platform enables
customers to upgrade the feature set as the need arises - Pay As You Grow -
without requiring hardware replacement.
2.2.6 Availability
 MTBF.– FibeAir IP-10G provides an unrivaled reliability benchmark, with
radio MTBF exceeding 112 years, and average annual return rate around
1%. Ceragon radios are designed in-house and employ cutting-edge
technology with unmatched production yield, and a mature installed-base
exceeding 100,000 radios. In addition, advanced radio features such as
multi-radio and cross polarization (XPIC) enable the system to achieve
100% utilization of radio resources by load balancing based on
instantaneous capacity per carrier. Important resulting advantages are
reduction in capital expenditures due to less spare parts required for roll-
out, and reduction in operating expenditures, since maintenance and
troubleshooting are infrequently required.
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 ACM – Adaptive Modulation has a remarkable synergy with FibeAir IP-
10G’s built-in Layer 2 QoS mechanism. Since QoS provides priority support
for different classes of service, according to a wide range of criteria, it is
possible to configure the system to discard only low priority packets as
conditions deteriorate. Adaptive Power and Adaptive Coding & Modulation
provides maximum availability and spectral efficiency in any deployment
scenario.
2.2.7 Network Level Optimization
FibeAir IP-10G optimizes overall network performance, scalability, resilience,
and survivability by using hot-standby (HSB) configurations with no single
point of failure. In addition, ring and mesh deployments increase resiliency
with standard STP as well as with a proprietary enhancement to the industry
standard RSTP, resulting in faster recovery time. FibeAir IP-10G helps create a
more robust network, with minimum downtime and maximum service grade,
ensuring better user experience, better immunity to failures, lower churn, and
reduced expenditures.
2.2.8 Network Management
Each IP-10 Network Element includes an HTTP web-based element
management system (Web EMS) that enables the operator to perform element
configuration, RF, Ethernet, and PDH performance monitoring, remote
diagnostics, alarm reports, and more.
In addition, FibeAir IP-10G provides an SNMP-based northbound interface for
network management.
For network management, Ceragon offers NetMaster, a comprehensive NMS
that provides centralized operation and maintenance capability for the
complete range of network elements in an IP-10G system. NetMaster is built
using state-of-the-art technology as a scalable, cross-platform NMS that
supports distributed network architecture. Ceragon also offers PolyView, with
best-in-class end-to-end Ethernet service management, network monitoring,
and NMS survivability using advanced OAM. PolyView provides simplified
network provisioning, configuration error prevention, monitoring, and
troubleshooting tools that ensure better user experience, minimal network
downtime, and reduced expenditures on network-level maintenance.
2.2.9 Power Saving Mode with High Power Radio
FibeAir IP-10G offers an optional ultra-high power radio solution that
transmits the highest power in the industry, while employing an innovative
Power Saving Mode that saves up to 30% power consumption. Power Saving
Mode enables the deployment of smaller antennas, and reduces the need for
repeater stations. Moreover, installation labor cost and electricity
consumption are reduced, achieving an overall diminished carbon footprint.
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2.3 Functional Block Diagrams
Related topics:
 Ethernet Switching
 Nodal Configuration Option
Featuring an advanced architecture, FibeAir IP-10G uniquely integrates the
latest radio technology with TDM and Ethernet networking. The FibeAir IP-
10G radio core engine is designed to support both native Ethernet and native
TDM over the air interface enhanced with Adaptive Power and Adaptive
Coding and Modulation (ACM) for maximum spectral efficiency in any
deployment scenario. This versatile solution is equipped with an optional
integrated TDM Cross-Connect and an SNCP TDM protection engine on top of
a MEF-certified Ethernet switch. The modular design is easily scalable with
the addition of units or license keys.
IP-10G supports the following modes for Ethernet switching:
 Smart Pipe – Ethernet interface is enabled for user traffic. The unit
effectively operates as a point-to-point Ethernet microwave radio.
 Managed Switch – Ethernet switching functionality is enabled based on
VLANs.
 Metro Switch – Ethernet switching functionality is enabled based on an
S-VLAN-aware bridge.
Functional Block Diagram

IP-10G can be installed in a standalone or a nodal configuration. The nodal
configuration adds a backplane, which is required for certain functionality
such as the TDM Cross-Connect and XPIC.
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FibeAir IP-10G Block Diagram

The CPU acts as the IDU’s central controller, and all management frames
received from or sent to external management applications must pass through
the CPU. In a nodal configuration, the main unit’s CPU serves as the central
controller for the entire node.
The Mux assembles the radio frames, and holds the logic for protection, as
well as Frequency and Space Diversity.
The modem represents the physical layer, modulating, transmitting, and
receiving the data stream.
Note: CPU and memory utilization can be monitored by users via
the CLI or SNMP. This can be useful for troubleshooting.
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2.4 Nodal Configuration Option
IP-10G can be used in two distinct modes of operation:
 Standalone configuration – Each IP-10G IDU is managed individually.
 Nodal configuration – Up to six IP-10G IDUs are stacked in a dedicated
modular shelf, and act as a single network element with multiple radio
links.
The following features are centralized in a nodal configuration:
 Management
 Ethernet Switching
 TDM Cross-Connect
A nodal setup supports any combination of 1+0, 1+1, and 2+0/XPIC
configurations.
2.4.1 Nodal Configuration Benefits
The stackable nodal configuration offers many advantages. For new systems,
the nodal configuration offers:
 Low initial investment without compromising future growth potential
 Risk-free deployment in light of unknown future growth patterns:
Additional capacity
Additional sites
Additional redundancy
For migration and replacement scenarios, the nodal configuration offers:
 Optimized tail-site solution
 Low initial footprint that can be increased gradually as legacy equipment
is swapped
2.4.2 Nodal Design
Each IP-10G IDU in a nodal configuration operates as either the main unit or
an extension unit. The IDU’s role is determined by its position in the nodal
enclosure. The lowest unit in the enclosure (Unit Number 1) always serves as
the main unit.
The main unit performs the following functions:
 Provides a central controller for management
 Provides the Cross-Connect for TDM traffic
 Provides radio and line interfaces
Extension units provide radio and line interfaces, and are accessed through
the main unit.
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2.4.3 Nodal Enclosure Design
Two types of nodal enclosures are available for a nodal configuration:
 Main Nodal Enclosure – Each node must have a main nodal enclosure,
which can hold two IP-10G IDUs.
 Extension Nodal Enclosure –Up to two extension nodal enclosures can be
stacked on top of the main nodal enclosure. Each extension nodal
enclosure can contain two IP-10G IDUs.
Main Nodal Enclosure

Extension Nodal Enclosure

Each nodal enclosure includes a backplane. The rear panel of an IP-10G IDU
includes an extra connector for connection to the backplane. The following
interfaces are implemented through the backplane:
 TDM Cross-Connect
 Multi-Radio
 Protection
 XPIC
You can add additional extension nodal enclosures and IDUs in the field as
required, without affecting traffic. Replacing an IDU or an extension unit does
affect traffic.
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Scalable Nodal Enclosure

Using the stacking method, units in the bottom nodal enclosure act as main
units, whereby a mandatory active main unit can be located in either of the
two slots, and an optional standby main unit can be installed in the other slot.
The switchover time is <50 ms for all traffic-affecting functions. Units located
in nodal enclosures other than the one on the bottom act as expansion units.
Radios in each pair of units can be configured as either dual independent 1+0
links, or single fully redundant 1+1 HSB links.
2.4.4 Nodal Management
In a nodal configuration, all management is performed through the main unit.
The main unit communicates with the extension units through the nodal
backplane.
The main unit’s CPU operates as the node’s central controller, and all
management frames received from or sent to external management
applications must pass through the CPU.
A nodal configuration has a single IP management address, which is the
address of the main unit. In a protected 1+1 configuration, the node has two IP
addresses, those of each of the main units. The IP address of the active main
unit is used to manage the node.
Several methods can be used for IP-10G node management:
 Local terminal CLI
 CLI via telnet
 Web-based management
 SNMP
The NMS represents the node as a single unit.
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The Web-Based EMS enables access to all IDUs in the node from its main
window.
In addition, the management system provides access to other network
equipment through In-Band or Out-of-Band network management.
To ease the reading and analysis of several IDU alarms and logs, the system
time should be synchronized to the main unit’s time.
2.4.5 Centralized System Features in a Nodal Configuration
The following IP-10G functions are configured centrally through the main unit
in a nodal configuration:
 IP Communications – All communication channels are opened through
the main unit’s IP address.
 User Management – Login, adding users, and deleting users are
performed centrally.
 TDM Cross-Connect – TDM trail definition, PM measurement, and status
reporting are performed centrally from the main unit.
 Nodal Time Synchronization – System time is automatically
synchronized for all IDUs in the node.
 Nodal Software Version Management – Software can be upgraded or
downgraded in all IDUs in the node from the main unit.
 Nodal Configuration Backup – Configuration files can be created,
downloaded, and uploaded from the main unit.
 Nodal Reset – Extension units can be reset individually or collectively
both from the main unit and locally.
All other functions are performed for each IDU individually.
2.4.6 Ethernet Connectivity in a Nodal Configuration
Ethernet traffic in a nodal configuration is supported by interconnecting IDU
switches with external cables. Traffic flow (dropping to local ports, sending to
the radio) is performed by the switches, in accordance with learning tables.
Each IDU in the stack can be configured individually for Smart Pipe, Managed
Switch, or Metro Switch mode.
For additional information:
 Ethernet Switching
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2.5 Solution Overview
IP-10G is part of the FibeAir IP-10 series that includes IP-10G, packet-only IP-
10E, all-outdoor IP-10C for access, and high-capacity high-density IP-10Q,
which is optimized for high-capacity MPLS-aware Ethernet microwave radio
where fiber connections are not available.
The FibeAir series provides a variety of solutions for a large number of
deployment scenarios.
FibeAir IP-10 Series Overview
Single
Carrier/Single
Direction
TDM and Ethernet Ethernet
IP-10G IP-10E IP-10C



Multi-Carrier/Multi
Direction
Integrated Backhaul (L2) Smart Pipe (L1)
IP-10G Nodal IP-10E Nodal IP-10Q


As a key component of the FibeAir platform, IP-10G provides complete
support for TDM and packet transport networks.
IP-10G Complete Support for TDM and Packet Transport Networks

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IP-10G’s integrated switching, TDM cross-connect (XC), and nodal capabilities
are illustrated in the following figure.
IP-10G in Hybrid TDM and Ethernet Network

IP-10G’s Smart Pseudowire solution adds another dimension to IP-10G as a
migration solution for all-packet networks in which packet segments may be
joined with hybrid or TDM segments. Pseudowire can bridge the gap between
legacy TDM equipment and the all-packet present and future.
IP-10G All-Packet Solution with Integrated Switching and Pseudowire

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IP-10G provides redundancy and network-level resiliency. In addition to
standard RSTP, which is designed to work with any mesh topology, IP-10G
offers a proprietary ring-optimized implementation of RSTP.
IP-10G in Wireless Native
2
Ring

IP-10G is fully MEF-9 and MEF-14 certified for all Carrier Ethernet services (E-
Line and E-LAN). IP-10G also supports TDM trails, and provides end-to-end
service management, with OAM that includes 802.1ag CFM and automatic
"link trace" processing for storing of the last known working path.
IP-10G End-to-End Service Management

Together with the other FibeAir IP-10 products, IP-10G provides an optimal
solution for all split-mount tail and node sites, with IP-10G’s smart
pseudowire T-Card used selectively to provide an all-packet solution for
legacy TDM islands in the network. IP-10E provides a solution for all-packet
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networks, while IP-10C provides the ideal option for all-outdoor all-Ethernet
sites.
Integrated Hybrid/All-Packed Solution Using FibeAir IP-10 Products

For additional information:
 Typical Configurations
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2.6 System Overview
IP-10G provides a large variety of configuration options, including protection
options (1+1 HSB, 2+2 HSB), Multi-Radio, XPIC, and diversity (BBS Space and
Frequency Diversity, IF Combining). The following are some of the typical
point-to-point IP-10G configurations.
Typical Point-to-Point Configurations




Typical Node Configurations


For additional information:
 Typical Configurations
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3. Release and Version Information
This chapter includes:
 New Features
 Hardware Compatibility
 Version Matrix
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3.1 New Features and Enhancements
Version i6.9 introduces the following features:
New Features in Version I6.9
Feature For Further Information
Smart TDM Pseudowire Smart TDM Pseudowire
Enhanced, Multi-Layer Header Compression Ethernet Header Compression
RADIUS Server Support RADIUS Support
Version i6.9 also introduces significantly enhanced functionality for existing
features:
Enhancements of Existing Features in Version I6.9
Feature Enhancement For Further Information
Enhanced
Utilization Statistics
Improved accuracy for radio throughput and link
utilization statistics.
Ethernet Statistics
Enhanced QoS  Enhanced parsing option:
Up to Layer 4 (UDP, TCP)
Frame type discovery for supporting full
header compression
 Flow to Service classification for 256 different
flows
 Enhanced CoS and Color classification
method:
QoS policy rules (port table, Ethertype
table)
Service ID (256 services)
 ACM drop level per queue/ACM drop level per
service
 Ingress TrTCM policers per service (Two-Rate
Three-Color Marker, according to MEF 10.2)
 Re-marking options (P-bits and CFI or DEI)
 Statistics:
Per service
Enhanced QoS

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3.2 Hardware Compatibility
Software version i6.9 is intended to run on IP-10G (R2 and R3) and IP-10E
(R3). Attempting to install this software version on IP-10 R1 may make the
system inoperative, requiring the hardware to be sent to the manufacturer for
replacement.
In addition, note that IP-10G systems with software version 3.0.34 (an earlier
version loaded in production for some systems) must be upgraded to an
officially released version while in standalone mode rather than in a nodal
configuration.
 R3 and R2 can be used in the same node and in the same link
 R3 and R2 use the same software version/image
 R3 and R2 cannot be mixed in the same node for 1+1, 2+0, and 2+2
configurations
 R3 and R2 configuration files are not compatible
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3.3 Version Matrix
IP-10G R3 requires software release i6.7 and higher.
Certain features described in this document are only supported in hardware
version R3. The following table compares feature support in R2 and R3.
Feature Support in R2 and R3
Feature R2 R3
SyncE Support SyncE output only  SyncE input and output
 SyncE regenerator support for Smart Pipe
mode
Ethernet Header Compression  Layer 1 Header Suppression
 Legacy MAC Header
Compression
Same as R2, with a license-enabled option for
Multi-Layer (Enhanced) Header Compression
Enhanced QoS Standard and Enhanced QoS Additional Enhanced QoS Features:
 MEF 10.2-compliant traffic policers for SLA
enforcement: Dual-rate (CIR + EIR) per
VLAN/CoS
 Enhanced monitoring and SLA Assurance:
Per VLAN/CoS statistics
 Improved traffic queues statistics
Utilization Statistics Improved accuracy for radio throughput and link
utilization statistics
In addition, the following table describes feature support by software version.
Feature Support by Software Version
Feature Software
Version
Additional Notes For Further Information
Equipment Protection Features
1+1 HSB
Protection
i6.5ca and up 1+1 HSB Protection
2+2 HSB
Protection
i6.6.2 and up 2+2 HSB Protection
Ethernet Line Protection Features
Multi-Unit LAG i6.8 and up Multi-Unit LAG
Capacity and Latency Features
Legacy
Compression
MAC Header Compression (“Legacy
Mode”)
Enhanced Multi-
Layer Header
Compression
i6.9 License required Multi-Layer (Enhanced) Header
Compression
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Feature Software
Version
Additional Notes For Further Information
Asymmetrical
Scripts
i6.8 and up License required Asymmetrical Scripts
Radio Features
ACM i6.5ca and up  Added minimum ACM profile and
MRMC profile below threshold alarm
in i6.8
 Added minimum ACM profile in i6.8
 License required
Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM)
ACM with
Adaptive Transmit
Power
I6.7 and up  License (ACM) required ACM with Adaptive Transmit Power
1+1 BBS Space
Diversity
i6.7 and up Diversity
1+1 BBS
Frequency
Diversity
i6.8 and up Diversity
2+0 Multi-Radio i6.7 and up Added 2+0 Multi Radio with Line
Protection in i6.8
Multi-Radio
XPIC i6.6.1 and up Cross Polarization Interface Canceller
(XPIC
ATPC Override
Timer
i6.7 and up ATPC Override Timer
Radio Disabling i6.6.1 and up Disabling the Radio
Radio Traffic
Priority
i6.7 and up Radio Traffic Priority
Ethernet Features
Ethernet Statistics i6.5ga and up Ethernet Statistics
Ethernet
Switching
Applications
i6.5ga and up License required for Managed Switch
and Metro Switch
Ethernet Switching
Special and
Internal VLANs
i6.5ca and up Ethernet Switching
Ethernet Services i6.7 and up Ethernet Services
Link Aggregation
(LAG)
i6.6.1 and up Link Aggregation (LAG)
Standard RSTP i6.6.2 and up Provider mode added in I6.7 Network Resiliency
Ring-Optimized
RSTP
i6.5ga and up License required Network Resiliency
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Feature Software
Version
Additional Notes For Further Information
Automatic State
Propagation
i6.5ga and up Improved for 2+0 Multi-Radio in i6.8 Automatic State Propagation
Quality of Service (QoS) Features
Standard QoS i6.5ga and up Quality of Service (Traffic Manager)
Enhanced QoS i6.7 and up  Feature enhanced in i6.9
 License required
Enhanced QoS
TDM Features
TDM Adaptive
Band Recovery
(ABR) Path
Protection
i6.6.2 and up Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery
TDM Trails and
Cross-Connect
i6.5ca and up TDM Trails and Cross-Connect
TDM Trail Path
Protection
(SNCP)
i6.5ga and up Wireless SNCP
STM-1 Support i6.6 and up Requires T-Card TDM Interface Options
Pseudowire
Support
i6.9 and up Requires T-Card Smart TDM Pseudowire
Synchronization Features
Network
Frequency
Distribution
 Feature available for co-located
TDM trails from version: i6.6.1
 Frequency distribution added in i6.7
 SSM support in radio interfaces
added in i6.8
 License required for configuration of
an external source as a clock source
for synchronous Ethernet output
Synchronization
PRC Pipe
Regenerator
Mode
i6.7 and up SyncE PRC Pipe Regenerator Mode
Management and Security Features
User Access
Control
i6.6.1 and up Defenses in User and System
Authentication Procedures
Secure
Communication
Channels
i6.6.1 and up Secure Communication Channels
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Feature Software
Version
Additional Notes For Further Information
Creation of
Certificate Signing
Request (CSR)
File
i6.8 and up Creation of Certificate Signing Request
(CSR) File
RADIUS Server I6.9 and up RADIUS Support
Security Log i.6.8 and up Security Log
Alarms Editing iI6.7 and up Alarms Editing
Management
Interfaces
i6.5ca and up Management Interfaces
Downloading Text
CLI Configuration
Scripts
i6.5ga and up Command Line Interface (CLI)
NTP Support i6.5ga and up Management Overview
Alarm on RSL
Level Degradation
i6.8 and up Configurable RSL Threshold Alarms and
Traps
AIS Signaling and
Detection
i.6.6.1 and up AIS Signaling and Detection
SNMP Support i6.5ca and up SNMP
Floating IP
Address
i6.6.1 and up Floating IP Address
In-Band
Management
Isolation in Single
Pipe Mode
i.6.8 and up In-Band Management Isolation in Smart
Pipe Mode
LLDP i6.8 and up Automatic Network Topology Discovery
with LLDP Protocol
CFM (Service
OAM)
i6.5ga and up Connectivity Fault Management (CFM)
Software Update
Timer
i6.8 and up Software Update Timer

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4. Hardware Description
This chapter includes:
 Hardware Architecture
 Front Panel Description
 Ethernet Interfaces
 Management Interfaces
 Link Aggregation (LAG)
 TDM Interface Options
 Radio Interface
 Power Interfaces
 Additional Interfaces
 Front Panel LEDs
 External Alarms
 Front Panel Additional Interfaces
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4.1 Hardware Architecture
A basic IP-10G system consists of an IP-10G indoor unit (IDU) and a radio
frequency unit (RFU). An IF cable connects the IDU to the RFU, transmits
traffic and management data between the IDU and the RFU, and provides 48 V
power to the RFU.
An IP-10G unit includes two GE combo ports and five FE electrical ports.
An IP-10G unit also includes 16 E1 interfaces. The IP-10G has a slot in which a
T-Card can be inserted for additional TDM functionality. Options are:
 16 additional E1s
 Channelized STM-1Pseudowire
Some hardware versions include a dual-feed power connection for increased
protection.
IP-10G can work with a variety of RFU types, including split-mount, remote-
mount, and all-indoor configurations. A description of each RFU, as well as a
comparison chart of the capacity and features supported in each RFU, is
provided in this document.
Available assembly options are:
 With or without XPIC support
 With or without dual-feed power option
For additional information:
 Radio Frequency Units
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4.2 Front Panel Description
This section describes the IP-10G’s front panel. The following sections provide
detailed descriptions of the IP-10G interfaces.
IP-10G Front Panel and Interfaces

IP-10G Front Panel with Dual Feed Power

IP-10G Front Panel with Dual Feed Power and 16 X E1 T-Card

IP-10G Interfaces
Interface For Further Information
2 X GE Combo Ports Ethernet Interfaces
5 X FE Electrical Ports Ethernet Interfaces
16 X E1s TDM Interface Options
TDM Interfaces Add-On Card TDM Interface Options
Craft Terminal Additional Interfaces
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Interface For Further Information
Engineering Order Wire (EOW) Additional Interfaces
User Channel Additional Interfaces
Protection Interface Additional Interfaces
RFU Interface Radio Interface
Power Interface Power Interfaces
Dual-Feed Power Option Power Interfaces
Front Panel Alarms Front Panel

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4.3 Ethernet Interfaces
Related Topics:
 Ethernet Switching
 Link Aggregation (LAG)
FibeAir IP-10G contains two GbE Ethernet interfaces and five FE interfaces on
the front panel. For the GbE interfaces, you can choose between two optical
and two electrical physical interfaces. Both pairs of GbE interfaces are labeled
Eth1 and Eth2. The optical interfaces are located to the left of the electrical
interfaces.
The FE interfaces are labeled Eth3 through Eth7. All the FE interfaces except
Eth3 are dual function interfaces. They can be configured as traffic ports or
functional ports for wayside or management, as shown in the table below.
In Single Pipe mode, only a single Ethernet interface can be used. The options
are:
 Eth1: Electrical GbE or Optical GbE.
 Eth3: Electrical FE
In Managed Switch and Metro Switch modes, there are no interface
limitations. This means that any GbE and/or FE ports can be used.
Each interface has a functional LED that indicates how the interface is
configured:
 For GbE interfaces, when an interface is configured as an electrical (RJ-45)
interface, its functional LED is turned on.
 For FE interfaces, when an interface is configured as a functional interface,
its functional LED is turned on.
The maximum frame length is 1632 bytes for all Ethernet traffic interfaces. An
interface configured for Wayside is limited to 1628 bytes.
It is possible to use an electrical interface at one end of the link, and an optical
interface at the other end. In order to change interfaces, it is essential to
disable the active interface first, and then to enable the other interface.
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Ethernet Interface Functionality
Interface Name Interface Rate Functionality
Smart Pipe Carrier Ethernet Switching
Protection FE 10/100 External protection/disabled External protection/disabled
Eth1 Electrical GbE - 10/100/1000
OR
Optical 1000Base-X – 1000
OR
Optical 100Base-FX – 100
Disabled/Traffic Disabled/Traffic
Eth2 Electrical GbE - 10/100/1000
OR
Optical 1000Base-X – 1000
OR
Optical 100Base-FX – 100
Disabled or Multi-Unit LAG
mirroring port.
Disabled/Traffic
Eth3 FE 10/100 Disabled/Traffic Disabled/Traffic
Eth4 FE 10/100 Disabled/Wayside Disabled/Traffic/Wayside
Eth5 FE 10/100 Disabled/Management Disabled/Traffic/Management
Eth6 FE 10/100 Disabled/Management Disabled/Traffic/Management
Eth7 FE 10/100 Disabled/Management Disabled/Traffic/Management
4.3.1 GbE Interfaces
The IP-10G supports two dual GbE interfaces. For each of these interfaces, the
user can configure the desired interface: Electrical GbE (10/100/1000)
interface, Optical 1000Base-X (SFP) interface or Optical 100Base-FX. It is NOT
supported and NOT possible to use SFP with electrical stack. SFP supports
only optical stack.
In Single Pipe mode, only a single Ethernet interface can be used as a user
interface. The Eth2 interface can be also used as a mirroring port for Multi-
Unit LAG. Options are:
 Eth1: Electrical GbE (10/100/1000), Optical 1000Base-X or Optical
100Base-FX.
 Eth2: May be used as a mirroring port for Multi-Unit LAG.
 Eth3: Electrical FE
It is possible to use an electrical interface at one end of the link, and an optical
interface at the other end. In order to change interfaces, it is essential to
disable the active interface first, and then to enable the other interface.
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The following table lists recommended SFP manufacturers.

Part
Number Item Description
Manufacturer
Name Manufacturer PN
AO-0049-0 XCVR,SFP,850nm,1.25Gb,MM,500M,W.DDM PHOTON PST120-51TP+
AO-0049-0 XCVR,SFP,850nm,1.25Gb,MM,500M,W.DDM
Wuhan Telecom.
Devices (WTD) RTXM191-551
AO-0049-0 XCVR,SFP,850nm,1.25Gb,MM,500M,W.DDM CORETEK (*) CT-1250NSP-SB1L
AO-0049-0 XCVR,SFP,850nm,1.25Gb,MM,500M,W.DDM Fiberxon FTM-8012C-SLG

AO-0037-0 XCVR,SFP,1310nm,1.25Gb,SM,10km
Wuhan Telecom.
Devices (WTD) RTXM191-401
AO-0037-0 XCVR,SFP,1310nm,1.25Gb,SM,10km CORETEK (*) CT-1250TSP-MB4L-A
AO-0037-0 XCVR,SFP,1310nm,1.25Gb,SM,10km Fiberxon FTM-3012C-SLG
AO-0037-0 XCVR,SFP,1310nm,1.25Gb,SM,10km AGILENT AFCT-5710PZ
* Electrically, these SFP modules work properly but they tend to get
mechanically stuck in the IP-10 cage.
4.3.2 100Base-FX support
100Base-FX provides an optical 100Mbps SFP interface. It can be used only on
the Eth1 and Eth2 interfaces.
Only Full-Duplex operation mode is supported. Auto-negotiation is not
supported.
The following types of SFP enclosures are supported:

Part
Number Item Description Manufacturer Name Manufacturer PN
ao-0072-0 XCVR,SFP S1.1 Wuhan Telecom. Devices (WTD) wtd-rtxm139-400
Note: 100Base-FX refers to Multi-Mode fiber and is defined in
IEEE 802.3 clause 26. 100Base-LX10 refers to Single-Mode
fiber and is defined in IEEE 802.3 clause 58. In the current
release, only single mode 100Base-LX10 is supported.
For additional information:
 Ethernet Interface Specifications
 Multi-Unit LAG
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4.4 Management Interfaces
An IP-10G can be configured to use between 0 and 3 Ethernet management
interfaces. The default number of interfaces is 2. Interfaces Eth5, Eth6, and
Eth7 are the only interfaces that can be assigned to be management ports, in
the order shown in the following table.
Management Interfaces
Configured Number of Management Interfaces Management Interfaces
1 Eth7
2 (default) Eth7, Eth6
3 Eth7, Eth6, Eth5
0 None
Management interfaces are connected to the switch (bridge) and are
configured to learning mode.
In a nodal configuration, only the main unit’s management interfaces are
available.
Management frames should always be assigned maximum priority in order to
ensure that network management remains available in a loaded network. In
order to achieve this, the IP-10G automatically assigns to all management
frames (frames incoming from the management interfaces) a p-bit value of 7,
which is the highest priority by default.
Management interfaces can be configured to have one of the following
capacities: 64kbps, 128kbps, 256kbps, 512kbps, 1024kbps, 2048kbps
(default). Capacity is limited by the port ingress rate limit.
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4.5 Link Aggregation (LAG)
Link aggregation (LAG) enables the user to group several ports into a single
logical channel bound to a single MAC address. This logical channel is known
as a LAG group. Traffic sent to the ports in a LAG group is distributed by
means of a load balancing function.
The 802.3ad standard specifies that all ports in a LAG group must have the
same data rate and must be configured as full duplex. This is the responsibility
of the user.
Note: Only static LAG is supported (no support for LACP protocol).
Two methods are available for LAG traffic distribution:
 Simple XOR: In this method, the three LSBs of DA and SA are XORed and
the result is used to select one of the ports in the group. This is meant for
simpler testing and debugging.
 Hash (default): In this method, the hash function used by the traffic
switch for address table lookups is used to select one of the ports in the
group. This is meant for better statistical load balancing.
LAG groups may include ports with the following constraints:
 Only traffic ports (including the radio port), not functional ports, can
belong to a LAG group.
 LAG can only be used in IDUs which are configured for Managed Switch or
Metro Switch.
 All ports in a LAG group must be in the same IDU (same switch)
 There can be up to three LAG groups per IDU.
 A LAG can contain from 1 to 5 physical ports.
 GbE ports (Eth1 and Eth2) and FE ports (Eth3 though Eth7) cannot be in
the same LAG group, even if the GbE ports are configured as 100Mbps.
 The Radio port (Eth8) can only be in a LAG group with GbE ports.
4.5.1 Creating a LAG Group
LAG groups are virtual interfaces that do not permanently exist in the system.
A LAG group is a logical interface with its own MAC address that differs from
that of the component interfaces. A LAG group is created as soon as the first
physical port is added to the LAG group.
When a LAG group is created by adding a first port to it, the LAG group
automatically inherits all the port’s characteristics, except for the following:
 xSTP role (edge, non-edge)
 Path cost
The LAG group is initially assigned default values for these parameters.
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All Ethernet interface parameters can be configured in a LAG group. These
parameters are inherited by the group’s physical component interfaces, and
are unavailable for physical ports belonging to the LAG group, with the
following exceptions:
 Admin
 Flow control
 Ingress rate limiting policer name
 Shaper (egress rate limiting)
 Peer interface parameters
MAC address
IP address
Slot ID
Port number
Description
4.5.2 Adding Ports to a LAG Group
The following settings must be identical between a LAG group and the ports
being added to it. If they are not identical, the port’s inclusion in the LAG will
be blocked:
 QoS configuration
Port MAC DA QoS classification
Port VID QoS classification
Port initial QOS classification
Port default QoS classification
Port VLAN PBITs priority remap
Egress scheduling scheme
 Data rate
 Type (access/trunk or cn/pn)
 Interface (electrical/optical)
 Duplex
 Auto-negotiation
 VLANs
VLAN list must be identical
“allow all” is considered a different value (must be equal in all ports)
 Learning state
In addition, ports with CFM MEP/MIPs cannot be added to a LAG group (which
may have its own MEP/MIPs).
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4.5.3 Removing Ports from a LAG Group
Ports removed from a LAG group keep the existing port parameters, but are
initially disabled in order to prevent loops.
In addition, when the last port is removed from a LAG group, the LAG group is
deleted. Therefore, it is necessary to remove all MEP/MIPs from a LAG group
before removing the last port.
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4.6 TDM Interface Options
IP-10G contains an MDR69 connector in which 16 E1 ports are available
(ports 1 through 16).
Above the MDR69 connector is an add-on slot which can contain a field-
upgradable T-Card with either 16 additional E1 ports, an STM-1 port, or 16 E1
pseudowire processing. The T-Cards are field-upgradable, and add a new
dimension to the IP-10G’s migration flexibility.
The STM-1 port provides an interface for up to 63 E1 lines inside a standard
channelized STM-1 signal. Each E1 line is transported by a VC-12 container,
which behaves like a regular line interface.
T-Card in Add-In Slot

16 X E1 T-Card

STM 1 Mux T-Card

16 x E1 TDM Pseudowire (PW) Processing T-Card

For additional information:
 Smart TDM Pseudowire
 E1 Interface Specifications
 Smart TDM Pseudowire Interface Specifications
 Optical STM-1 SFP Interface Specifications
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4.7 Radio Interface
The IP-10G’s radio interface is represented in the system as Eth8. The radio
interface uses an N-Type connector to connect, via a coaxial cable, to the RFU.
The radio interface can be disabled if necessary. For example, in certain
applications, users require extra line interfaces but have no need for
additional radio carriers. IP-10G IDUs can be added to a node to provide extra
switching or line ports. In this scenario, disabling the radio interface on the
additional IDUs prevents unnecessary alarms and other indications.
For additional information:
 Disabling the Radio
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4.8 Power Interfaces
The IP-10G power interface is connected via a proprietary two pin connector,
at the end of a 24-12AWG cable supplying -48VDC (nominal).
Some hardware versions include a dual-feed power connection for increased
protection. In dual power units, the system will indicate whether received
voltage in each connection is above or below the threshold power of
approximately 40.5V, as follows:
 The LED (and its WEB representation) will only be on if the voltage is
above the threshold.
 An alarm is raised if voltage is below the threshold.
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4.9 Additional Interfaces
An IP-10G contains the following additional interfaces:
 Terminal Console – The terminal console is a DB9 interface. A local craft
terminal can be connected to the terminal console for local CLI
management of the individual IDU. If the IDU is the main unit in a nodal
configuration, access to other units in the configuration is also available
through the terminal console of the main unit. The terminal console has
the following parameters:
Baud: 115200
Data bits: 8
Parity: None
Stop bits: 1
Flow Control: None
 Engineering Order Wire (EOW) (optional)
 User Channels – The IP-10G front panel includes two user-selectable user
channels (RJ-45). The following options are available for the user
channels:
Two RS-232 Asynchronous user channels (9600bps each)
Two V.11 Asynchronous user channels (9600bps each)
One RS-232 Asynchronous user channel, and one V.11 Asynchronous
user channel (9600bps each)
One V.11 Synchronous Co-Directional user channel (64Kbps)
One V.11 Synchronous Contra Directional user channel (64Kbps)
 Backplane Connector – IP-10G has an extra connector on the back panel
for connection to the backplane used in nodal configurations.
 Protection Interface (PROT) – IP-10G has an Ethernet protection control
interface for use in 1+1 HSB standalone configurations.
Note: In nodal configurations, the nodal backplane provides the
protection interface.
For additional information:
 Equipment Protection
 Auxiliary Channel Specifications
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4.10 Front Panel LEDs
The following LEDs are located beneath the external alarms on the front
panel:
 LINK – Indicates status of the radio link.
 IDU – Indicates status of the Ethernet interface.
 RFU – Indicates status of the RF module.
 PROT – Indicates the main and standby unit alarm and protection status.
 RMT – Indicates status of the remote unit.
These LEDs indicate the following:
 LINK
Green – Radio link is operational
Orange – Minor BER alarm on the radio
Red – Loss of signal, major BER alarm on the radio
 IDU
Green – IDU is functioning normally
Orange – Fan failure
Red – Alarm on IDU (all severities)
 RFU
Green – RFU is functioning normally
Orange – Loss of communication between the IDU and the RFU
Red – RFU failure
 PROT
Main Unit – Green – No alarms
Standby Unit – Yellow – No alarms
Orange – Forced switch, protection lock
Red –Physical errors (no cable, cable failure)
Off – Protection is disabled, or not supported on the device
 RMT
Green – Remote IDU is functioning normally
Orange – Minor alarm on the remote IDU
Red – Major alarm on the remote IDU
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4.11 External Alarms
IP-10G includes a DB9 dry contact external alarms interface. The external
alarms interface supports five input alarms and a single output alarm.
The input alarms are configurable according to:
1 Intermediate
2 Critical
3 Major
4 Minor
5 Warning
The output alarm is configured according to predefined categories.
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5. Licensing
This chapter includes:
 License Overview
 Working with License Keys
 Licensed Features
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5.1 License Overview
FibeAir IP-10G offers a pay as-you-grow concept to reduce network costs.
Future capacity growth and additional functionality is enabled with license
keys and an innovative stackable nodal solution using the same hardware.
Licenses are divided into two categories:
 Per Radio – Each IDU (both sides of the link) require a license.
 Per Configuration – Only one license is required for the system.
A 1+1 configuration requires the same set of licenses for both the active and
the protected IDU.
In nodal configurations, for licenses that are not per radio, licenses should be
assigned to the main (bottom) IDU in the enclosure.
5.2 Working with License Keys
Ceragon provides a web-based License Management System (LMS). The LMS
enables authorized users to generate license keys, which are generated per
IDU serial number. In order to upgrade a license, the license-key must be
entered into the IP-10G, followed by a cold reset. When the system returns
online following the reset, its license key is checked and implemented,
enabling access to new capacities and/or features. For more detailed
information, refer to FibeAir IP-10 License Management System,
DOC-00019183.
5.3 Licensed Features
As your network expands and additional functionality is desired, license keys
can be purchased for the features described in the following table.
License Types
License Name Description For Addition Information
Adaptive Coding and
Modulation (ACM)
Enables the Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM)
feature. An ACM license is required per radio. If
additional IDUs are required for non-radio
functionality, no license is required for these units.
Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM)
L2 Switch Enables Carrier Ethernet Switching functionality
(Managed Switch and Metro Switch). A license is
required for any IDU that requires the use of two or
more Ethernet ports.
Ethernet Switching
Capacity Upgrade Enables you to increase your system‟s radio capacity
in gradual steps by upgrading your capacity license.
Capacity upgrades apply to the sum of Ethernet and
TDM capacity.

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License Name Description For Addition Information
Network Resiliency Enables the following features for improving network
resiliency:
 xSTP – If Ring-Optimized RSTP or legacy RSTP
is required, an L2 Switch license must also be
purchased.
 TDM trails protection (SNCP)
Only one Network Resiliency license is required for an
east-west configuration.
 Network Resiliency and xSTP
 Wireless SNCP
Synchronization Unit Enables the Synchronization unit required for Native
Sync Distribution mode or SyncE support.
Synchronization
Enhanced QoS Enables the Enhanced QoS feature, which includes a
larger selection of classification criteria, color-
awareness, up to 255 MEF 10.2-compliant TrTCM
policers that offer per service (VLAN+CoS)
granularity, WRED for improved congestion
management, eight priority queues with configurable
buffer length, improved congestion management
using WRED protocols, enhanced counters, and other
enhanced functionality.
A license is required per radio.
Enhanced QoS
Asymmetrical Scripts Enables the use of asymmetrical scripts. Asymmetrical Scripts
Enhanced Header
Compression
Enables the use of Multi-Layer header compression,
which can increase effective throughput by up to
300%.
Ethernet Header Compression
For additional information:
 Software License Marketing Models
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6. Feature Description
This chapter includes:
 Equipment Protection
 Ethernet Line Protection
 Capacity and Latency
 Radio Features
 Ethernet Features
 Quality of Service (Traffic Manager)
 TDM Solution
 Synchronization
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6.1 Equipment Protection
This section includes:
 Equipment Protection Overview
 1+1 HSB Protection
 2+0 Multi-Radio and 2+0 Multi-Radio with IDU and Line Protection
 2+2 HSB Protection
 Switchover Triggers
Related topics:
 Ethernet Line Protection
 Floating IP Address
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6.1.1 Equipment Protection Overview
Equipment protection is possible in both standalone and nodal configurations.
The following protected configurations are available:
 1+1 HSB
 2+0 Multi-Radio
 2+0 Multi-Radio with IDU and Line Protection
 2+2 HSB and Multi-Radio
The following table summarizes the degree of protection provided by the
various IP-10G configuration options.
Comparison of IP-10G Protection Options
Configuration # of IDUs
per
Terminal
# of RFUs
per
Terminal
Radio
Capacity –
Normal
Radio Capacity – Unit
Failure
Native TDM Protection XPIC
Support
ACM
Support
BBS
(SD/FD)
Support
1+1 HSB 2 2 1 1 Protected – TDM trails
are duplicated in the
active and standby IDUs.
No Optional
1
Optional
2+0 Multi-Radio 2 2 2 RFU Failure – 1
2

IDU (Slave) Failure – 1
3

IDU (Master) Failure - 0
TDM capacity is doubled
but not protected.
4

Optional Optional No
2+0 Multi-Radio with IDU
and Line Protection
2 2 2 RFU Failure – 1
5

IDU (Slave or Master)
Failure - 1
6

TDM capacity is doubled
but not protected.
7

Optional Optional
8
No
2+2 HSB with Multi-Radio 4 4 2 2 Full protection Optional Optional No



1
ACM is not supported when BBS (SD/FD) is used.
2
With graceful degradation.
3
With graceful degradation.
4
Protection can optionally be provided using the SNCP/ABR mechanism. This is done by
defining a primary TDM trail over one radio carrier and a secondary trail over the other radio
carrier. The secondary trail will back up the primary trail in the event of any failure (assuming
the main IDU performing the node TDM XC is functional).
5
With graceful degradation.
6
With graceful degradation.
7
Protection can optionally be provided using the SNCP/ABR mechanism. This is done by
defining a primary TDM trail over one radio carrier and a secondary trail over the other radio
carrier. The secondary trail will back up the primary trail in the event of any failure (assuming
the main IDU performing the node TDM XC is functional).
8
ACM support is only provided for Ethernet traffic, not for TDM trails.
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6.1.2 1+1 HSB Protection
This feature cannot be used with the following:
 Multi-Radio
 2+0 Multi-Radio with IDU and line protection
 Smart TDM Pseudowire
Related topics:
 Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM)
A 1+1 configuration scheme can be used to provide full protection in the event
of IDU or RFU failure. The two IDUs operate in active and standby mode. If
there is a failure in the active IDU or RFU, the standby IDU and RFU pair
switches to active mode. TDM trails are duplicated in the active and standby
IDUs, so that both Ethernet and TDM traffic is protected.
In a 1+1 configuration, the protection options are as follows:
 Standalone – The IDUs must be connected by a dedicated Ethernet
protection cable. Each IDU has a unique IP address.
 Nodal – The IDUs are connected by the backplane of the nodal enclosure.
There is one IP address for each of the main units.
1+1 HSB can be used with BBS Space or Frequency Diversity.
The following figure illustrates a 1+1 HSB configuration in a standalone setup,
with an Ethernet protection cable connecting the two IDUs via their Protection
ports.
1+1 HSB Protection – Connecting the IDUs

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The following figure illustrates a 1+1 HSB Space Diversity configuration in a
standalone setup.
1+1 HSB Node with BBS Space Diversity

The following figure shows an example of a 1+1 HSB nodal configuration used
in an IP-10G 3 x 1+1 aggregation site. In this example, the node includes the
following components:
 One main nodal enclosure with two IDUs
One configured as Main
The other configured as Protected
 One extension nodal enclosure with two IDUs configured as Extension
 One extension nodal enclosure with one IDU configured as Extension
3 x 1+1 Aggregation Site

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IP-10G units in a 1+1 HSB configuration constitute a completely redundant
system, including management. Each unit can be managed with its own IP
address, and the whole node can be accessed via the active unit. To ensure
that the user can always access the active unit directly, even in the event of
switchover, a floating IP address can be configured. This provides a single IP
address that will always provide direct access to the currently active main
unit.
In a 1+1 HSB configuration, it is necessary for both units to have the same
configuration. IP-10G includes a mismatch mechanism that detects if there is a
mismatch between the configurations of the local and mate units. This
mechanism is activated by the system periodically and independently of other
protection mechanisms, at fixed intervals. It is activated asynchronously in
both the active and the standby units. Once the mismatch mechanism detects a
configuration mismatch, it raises a Mate Configuration Mismatch alarm. When
the configuration of the active and standby unit is changed to be identical, the
mechanism clears the Mate Configuration Mismatch alarm.
For addition information:
 Switchover Triggers
 Floating IP Address
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6.1.3 2+0 Multi-Radio and 2+0 Multi-Radio with IDU and Line
Protection
This feature requires:
 Nodal configuration
This feature cannot be used with the following:
 1+1 HSB
 2+2 HSB
 Space and frequency diversity
 ACM
Related topics:
 Multi-Radio
 Nodal Configuration Option
 Wireless SNCP
2+0 Multi-Radio provides a significant degree of protection, in addition to
doubling capacity by enabling two separate radio carriers to be shared by a
single Ethernet port. In the event of RFU failure, or failure of the slave IDU, one
RFU and IDU remain in operation, with graceful degradation of service to
ensure that not all data is lost, but rather, a reduction of bandwidth occurs.
However, if there is a failure of the master IDU, traffic and management access
is lost.
The IDU and line protection option increases protection to the master IDU. If
there is a failure in the master IDU, the slave IDU becomes the master, and
continues to provide service. Thus, a 2+0 Multi-Radio configuration with IDU
and line protection provides protection for the failure of any IDU or RFU in the
node.
The IDU and line protection feature protects Ethernet traffic. It also protects
management of the node, since node management is handled by the master
IDU. Graceful degradation is provided with the help of IP-10G’s integrated QoS
mechanism, which ensures that high-priority traffic is maintained in the event
of reduced bandwidth.
Notes: TDM traffic is not protected in Multi-Radio, either with or
without line protection. However, TDM protection can be
provided by duplicating each TDM trail in both radio
channels using SNCP. The primary trail is defined in the
master IDU, and the secondary trail is defined in the slave
IDU. TDM trails are not supported when Multi-Radio with
line protection is active in ACM adaptive mode.
When using Multi-Radio with IDU and line protection, ACM
is supported for Ethernet traffic, but not for TDM trails.
6.1.3.1 Multi-Radio with IDU and Line Protection Basic Operation
Multi-Radio with IDU and line protection is available for adjacent pairs of IDUs
in a nodal enclosure (slots 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6).
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The active unit is the IDU that currently holds the line interfaces and it is also a
Multi-Radio master unit. The following diagram illustrates the traffic flow in
Multi-Radio with line protection.
Multi-Radio 2+0 with Line Protection – Traffic Flow





T
D
M
T
D
M
Ethernet Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
TDM
T
D
M
T
D
M
E
t
h
e
r
n
e
t




















T
D
M
Cross-Connect
(XC) Module
Ethernet

T
D
M
TDM
E
t
h
e
r
n
e
t
Ethernet
TDM
TDM
Ethernet
Orange lines represent the Ethernet traffic flow, while blue lines represent
TDM traffic flow. The active IDU holds the line interfaces for Ethernet traffic,
the line interfaces for TDM traffic, and the interface with the Cross-Connect
module. The active IDU acts as a Multi-Radio master unit by distributing the
Ethernet traffic between its own radio channel and the radio channel of its
mate. At the receive side of the link, the active IDU combines the data from
both radio channels to create a single Ethernet stream. When a protection
switch occurs, the new active IDU also becomes the Multi-Radio main unit.
The following events will cause a protection switchover:
 GbE line Loss of Carrier (LOC)
 TDM interface Loss of Signal (LOS)
 STM-1 LOS
 User manual switch
Note: Radio failure or BER in the radio channel will not cause a
protection switchover. Multi-Radio protects against radio
channel failure by blocking the defective radio.
For addition information:
 Switchover Triggers
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6.1.4 2+2 HSB Protection
This feature requires:
 Nodal configuration
This feature cannot be used with the following:
 2+0 Multi-Radio with line protection
Related topics:
 Nodal Configuration Option
2+2 HSB protection provides full redundancy between two pairs of IDUs. Each
pair is a 2+0 link, which can be configured for XPIC or in different frequencies.
If there is a failure in one of these pairs, the other pair takes over.
A 2+2 protection scheme must be implemented by means of a nodal
configuration. Each pair is inserted into its own main nodal enclosure, with a
protection cable to connect the main IDUs (in slot 1) in each pair. Protection is
performed between the pairs. At any given time, one pair is active and the
other is standby.
A 2+2 configuration scheme is only possible between units in a main nodal
enclosure (slots 1 and 2). Extension nodal enclosures (slots 3 – 6) cannot be
used in a 2+2 configuration.
2+2 protection can be used together with XPIC and/or Multi-Radio. The
following figure illustrates a 2+2 configuration with both XPIC and Multi-
Radio. The RFUs marked V are set to vertical polarization, while the RFUs
marked H are set to horizontal polarization.
2+2 with XPIC, Multi-Radio, and 2 x STM–1

In a 2+2 configuration, the lower IDU in each pair is a master unit, and does
the following:
 Sends and receives traffic to and from the user through line interfaces.
 Receives protection information from the slave unit in the pair.
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 Sends and receives protection information to and from a second master
unit. At any one time, one master unit is the decision unit, and the other is
the report unit.
In a 2+2 configuration, the upper IDU in each pair is a slave unit, and does the
following:
 Sends and receives traffic through line interfaces.
 Sends protection information to the master unit in the pair.
 Slave units always behave as report units. In other words, they are told by
the master unit whether to be in active or standby mode.
2+2 operation is similar to 1+1, as follows:
 The same criteria (interfaces LOS, LOC, LOF) are monitored and compared
between active and standby units, with the comparison carried out by
master units.
 All enabled interfaces of all four IDUs are monitored.
 A missing slave unit is interpreted as LOS in its interfaces. A missing
master causes a “no mate” condition.
6.1.4.1 XPIC and 2+2 Protection
2+2 XPIC is a common application. Since XPIC and 2+2 HSB Protection operate
through unrelated mechanisms, a number of safeguards exist to assure their
proper operation in tandem.
The XPIC recovery mechanism is disabled in a 2+2 HSB configuration. The
reason for this is that in case of a failure in a link, the system must switch to
the standby pair instead of attempting to recover the link, as done in 2+0 XPIC.
Additionally, in order to assure that the conditions for XPIC exist (in
particular, having the same radio script and frequencies), the following
mechanisms are active in a 2+2 XPIC configuration:
 The following parameters can be changed only in the master units. The
changes are implemented in the corresponding slave units automatically:
Radio script
Radio TX frequency
Radio RX frequency
 If the change failed to be implemented in the slave unit for any reason, the
change in the master unit is rolled back, and an error message is displayed.
For addition information:
 Cross Polarization Interface Canceller (XPIC)
 Switchover Triggers
 Floating IP Address
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6.1.5 Switchover Triggers
Switchover triggers for 1+1 and 2+2 HSB protection configurations are
described in the following table, according to their priority, with the highest
priority triggers on top.
HSB Protection Switchover Triggers
Priority Fault Remark
1 Mate Power OFF -
2 Lockout Does not persist after cold reset.
3 Force Switch Does not persist after cold reset.
4 Local Radio LOF -
5 TDM Line LOS/SFP LOS/GBE LOC Electrical GBE LOC is configurable. Only
the active unit is monitored in this case.
6 Change Remote request due to "Radio LOF" -
7 Local Radio Excessive BER Configurable. Irrelevant in ACM adaptive
mode
8 Change Remote due to Radio Excessive BER Irrelevant in ACM adaptive mode
9 Manual Switch -

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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6.2 Ethernet Line Protection
This section includes:
 Ethernet Line Protection Options
 Multi-Unit LAG
 Ethernet Line Protection Using Splitters
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6.2.1 Ethernet Line Protection Options
IP-10G offers a number of Ethernet line protection options for various multi-
unit configuration scenarios in which two IP-10G IDUs are connected to an
external switch or router. These are:
 Single Interface with Splitter – A single interface in the external switch
or router is connected to each of the two IDUs using a splitter. A splitter
can be used with Fast Ethernet ports and optical GbE ports.
 Dual Interface with Optical Splitter – Two interfaces in the external
switch or router are configured as a static LAG, and each interface is
connected to each IDU using a splitter. Splitters can be used with Fast
Ethernet ports and optical GbE ports.
 Dual Interface with Multi-Unit LAG – Two interfaces in the external
switch or router are configured as a static LAG, and each interface is
connected to one IDU. Full protection of each interface is provided by a
LAG that includes interfaces in both IDUs. Multi-Unit LAG can be used with
both optical and electrical GbE ports.
Hardware Protection with
Single Interface Using Optical
Splitter
Full protection with Dual Interface
Using Optical Splitters and LAG
Full Protection Using Multi-Unit
LAG


All of these line protection methods are available for any of the following
configurations:
 1+1 HSB
 2+0 Multi Radio with IDU and Line Protection
 2+2 Multi-Radio
 All BBS diversity configurations
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The following table compares the advantages and limitations of the Ethernet
line protection schemes described in this section.
Ethernet Line Protection Comparison
Protection Scheme Extent of Protection Interfaces Switching Mode Splitters Required
Dual interface with Multi-
Unit LAG
Full Ethernet line
protection for IDU and
switch/router interfaces.
 Optical GbE
 Electrical GbE
 Smart Pipe 0
Single Interface with
Optical Splitter
Protection for failure of
IDU interface, but not for
failure of external
switch/router interface.
 Optical GbE
 Fast Ethernet
 Smart Pipe
 Managed Switch
 Metro Switch
1
Dual Interface with
Optical Splitters
Full Ethernet line
protection for IDU and
switch/router interfaces.
 Optical GbE
 Fast Ethernet
 Managed Switch
 Metro Switch
2

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6.2.2 Multi-Unit LAG
This feature requires:
 Smart Pipe switching mode
Related topics:
 Link Aggregation (LAG)
 Ethernet Switching
 Diversity
With Multi-Unit LAG, the switch or router relates to two IDUs as a single
device. There is no need for splitters, and Multi-Unit LAG can be used to
protect either the electrical GbE ports or the optical GbE ports. In contrast,
splitters can only be used to protect optical GbE ports or Fast Ethernet ports.
Multi-Unit LAG can only be used in Smart Pipe mode. The service disruption
time in case of failure in one of the LAG physical ports is less than 50ms in
most cases.
An IP-10G system using Multi-Unit LAG has dual (redundant) GbE interfaces.
Each of these interfaces is connected to a separate interface on an external
switch or router. The IP-10G interfaces are active and enabled on both the
active or master unit and the standby or slave unit. On the external unit, a
static LAG must be configured on the interfaces that are connected to the IDUs.
If the IP-10G IDUs are in Multi-Radio mode with IDU and line protection, any
link failure triggers graceful degradation and is transparent to the external
unit. If an IDU itself experiences unit failure, the interface to which it is
connected on the external unit is disabled. If the disabled IDU is the standby
unit, or if it is the active unit and Multi-Radio with IDU and line protection is
enabled, the functioning IDU maintains connectivity with the external unit via
the interface to which the functioning IDU is connected.
Multi-Unit LAG is supported with any of the following protection features:
 1+1 HSB
 1+1 Space or Frequency Diversity
 2+2 HSB
 2+0 Multi Radio with line protection
Multi-Unit LAG is supported in both standalone and nodal configurations.
Multi-Unit LAG supports both electrical and optical interfaces.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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The following figure illustrates the basic operation of Multi-Unit LAG.
Multi-Unit LAG – Basic Operation

An external switch is connected to the HSB-protected IDU link by means of
two static Link Aggregation (LAG) ports. The external switch can be another
IP-10G IDU or any third party equipment that supports static LAG protocol.
The first LAG port of the external switch is connected to Eth1 of the active IDU
and the second LAG port is connected to Eth1 of the standby IDU. Eth2 of the
active IDU is connected to Eth2 of the standby IDU, as shown in the above
figure. This port (Eth2) is used for traffic mirroring, as described below.
In the uplink direction (toward the radio), the external switch splits the
packets between the two LAG interfaces, which are connected to the active
and standby IDUs. Ethernet packets received from the LAG interface in the
active IDU are sent to the radio. Ethernet packets received from the LAG
interface in the standby IDU are mirrored to the active IDU on Eth2. The active
unit receives these packets from Eth2 and sends them to the radio.
In the downlink (from the radio), the active IDU receives Ethernet packets
from the radio and forwards all of the packets to the External Switch through
Eth1.
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The following table describes the behavior of Multi-Unit LAG Ethernet line
protection in various failure scenarios.
Multi-Unit LAG Failure Scenarios
Scenario Reaction
Failure in port1 in active Initiate protection switchover.
Failure in port1 in standby LAG protocol on the external switch recognizes the port
failure and uses the second LAG port (the one that is
connected to the active IDU). No protection switchover is
initiated.
Failure in the mirroring port Standby unit shuts down Eth1 to indicate failure to the
external switch. After resolving the failure, the standby unit
reopens port1 automatically. No protection switchover is
initiated.
In a 2+2 HSB configuration, Multi-Unit LAG can be activated between slot 1 of
the active nodal enclosure and slot 1 of the standby nodal enclosure and/or
between slot 2 of the active nodal enclosure and slot 2 of the standby nodal
enclosure, respectively.
Notes: Eth1 and Eth2 must have the same type of physical interface
(e.g., both optical or both electrical).
To improve protection switchover delays, it is
recommended to disable auto-negotiation and automatic
state propagation on all the interfaces.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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6.2.3 Ethernet Line Protection Using Splitters
FE interfaces can be split using either an appropriate splitter or an external
protection panel designed for that purpose.
Optical SFP interfaces can be split using either an optical splitter or an
external protection panel. The electrical GbE interface cannot be split.
However, protection can be provided in Single Pipe mode using Multi-Unit
LAG.
A Line LOC Protection switchover can only be triggered by LOC on the optical-
(SFP) interface. The electrical interfaces' LOC (10/100 or 10/100/1000)
cannot initiate a protection switchover.
For additional information:
 Multi-Unit LAG
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 87 of 403
6.3 Capacity and Latency
This section includes:
 Capacity Summary
 Ethernet Header Compression
 Latency
 Asymmetrical Scripts
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 88 of 403
6.3.1 Capacity Summary
 Modulations – QPSK to 256 QAM
 Radio capacity – Up to 20/50/100/220/280/500 Mbps throughput over
3.5/7/14/28/40/56 MHz channels
 Radio capacity with legacy MAC Header Compression – Up to
20/58/125/281/370/532 Mbps throughput
 Radio capacity with Multi-Layer (Enhanced) Header Compression
(license-enabled) – 51/146/317/713/938/1,000 Mbps throughput.
 All licensed bands – L6, U6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 18, 23, 26, 28, 32, 38, 42
GHz
 Highest scalability – From 10 Mbps to 500 Mbps, using the same
hardware, including the same RFU, and up to 1 Gbps with Multi-Layer
Enhanced Header Compression.
For additional information:
 Radio Capacity Specifications
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 89 of 403
6.3.2 Ethernet Header Compression
IP-10G offers several Ethernet header compression methods, which enable
operators to significantly improve Ethernet throughout over the radio link
without affecting user traffic:
 No Header Compression (Layer 1 Header Suppression) – Removes the
IFG and Preamble fields. This mechanism operates automatically even if no
header compression is selected by the user.
 MAC Header Compression (“Legacy Mode”) – Operates at Layer 2,
compressing the MAC SA and the MAC DA. The user can enable or disable
MAC header compression.
 Multi-Layer Header Compression (“Enhanced Compression”) –Users
can configure the depth of Enhanced Compression, up to Layer 4.
Enhanced Compression requires software version i6.9 and hardware
version R3. Enhanced Compression also requires a license.
Header Compression

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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6.3.2.1 Layer 1 Header Suppression
Even when no header compression is enabled, IP-10G performs Layer 1
header suppression. Layer 1 header suppression removes the IFG and
Preamble fields (20 bytes), replacing them with a GFP header. Headers fields
in Layers 2 through 4 are not compressed at all.
The following figure provides a detailed diagram of Layer 1 header
suppression.
Layer 1 Header Suppression
L3/L4 headers
(optional)
&
Payload
CRC
MAC DA
MAC SA
0x0800/0x86DD
0x8100 (opt)
C-Vlan (opt)
6B
6B
2B
2B
2B
4B
L
2

h
e
a
d
e
r

(
M
A
C
)
M
A
C
0x8A88 (opt)
S-Vlan (opt) 2B
2B
Inter-Frame Gap (IFG)
Preabmle
12B
8B
L
1

h
e
a
d
e
r

(
P
H
Y
)
L3/L4 headers
(optional)
&
Payload
CRC 4B
GFP header
4B
0x0800/0x86DD
0x8100 (opt)
C-Vlan (opt)
2B
2B
2B
0x8A88 (opt)
S-Vlan (opt) 2B
2B
MAC DA
MAC SA
6B
6B

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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6.3.2.2 MAC Header Compression (“Legacy Mode”)
IP-10G’s legacy MAC header compression operates on Layer 2, and supports
up to eight flows. Legacy MAC header compression improves effective
throughput over the radio link by up to 45% or more without affecting user
traffic.
Legacy MAC header compression compresses the MAC SA and the MAC DA
fields (12 bytes). Layer 1 header suppression is also active, replacing the IFG
and Preamble fields (20 bytes) with a GFP header.
Legacy MAC header compression does not require a license, and can be
enabled and disabled by the user. By default, legacy MAC header compression
is disabled.
The following figure provides a detailed diagram of how the frame structure is
affected by legacy MAC header compression.
Legacy MAC Header Compression
L3/L4 headers
(optional)
&
Payload
CRC
MAC DA
MAC SA
0x0800/0x86DD
0x8100 (opt)
C-Vlan (opt)
6B
6B
2B
2B
2B
4B
L
2

h
e
a
d
e
r

(
M
A
C
)
M
A
C
0x8A88 (opt)
S-Vlan (opt) 2B
2B
Inter-Frame Gap (IFG)
Preabmle
12B
8B
L
1

h
e
a
d
e
r

(
P
H
Y
)
L3/L4 headers
(optional)
&
Payload
CRC 4B
Flow ID
GFP header 4B
0x0800/0x86DD
0x8100 (opt)
C-Vlan (opt)
2B
2B
2B
0x8A88 (opt)
S-Vlan (opt) 2B
2B
1B

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 92 of 403
6.3.2.3 Multi-Layer (Enhanced) Header Compression
This feature requires:
 Hardware version R3
 Enhanced Header Compression license
Related topics:
 Licensing
Multi-Layer (Enhanced) header compression identifies traffic flows and
replaces the header fields with a "flow ID". This is done using a sophisticated
algorithm that learns unique flows by looking for repeating frame headers in
the traffic stream over the radio link and compressing them. The principle
underlying this feature is that packet headers in today’s networks use a long
protocol stack that contains a significant amount of redundant information.
In Enhanced Compression mode, the user can determine the depth to which
the compression mechanism operates, from Layer 2 to Layer 4. Operators
must balance the depth of compression against the number of flows in order
to ensure maximum efficiency. Up to 256 concurrent flows are supported.
Up to 68 bytes of the L2-4 header can be compressed. In addition Layer 1
header suppression is also performed, replacing the IFG and Preamble fields
(20 bytes) with a GFP header.
Multi layer header compression can be used to compress the following types
of header stacks:
 Ethernet MAC untagged
IPv4
 TCP
 UDP
IPv6
 TCP
 UDP
MPLS
 Ethernet MAC + VLAN
IPv4
 TCP
 UDP
IPv6
 TCP
 UDP
MPLS
 Ethernet MAC with QinQ
IPv4
 TCP
 UDP
IPv6
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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 TCP
 UDP
MPLS
 PBB-TE
The following figure provides a detailed diagram of how the frame structure is
affected by Multi-Layer (Enhanced) header compression.
Multi-Layer (Enhanced) Header Compression
Payload
CRC
MAC DA
MAC SA
0x0800/0x86DD
0x8100 (opt)
C-Vlan (opt)
IPv4/6
UDP/TCP
6B
6B
2B
2B
2B
24/40B
8/28B
4B
L
2

h
e
a
d
e
r

(
M
A
C
)
L
3

h
e
a
d
e
r
M
A
C
0x8A88 (opt)
S-Vlan (opt) 2B
2B
Inter-Frame Gap (IFG)
Preabmle
12B
8B
L
4

h
e
a
d
e
r
L
1

h
e
a
d
e
r

(
P
H
Y
)
Payload
CRC 4B
Compressed header
& Flow ID
GFP header 4B

IP-10G’s Multi-Layer (enhanced) header compression can improve effective
throughput by up to 300% or more without affecting user traffic.
6.3.2.4 Enhanced Header Compression Compatibility
The IP-10G’s configuration monitoring mechanism is used to provide
backwards compatibility with legacy hardware and software versions that do
not support Multi-Layer (enhanced) header compression.
A configuration mismatch may occur in the following scenarios:
 The remote IDU is using a pre-I6.9 software release.
 The remote IDU is using a pre-R3 hardware release.
 The remote IDU is configured to Legacy compression mode.
In each of these scenarios, both sides of the link will use Legacy compression
mode and an alarm will be raised to indicate that there is a configuration
mismatch.
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6.3.2.5 Enhanced Header Compression Counters
In order to help operators optimize Multi-Layer (Enhanced) header
compression, IP-10G provides counters when Enhanced Compression is
enabled. These counters include real-time information, such as the number of
currently active flows and the number of flows by specific flow type. This
information can be used by operators to monitor network usage and capacity,
and optimize the Multi-Layer compression settings. By monitoring the
effectiveness of the compression settings, the operator can adjust these
settings to ensure that the network achieves the highest possible effective
throughput.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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6.3.2.6 Ethernet Header Compression Comparison
The following table summarizes the basic features of IP-10G’s legacy and
enhanced Ethernet header compression mechanisms.
Ethernet Header Compression Comparison Table
No Compression
(L1 header
suppression only)
MAC (L2) Header
Compression
(Legacy Mode)
Multi-Layer (L2-4) Header
Compression
(Enhanced Compression)
Hardware R2 and R3 R2 and R3 R3
SW license - - Enhanced Compression license
required
L1 header suppression
(removing IFG and
Preamble fields)
Yes Yes Yes
Compressed headers -  L2:
MAC SA (6 bytes)
MAC DA (6 bytes)
 L2:
Ethertype (2 bytes)
MAC SA (6 bytes)
MAC DA (6 bytes)
Outer VLAN header (4 bytes)
Inner VLAN header (4 bytes)
MPLS header (4 bytes)
B-MAC header (22 bytes)
 L3:
IPv4 header (24 bytes)
IPv6 header (40 bytes)
 L4:
UDP header (8 bytes)
TCP header (28 bytes)
Number of flows - 8 256

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6.3.3 Latency
IP-10G provides best-in-class latency (RFC-2544) for all channels, making it
LTE (Long-Term Evolution) ready:
 <0.21ms for 28/56MHz channels (1518 byte frames)
 <0.4 ms for 14MHz channels (1518 byte frames)
 <0.9 ms for 7MHz channels (1518 byte frames)
6.3.3.1 Benefits of IP-10G’s Top-of-the-Line Low Latency
IP-10G’s ability to meet the stringent latency requirements for LTE systems
provides the key to expanded broadband wireless services:
 Longer radio chains
 Larger radio rings
 Shorter recovery times
 More capacity
 Easing of Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) limitations
6.3.3.2 Frame Cut-Through Support
Frames assigned to high priority queues can pre-empt frames already in
transmission over the radio from other queues. Transmission of the pre-
empted frames is resumed after the cut-through with no capacity loss or re-
transmission required. This feature provides services that are sensitive to
delay and delay variation, such as VoIP and Pseudowires, with true
transparency to lower priority services.
Notes: Frame Cut-Through is not supported in the current software
release, but is planned for future release. Contact your
Ceragon representative for up-to-date information on
availability.
For additional information:
 Ethernet Latency Specifications
 E1 Latency Specifications
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6.3.4 Asymmetrical Scripts
This feature requires:
 Asymmetrical scripts license
IP-10G provides several asymmetrical radio script options that enable
operators to optimize spectrum use by increasing downlink capacity and
decreasing uplink capacity by at least 50%.
Traditionally, microwave point-to-point links are symmetrical, providing
equal amounts of bandwidth for TX and RX traffic flows. However, in many
cellular applications, the demand for bandwidth is asymmetrical, with a much
greater demand for downlink than for uplink bandwidth.
For the purpose of illustration, assume a chain that consists of two 14 MHz
channels, for a total of 28 MHz. The following figure depicts a symmetrical
configuration that uses two adjacent spectrum segments of 7 MHz each. Each
signal in the link consumes two segments of 7 MHz each, for a total of 14 MHz
on the uplinks and 14 MHz on the downlinks.
Symmetrical Chain Example

The following is an example of an asymmetrical chain using the same 14MHz
channels in slices of 7 MHz. The entire 28 MHz uplink and downlink spectrum
is divided into eight segments of 7 MHz each, but one segment is moved from
the right uplink to the left downlink, increasing its capacity by 50%, from 14
MHz to 21 MHz. Similarly, one segment is moved from the left uplink to the
right downlink, expanding the capacity of the right downlink by 50% (from 14
MHz to 21 MHz.
Note: This example shows just one of several ways in which
capacity can be reallocated in an asymmetrical
configuration.
Asymmetrical Chain Example

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The following illustration provides an example of a symmetrical aggregation
site in which the right link aggregates traffic from two downlinks. In this
example, all the links are symmetrical, while the aggregation link has double the
capacity of each of the downlinks. For purposes of this example, the downlinks
each have a capacity of 14 MHz, consisting of two 7 MHz segments. The
aggregation link has a capacity of 28 MHz, consisting of four 7 MHz segments.
Symmetrical Aggregation Site Example

The aggregation site shown in this example can be rearranged asymmetrically
to provide 42 MHz to the aggregation downlink by combining six segments
with 7 MHz in each segment. The capacity of the other downlinks can be
increased to 21 MHz by combining three segments with 7 MHz in each
segment for each downlink.
Note: This example shows just one of several ways in which
capacity can be reallocated in an asymmetrical
configuration.
Asymmetrical Aggregation Site Example

To activate an asymmetrical script, the user must upgrade the uplink script
(narrow TX, wide RX) at one end of the link, and upgrade the downlink script
(wide TX, narrow RX) at the other end of the link. This operation requires
reset. To avoid loss of management to the remote site, it is recommended to
upgrade the remote site first.
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Notes: This feature requires an Asymmetrical Scripts license.
When using an asymmetrical script, the capacity license
relates to the TX side of each link.
There are asymmetrical scripts with and without ACM and
with and without XPIC.
For addition information:
 Licensing
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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6.4 Radio Features
This section includes:
 Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM)
 ACM with Adaptive Transmit Power
 Radio Traffic Priority
 Cross Polarization Interface Canceller (XPIC)
 Multi-Radio
 Diversity
 ATPC Override Timer
 Disabling the Radio
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6.4.1 Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM)
This feature cannot be used with the following:
 BBS Space Diversity
 BBS Frequency Diversity
 2+0 Multi-Radio with IDU and Line Protection
Related topics:
 ACM with Adaptive Transmit Power
 ACM for TDM Services
 Quality of Service (Traffic Manager)
 Cross Polarization Interface Canceller (XPIC
 1+1 HSB Protection
 Radio Traffic Priority
FibeAir IP-10G employs full-range dynamic ACM. IP-10G’s ACM mechanism
copes with 90 dB per second fading in order to ensure high transmission
quality. IP-10G’s ACM mechanism is designed to work with IP-10G’s QoS
mechanism to ensure that high priority voice and data packets are never
dropped, thus maintaining even the most stringent service level agreements
(SLAs).
The hitless and errorless functionality of IP-10G’s ACM has another major
advantage in that it ensures that TCP/IP sessions do not time-out. Without
ACM, even interruptions as short as 50 milliseconds can lead to timeout of
TCP/IP sessions, which are followed by a drastic throughout decrease while
these sessions recover.
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6.4.1.1 Eight Working Points
IP-10G implements ACM with eight available working points, as follows:
ACM Working Points (Profiles)
Working Point (Profile) Modulation
Profile 0 QPSK
Profile 1 8 PSK
Profile 2 16 QAM
Profile 3 32 QAM
Profile 4 64 QAM
Profile 5 128 QAM
Profile 6 256 QAM – Strong FEC
Profile 7 256 QAM – Light FEC
Adaptive Coding and Modulation with Eight Working Points

6.4.1.2 Hitless and Errorless Step-by Step Adjustments
ACM works as follows. Assuming a system configured for 128 QAM with ~170
Mbps capacity over a 28 MHz channel, when the receive signal Bit Error Ratio
(BER) level reaches a predetermined threshold, the system preemptively
switches to 64 QAM and the throughput is stepped down to ~140 Mbps. This
is an errorless, virtually instantaneous switch. The system continues to
operate at 64 QAM until the fading condition either intensifies or disappears.
If the fade intensifies, another switch takes the system down to 32 QAM. If, on
the other hand, the weather condition improves, the modulation is switched
back to the next higher step (e.g., 128 QAM) and so on, step by step .The
switching continues automatically and as quickly as needed, and can reach all
the way down to QPSK during extreme conditions.
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Adaptive Coding and Modulation

6.4.1.3 ACM Radio Scripts
An ACM radio script is constructed of a set of profiles. Each profile is defined
by a modulation order (QAM) and coding rate, and defines the profile’s
capacity (bps). When an ACM script is activated, the system automatically
chooses which profile to use according to the channel fading conditions.
The ACM TX profile can be different from the ACM RX profile.
The ACM TX profile is determined by remote RX MSE performance. The RX
end is the one that initiates an ACM profile upgrade or downgrade. When MSE
improves above a predefined threshold, RX generates a request to the remote
TX to upgrade its profile. If MSE degrades below a predefined threshold, RX
generates a request to the remote TX to downgrade its profile.
ACM profiles are decreased or increased in an errorless operation, without
affecting E1s or Ethernet traffic.
ACM scripts can be activated in one of two modes:
 Fixed Mode. In this mode, the user can select the specific profile from all
available profiles in the script. The selected profile is the only profile that
will be valid, and the ACM engine will be forced to be OFF. This mode can
be chosen without an ACM license.
 Adaptive Mode. In this mode, the ACM engine is running, which means
that the radio adapts its profile according to the channel fading conditions.
Adaptive mode requires an ACM license.
In the case of XPIC/ACM scripts, all the required conditions for XPIC apply.
6.4.1.4 Configurable Maximum and Minimum ACM Profile
The user can define both a maximum and a minimum profile. For example, if
the user selects a maximum profile of 5, the system will not climb above the
profile 5, even if channel fading conditions allow it. If the user selects a
minimum profile of 3 (32 QAM), the system will not climb below 32 QAM. If
the channel’s SNR degrades below the 32 QAM threshold, the radio will lose
carrier synchronization, and will report loss of frame.
Note: In software versions older than i6.8, the minimum profile
cannot be defined by the user, and will always be 0 (QPSK)
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6.4.1.5 ACM Benefits
The advantages of IP-10G’s dynamic ACM include:
 Maximized spectrum usage
 Increased capacity over a given bandwidth
 Eight modulation/coding work points (~3 db system gain for each point
change)
 Supports both Ethernet and TDM traffic
 Hitless and errorless modulation/coding changes, based on signal quality
 Adaptive Radio Tx Power per modulation for maximal system gain per
working point
 Configurable drop priority between TDM traffic and Ethernet traffic
 An integrated QoS mechanism that enables intelligent congestion
management to ensure that high priority traffic is not affected during link
fading
 Each E1 channel is assigned a priority to enable differentiated E1 dropping
during severe link degradation
6.4.1.6 ACM and Built-In QoS
IP-10G’s ACM mechanism is designed to work with IP-10G’s QoS mechanism
to ensure that high priority voice and data packets are never dropped, thus
maintaining even the most stringent SLAs. Since QoS provides priority support
for different classes of service, according to a wide range of criteria, you can
configure IP-10G to discard only low priority packets as conditions
deteriorate.
If you want to rely on an external switch’s QoS, ACM can work with them via
the flow control mechanism supported in the radio.
6.4.1.7 ACM and 1+1 HSB
When ACM is activated together with 1+1 HSB protection, it is essential to
feed the active IDU via the main channel of the coupler (lossless channel), and
to feed the standby unit via the secondary channel of the coupler (-6db
attenuated channel). This maximizes system gain and optimizes ACM behavior
for the following reasons:
 In the TX direction, the power will experience minimal attenuation.
 In the RX direction, the received signal will be minimally attenuated. Thus,
the receiver will be able to lock on a higher ACM profile (according to what
is dictated by the RF channel conditions).
If the standby IDU is fed via the main channel of the coupler, when the remote
unit transmits in QPSK modulation (profile-0), there is a chance that the active
unit will have its LOF alarm raised, because its RSL will be 6db below the RSL
of the standby unit, while the standby unit will have its LOF alarm cleared. In
this scenario, a protection switch is not initiated, even though the active IDU is
in LOF, and the standby IDU appears to be functioning normally.
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When activating an ACM script together with 1+1 HSB protection, if an LOF
alarm is raised, both the active and the standby receivers degrade to the
lowest available profile (highest RX sensitivity). Because RX sensitivity is very
high, the receivers may have false lock, which will result in a switchover. If the
LOF alarm remains, protection switchovers may appear alternately every one
second. This may cause management instability and may even prevent
management access to the units completely.
In order to avoid this scenario, it is important to carefully follow the
instructions for setting up 1+1 HSB protection. In particular, make sure that
the link is established with lockout configuration in order to avoid alternate
switchovers. Once the link is up and running, lockout can be disabled.
The following ACM behavior should be expected in a 1+1 configuration:
 In the TX direction, the Active TX will follow the remote Active RX ACM
requests (according to the remote Active Rx MSE performance).
 The Standby TX might have the same profile as the Active TX, or might stay
at the lowest profile (profile-0). That depends on whether the Standby TX
was able to follow the remote RX Active unit’s ACM requests (only the
active remote RX sends ACM request messages).
 In the RX direction, both the active and the standby units follow the
remote Active TX profile (which is the only active transmitter).
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6.4.2 ACM with Adaptive Transmit Power
This feature requires:
 ACM script
 ACM enabled prior to enabling ACM with Adaptive Transmit Power
 RFU-C with software version 2.01 or higher
When planning ACM-based radio links, the radio planner attempts to apply the
lowest transmit power that will perform satisfactorily at the highest level of
modulation. During fade conditions requiring a modulation drop, most radio
systems cannot increase transmit power to compensate for the signal
degradation, resulting in a deeper reduction in capacity. IP-10G is capable of
adjusting power on the fly, and optimizing the available capacity at every
modulation point, as illustrated in the figure below. This figure shows how
operators that want to use ACM to benefit from high levels of modulation (e.g.,
256 QAM) must settle for low system gain, in this case, 18 dB, for all the other
modulations as well. With FibeAir IP-10G, operators can automatically adjust
power levels, achieving the extra 4 dB system gain that is required to maintain
optimal throughput levels under all conditions.
The following figure contrasts the transmit output power achieved by using
ACM with Adaptive Power to the transmit output power at a fixed power level,
over an 18-23 GHz link.
IP-10G ACM with Adaptive Power Contrasted to Other ACM Implementations

For this feature to be used effectively, it is essential for the operator not to
breach any regulator-imposed EIRP limitations. For example, if used, the
operator must license the system for the maximum possible EIRP.
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The Adaptive Transmit Power feature, together with ACM, can work in one out
of two scenarios:
 Increase capacity (increase throughput of existing link) – With the option
to use Adaptive TX Power.
 Increase availability (new link) – Adaptive TX Power is not applicable.
The first scenario is for operators that have existing PDH links with several
links in a low class (modulation order), and want to use ACM to carry the same
PDH circuits with additional Ethernet traffic without occupying more
spectrum bandwidth.
The second scenario is for operators who plan a new link for a specific
availability and capacity, but want to take advantage of the ACM capability to
achieve lower capacity even in higher fades.
In the first scenario the operator must plan the link according to a “low class”
channel mask. When radio path conditions allow, the link will increase the
modulation. This modulation increase may require lowering the output power
(see figure below), in order to decrease the non-linearity of the transmitter for
the higher constellations and in order for the transmitted spectrum to stay
within the licensed “low class” channel mask. The following figure
demonstrates the differences between a “low class” mask (e.g., class 2) and a
“high class” mask (e.g., class 5).
Channel Mask Comparison

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6.4.3 Radio Traffic Priority
Related topics:
 Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM)
 Quality of Service (Traffic Manager)
Since radio bandwidth may vary in ACM, situations may arise in which it is
necessary to drop some of the outgoing traffic. The system dynamically
allocates bandwidth to traffic according to user-defined priorities.
At the radio level, the system can discern between the following types of
traffic:
 High-priority Ethernet traffic
 Low-priority Ethernet traffic
 High-priority TDM trails
 Low-priority TDM trails
Users can configure the following parameters:
 The amount (in Mbps) of high priority Ethernet Bandwidth
 For each TDM trail, whether it is high or low priority
 The priority order between the different types of traffic. the following
schemes are available (from high to low priority):
High-TDM-over-high-Ethernet, meaning:
1. TDM high priority
2. Ethernet high priority
3. TDM low priority
4. Ethernet low priority
High-Ethernet-over-TDM, meaning:
1. Ethernet high priority
2. TDM high priority
3. TDM low priority
4. Ethernet low priority
TDM-over-Ethernet (default), meaning:
1. TDM high priority
2. TDM low priority
3. Ethernet
For this mechanism to work properly, both sides of the link should be
identically configured:
 Each TDM trail on both sides of a link should be assigned the same
priority.
 Both sides of the link should have the same amount of high priority
Ethernet bandwidth.
 Both sides of the link should use the same priority scheme.
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6.4.4 Cross Polarization Interface Canceller (XPIC)
This feature requires:
 2+0 or 2+2 configuration
 Nodal configuration
XPIC is one of the best ways to break the barriers of spectral efficiency. Using
dual-polarization radio over a single-frequency channel, a dual polarization
radio transmits two separate carrier waves over the same frequency, but
using alternating polarities. Despite the obvious advantages of dual-
polarization, one must also keep in mind that typical antennas cannot
completely isolate the two polarizations. In addition, propagation effects such
as rain can cause polarization rotation, making cross-polarization interference
unavoidable.
Dual Polarization

The relative level of interference is referred to as cross-polarization
discrimination (XPD). While lower spectral efficiency systems (with low SNR
requirements such as QPSK) can easily tolerate such interference, higher
modulation schemes cannot and require XPIC. IP-10G’s XPIC algorithm
enables detection of both streams even under the worst levels of XPD such as
10 dB. IP-10G accomplishes this by adaptively subtracting from each carrier
the interfering cross carrier, at the right phase and level. For high-modulation
schemes such as 256 QAM, an improvement factor of more than 20 dB is
required so that cross-interference does not adversely affect performance.
In addition, XPIC includes an automatic recovery mechanism that ensures that
if one carrier fails, or a false signal is received, the mate carrier will not be
affected. This mechanism also ensures that when the failure is cleared, both
carriers will be operational.
6.4.4.1 XPIC Benefits
The advantages of FibeAir IP-10G’s XPIC option include:
 BER of 10e-6 at a co-channel sensitivity of 5 dB
 Multi-Radio Support
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6.4.4.2 XPIC Implementation
In a single channel application, when an interfering channel is transmitted on
the same bandwidth as the desired channel, the interference that results may
lead to BER in the desired channel.
IP-10G supports a co-channel sensitivity of 33 dB at a BER of 10e-6. When
applying XPIC, IP-10G transmits data using two polarizations: horizontal and
vertical. These polarizations, in theory, are orthogonal to each other, as shown
in the figure below
XPIC - Orthogonal Polarizations

In a link installation, there is a separation of 30 dB of the antenna between the
polarizations, and due to misalignments and/or channel degradation, the
polarizations are no longer orthogonal. This is shown in the figure below.
XPIC – Impact of Misalignments and Channel Degradation

Note that on the right side of the figure you can see that CarrierR receives the
H+v signal, which is the combination of the desired signal H (horizontal) and
the interfering signal V (in lower case, to denote that it is the interfering
signal). The same happens in CarrierL = “V+h. The XPIC mechanism takes the
data from CarrierR and CarrierL and, using a cost function, produces the
desired data.
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XPIC – Impact of Misalignments and Channel Degradation

IP-10G’s XPIC reaches a BER of 10e-6 at a co-channel sensitivity of 5 dB! The
improvement factor in an XPIC system is defined as the SNR@threshold of
10e-6, with or without the XPIC mechanism.
6.4.4.3 Conditions for XPIC
XPIC is enabled by loading an XPIC script to the radio in the IDU.
In order for XPIC to be operational, all the following conditions must be met:
 Communications with the RFU are established in both IDUs:
An RFU must be connected to each IDU
 The frequency of both radios should be equal.
 1+1 HSB protection must not be enabled.
 The same script must be loaded in both IDUs.
 The IDU cannot be in standalone mode.
If any of these conditions is not met, an alarm will alert the user. In addition,
events will inform the user which conditions are not met.
6.4.4.4 XPIC Recovery Mechanism
The XPIC mechanism is based on signal cancellation and assumes that both of
the transmitted signals are received (with a degree of polarity separation). If
for some reason, such as hardware failure, one of the carriers stops receiving a
signal, the working carrier may be negatively affected by the received signals,
which cannot be canceled in this condition.
The purpose of the XPIC recovery mechanism is to save the working link while
attempting to recover the faulty polarization.
The mechanism works as follows:
 The indication that the recovery mechanism has been activated is a loss of
modem preamble lock, which takes place at SNR~10dB.
 The first action taken by the recovery mechanism is to cause the remote
transmitter of the faulty carrier to mute, thus eliminating the disturbing
signal and saving the working link.
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 Following this, the mechanism attempts at intervals to recover the failed
link. In order to do so, it takes the following actions:
The remote transmitter is un-muted for a brief period.
The recovery mechanism probes the link to find out if it has recovered.
If not, it again mutes the remote transmitter.
This action is repeated in exponentially larger intervals. This is meant
to quickly bring up both channels in case of a brief channel fade,
without seriously affecting the working link if the problem has been
caused by a hardware failure.
The number of recovery attempts is user-configurable
Note: Every such recovery attempt will cause a brief traffic hit in
the working link.
All the time intervals mentioned above (recovery attempt time, initial time
between attempts, multiplication factor for attempt time, number of retries)
can be configured by the user, but it is recommended to use the default values.
The XPIC recovery mechanism is enabled by default, but can be disabled by
the user.
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6.4.5 Multi-Radio
This feature requires:
 2+0 or 2+2 configuration
 Nodal configuration
This feature cannot be used with the following:
 1+1 HSB
 BBS Space Diversity
 BBS Frequency Diversity
Related topics:
 2+0 Multi-Radio and 2+0 Multi-Radio with IDU and Line Protection
 2+2 HSB Protection
 Automatic State Propagation
Multi-Radio enables two separate radio carriers to be shared by a single
Ethernet port. This provides an Ethernet link over the radio with double
capacity, while still behaving as a single Ethernet interface. The IDUs in a
Multi-Radio setup operate in master and slave mode.
In Multi-Radio mode, traffic is divided among the two carriers optimally at the
radio frame level without requiring Ethernet Link Aggregation, and is not
dependent on the number of MAC addresses, the number of traffic flows, or
momentary traffic capacity. During fading events which cause ACM
modulation changes, each carrier fluctuates independently with hitless
switchovers between modulations, increasing capacity over a given
bandwidth and maximizing spectrum utilization.
The result is 100% utilization of radio resources in which traffic load is
balanced based on instantaneous radio capacity per carrier and is
independent of data/application characteristics, such as the number of flows
or capacity per flow.
Typical 2+0 Multi-Radio Link Configuration

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Typical 2+2 Multi-Radio Terminal Configuration with HSB Protection

6.4.5.1 Multi-Radio and 2+2 HSB
Multi-Radio can be used in a 2+2 configuration. As in any 2+2 configuration,
this provides full protection for both Ethernet and TDM traffic.
6.4.5.2 Multi-Radio Basic Operation
Multi-radio is available for adjacent pairs of IDUs in a nodal enclosure (slots 1
and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6). The lower IDU in the enclosure is always the master,
and the upper IDU is always the slave.
In regular 1+0 operation, the radio link of each IDU is represented as Eth8. In
Multi-Radio mode, the radio port of the master IDU uses the available
bandwidth of both radio channels, while the slave IDU does not have any
direct Ethernet connection to its own radio. In other words, the slave IDU does
not have an Eth8 interface since the radio resource is being used by the
master IDU.
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The following diagram illustrates the Multi-Radio traffic flow:
MODEM
MODEM
LVDS
Traffic splitter
Eth &
LVDS
MODEM
Duplication
MODEM
Traffic
combiner
LVDS
Eth
LVDS
LVDS
Eth 8
x
Eth 8
Master
Slave
x

At the transmitting side, outgoing traffic at Eth8 in the master IDU is split
between its own radio and that of the slave. Each radio transmits its share of
the data.
At the receiving side, the slave sends the data it receives to the master, which
combines it with the data received from its own radio link, recovering all the
data.
Data is distributed between the two links at the Layer 1 level in an optimal
way. Therefore, the distribution is not dependent on the contents of the
Ethernet frames.
In addition, the distribution is proportional to the available bandwidth in
every link:
 If both links have the same capacity, half the data will be sent through each
link.
 In ACM conditions, the links could be in different modulations; in this case,
data will be distributed proportionally in order to maximize the available
bandwidth.
 Links can also have different capacities because of different numbers of TDM
trails configured through the link; as before, Multi-Radio makes maximum use
of available capacity by distributing proportionally to the available
bandwidth.
Note: The Multi-Radio feature is applicable for Ethernet data only.
For TDM, each link remains separate, and users can configure
trails to either radio (or both, by using SNCP or ABR).
In order for Multi-Radio to work properly, the two radio links should use the
same radio script. Note that in the case of ACM, the links may use different
modulations, but the same base script must still be configured in both links.
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6.4.5.3 Graceful Degradation of Service
2+0 Multi-Radio provides for protection and graceful degradation of service in
the event of failure of an RFU or the slave IDU. This ensures that if one link is
lost, not all data is lost. Instead, bandwidth is simply reduced until the link
returns to service.
Graceful degradation in Multi-Radio is achieved by blocking one of the radio
links from Multi-Radio data. When a link is blocked, the transmitter does not
distribute data to this link and the receiver ignores it when combining.
The blocking is implemented independently in each direction, but TX and RX
always block a link in a coordinated manner.
The following are the criteria for blocking a link:
 Radio LOF
 Link ID mismatch
 Minimum ACM point – user configurable (including none)
 Radio Excessive BER – user configurable
 Radio Signal degrade – user configurable
 User command – used to debug a link
When a radio link is blocked, an alarm is displayed to users.
6.4.6 Automatic State Propagation in Multi-Radio
Automatic State Propagation (ASP) is used in 1+0 links to quickly close line
links in the case of a radio link failure in order to signal the fault to xSTP and
other protocols.
In the case of Multi-Radio, however, the failure of a single link does not
necessarily mean that the entire logical link is down. Therefore, the user can
configure whether ASP will be initiated upon a single radio failure or only
upon a failure of both radios.
The line LOS criterion for closing the local line port operates normally in
Multi-Radio, since the radio link is not involved. Note that the criterion is
applicable for the main unit’s line interfaces only.
The user-defined ASP parameters can be configured separately for Multi-
Radio.
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6.4.7 Diversity
This section includes:
 Diversity Overview
 IP-10G Diversity Options
 Baseband Switching (BBS) Frequency Diversity
 Baseband Switching (BBS) Space Diversity
 IF Combining (IFC)
 Diversity Type Comparison
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6.4.7.1 Diversity Overview
In long distance wireless links, multipath phenomena are common. Both direct
and reflected signals are received, which can cause distortion of the signal
resulting in signal fade. The impact of this distortion can vary over time, space,
and frequency. This fading phenomenon depends mainly on the link geometry
and is more severe at long distance links and over flat surfaces or water. It is
also affected by air turbulence and water vapor, and can vary quickly during
temperature changes due to rapid changes in the reflections phase.
Fading can be flat or dispersive. In flat fading, all frequency components of the
signal experience the same magnitude of fading. In dispersive, or frequency
selective fading, different frequency components of the signal experience
decorrelated fading.
Direct and Reflected Signals

Space Diversity and Frequency Diversity are common ways to negate the
effects of fading caused by multipath phenomena.
Space Diversity is implemented by placing two separate antennas at a distance
from one another that makes it statistically likely that if one antenna suffers
from fading caused by signal reflection, the other antenna will continue to
receive a viable signal.
Frequency Diversity is implemented by configuring two RFUs to separate
frequencies. The IDU selects and transmits the better signal.
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6.4.7.2 IP-10G Diversity Options
Related topics:
 Multi-Unit LAG
IP-10G offers Frequency Diversity and two methods of Space Diversity:
 Baseband Switching (BBS) Frequency and Space Diversity – Each IDU
receives a separate signal from a separate antenna. Each IDU compares
each of the received signals, and enables the bitstream coming from the
receiver with the best signal. Switchover is errorless (“hitless switching”).
 IF Combining (IFC) Space Diversity – Signals from two separate
antennas are combined in phase with each other to maximize the signal to
noise ratio. IF Combining is performed in the RFU.
Diversity Signal Flow

Note: Frequency and Space Diversity configurations offer the
option of Ethernet line protection using Multi-Unit LAG.
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6.4.7.3 Baseband Switching (BBS) Frequency Diversity
This feature requires:
 Two antennas
 Two RFUs
 1+1 HSB configuration
 Nodal configuration
This feature cannot be used with the following:
 ACM
 Multi-Radio
 2+0 Multi-Radio with IDU and Line Protection
BBS frequency diversity requires two antennas and RFUs. Each RFU in a
frequency diversity node is configured to a different frequency. Any RFU type
supported by IP-10G can be used in a BBS Frequency Diversity configuration.
Both the active and the standby RFUs transmit simultaneously. One RFU sends
its signal to the active IDU, while the other RFU sends its signal to the standby
IDU. The IDUs share these signals through the nodal backplane, such that each
IDU receives data from both RFUs. The diversity mechanism, which is located
within the IDU Mux, is active in both IDUs, and selects the better signal based
on:
 Faulty signal indication – An indication from the Modem to the Mux,
signaling that there are more errors in the traffic stream than it can
correct. The purpose of this indication is to alert the Mux to the fact that
those errors are on their way, requiring a hitless switchover in order to
prevent them from entering the data stream from the Mux onward.
 OOF (Out-of-Frame) – When the Mux identifies an OOF event, it will
initiate a switchover.
BBS Frequency Diversity requires a 1+1 configuration in which there are two
IDUs and two RFUs protecting each other at both ends of the link. In the event
of IDU failure, Frequency Diversity is lost until recovery, but the system
remains protected through the ordinary switchover mechanism.
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6.4.7.4 Baseband Switching (BBS) Space Diversity
This feature requires:
 Two antennas
 Two RFUs
 1+1 HSB configuration
 Nodal configuration
This feature cannot be used with the following:
 ACM
 Multi-Radio
 2+0 Multi-Radio with IDU and Line Protection
BBS Space Diversity requires two antennas and RFUs. The antennas must be
separated by approximately 15 to 20 meters. Any RFU type supported by IP-
10G can be used in a BBS Space Diversity configuration.
One RFU sends its signal to the active IDU, while the other RFU sends its signal
to the standby IDU. The IDUs share these signals through the nodal backplane,
such that each IDU receives data from both RFUs. The diversity mechanism,
which is located within the IDU Mux, is active in both IDUs, and selects the
better signal based on:
 Faulty signal indication – An indication from the Modem to the Mux,
signaling that there are more errors in the traffic stream than it can
correct. The purpose of this indication is to alert the Mux to the fact that
those errors are on their way, requiring a hitless switchover in order to
prevent them from entering the data stream from the Mux onward.
 OOF (Out-of-Frame) – When the Mux identifies an OOF event, it will
initiate a switchover.
BBS Space Diversity requires a 1+1 configuration in which there are two IDUs
and two RFUs protecting each other at both ends of the link. In the event of
IDU failure, Space Diversity is lost until recovery, but the system remains
protected through the ordinary switchover mechanism.
6.4.7.5 IF Combining (IFC)
This feature requires:
 Dual-receiver RFU (FibeAir 1500HP)
The RFU receives and processes both signals, and combines them into a single,
optimized signal. The IFC mechanism gains up to 2.5 dB in system gain.
Note: 1500 HP (11 GHz) 40 MHz bandwidth does not support IF
Combining. For this frequency, space diversity is only
available via BBS.
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6.4.7.6 Diversity Type Comparison
The following table shows the relative benefits and limitations of IFC Space
Diversity, BBS Space Diversity, and BBS Frequency Diversity.
BBS and IFC Comparison
IFC BBS Space Diversity BBS Frequency Diversity
RFU Support 1500HP (split mount or all indoor)
9
All Ceragon RFUs All Ceragon RFUs
Gain Hitless and Errorless – Gaining up to
2.5 dB in system gain.
Hitless and Errorless – Does
not add to system gain, but is
more reliable with sporadic
errors.
Hitless and Errorless – Does not
add to system gain, but is more
reliable with sporadic errors.
Limitations Symbol rate-dependant. Cannot be used with ACM or
Multi-Radio.
Cannot be used with ACM or
Multi-Radio.
Configurations  1+0
 1+1
 2+2
 N+0
 N+1
1+1 1+1



9
1500 HP (11 GHz ) 40 MHz bandwidth does not support IF Combining. For this frequency,
space diversity is only available via BBS.
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6.4.8 ATPC Override Timer
ATPC is a closed-loop mechanism by which each RFU changes the transmitted
signal power according to the indication received across the link, in order to
achieve a desired RSL on the other side of the link.
Without ATPC, if loss of frame occurs the system automatically increases its
transmit power to the configured maximum. This may cause a higher level of
interference with other systems until the failure is corrected.
In order to minimize this interference, some regulators require a timer
mechanism which will be manually overridden when the failure is fixed. The
underlying principle is that the system should start a timer from the moment
maximum power has been reached. If the timer expires, ATPC is overridden
and the system transmits at a pre-determined power level until the user
manually re-establishes ATPC and the system works normally again.
The user can configure the following parameters:
 Override timeout (0 to disable the feature): The amount of time the timer
counts from the moment the system transmits at the maximum configured
power.
 Override transmission power: The power that will be transmitted if
ATPC is overridden because of timeout.
The user can also display the current countdown value.
When the system enters into the override state, ATPC is automatically
disabled and the system transmits at the pre-determined override power. An
alarm is raised in this situation.
The only way to go back to normal operation is to manually cancel the
override. When doing so, users should be sure that the problem has been
corrected; otherwise, ATPC may be overridden again.
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6.4.9 Disabling the Radio
In certain applications, users require extra line interfaces but have no need for
additional radio carriers. IP-10G IDUs can be added to a node to provide extra
switching or line ports. In this scenario, the radio interface can be overridden
in order to eliminate alarms and other indications.
The following are two typical applications in which radio disabling is used:
 64 x E1 to East/West radio, or 32 x E1 line and XC protected to East/West
radio.
 64x E1 into radio with full protection (1+1).
16xE1
16xE1
16xE1
16xE1
Radio
Enable
Radio
Enable
Radio
Disable
Radio
Disable
West
East
16xE1
16xE1
16xE1
16xE1
Radio
Enable
(Active)
Protection 1+1
Radio
Enable
(Stby)
Radio
Disable
(Active)
Radio
Disable
(Stby)
16xE1
16xE1
16xE1
16xE1
16xE1 spiltter
16xE1 spiltter
16xE1 spiltter
16xE1 spiltter
64xE1/T1 to Radio
with Protection (1+1)
64xE1/T1 to E-W
or
32xE1/T1 interface & XC
protection to E-W

6.4.9.1 Radio Disable Configuration
The radio interface can be disabled just like any other interface. This change
requires a system reset. However, the reset is not performed automatically but
can be carried out at the user’s discretion. This enables the user to save time
by performing another operation requiring reset (such as an Ethernet
application change or loading a license) before resetting the system, and
performing a single reset for both operations.
In some cases, disabling the radio interface will affect other interfaces:
 A radio interface belonging to an Ethernet LAG group cannot be disabled.
The user is prompted to remove the Radio port from the LAG first.
 A radio interface that has been disabled but is still operating pending a
reset cannot be added to a LAG group.
 If the radio interface is associated with any of the following, a warning is
displayed, but disabling is allowed after user confirmation:
MEP or MIP
Ingress rate limit policer
Egress rate shaper
Non-edge port in xSTP
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6.4.10 Behavior in Radio Disable Conditions
When the radio interface is disabled (after reset), the following features are
not available. However, previous configuration of these features is retained
and re-applied if the radio is re-enabled.
 Radio configuration
 RFU configuration (e.g., frequencies, power level, mute)
 Thresholds
 Compression
 Script loading
 XPIC
 RF and IF loopbacks
 Remote unit configuration
 Radio PMs
 Radio aggregate (ES, SES, etc.)
 Signal level (RSL, TSL)
 MRMC
 Radio – TDM
 Radio – Ethernet (Frame Error rate, Throughput, Capacity, Utilization)
 MSE
 Traffic channels
 Wayside channel
 EOW
 User channel
 Alarms
 Radio Loss of Frame
 Radio Signal Degrade
 Radio Excessive BER
 RFU communication failure.
 Cable open
 Cable short
 Link ID mismatch
 Remote communication error
 IF loopback
 IF synthesizer unlock
 RX AGC is not locked.
 No Signal from RFU.
 All auxiliary channels alarms (WSC, UC, EOW).
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6.5 Ethernet Features
This section includes:
 Ethernet Switching
 Ethernet Services
 Network Resiliency
 Automatic State Propagation
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6.5.1 Ethernet Switching
Related topics:
 Quality of Service (Traffic Manager)
 Licensing
IP-10G supports three modes for Ethernet switching:
 Smart Pipe – Ethernet switching functionality is disabled and only a single
Ethernet interface is enabled for user traffic. The unit effectively operates
as a point-to-point Ethernet microwave radio.
 Managed Switch – Ethernet switching functionality is enabled based on
VLANs.
 Metro Switch – Ethernet switching functionality is enabled based on an
S-VLAN-aware bridge.
Ethernet Switching

Each switching mode supports QoS. Smart Pipe is the default mode. Managed
Switch and Metro Switch require a license.
6.5.1.1 Smart Pipe Mode
Using Smart Pipe mode, only a single Ethernet interface is enabled for user
traffic and IP-10G acts as a point-to-point Ethernet microwave radio. In Smart
Pipe mode, any of the following ports can be used for Ethernet traffic:
 Eth1: GbE interface (Optical GbE-SFP or Electrical GbE – 10/100/1000)
 Eth3: Fast Ethernet interface
All traffic entering the IDU is sent directly to the radio, and all traffic from the
radio is sent directly to the Ethernet interface.
In Smart Pipe mode, the other Fast Ethernet interfaces can either be
configured as management interfaces or they are shut down. In protection
mode, only the Optical GbE-SFP port acts as a trigger for switchover.
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6.5.1.2 Managed Switch Mode
This feature requires:
 L2 Switch License
Managed Switch mode is an 802.1Q VLAN-aware bridge that enables Layer 2
switching based on VLANs. Each Ethernet port can be configured as an Access
port or a Trunk port.
Managed Switch Mode
Type VLANs Allowed Ingress Frames Allowed Egress Frames
Access A default VLAN should be
attached to access port.
Only Untagged frames (or Tagged
with VID=0 – "Priority Tagged").
Untagged frames.
Trunk A range of VLANs, or "all"
VLANs should be attached to
trunk port
Only Tagged frames. Tagged frames.
Hybrid A range of VLANs, or all VLANs
should be attached to trunk
port.
A default VLAN should be
attached to access port.
Tagged and untagged frames. Tagged and untagged
frames.
All Ethernet ports are enabled for traffic in Managed Switch mode. The aging
time used by the MAC learning table can be configured in Managed Switch
mode.
The following table lists VLANs that are reserved for internal use in Managed
Switch mode.
VLANs Reserved for Internal Use in Managed Switch Mode
VLAN Description Remark
0 Frames with VLAN=0 are considered untagged. This VLAN
is used in order to prioritize untagged traffic
-
1 Default VLAN. This VLAN is always defined in the
database, and all trunk ports are members of this VLAN.
VLAN 1 cannot be deleted from the database and not from
Trunk port membership.
-
4091 Cannot be used for In-Band management. Traffic frames
carrying this VLAN are not allowed in Single Pipe mode.
-
4092 Internal VLANs.
Single Pipe: Frames carrying these VLANs are not
allowed.
Managed Switch: "Access" traffic ports cannot be
associated with any of these default VLANs.
Used for protection internal
communication.
4093 Used for Wayside.
4094 Used for internal management.
4095 - Not defined.
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6.5.1.3 Metro Switch Mode
This feature requires:
 L2 Switch License
Metro Switch mode is an 802.1AD S-VLAN-aware bridge that enables Layer 2
switching based on S-VLANs. Each Ethernet port can be configured to be a
Customer Network port or a Provider network port.
Metro Switch Mode
Type VLANs Allowed Ingress Frames Allowed Egress
Frames
Customer
Network
Specific S-VLAN should be
attached to a Customer Network
port.
Untagged frames (or frames
tagged with VID=0 – “Priority
Tagged”) or C-VLAN-tagged
frames.
Untagged frames (or
frames tagged with
VID=0 – “Priority
Tagged”) or C-VLAN-
tagged frames.
Provider
Network
A range of S-VLANs, or all S-
VLANs should be attached to a
Provider Network port.
S-VLAN- tagged frames. S-VLAN-tagged
frames.
QoS can be used in Metro Switch mode. All Ethernet ports can be used for
traffic.
Users can choose the Ethertype used to recognize the S -VLAN tag. Options
are:
 88A8
 8100
 9100
 9200
The aging time used by the MAC learning table can be configured in Metro
Switch mode.
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6.5.2 Ethernet Services
Related topics:
 Quality of Service (Traffic Manager)
 Standards and Certifications
FibeAir IP-10G is fully MEF-9 and MEF-14 certified for all Carrier Ethernet
services (E-Line and E-LAN).
Carrier Grade Ethernet Feature Summary
Standardized Services Scalability Quality of Service Reliability Service Management
 MEF-9 and MEF-14
certified for all service
types (EPL, EVPL,
and E-LAN)
 Up to 500Mbps per
radio carrier
 Up to 1Gbps per
channel (with XPIC)
 Multi-Radio
 Integrated non-
blocking switch with
4K VLANs
 802.1ad provider
bridges (QinQ)
 Scalable nodal
solution
 Scalable networks
(1000‟s of NEs)
 Advanced CoS
classification
 Advanced traffic
policing/rate-
limiting
 CoS-based packet
queuing/buffering
with 8 queues
support
 Hierarchical
scheduling
schemes
 Traffic shaping
 Tail-drop or WRED
 Color-awareness
(CIR/EIR support)
 Highly reliable and
integrated design
 Fully redundant
1+1/2+2 HSB and
nodal configurations
 Hitless ACM (QPSK –
256QAM) for
enhanced radio link
availability
 RSTP
 Wireless Ethernet
Ring/Mesh support
 802.3ad link
aggregation
 Fast link state
propagation
 <50 ms restoration
time (typical)
 Extensive multi-layer
management
capabilities
 Ethernet service
OA&M – 802.1ag
 Advanced Ethernet
statistics
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6.5.2.1 Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10G
In the following figure, end-to-end connectivity per service is verified using
periodic 802.1ag CCm messages between service end points.
Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10G

6.5.2.2 Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10G - Node Failure
Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10G - Node Failure

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Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10G - Node Failure (continued)

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6.5.2.3 Configuration of End-to-End Connectivity
Ethernet service support enables the configuration of end-to-end connectivity
for Ethernet traffic. This enables the management of Ethernet services via
PolyView, Ceragon’s network management system.
For PolyView to make use of this feature, the IDU network elements must be
using software version I6.7 or above, which provides the required support.
 Each Ethernet traffic port has a service type configuration. This does not
affect the functionality of the traffic, but the correct configuration is
necessary at the element level in order for PolyView to configure the
services.
There are two possible values:
SAP (service access point) – The port is the end-point of one or more
services.
SNP (service network point) – The port is an intermediate port for one
or more services
This parameter is not relevant in Smart Pipe mode.
 Every VLAN may be assigned to a service. Two parameters are added to
each VLAN:
evc-id
Syntax: string
Default: “evcX” where X is the VLAN number
This string must be unique (different string for each VLAN).
evc-description
Syntax: string
Default: “evcX” where X is the VLAN number
 Events are raised and SNMP traps are sent every time a port changes its
STP role or state to any other role or state.
The event will contain the following text:
“STP event - on port: <port>, root id: <root id>, Bridge role: <bridge
role>, Role: <Role>, State: <state>”
 A batch command is available that enables users to configure a range of
continuous VLANs, instead of configuring the VLANs individually.
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6.5.3 Network Resiliency and xSTP
This feature requires:
 Network Resiliency license
Related topics:
 Automatic State Propagation
 Licensing
IP-10G supports the following spanning tree Ethernet resiliency protocols:
 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) (802.1w)
 Carrier Ethernet Wireless Ring-optimized RSTP (proprietary)
Standard RSTP configurations are identical to those for Ring-Optimized RSTP.
The two protocols differ in the following respects:
 Topologies supported
Standard RSTP is meant to work with any mesh topology
Ring-Optimized RSTP is meant for ring topologies only
 Interoperability
Standard RSTP is fully interoperable
Ring-Optimized RSTP is proprietary
 Performance
Standard RSTP converges in up to a few seconds
Ring-Optimized RSTP converges in under 200ms in most cases
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6.5.3.1 Standard RSTP
RSTP ensures a loop-free topology for any bridged LAN. Spanning tree enables
a network design to include spare (redundant) links for automatic backup
paths, with no danger of bridge loops, and without the need for manual
enabling and disabling of the backup links. Bridge loops must be avoided since
they result in network flooding.
In a general topology, there can be more than one loop, and therefore more
than one bridge with ports in a blocking state. For this reason, RSTP defines a
negotiation protocol between each two bridges, and processing of the BPDU
(Bridge Protocol Data Units), before each bridge propagates the information.
This serial processing increases the convergence time.
Standard RSTP is supported in both Managed Switch mode (regular VLANs)
and Metro Switch mode (Provider Bridge). Provider Bridge RSTP is
automatically activated when RSTP is enabled in a Metro Switch bridge.
In addition, Cisco PVST proprietary address is supported.
The following tables describe the behavior of provider bridge RSTP PDUs.
Provider Bridge RSTP PDUs in CN Ports
Spanning Tree type Destination Address Ingress Action
Bridge Group Address 01-80-C2-00-00-00 Add S-Vlan tag and multicast it to
all PN ports
Provider Bridge Group Address 01-80-C2-00-00-08 Discard
CISCO PVST 01-00-0C-CC-CC-CD Add S-Vlan tag and multicast it to
all PN ports
Provider Bridge RSTP PDUs in PN Ports
Spanning Tree type Destination Address Ingress Action
Bridge Group Address 01-80-C2-00-00-00 Add S-Vlan tag and multicast it to
all the ports
Provider Bridge Group Address 01-80-C2-00-00-08 Perform Ring-Optimized RSTP
CISCO PVST 01-00-0C-CC-CC-CD Add S-Vlan tag and multicast it to
all the ports

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6.5.3.2 Carrier Ethernet Wireless Ring-Optimized RSTP
This feature requires:
 Managed Switch or Metro Switch mode
IP-10G’s proprietary RSTP implementation is optimized for Carrier Ethernet
wireless rings. Ring-optimized RSTP enhances the RSTP algorithm for ring
topologies, accelerating the failure propagation relative to ordinary RSTP.
In a ring topology, after the convergence of RSTP, only one port is in a blocking
state. RSTP is enhanced for ring topologies by broadcasting the BPDU in order
to transmit the notification of the failure to all bridges in the ring.
Ring-Optimized RSTP uses the standard RSTP BPDUs: 01-80-C2-00-00-00.
With IP-10G’s ring-optimized RSTP, failure propagation is much faster than
with regular RSTP. Instead of link-by link serial propagation, the failure is
propagated in parallel to all bridges. In this way, the bridges that have ports in
alternate states immediately place them in the forwarding state.
The ring is revertible. When the ring is set up, it is converged according to
RSTP definitions. When a failure appears (e.g., LOF is raised), the ring is
converged. When the failure is removed (e.g., LOF is cleared), the ring reverts
back to its original state, still maintaining service disruption limitations.
RSTP PDUs coming from Edge ports are discarded (and not processed or
broadcasted).
The figure below shows an example of a ring topology using Ring-Optimized
RSTP. In this figure, Switch A is the Root bridge. After the protocol converges,
a port in Switch C becomes the Alternate Port, and blocks all transmitted and
received traffic.
Ring-Optimized RSTP Solution

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6.5.3.3 Ring-Optimized RSTP Limitations
 Ring-Optimized RSTP is not interoperable with other Ring-Optimized
RSTP implementations from third-party vendors.
 Ring-Optimized RSTP is designed to provide improved performance in
ring topologies. For other topologies, the RSTP algorithm will converge but
performance may take several seconds. For this reason, there should be
only two edge ports in every node, and only one loop.
 Ring-Optimized RSTP can be used in Managed Switch and Metro Switch
applications, but not in Smart Pipe applications.
 Ring-Optimized RSTP can be used in a 1+1 protection configuration, but in
some cases, the convergence time may be above one second.
6.5.3.4 Ring-Optimized RSTP Supported Topologies
This section describes the IP-10G node configurations that can be used as part
of a ring topology using Ring-Optimized RSTP.
Node Type A
The node is connected to the ring with one radio interface (e.g., East) and one
line interface (e.g., West). The node contains only one IP-10 IDU.
The Radio interface is directed towards one direction (e.g., East), and one of
the Gigabit interfaces (electrical or optical) is directed towards the second
direction (e.g., West).
The other line interfaces are in Edge mode, which means that they are user
interfaces, and do not belong the ring itself.

Node Type B
Using two IP-10G IDUs, this node is connected to radios in both directions of
the ring (East and West). Each IDU supports the radio in one direction.
In this topology, Ring-Optimized RSTP is enabled in one IDU. The other IDU
operates in Smart Pipe mode.
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The IDUs are connected to each other using one of their Gigabit interfaces
(either optical or electrical). Other line interfaces are in Edge mode.

6.5.3.5 Ring-Optimized RSTP Performance
The following events will initiate convergence:
 Radio LOF
 Link ID mismatch
 Radio Excessive BER (optional)
 ACM profile is below a pre-determined threshold (optional)
 Line LOC
 Node cold reset (“Pipe” and/or “Switch”).
 Node power down (“Pipe” and/or “Switch”).
 xSTP port Disable/Shutdown
Notes: Ring port (non-edge port) shutdown will initiate
convergence, but since this is a user configuration, it is not
considered a failure, and is not propagated. When the user
issues a port shutdown, fast convergence should not be
expected.
The ring is converged in order to cope with physical layer
failures. Any other failure that might disrupt data, such as
interface configuration that excludes necessary VLANs will
not be taken care of by Ring-Optimized RSTP.
The ring shall NOT converge optimally upon path cost
configuration, since such a configuration might force the
ring to converge into a different steady state. The ring
acquires its steady state in a non optimal time, similar to
standard RSTP.
Convergence performance is as follows:
 Up to 4 nodes < 150 ms
 Up to 8 nodes < 200 ms
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Exceptions:
 10% of convergence scenarios might take 600 ms.
 Excessive BER convergence might end within 600 ms.
 HW (cold reset) resets, convergence might end within 400-600 ms.
 Radio TX mute/ un-mute convergence takes, in 5-10% of cases,
500 - 1000 ms.
6.5.3.6 Ring-Optimized RSTP Management
You can use either In-Band or Out-of-Band management in a node using RSTP.
The advantages of In-Band management are that management is protected by
RSTP along with other data traffic, and an additional interface in each node is
left free for traffic.
In-Band Management
In-band management is part of the data traffic. RSTP therefore protects
management traffic along with the other network traffic when the ring is re-
converged as a result of a ring failure.
When In-Band management is used, IDUs set to Managed Switch are
configured to In-Band, while IDUs set to Smart Pipe mode are configured to
Out-of-Band. IDUs using Smart Pipe mode are connected to their mates, which
are using Managed Switch mode, via an external Ethernet cable for
management. This is because an IDU in Smart Pipe mode shuts down its
Gigabit traffic port in the event of failure, which would prevent management
traffic from reaching the IDU.
Note: If the IDU in Managed Switch mode loses power, its mate in
Smart Pipe mode will lose management access. As a result,
the entire node will lose management access. However, if
the IDU in Smart Pipe mode loses power, its mate in
Managed Switch mode will retain management access.
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The following figure illustrates a ring with four nodes using In-Band
management.
Resilient In-Band Ring Management

Out-of-Band Management
Out-of-band management uses the Wayside Channel (WSC) for management
access to the IDUs in the network. An external switch using some form of STP
should be used in order to obtain resilient management access and resolve
management loops.
When Out-of-Band management is used, all IDUs must be configured to:
 Out-of-Band
 WSC Enabled
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The following figure illustrates a ring with four nodes using Out-of-Band
management.
Resilient Out-of-Band Ring Management

6.5.3.7 Basic IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring Topology Examples
The following figure provides a basic example of an IP-10G wireless Carrier
Ethernet ring.
Basic IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring

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IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring with Dual-Homing
The following figure shows a redundant site connected to a fiber aggregation
network.
IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring with Dual-Homing

IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring - 1+0
IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring - 1+0

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IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring - Aggregation Site
IP-10G Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring - Aggregation Site

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6.5.4 Automatic State Propagation
Related topics:
 Multi-Radio
 Ethernet Switching
 Network Resiliency
Automatic State Propagation ("GigE Tx mute override") enables propagation
of radio failures back to the line, to improve the recovery performance of
resiliency protocols (such as xSTP). The feature enables the user to configure
which criteria will force the GbE port (or ports in case of a remote fault) to be
muted or shutdown, in order to allow the network to find alternative paths.
In Single Pipe mode, upon radio failure Eth1 is muted when configured as
optical or shut down when configured as electrical. In Managed Switch or
Metro Switch mode, the radio interface (Eth8) is forced to be disabled (Eth8
cannot be muted, but only disabled in both directions).
In 2+0 Multi-Radio mode, Automatic State Propagation can be triggered upon
a failure in a single IDU or upon a failure in both IDUs. This behavior is
determined by user configuration.

User Configuration Optical (SFP) GbE port
functionality - Single Pipe mode
Electrical GbE port
(10/100/1000)
functionality - Single
Pipe mode
Radio Port functionality
– ‘Managed/Metro
Switch mode
Automatic State Propagation
disabled.
No mute is issued. No shutdown.
Local LOF, Link-ID mismatch
(always enabled)
Mute the LOCAL port when one or
more of the following events occurs:
1. Radio-LOF on the LOCAL unit.
2. Link ID mismatch on the LOCAL
unit.
Shut down the LOCAL port when one or more of the
following events occurs:
1. Radio-LOF on the LOCAL unit.
2. Link ID mismatch on the LOCAL unit.
Ethernet shutdown threshold
profile.
Mute the LOCAL port when ACM Rx
profile degrades below a pre-
configured profile on the LOCAL unit
Shut down the LOCAL port when ACM Rx profile degrades
below a pre-configured profile on the LOCAL unit.
This capability is applicable only when ACM is enabled.
Local Excessive BER Mute the LOCAL port when an
Excessive BER alarm is raised on the
LOCAL unit
Shut down the LOCAL port when an Excessive BER alarm
is raised on the LOCAL unit
Local LOC Mute the LOCAL port when a GbE-
LOC alarm is raised on the LOCAL
unit.
No shutdown.
Note1: Electrical-GbE
cannot be muted. Electrical-
GbE LOC will not trigger
Shutdown, because it will not
be possible to enable the
port when the LOC alarm is
cleared
N/A
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User Configuration Optical (SFP) GbE port
functionality - Single Pipe mode
Electrical GbE port
(10/100/1000)
functionality - Single
Pipe mode
Radio Port functionality
– ‘Managed/Metro
Switch mode
Remote Fault Mute the LOCAL port when one or
more of the following events is raised
on the REMOTE unit:
1. Radio-LOF (on remote).
2. Link-ID mismatch (on remote).
3. GbE-LOC alarm is raised (on
remote).
4. ACM Rx profile crossing threshold
(on remote), only if enabled on the
LOCAL.
5. „Excessive BER‟ (on remote), only
if enabled on the LOCAL.
Shut down the LOCAL port,
when one or more of the
following events is raised on
the REMOTE unit:
1. Radio-LOF (on remote).
2. Link-ID mismatch (on
remote).
3. ACM Rx profile crossing
threshold (on remote), only
if enabled on the LOCAL.
4. „Excessive BER‟ (on
remote), only if enabled on
the LOCAL.
Note1: Electrical-GbE
cannot be muted. Electrical-
GbE LOC will not trigger
"Shut-down", because it will
not be possible to enable the
port when LOC alarm is
cleared
Shut down the LOCAL port,
when one or more of the
following events is raised on
the REMOTE unit:
1. Radio-LOF (on remote).
2. Link-ID mismatch (on
remote).
3. ACM Rx profile crossing
threshold (on remote), only
if enabled on the LOCAL.
4. „Excessive BER‟ (on
remote), only if enabled on
the LOCAL.


Notes: It is recommended to configure both ends of the link to the
same Automatic State Propagation configuration.
If the link uses In-Band management, when the port is
muted or shut down, management distributed through the
link might be lost. If this occurs, the unit will not be
manageable. The unit will only become manageable again
when the port is un-muted or enabled.
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6.6 Quality of Service (Traffic Manager)
This section includes:
 Integrated Quality of Service (QoS) Overview
 Standard QoS
 Enhanced QoS
 Standard and Enhanced QoS Comparison
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6.6.1 Integrated Quality of Service (QoS) Overview
Related topics:
 Radio Traffic Priority
 Standard and Enhanced QoS Comparison
IP-10G offers integrated QoS functionality in all switching modes. In addition
to its standard QoS functionality, IP-10G offers an enhanced QoS feature.
Enhanced QoS is license-activated.
IP-10G’s standard QoS provides for four queues and six classification criteria.
Ingress traffic is limited per port, Class of Service (CoS), and traffic type.
Scheduling is performed according to Strict Priority (SP), Weighted Round
Robin (WRR), or Hybrid WRR/SP scheduling.
IP-10G’s enhanced QoS provides eight classification criteria instead of six,
color-awareness, increased frame buffer memory, eight priority queues with
configurable buffer length, improved congestion management using WRED
protocols, enhanced counters, and other enhanced functionality.
The figure below shows the QoS flow of traffic with IP-10G operating in Smart
Pipe mode.
Smart Pipe Mode QoS Traffic Flow

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The figure below shows the QoS flow of traffic with IP-10G operating in
Managed Switch or Metro Switch mode.
Managed Switch and Metro Switch QoS Traffic Flow

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6.6.2 Standard QoS
QoS enables users to configure classification and scheduling to ensure that
packets are forwarded and discarded according to their priority. QoS
configurations are available in all switch applications (Smart Pipe, Managed
Switch, and Metro Switch).
Since it is common to set QoS and rate limiting settings identically in several
ports, the QoS configuration can be copied from one port to another. This
saves considerable time and prevents configuration mistakes.
The following diagram illustrates the QoS flow:
Egress Port #y Ingress Port #x
Classifier
(4 Queues)
5 Policers
(Ingress
Rate
Limiting)
Queue
Controller
Shaper
(Egress rate
limiting)
Marker Scheduler

6.6.2.1 Standard QoS Classifier
Using IP-10G’s standard QoS functionality, the system examines the incoming
traffic and assigns the desired priority according to the marking of the packets
(based on the user port/L2/L3 marking in the packet). In case of congestion in
the ingress port, low priority packets are discarded first.
The standard QoS classifier is made up of four classification criteria
hierarchies:
 MAC DA (Destination Address) Overwrite – Classification and marking
is performed for incoming frames carrying a MAC DA that appears in the
Static MAC table, according to the following options:
Disable – No MAC DA classification or VLAN P-Bit overwrite
(marking).
Queue Decision – Only classification to queue. No marking.
VLAN P-Bit Overwrite – Only VLAN P-Bits overwrite (marking).
Classification according to a lower criterion.
Queue Decision and VLAN P-Bit Overwrite – Both classification and
VLAN P-Bits overwrite.
 VLAN ID Overwrite –If the first criteria is not fulfilled (either because it is
disabled, or because the ingress frame does not carry any MAC DA that
appears in the S MAC table), classification and/or marking (VLAN P-Bit
overwrite, assuming the frame egress is tagged) is decided according to
the VLAN ID to Queue table according to the following options:
Disable – No VLAN ID classification or VLAN P-Bit overwrite
(marking).
Queue Decision – Only classification to queue. No marking.
 VLAN P-Bit Overwrite – Only VLAN P-Bit overwrite (marking).
Classification is according to the lower criteria (P-Bits or port priority). In
this case, P-Bits are assigned as follows (if egress frame is tagged):
Frames classified to 1
st
queue are given p-bits=0
Frames classified to 2
nd
queue are given p-bits=2
Frames classified to 3
rd
queue are given p-bits=4
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Frames classified to 4
th
queue are given p-bits=6
 Queue Decision and VLAN P-Bit Overwrite – Both classification and
VLAN P-Bit overwrite. Initial Classification is according to the following
configuration:
VLAN P-Bit – Classification is according to VLAN P-Bit. And the queue
is assigned according to the VLAN P-Bit to Queue table.
IP TOS – Classification is according to IP TOS (IP precedence, or IP
diffserv). The queue is assigned according to the IP P-Bit to Queue
table.
VLAN P-Bit over IP TOS – Classification according to VLAN P-Bit, if the
ingress frame carries a VLAN. For untagged packets with an IP header,
classification is according to IP TOS.
IP TOS over VLAN P-Bit – Classification is according to IP TOS, if the
ingress frame has an IP header. If the ingress frame without an IP
header carries a VLAN, classification is according to VLAN P-Bit.
Port (Default) – If any of the above criteria are not fulfilled, the default
classification is assigned to the ingress frame according to the port
priority.
Default Classification. Default priority for frames incoming at the
port.
6.6.2.2 Standard QoS Policers
IP-10G’s standard QoS provides up to five policers to perform ingress rate
limiting. The policers are based on a color blind leaky bucket scheme, and can
be applied per port or CoS.
For each policer, users can define up to five class maps. Each class map
includes the following parameters:
 Committed Information Rate (CIR) – IP-10G supports CIR granularity of
64kbps up to 1 Mbps of CIR, 1 Mbps from 1 Mbps to 1 Gbps of CIR. Packets
within the CIR defined for the service are marked Green and passed
through the QoS module.
 Committed Burst Size (CBS) – IP-10G supports CBS up to a maximum of
128 kbytes. The default value is 12 kbytes. Packets within the CBS defined
for the service are marked Green and passed through the QoS module.
 Committed Information Rate (CIR) – IP-10G supports the following
granularity for CIR:
64Kbps <= CIR <= 960Kbps, in steps of 64Kbps.
1000Kbps <= CIR <= 100,000Kbps in steps of 1000Kbps.
100,000Kbps < CIR <= 1,000,000Kbps in steps of 10,000Kbps.
 Committed Burst Size (CBS) – IP-10G supports the following granularity
for CBS:
For 64Kbps <= CIR <= 960Kbps, 0 < CBS <= 273,404 Bytes.
For 1000Kbps <= CIR <= 100,000Kbps, 0 < CBS <= 132,585 Bytes.
For 100,000Kbps < CIR <= 1,000,000Kbps, 0 < CBS <= 4,192,668 Bytes.
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 Data type – The rate can be limited based on the following data types:
None (no limiting), Unknown unicast, Unknown multicast, Broadcast,
Multicast, Unicast, Management, ARP, TCP-Data, TCP-Control, UDP,
Non- UDP, Non-TCP-UDP, Queue1, Queue2, Queue3, Queue4.
Note: Management frames are BPDUs processed by the system’s
IDC, when processing L2 protocols (e.g., xSTP).
Limit Exceed Action
Discard Frame.
Note: The rate for rate limiting is measured for all Layer 1 bytes,
meaning: Preamble (8bytes) + Frame's DA to CRC + IFG (12
Bytes)
6.6.2.3 Queue Management, Scheduling, and Shaping
IP-10G’s standard QoS has four priority queues. The queue controller
distributes frames to the queues according to the classifier. The fourth queue
is the highest priority queue, and the first queue is the lowest priority queue.
The scheduler determines how frames are output from the queues. IP-10G’s
standard QoS supports the following scheduling schemes:
 Strict Priority for all queues.
 Strict Priority for the fourth queue, and Weighted Round Robin (WRR) for
the remaining queues.
 Strict Priority for the fourth and third queues, and WRR for second and
first queues.
 WRR for all queues.
In a WRR scheduling scheme, a weight is assigned to each queue, so that
frames egress from the queues according to their assigned weight, in order to
avoid starvation of lower priority queues. In addition, frames egress in a
mixed manner, in order to avoid bursts of frames from the same queue.
Each queue’s weight can be configured. A queue's weight is used by the
scheduler when the specific queue is part of a WRR scheduling scheme.
Queue-Weight can be configured in the range of 1-32. The default queue
weights are 8,4,2,1.
The shaper determines the scheduler rate (egress rate limit). The shaper can
be enabled and disabled by the user. By default, the shaper is disabled.
The shaper rate is set with the following granularity:
For 64Kbps <= Rate <= 960Kbps, in steps of 64Kbps.
For 1000Kbps <= Rate <= 100,000Kbps in steps of 1000Kbps.
For 100,000Kbps < Rate <= 1,000,000Kbps in steps of 10,000Kbps.
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6.6.3 Enhanced QoS
This feature requires:
 Enhanced QoS license
Related topics:
 Synchronization Using Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) Optimized
Transport
 Licensing
Enhanced QoS provides an enhanced and expanded feature set. The tools
provided by enhanced QoS apply to egress traffic on the radio port, which is
where bottlenecks generally occur. Enhanced QoS can be enabled and disabled
by the user.
Enhanced QoS capabilities include:
 Enhanced classification criteria
 CIR/CBS and EIR/EBS support
 Policers per service (VLAN+CoS)
 255 MEF 10.2-compliant policers with trTCM support.
10

 Eight priority queues with configurable buffer length
 An enhanced scheduler based on Strict Priority, Weighted Fair Queue
(WFQ), or a hybrid approach that combines Strict Priority and WFQ
 Shaper per priority queue
 WRED support, along with Tail-Drop, for congestion management
 Configurable P-bit and CFI/DEI re-marker
 A PTP Optimized Transport dedicated channel for time synchronization
protocols
 Enhanced PM and statistics
These and other IP-10G enhanced QoS features enable operators to provide
differentiated services with strict SLA while maximizing network resource
utilization. Enhanced QoS requires a license, and can be enabled and disabled
by the user.
The main benefits of enhanced QoS are:
 Improved available link capacity utilization:
Enhanced and configurable queue buffer size (4 Mb total)
WRED for best utilization of the link when TCP/IP sessions are
transported, providing up to 25% more capacity.
 Advanced SLA support:
Granular SLA enforcement and traffic policing with TrTCM (CIR + EIR)
– dual-rate limit per service (VLAN / VLAN + CoS)


10
Requires hardware version R3.
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 Enhanced service differentiation:
8 CoS queues (as opposed to 4 queues in standard QoS)
Additional classification criteria – MPLS EXP bits and UDP ports
Shaping per CoS queue
Sync. Optimized transport - best performance for 1588 packets
 Monitoring, Assurance and Diagnostics capabilities:
Per queue counters – Transmitted and dropped traffic
Per service counters (VLAN / VLAN + CoS)
The following figure illustrates the basic building blocks and traffic flow of
enhanced QoS.
IP-10G Enhanced QoS

The initial step in the enhanced QoS traffic flow is the classifier, which
provides granular service classification based on a number of user-defined
criteria.
The classifier marks the Service ID, CoS, and color of the frames. If a frame’s
VLAN ID matches a Service ID that is mapped to a policer, the frame is sent to
the policer. Untagged frames or frames whose VLAN ID does not match a
defined Service ID are sent directly to a queue, based on the frame’s CoS and
color.
Enhanced QoS provides up to 255 user-defined TrTCM policers. The policers
implement a bandwidth profile, based on CIR/EIR, CBS/EBS, and several other
criteria.
The next step after the TrTCM policers is queue management. Queue
management determines which packets enter which of the eight available
queues. Queue management also includes congestion management, which can
be implemented by Tail-Drop or WRED.
Frames are sent out of the queues according to scheduling and shaping, IP-
10G’s enhanced QoS module provides a unique hierarchical scheduling model
that includes four priorities, with WFQ within each priority and shaping per
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queue. This model enables operators to define flexible and highly granular
QoS schemes for any mix of services.
Finally, the enhanced QoS module re-marks the P-bits and CFI/DEI bits of the
most outer VLAN according to the CoS and color decision in the classifier. This
step is also known as the modifier.
6.6.3.1 Enhanced QoS Classifier
The classifier is a basic element of each QoS mechanism. Each frame is
assigned a Class of Service (CoS) and color, based on MEF 10.2
recommendations. The user can define several criteria by which frames are
classified.
Classifier Traffic Flow

Each frame is assigned a CoS and Color
CoS is a 3-bit value from 0-7 that is used for classification to priority queues.
Color is a 1-bit value (Green or Yellow) used for policing. Green represents
CIR, and Yellow represents EIR.
Classification to CoS and Color can be based on the following criteria
 First hierarchy – Based on destination MAC address or source/destination
UDP ports. The first classification hierarchy is used to identify and give
priority to network protocols. Layer2 protocols such as xSTP and Slow
protocols can be classified based on their pre-defined destination MAC
address. Higher layer protocols such as NTP can be identified based on
UDP ports.
 Second hierarchy – Based on VLAN ID. The second hierarchy is used to
classify frames based on network services. Each service is assigned to a
different VLAN. Frames can be also prioritized based on their in-band
management VLAN ID.
Note: To prevent loss of management to the remote sites,
classification by In-Band management must be configured
before activating the enhanced QoS feature. Especially at the
first activation after upgrade, the In-Band management
VLAN ID should be assigned CoS 7 and Green color.
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 Third hierarchy – Based on Priority bits. Options are VLAN 802.1p p-bits,
IP DSCP/TOS, and/or MPLS experimental bits.
Classification is performed in the order of cardinality listed above. The
classifier checks the first hierarchy, the second hierarchy, and the third
hierarchy, until a match is found.
Each frame is assigned a Service ID
Note: Classification to Services is only supported by hardware
version R3.
Classification to Services is based on VLAN ID. A Service ID is used for policing
and for classification to CoS. Each policer is monitored by statistics counters.
Each CoS is mapped to one of the 8 available priority queues
All the classification criteria are divided into three hierarchies according to
their cardinality, from the most specific to the most general.
Each queue is assigned a priority
Priorities vary from the highest (fourth) to the lowest (first). The scheduling
mechanism treats these priorities as strict. WFQ scheduling is performed
between queues of the same priority. For detailed information about
scheduling, refer to Scheduling and Shaping on page 160.
6.6.3.2 TrTCM Policers
IP-10G’s enhanced QoS module includes an enhanced TrTCM policer
mechanism that complies with MEF 10.2, and is based on a dual leaky bucket
mechanism. Up to 255 policers can be defined.
The TrTCM policers can change a frame’s color and CoS settings based on
CIR/EIR+CBS/EBS, which makes the policer mechanism a key tool for
implementing bandwidth profiles and enabling operators to meet strict SLA
requirements. Enhanced TrTCM policers can be attached to a service or to a
service + CoS combination.
MEF 10.2 is the de-facto standard for SLA definitions, and IP-10G’s
implementation provides the granularity necessary to implement service-
oriented solutions.
TrTCM Policers and MEF 10.2

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Note: The enhanced TrTCM policer mechanism requires hardware
version R3 and software version i6.9. Hardware version R2
and software versions 6.7 and higher support policers per
port and per queue.
Services are defined by VLAN. VLAN IDs are mapped to Service IDs, with no
more than one VLAN mapped to a single Service ID. Service IDs are then
mapped to Policer IDs.
For even more granularity, policers can be assigned according to VLAN P-Bit.
This Policer per VLAN P-bit option enables the customization of a set of eight
policers for a variety of traffic flows within a single service (e.g., GPRS or
management).
Note: The Policer per VLAN P-Bit option can be enabled only for a
Policer with a Policer ID of 8 or a multiple of 8, e.g., Policer8,
Policer16, Policer24, …, Policer248 . When using the Policer
per VLAN P-Bit option, none of the 8 policers that are
allocated to the service can be used by other services.
As illustrated in the figure below, TrTCM policers use a leaky bucket
mechanism to determine whether packets are marked Green, Yellow, or Red.
Packets within the Committed Information Rate (CIR) or Committed Burst
Size (CBS) are marked Green and sent on to a queue. Packets within the Excess
Information Rate (EIR) or Excess Burst Size (EBS) are marked Yellow. These
packets are also sent on to a queue, and processed according to the settings of
the scheduling and shaping mechanisms. Packets that do not fall within the
CIR/CBS+EIR/EBS are marked Red and dropped, without being sent any
further.
TrTCM Policers – Leaky Bucket Mechanism

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The following parameters can be defined for each policer:
 Committed Information Rate (CIR) – Packets within the CIR defined for
the service are marked Green and passed through the QoS module. Packets
that exceed the CIR rate are marked Yellow.
 Committed Burst Size (CBS) – Packets within the CBS defined for the
service are marked Green and passed through the QoS module.
 Excess Information Rate (EIR) – Packets within the EIR defined for the
service are marked Yellow and processed according to network
availability. Packets beyond the combined CIR and EIR are marked Red
and dropped by the policer.
 Excess Burst Size (EBS) – Packets within the EBS defined for the service
are marked Yellow and processed according to network availability.
Packets beyond the combined CBS and EBS are marked Red and dropped
by the policer.
 Color Mode – Color mode can be enabled (color aware) or disabled (color
blind). In color aware mode, all packets that ingress with a CFI/DEI field
set to 1 (Yellow) are treated as EIR packets, even if credits remain in the
CIR bucket. In color blind mode, all ingress packets are treated as Green
packets regardless of CFI/DEI value. A color-blind policer discards any
previous color decisions.
 Coupling Flag – If the coupling flag is enabled, frames marked Yellow may
be placed in the Green buffer when there are no available Yellow credits in
the EIR bucket.
Note: Coupling Flag is only relevant in color aware mode.
 Line Compensation – A policer can measure CIR and EIR as Layer1 or
Layer2 rates. Layer1 capacity is equal to Layer2 capacity plus 20
additional bytes for each frame (preamble, SFD, and IFG). Line
compensation defines the number of bytes to be added to each frame for
CIR and EIR calculation. When Line Compensation is 20, the policer
operates as Layer1. When Line Compensation is 0, the policer operates as
Layer 2.
CIR and EIR granularity is:
 64 Kbps in range of 64 Kbps to 100 Mbps
 1 Mbps in range of 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps
CBS and EBS granularity is 1 byte.
The TrTCM policer mechanism includes counters for packets dropped and
packets transmitted, both per queue and per service. These counters can be
viewed via the CLI.
Note: Per-service counters require hardware version R3 and
software version 6.9.
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Per queue counters are available in hardware versions R2 and R3, as well as
software versions i6.7 and up. However, hardware version R3 and software
version i6.9 provide additional counters, as shown in the following table:
Per-Queue Counters Availability
Software Version
i6.7 Green bytes passed
Green frames dropped
Yellow bytes passed
Yellow frames dropped
i6.9 Same as i6.7, with the addition of:
 L1 support for Green and Yellow bytes passed (i6.7 supports L2 only)
 Green frames passed
 Yellow frames passed
6.6.3.3 Queue Management
Queue management is the process by which packets are assigned to priority
queues. Queue management also includes congestion management. IP-10G
provides the tail-drop method of congestion management, and enhanced QoS
also offers Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED).
Enhanced QoS supports eight queues with configurable buffer size. The user
can specify the buffer size of each queue independently. The total amount of
memory dedicated to these queue buffers is 4Mb, and the size of each queue
can be set to 0.5, 1, 2, or 4Mb. The default buffer size is 0.5Mb for each queue.
The following considerations should be taken into account in determining the
proper buffer size:
 Latency considerations – If low latency is required (users would rather
drop frames in the queue than increase latency) small buffer sizes are
preferable.
Note: The actual, effective buffer size of the queue can be less than
0.5Mb based on the configuration of the WRED tail drop
curve.
 Throughput immunity to fast bursts – When traffic is characterized by
fast bursts, it is recommended to increase the buffer sizes of the priority
queues to prevent packet loss. Of course, this comes at the cost of a
possible increase in latency.
User can configure burst size as a tradeoff between latency and immunity to
bursts, according the application requirements.
One of the key features of IP-10G’s enhanced QoS is the use of WRED to
manage congestion scenarios. WRED provides several advantages over the
standard tail-drop congestion management method.
WRED enables differentiation between higher and lower priority traffic based
on CoS. Moreover, WRED can increase capacity utilization by eliminating the
phenomenon of global synchronization. Global synchronization occurs when
TCP flows sharing bottleneck conditions receive loss indications at around the
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same time. This can result in periods during which link bandwidth utilization
drops significantly as a consequence of a simultaneous falling to a ”slow start”
of all the TCP flows. The following figure demonstrates the behavior of two
TCP flows over time without WRED.
Synchronized Packet Loss

WRED eliminates the occurrence of traffic congestion peaks by restraining the
transmission rate of the TCP flows. Each queue occupancy level is monitored
by the WRED mechanism and randomly selected frames are dropped before
the queue becomes overcrowded. Each TCP flow recognizes a frame loss and
restrains its transmission rate (basically by reducing the window size). Since
the frames are dropped randomly, statistically each time another flow has to
restrain its transmission rate as a result of frame loss (before the real
congestion occurs). In this way, the overall aggregated load on the radio link
remains stable while the transmission rate of each individual flow continues
to fluctuate similarly. The following figure demonstrates the transmission rate
of two TCP flows and the aggregated load over time when WRED is enabled.
Random Packet Loss with Increased Capacity Utilization Using WRED

Each one of the eight priority queues can be given a different weight. For each
queue, the user defines the WRED profile curve. This curve describes the
probability of randomly dropping frames as a function of queue occupancy.
Basically, as the queue occupancy grows, the probability of dropping each
incoming frame increases as well. As a consequence, statistically more TCP
flows will be restrained before traffic congestion occurs.
The WRED profile curve can be adjusted for each one of the priority queues.
Yellow and Green frames can also be assigned different weights. Usually,
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Green frames (committed rate) are preferred over Yellow frames (excessive
rate), as shown in the curve below.
WRED Profile Curve

Note: WRED can also be set to a tail drop curve. A tail drop curve
is useful for reducing the effective queue size, such as when
low latency must be guaranteed. In order to set the tail drop
curve to its maximum level, the drop percentage must be set
to zero.
6.6.3.4 Scheduling and Shaping
Scheduling and shaping determine how traffic is sent on to the radio from the
queues. Scheduling determines the priority among the queues, and shaping
determines the traffic profile for each queue.
IP-10G’s enhanced QoS module provides a unique hierarchical scheduling
model that includes four priorities, with Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) within
each priority, and shaping per port and per queue. This model enables
operators to define flexible and highly granular QoS schemes for any mix of
services.
Shaping
The egress shaper is used to shape the traffic profile sent to the radio. In
enhanced QoS mode, there is an egress shaper for each priority queue. The
user can configure CIR, CBS, and line compensation.
Note: The user can configure the shaper to count in L2 by setting
line compensation to zero. The user can also “punish” short
frame senders for the overhead they cause in the network
by increasing the line compensation to a value above 20
bytes.
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Scheduling
IP-10G’s enhanced QoS mechanism provides Strict Priority and Weighted Fair
Queue (WFQ) for scheduling. Users can configure a combination of both
methods to achieve the optimal results for their unique network
requirements.
Each priority queue has a configurable strict priority from 1 to 4
(4=High;1=Low). WFQ weights are used to partition bandwidth between
queues of the same priority.
Queue Priority Configuration Example

For each queue, the user configures the following parameters:
 Priority (1 to 4) – The priority value is strictly applied. This means the
queue with higher priority will egress before a queue with lower priority,
regardless of WFQ weights.
 WFQ weight (1 to 15) – Defines the ratio between the bandwidth given to
queues of the same priority. For example if queue 6 and queue 7 are
assigned WFQ weights of 4 and 8, respectively (using the notations of the
above figure), then under congestion conditions queue 7 will be allowed to
transmit twice as much bandwidth as queue 6.
Note: In order to be able to egress frames, each queue must also
have enough credits in its shaper.
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Scheduling Examples
This section provides several use cases in which Strict Priority and WFQ are
combined to produce a desired scheduling configuration. These are simply
two examples of the many ways in which IP-10G’s flexible scheduling
mechanism can be configured to achieve a combination of Strict Priority
scheduling for the highest priority traffic flows and weighted scheduling for
other traffic flows that may be less delay sensitive.
Example 1 shows a hybrid setup in which the three highest-priority queues
are served according to Strict Priority, and the remaining queues are served
according to WFQ. In this example, higher-priority queues are served first.
Only after the three highest-priority queues are empty is traffic from the
remaining five queues served, according to WFQ and their respective weight.
Example 1 – Hybrid Scheduling
Queue Priority Weight Priority Scheme
1 4 - Strict Priority – served according to priority
(descending)
2 3 -
3 2 -
4 1 16 WFQ - Same priority – served according to weight
(16 bytes of Q4, 8 bytes of Q5, 4 bytes of Q6, etc.)
5 1 8
6 1 4
7 1 2
8 1 1
Example 1 – Hybrid Scheduling – Illustration

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Example 2 shows a hierarchical scheme in which the highest priority queue is
served first, and other queues are only served after the highest-priority queue
is empty, according to their respective priorities and weights.
Example 2 – Hierarchical Scheduling
Queue Priority Weight Priority Scheme
1 4 - Highest priority – served first
2 3 1 Same priority, same weight, evenly
serving 1 byte of Q2 and 1 byte of Q3
3 3 1
4 2 2 Same priority, different weight, serving
2 bytes of Q4 and 1 byte of Q5
5 2 1
6 1 4 Same priority, different weight, serving
4 bytes of Q6, 2 bytes of Q7 and 1 byte
of Q8
7 1 2
8 1 1
Example 1 – Hierarchical Scheduling – Illustration

6.6.3.5 Configurable P-Bit and CFI/DEI Re-Marking
When enabled, the re-marker modifies each packet’s 802.1p P-Bit and CFI/DEI
bit fields. 802.1p is modified according to the classifier decision.
The CFI/DEI (color) field is modified according to the classifier and policer
decision. The color is first determined by a classifier and may be later
overwritten by a policer. Green color is represented by a CFI/DEI value of 0,
and Yellow color is represented by a CFI/DEI value of 1.
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6.6.4 Standard and Enhanced QoS Comparison
The following table summarizes the basic features of IP-10G’s standard and
enhanced QoS functionality.
IP-10G Standard and Enhanced QoS Features
Feature Standard QoS Enhanced QoS
License Required No Yes
Number of CoS Queues 4 8 (radio only)
Frame Buffer Size 1 MBit Additional 4 Mbit (on egress port towards radio
only), and configurable
CoS Classification Criteria  Source Port
 VLAN 802.1p
 VLAN ID
 MAC DA
 IPv4 DSCP/TOS
 IPv6 TC
Additional classification criteria:
 UDP Port
 MPLS EXP bits
Scheduling Method Strict Priority, Weighted Round Robin
(WRR), or Hybrid
Four scheduling priorities with WFQ between
queues in the same priority
Shaping Per port Per queue
Congestion Management Tail-drop Tail-drop, and Weighted Random Early Discard
(WRED)
CIR/EIR Support (Color-
Awareness)
CIR only CIR + EIR
Policing  Per Port
 Per Port and Per Traffic Type
Additional policing capabilities:
 Per Service (R3 only)
CoS to P-bit Re-Marking Default mapping only  User-configurable mapping
 Color-aware
PMs and Statistics RMON Statistics  RMON Statistics
 Number of packets accepted and dropped
 Per service counters
 Per queue counters and PMs

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6.7 TDM Solution
This section includes:
 TDM Trails and Cross-Connect (XE)
 Smart TDM Pseudowire
 Wireless SNCP
 Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery
 ACM for TDM Services
 AIS Signaling and Detection
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6.7.1 TDM Trails and Cross-Connect (XE)
This feature requires:
 Nodal configuration
The FibeAir IP-10G Cross-Connect (XC) Unit is a high-speed circuit connection
scheme for transporting TDM traffic from any given port "x" to any given port
"y". Integrated TDM Cross-Connect is performed by defining end to end trails.
Each trail consists of segments represented by Virtual Containers (VCs). The
Cross-Connect functions as the forwarding mechanism between the two ends
of a trail.
The Cross-Connect capacity is 180 E1 VCs. Each E1 interface or "logical
interface" in a radio in any unit of the stack can be assigned to any VC.
The Cross-Connect function is performed through the nodal enclosure
backplane. Thus, Cross-Connect functionality requires a nodal configuration.
In a protected system, the Cross-Connect function is performed by the active
main unit. If a failure occurs, the standby main unit takes over (<50 ms down
time).
The figure below illustrates the basic Cross-Connect concept.
Basic Cross-Connect Operation

As shown above, trails are defined from one end of a line to the other. The
Cross-Connect Unit forwards signals generated by the radios to and from the
IDUs based on their designated VCs. For instance, in the example above, the
Cross-Connect Unit can forward signals on Trail C from Radio 1, VC 3 to Radio
4, VC 1.
6.7.1.1 TDM Cross-Connect Operation
IP-10G provides the capability for the user to map any pair of interfaces in
order to create TDM trails. Interfaces may be the following:
 E1 line ports: Ports 1-16 are available in the lower SCSI connector; ports
17-32 are available in the upper one (if a T-card is installed in the IP-10G).
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 VC-11/12 in STM-1 line port: Available as a T-card.
 Radio VCs: Each radio in the system has designated channels, each of
which can carry a duplex TDM signal. These channels are called “VCs” and
in addition to the TDM signal they carry extra data used for monitoring.
Note: Radio VCs are proprietary and do not conform to SDH VCs.
They are terminated at line interfaces.
After a trail is created the following takes place:
 TDM traffic is exchanged between the two interfaces.
 Line interfaces are enabled (if no trails are assigned to them, they are
disabled).
 The trail is monitored in order to raise indications and measure PMs.
The switching fabric is located in the main unit. Therefore, it is particularly
beneficial that the main unit be protected.
6.7.1.2 TDM Trail Status Reporting
A TDM trail is defined as E1 data delivered unchanged from one line interface
to another, through one or more radio links. In each node along the trail path,
data can be assigned to a different VC number, but its identity across the
network is maintained by a Trail ID defined by the user.
Each TDM trail in the system is monitored end-to-end. If a problem is found,
the following occurs:
 An alarm is raised indicating that there is a failure in at least one TDM trail.
 Each trail is updated with its current status.
 An event is raised stating the problem that was raised or cleared, and in
which trail. This information is logged in the event log.
 An SNMP trap is sent.
The following problems may be detected in a TDM trail:
 Signal Failure – There is a severe communication problem somewhere
along the path of the trail. End-point interfaces transmit AIS.
 Trail ID Mismatch – The trail ID received from the incoming radio differs
from the ID defined by the user for this trail.
 Invalid Trail Status – The software was unable to read statuses for the
trail.
For troubleshooting end-to-end E1 trails across the network, additional
performance monitoring is necessary. Performance monitoring is based on
BER measurements rather than code violations; in this way, TDM trail
performance monitoring differs from line interface performance monitoring.
Performance monitoring for TDM trails is measured in the following cases:
 End-Point Interfaces – Line interfaces in which a trail ends.
 Radio interfaces which perform SNCP.
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6.7.1.3 TDM Cross-Connect Unit Benefits
Benefits of the IP-10G Cross-Connect Unit include:
 E1 trails are supported based on the integrated E1 Cross-Connect
 Cross-Connect capacity is 180 E1 trails
 Cross-Connect is performed between any two physical or logical interfaces
in the node, including:
E1 interface
Radio “VC” (84 “VCs” supported per radio carrier)
STM-1 Mux VC12
 Each trail is timed independently by the Cross-Connect Unit
 Modularity and flexibility
 Modular design: pay as-you-grow
 Simplicity, with minimum components (IDU, backplane)
 Supports XPIC, Multi-Radio, Frequency Diversity, and Space Diversity
The Cross-Connect function provides connectivity for the following types of
configurations:
Cross-Connect Configurations

For each trail, the following end-to-end OAM functions are supported:
 Alarms and maintenance signals, including AIS and RDI
 Performance monitoring counters, including ES, SES, and UAS.
 Trace ID for provisioning mismatch detection.
A VC overhead is added to each VC trail to support the end-to-end OAM
functionality and synchronization justification requirements.
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The figure below provides an example of Cross-Connect aggregation:
TDM Cross-Connect Aggregation Example

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6.7.2 Smart TDM Pseudowire
This feature requires:
 Pseudowire T-Card
 L2 Switch License
 Managed Switch or Metro Switch
This feature cannot be used with the following:
 1+1 HSB Protection
Related topics:
 TDM Interface Options
 Smart TDM Pseudowire Interface Specifications
 Licensing
 Ethernet Switching
Pseudowire provides a smart solution for migration to all-packet networks.
Often, TDM islands exist within a network that has largely converted to
all-packet. All-packet segments may be joined with hybrid or TDM segments.
Base stations in particular often continue to use TDM equipment after the
remaining network segments have migrated to all-packet. Pseudowire bridges
the gap between legacy TDM equipment and the all-packet present and future.
As part of IP-10G’s Native
2
model, Smart TDM Pseudowire and IP-10G’s built-
in native TDM provide an ideal solution for TDM to packet migration.
IP-10G’s Smart TDM Pseudowire provides TDM over packet capabilities by
means of an optional 16 E1 Pseudowire (PW) processing T-Card that
processes TDM data, sends the data through the system in packet format that
can be processed by the IDU’s Ethernet ports, and converts the data back to
TDM format. Up to six PW T-Cards can be used in a single node.
Smart TDM Pseudowire features an advanced network processor design, with
state of the art Carrier Ethernet and advanced QoS.
The TDM PW processing T-Card includes an Ethernet interface that must be
connected to one of the Ethernet ports in the same IDU as the PW T-Card. Any
electrical Ethernet port can be used, including either GbE or Fast Ethernet
ports. The optical GbE ports cannot be used.
PW T-Card Connected to Ethernet Port (Eth3)

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6.7.2.1 Smart TDM Pseudowire Supported Standards
Smart TDM Pseudowire supports the following standards for both framed and
unframed E1 lines:
 CESoPSN – RFC 5086
 SAToP – RFC 4553
Smart TDM Pseudowire is compliant with the following encapsulations:
 Ethernet Layer 2 (MEF-8)
 IP/UDP (IETF)
6.7.2.2 Smart TDM Pseudowire Bandwidth Utilization
One of the advantages of IP-10G’s Smart TDM Pseudowire, in contrast to
native TDM, is that its structure-aware (CESoP) architecture enables it to
make better use of available bandwidth by sending only the used slots (N x
DS0), as opposed to ordinary TDM that sends all slots, whether or not they are
used. DS0-level cross –connect is also possible, enabling users to save not only
bandwidth but also E1 interfaces.
Smart TDM Pseudowire Bandwidth Utilization with CESoP

6.7.2.3 Smart TDM Pseudowire Synchronization Support
Smart TDM Pseudowire supports the following synchronization modes:
 Common Clock – Uses a clock input that is independent from the
pseudowire subsystem as a reference for TDM signal synchronization. This
reference may come from the following sources:
Native sync distribution.
External clock reference from a dedicated front panel clock interface.
 Loop Timing – The Tx timing is based on the actual clock from the TDM Rx
data flow.
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 Adaptive Clock Recovery (ACR) – Clock information is included in the
TDM data stream at the point where the data is packetized. The extra
information is located in an RTP header that can be used to correct
frequency offsets. The clock information is extracted at the point where
the packets are received and reconverted to TDM. The extracted clock
information is used for the reconversion to TDM. ACR can provide very
accurate synchronization, but requires low PDV.
For additional information:
 Native Sync Distribution Mode
6.7.2.4 Smart TDM Pseudowire Benefits
The following are some of the benefits of IP-10G’s Smart TDM Pseudowire
feature:
 Pseudowire Protocol Support – Smart TDM Pseudowire supports
CESoPSN and SAToP for both framed and unframed E1 lines.
 Packet Network Support – Smart TDM Pseudowire supports pseudowire
over MPLS, IP, and Ethernet, according to MFA, IETF, and MEF standards.
 Access – E1 lines are at local line interfaces.
 Aggregation – E1 lines can be from the internal radio interface or the
internal Cross-Connect
 Scalability – A single node can include up to 6 PW T-Cards, for a total of
96 E1 lines per node.
In the IP-10G, any TDM flow from any interface (radio, STM-1, E1) can be
converted into PW.
The following are some of the scenarios in which Smart TDM Pseudowire can
be used to minimize the cost and effort of migration from legacy to all-packet
networks:
 Access/Tail sites – Pseudowire E1 lines are located at the local line
interfaces.
 Aggregation/Intermediate sites – Pseudowire E1 lines can originate
from the internal radio interface or Cross-Connect.
 Fiber PoP sites – E1 data can be transported over the radio links in native
format and converted to packet in order to transverse a packet transport
aggregation network.
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6.7.2.5 Smart TDM Pseudowire in Migration from Hybrid to All-Packet
Networks
This section provides several examples of how Smart TDM Pseudowire can be
used in migration from a hybrid network to an all-packet network.
In the following example, PW T-Cards are installed in the tail sites of an all-
packet microwave access network, providing for full transformation to an all-
packet network.
Migration from Hybrid to All-Packet Network – PW processing T-Card in Tail Sites

In the following example, native E1 trails are used up to the aggregation site
and PW T-Cards are installed in the intermediate aggregation sites,
minimizing the cost and effort of migration to an all-packet network by
optimizing deployment of the PW T-Cards.
Migration from Hybrid to All-Packet Network – PW processing T-Card in Intermediate
Aggregation Sites

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In the following example, native E1 trails are used in the access network and
PW T-Cards are installed in the fiber PoP sites, providing for seamless
integration with any packet aggregation network.
Migration from Hybrid to All-Packet Network – PW processing T-Card in Fiber PoP
Sites

IP-10G with Smart TDM Pseudowire supports several aggregation options and
scenarios.
One option is native service stitching at a fiber site. In this scenario, Smart
TDM Pseudowire converts TDM data to packet format at the tail/hub site. The
pseudowire connection is terminated at the fiber site and N x E1 or STM-1
lines are used to connect either to the fiber node via a router/MSPP or directly
to the BSC/RNC.
Smart TDM Pseudowire with Native Service Stitching at Fiber Site

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Another option is to implement Smart TDM Pseudowire as an end-to-end
overlay, supported as EVC over the aggregation network. In this scenario,
Smart TDM Pseudowire converts TDM data to packet format at the tail/hub
site. The pseudowire lines are carried as EVCs over the fiber/aggregation
network, and terminated at the remote RNC/BSC site using a pseudowire
aggregation device supporting N x E1 or STM-1.
Note: Typically, a single pseudowire aggregation device can
support multiple MW access clouds.
Smart TDM Pseudowire End-to-End Overlay

A third option is to implement Smart TDM Pseudowire as CSG integrated with
a pseudowire aggregation solution in a CET switch or MPLS router. In this
scenario, Smart TDM Pseudowire converts TDM data to packet format at the
tail/hub site. The pseudowire lines terminate at the CET switch or MPLS
router of a third party partner. This scenario requires integration with respect
to data, control, and management. MPLS encapsulation can be considered as
an option.
Smart TDM Pseudowire as part of Integrated CSG Solution

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6.7.2.6 Setting Up Pseudowire Services
A Pseudowire service is a user-defined, bidirectional flow of information
between a TDM signal and a packed flow, which is always transported over
layer 2 Ethernet.
Such a service interconnects and makes use of the following elements:
 TDM Signal
The TDM signal may be an entire E1 or a sub-set of DS0s (or E1 time-
slots).
In order to make use of a TDM signal, a regular TDM trail must be
manually configured from the relevant interface (which may be any
TDM interface anywhere in the system – radio channel, STM-1 VC-12,
or front panel E1) to one of the 16 internal TDM ports available in the
PW T-Card.
The TDM port being used for pseudowire should be configured in
accordance with the type of signal to be used. In particular, CESoP
pseudowire services require the port to be configured to the proper
frame type used by the incoming E1.
 PSN Tunnel
A PSN tunnel is the means by which the packets containing the TDM
information are sent and received through a PSN network. The type of
tunnel to be used should match the relevant transport network.
Two types of PSN tunnels are supported: MEF-8 (Ethernet) and
UDP/IP. In both cases, the user is responsible for configuration of the
tunnel details, including destination address and QoS parameters.
 Both types of encapsulation can make use of C-VLAN, S-VLAN (with
standard Ethertype 0x88a8), or untagged, but not C-VLAN and
S-VLAN in the same frame.
For IP tunnels, the pseudowire services make use of the PW T-Card’s
IP address, which is user-configurable. For MEF-8 tunnels, the
addressing is done through the T-Card’s MAC address, which is fixed,
but readable by users.
 Pseudowire Profile
A profile is a set of parameters that determine various operational
settings of a PW service. A single profile can be used for any number of
services.
The following is a short explanation of the main parameters:
 Payload size – In terms of E1 frames per packet.
 Jitter buffer – In milliseconds.
 LOPS detection thresholds.
 RTP timestamp usage details (for adaptive clock recovery).
 Payload suppression and transmission patterns in case of errors.
In addition, there are a number of parameters at the PW T-Card level that
must be configured properly to ensure proper operation:
 Ethernet traffic port settings
Speed
Duplex
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Auto-negotiation
Flow control
 T-Card’s IP address and subnet mask
 Clock distribution and use of front panel clock interface
6.7.2.7 Smart TDM Pseudowire and Synchronization
A key requirement of pseudowire technology is managing the synchronization
of TDM signals. For this purpose, the Smart TDM PW T-Card provides a
number of synchronization interfaces.
These interfaces can be used for pseudowire synchronization, but can also be
used to provide extra synchronization capabilities to the entire IP-10G unit.
The following are the relevant interfaces and their possible uses:
 A front panel interface (input and output)
This interface may be configured to convey synchronization either as a
coded E1 or as a digital uncoded 2.048MHz signal
The interface can provide a reference input for:
 Pseudowire (in common clock mode)
 IP-10G native synchronization transport (via the system reference
interface)
The interface can provide an output synchronization signal coming
from:
 Pseudowire recovered clock from Adaptive Clock Recovery
 IP-10G native synchronization transport reference clock (via the
system reference interface)
The pinout of this interface is as follows:
 Clock Input – Differential on pins 1(-) and 2(+)
 Clock Output - Differential on pins 4(-) and 5(+)
 1 PPS Output - Differential RS422 - on pins 3(+) and 6(-); for future
use – not operational in this release.
 ToD Output - Differential RS422 - on pins 3(+) and 6(-); for future
use – not operational in this release.
 A system reference interface to and from IP-10G native synchronization
The interface can provide a reference input for:
 Pseudowire (in Common Clock mode)
 Front panel output interface
The interface may provide an output synchronization signal coming
from:
 Pseudowire recovered clock from Adaptive Clock Recovery
 Front panel output interface
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6.7.2.8 Smart TDM Pseudowire Monitoring
The following monitoring features are available for Smart TDM Pseudowire:
Pseudowire PMs
Standard pseudowire PM measurements are provided for each configured
service:
 missing-packets counter
 packets-reorder counter
 misorder-dropped counter
 malformed-packets counter
 ES
 SES
 UAS
 FC
TDM signals PMs
PMs are calculated at the ingress of TDM signals to the Smart TDM
Pseudowire T-card (from the IP-10G XC):
 ES
 SES
 UAS
RMON
The Ethernet port provides a number of RMON counters, which are not
identical to the IP-10G main bridge counters. For a list and description of
these counters, refer to the FibeAir IP-10G and IP-10E User Guide, DOC-
00034612.
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6.7.3 Wireless SNCP
Related topics:
 Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery (ABR)
 AIS Signaling and Detection
IP-10G supports an integrated VC trail protection mechanism called Wireless
Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP).
Path-protected trails are a special case of TDM trails, in which not two but
three interfaces are configured. It is used to protect TDM traffic from any
failure along its end-to-end path.
With Wireless SNCP, a backup VC trail can optionally be defined for each
individual VC trail.
For each backup VC, the following must be defined:
 Two “branching points” from the main VC that it is protecting.
 A path for the backup VC (typically separate from the path of the main VC
that it is protecting).
For each direction of the backup VC, the following is performed
independently:
 At the first branching point, duplication of the traffic from the main VC to
the backup VC.
 At the second branching point, selection of traffic from either the main VC
or the backup VC.
 Traffic from the backup VC is used if a failure is detected in main VC.
 Switchover is performed within <50 ms.
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The following figure shows how Wireless SNCP operates.
Wireless SNCP Operation

For each main VC trail, the branching points can be any Cross-Connect node
along the path of the trail.
Wireless SNCP - Branching Points

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6.7.3.1 SNCP Trail Configuration
Besides the “protected” parameter, SNCP trails differ from unprotected trails
in the roles of their interfaces:
 Interface 1: The end-point interface. Can be line or radio; in the outgoing
direction (from interface 1 into the system), traffic is split between
interfaces 2 and 3, and in the incoming direction traffic is chosen from
them according to certain criteria.
 Interface 2: The primary interface; it will be initially active.
 Interface 3: The secondary interface; it will be initially standby.

6.7.3.2 SNCP Switching Criteria
Traffic will switch from the currently active interface to the standby interface
in the following cases:
 Signal failure
Note: When line interfaces (STM-1) are used along a TDM trail
path, AIS detection must be enabled for SNCP to work
properly.
 User command to force traffic to the standby interface
Note: Forcing traffic will cause the selected interface to become
active (even if its signal fails) until the user cancels this
setting (revertive mode is not supported at this stage).
6.7.3.3 SNCP Indications
For each protected trail, the following status indications are given:
 Path status
For both active and standby paths
Same status indications as given for unprotected TDM trails
 Current active trail
 Number of switches since last time counter was reset
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6.7.3.4 Support for Wireless SNCP in a Mixed Wireless-Optical Network
Wireless SNCP is supported over fiber links using IP-10G STM-1 Mux
interfaces. This feature provides a fully integrated solution for protected E1
services over a mixed wireless-optical network.
Wireless SNCP – Mixed Wireless Optical Network

6.7.3.5 SNCP in TDM Rings
Wireless SNCP replaces a failed sub-network connection with a standby sub
network connection. In IP-10G, this capability is provided at the points where
trails leave sub networks.
The switching criterion is based on SNCP/I. This protocol specifies that
automatic switching is performed if an AIS or LOP fault is detected in the
working sub network connection. If neither AIS nor LOP faults are detected,
and the protection lockout is not in effect, the scheme used is 1+1 singled-
ended.
The NMS provides Manual switch to protection and Protection lockout
commands. A notification is sent to the management station when an
automatic switch occurs. The status of the selectors and the sub network
connections are displayed on the NMS screen.
6.7.3.6 Wireless SNCP Benefits
 Flexibility
All network topologies are supported (ring, mesh, tree)
All traffic distribution patterns are supported (excels in hub traffic
concentration)
Any mix of protected and non-protected trails is supported
No hard limit on the number of nodes in a ring
Simple provisioning of protection
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 Performance
Non traffic-affecting switching to protection (<50 m)
Switch to protection is done at the E1 VC trail level, works perfectly
with ACM (no need to switch the entire traffic on a link)
Optimal latency under protection
 Interoperability
Protection is done at the end points, independent of
equipment/vendor networks
Interoperable with networks that use other types of protection (such
as BLSR)
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6.7.4 Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery (ABR)
Related topics:
 Wireless SNCP
As an alternative to Wireless SNCP, Adaptive Bandwidth Recovery (ABR)
enables full utilization of the bidirectional capabilities inherent in ring
technologies to provide TDM path protection while utilizing the protection
paths whenever possible for both TDM and Ethernet traffic.
With ABR, TDM-based information is transmitted in one direction only, while
the unused protection capacity is allocated for Ethernet traffic. In the event of
a failure, the unused capacity is re-allocated for TDM transmission.
Using ABR, each E1 flow consists of a primary and a protection path. Capacity
on the protection path is reserved, but not allocated. Actual capacity allocation
only occurs on demand in the event of a failure. In an ordinary non-failure
state, only the primary path consumes capacity, freeing capacity on the
protection path to other applications, such as mobile broadband.
This technique extends the Native
2
approach to dynamic allocation of link
capacity between TDM and Ethernet flows to the network level.
SNCP and ABR Comparison

6.7.4.1 ABR Operation
The ABR feature consists of the following components:
 Signaling between the end-points of every trail point to exchange
information about the quality of the received signals.
Each end-point may send an RDI signal along each path (primary and
secondary) to the other end point.
RDI is sent whenever a valid TDM trail signal is not received.
 Logic to determine in which cases it is permissible not to send traffic
through one of the paths.
Under normal conditions, TDM traffic is sent only through the primary
path.
In order to make proper use of the freed capacity, it is necessary for the
Ethernet traffic to use the same path in both directions.
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For this reason, any failure in the primary path will cause both sides to
revert to the normal mode of operation (sending traffic through both
paths). Traffic will return to the primary path after the failure
condition has been cleared (the mechanism is revertive).
In order to prevent jittering of the path and unnecessary traffic
switches in case of intermittent primary path failures, there is a
revertive timer. This timer determines the amount of time required
after no failure is detected in the primary path before ceasing traffic
transmission through the secondary path
 Automatically freeing bandwidth whenever TDM traffic is not being sent:
Whenever valid TDM traffic is not available at the radio interface for
transmission, its bandwidth is automatically re-allocated for Ethernet
traffic.
This is relevant not only for ABR trails, but for all TDM traffic. In other
words, bandwidth is freed up whenever there is no information to
transmit. This may occur in the following circumstances:
A failure has occurred which interrupts TDM traffic in a certain
trail. This may take place in a radio link or an internal connection.
No valid TDM input (E1 signal) is received at the end-point.
AIS signal is detected at the input (if AIS detection feature is
enabled).
 Selecting the incoming traffic normally as explained for SNCP trails.
The ABR mechanism is relevant only for the transmission. Reception is dealt
with in the same manner as normal SNCP trails.
6.7.4.2 ABR Configuration
A new type of trail (ABR trail) is defined, in addition to protected and
unprotected trails.
ABR trails are configured exactly in the same way as normal SNCP trails and
are subject to the same validations. This is because in the worst-case (failure
condition), ABR trails behave like normal SNCP trails, occupying bandwidth in
both paths.
The following are extra configuration and behavior factors that apply
exclusively to ABR trails:
 Revertive timer: The same timer is used for all trails
 Forcing ABR trails: When forcing reception of an ABR trail from the
secondary path, the system will automatically cause both end-points to
transmit traffic through that path, regardless of failure conditions. The
traffic will cease to be sent when “force none” is configured.
6.7.4.3 ABR User Indications
The following indications are specific to TDM trails:
 RDI indication is given per trail to the user.
 Separate status indications are given for each path.
 For SNCP trails, status is always given for primary and secondary paths.
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 For ABR trails, status is given for paths which are currently transmitting;
with no failure conditions; this means the primary path only.
PMs are collected as follows:
 Primary is active – No PM is counted on secondary.
 Secondary is active (due to primary failure or force to standby) – PM is
counted on primary and on secondary.
6.7.4.4 ABR Operation within SDH/SONET Networks
ABR is a proprietary feature, and in order to make full use of it and gain the
extra bandwidth that ABR can provide, both end-points should be IP-10G
equipment. However, ABR can be used within a standard SDH/SONET
network, in the following senses:
 A radio ring performing ABR protection can have one or more STM-1
optical links between two IP-10G nodes. In this case, ABR will work
properly and save bandwidth. The signaling between the end points is
carried in the standard VC-11/12 header.
Note: In order to make good use of the feature, the TDM primary
path should be the path that includes the STM-1 links, since
these cannot carry Ethernet traffic, so the saved bandwidth
is used in the radio segments.
 A radio ring performing ABR protection can have one or more SONET/SDH
networks transporting trails between two IP-10G nodes; the IP-10G
interfaces with the SONET/SDH network using the STM-1 interface. As in
the previous case, the signaling between the end points is carried in the
standard VC-11/12 header.
 If one of the end-points of a trail is configured as ABR and the other end-
point is located at third-party equipment implementing standard
SDH/SONET SNCP, path protection will still be achieved, but performance
is reduced to standard SNCP (no bandwidth savings).
6.7.4.5 Bandwidth Recovery Using ABR
In a typical SDH network, the receiving node monitors the transmission
quality at its “east” and “west” link interfaces, and selects the direction from
which it will receive transmissions. The transmitting node, therefore, sends
traffic in both the east and west directions, causing the redundant use of
bandwidth. This form of protection is known as SNCP 1+1 Unidirectional
Protection, and while it can generally provide 50 millisecond protection
switching, it does so by reserving large quantities of bandwidth over a very
expensive wireless spectrum.
The novel approach used by ABR involves a change in the role of the
transmitting element. In this approach, the transmitting element determines
the direction of information transmission – east or west. The direction is
determined independently for each E1 path, based on status information sent
periodically by the receiving node back to the transmitter. The receiving node
continues to monitor both directions for the arrival of information, as
described previously. This method achieves the goal of protecting traffic
without wasting capacity on unused reserved bandwidth.
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In the standby direction, the transmitting node – along with all the nodes in
the standby path to the receiver – removes the E1 bandwidth allocation, and
sends periodic signals to the receiver to help it monitor the transmissions
from east and west. The de-allocated (recovered) E1 bandwidth can now be
utilized by Ethernet traffic.
The receiving node continues to accept information flows from either the east
or west direction, and detects the path in which the E1 payload is actually
transmitted.
When a failure occurs in the working direction, the receiving node sends a
Reverse Defect Indication (RDI) signal to the transmitter, which automatically
switches to the standby path.
ABR can be selected for any number of E1 channels, and the resulting path co-
exists with all other paths in the network – be they unidirectional,
bidirectional, protected, or unprotected. The case study below describes a
real-life example of how ABR delivers normal-state Ethernet capacity that may
triple the Ethernet capacity delivered when using SNCP 1+1. While
malfunctions under SNCP 1+1 automatically result in network degradation to
a worst-case scenario (known as “failure state”), a network fault under ABR
results in a level of degradation that depends on the exact location of the
failure, and worst-case degradation is usually avoided.
6.7.4.6 ABR and Dual Homing
ABR can be used in a dual homing configuration, in which there are two
possible points of entry into the ring network. This provides added resiliency
in case of failure in the transmitting node. In dual homing mode, one
transmission node sends the E1 payload, while the other transmission node
sends “standby” signaling as mentioned earlier.
Dual Homing with ABR-Based TDM Protection

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6.7.4.7 ABR and Hybrid Fiber/Microwave Networks
In segments of a microwave network that are connected by fiber-optic links,
E1 frames must be propagated onto the optical cable, and restored again on
the next microwave segment. The same goes for fault indicators. When a
wireless E1 is de-allocated and its bandwidth freed for Ethernet traffic, the
periodic signals sent from the transmitter to the receiver are also propagated
optically and then regenerated on the next microwave segment.
6.7.4.8 ABR Examples
In the figure below, the traffic emanating from 18 cell sites is merged into four
aggregation sites, making up a metro ring consisting of 28 MHz channels in a
1+0 configuration. In this basic scenario, 2G BTSs support 4 E1s each, yielding
a total of 72 E1s. SNCP 1+1 Protection is employed.
TDM and Ethernet Aggregation Case Study

In this scenario, the main question is how to migrate the network to support
3G-based data services, given the severe spectrum limitations. This common
legacy configuration leaves almost no capacity for Ethernet traffic – in this
case, approximately 2.3 Mbps per site of guaranteed Ethernet traffic
(assuming 64 Bytes frame size).
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TDM-only Aggregation Ring with 100% Protection Based on SNCP 1+1

In the simple, TDM-only, SNCP 1+1 case presented in the figure above, all E1s
flow in both directions, meaning that 50% of the total capacity is reserved for
failure states. In case of such a failure, E1 traffic is forwarded in the opposite
direction. From a capacity point of view, there is no difference between
normal state and failure state.
TDM Aggregation Ring - SNCP 1:1 Protection Bandwidth is Used for Ethernet

In the SNCP 1:1 scenario depicted in the above figure, TDM-only E1s flow only
in one direction. An alternate path is reserved, but no capacity is allocated. In
case of a failure, E1s are re-routed in the opposite direction over the reserved
path, receiving the non-allocated capacity.
When planning a data network for broadband services, one should compute
the guaranteed traffic (Committed Information Rate – CIR), as well as the
possible upside (Excess Information Rate – EIR). Given the availability of
bandwidth for both classes, you can determine the subscriber’s overall Quality
of Experience.
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A Native Ethernet Ring with 100% or Partial Protection Based on STP

In the scenario that appears in the figure above, when applying 100%
protection – or in case of a worst case failure, up to 14.5 Mbps of Ethernet
capacity are available per site. The whole ring can support 262 Mbps of traffic.
So if the 262 Mbps of protected path bandwidth is reserved but not allocated,
Ethernet capacity is increased to 29 Mbps per cell site aggregated into 116
Mbps in aggregation site S2, etc. In Ethernet, the various failure state scenarios
each have a different effect on capacity, as described in the next section.
6.7.4.9 Ethernet Ring Failure States
The figure below depicts three failure states of varying severities, denoted 2, 3
and 4.
 Non-Affecting Failure. The failure in link A3 does not affect traffic, as STP
has in any case blocked this link. Ethernet traffic does not traverse this
link.
 Medium-Severity Failure. The link failure at A2 causes some traffic to
flow normally, while some traffic uses the reserved alternate path.
 Worst-Case Scenario Failure – A failure in link A1 causes all traffic to
flow over the reserved alternate path
 Ethernet Rings: Different Severities of Failure States
Normal State Non-Affecting Failure

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Normal State Non-Affecting Failure
Medium Severity Failure Worst Case Failure



Link Failure

STP Block

Traffic from S2 to S1

Traffic from S3 to S1
There is no need for an STP block in any of the failure scenarios (1-3), since at
least one link in the ring is in any case out of service.
6.7.4.10 Comparison of Protection Methods – To Allocate or Not to Allocate
Traditional protection schemes include bandwidth reservation and actual
allocation of capacity for the alternate path. The reasoning for this was simple
– in failure state, the network would not be able to restore connectivity in a
timely fashion. Today, higher processing speeds and improved network
recovery algorithms allow products such as IP-10G to restore connectivity
instantly, without pre-allocation of capacity. Therefore, while high-priority E1
traffic is protected, alternate path capacity is reserved, but the unused
capacity can be utilized for the delivery of broadband services, allowing data
users to enjoy additional capacity when it becomes available. For example:
A Native2 Ring with Protected-ABR at Work

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While 72 E1s lines are delivered all the time, only the relevant 36 E1s are
actually carried on each path. On the Ethernet side, up to 262 Mbps of data are
available in normal state, while 41 Mbps guaranteed at failure (in the worst
case scenario).
Much more, even in failures states:
 17 Mbps of data per cell site vs. 2.3 mbps in SNCP 1+1
 17 Mbps per cell site for A3 failure
 6.4 Mbps per cell site for A2/A4 failure
In summary, ABR can provide much higher capacities in all scenarios, with the
exception of worst case failures. The increased capacity allows operators to
improve customer stratification, and enhance subscribers’ overall Quality-of-
Experience (QoE) with better performance in mail delivery, content sharing,
backup services, Facebook access, and video streaming.
6.7.4.11 ABR Benefits
ABR has significant benefits when applied in a 2G-to-3G migration
environment. It enables an operator to enjoy the inherent benefits of hybrid
TDM and Ethernet Microwave environments:
ABR Advantages: Double Data Capacity, with no Impact on TDM in Failure State

 Doubles ring capacity by using the TDM protection path to provide extra
capacity for Ethernet services.
 Leaves revenue-generating 2G voice traffic unaffected in the migration
process, with no need for protocol conversion.
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 Protects network synchronization and clock using currently deployed E1s,
without the need to test and verify new clock recovery mechanisms. Clock
recovery techniques are sensitive to delay and delay variation, and
therefore have a severe impact on the operator’s deployment strategy,
often limiting the number of links in a chain or a ring.
 Streamlines the phase-out of legacy E1s in the network, easing the
preparation for deployment of all-packet backhaul networks.
 QoS awareness enables the operator to associate the appropriate class of
availability and class of service to each traffic type:
Protected or not protected
Special low delay considerations
Low, medium, or high priority – TDM or Ethernet
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6.7.5 ACM for TDM Services
Related topics:
 Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM)
A unique advantage of IP-10G’s ACM implementation is its ability to use
sophisticated adaptive techniques in a hybrid, TDM/packet model. Using
Ceragon’s innovative Native
2
migration solution, in which TDM and Ethernet
traffic is natively and simultaneously carried over a single microwave link,
both TDM and Ethernet services can have configurable priority. When more
than one E1 channel is connected to a cell site, one of the channels can be
given a higher priority in order to maintain network synchronization as well
as a minimum level of service. The rest of the E1 channels may be forwarded
at a lower priority.
The figure below illustrates the benefits of Ceragon’s unique ACM adaption for
TDM based o the number of E1 channel, with the following assumptions:
 Frequency Band – 15 GHz
 Rain Zone – N (120 mm/year)
 Antennas – 1.2 m
 Distance – 18 Km
 Polarization – Horizontal
Ceragon’s Unique ACM Adaption for TDM

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Ceragon's Unique ACM Adaption for TDM
Number of E1 Channels Yearly Downtime (minutes) Availability QAM
80 178 99.96 256 H
80 132 99.97 256 L
68 105 99.98 128
55 71 99.986 64
44 60 99.988 32
33 37 99.993 16
23 26 99.995 8
17 11 99.999 QPSK
There are substantial benefits to be gained from applying ACM in a TDM
network. The operator can increase capacity on an existing link while
maintaining the same availability for its existing revenue-generating services.
Additional data E1 channels are easily offloaded in this virtual link to a
channel offering slightly lower availability. Optimally, one E1 channel can be
given a higher priority connection to maintain synchronization and a
minimum level of service at all times (greater than 99.999% availability). The
rest of the E1 channels can be associated with a lower priority. This model can
be applied effectively even in a TDM-to-Ethernet migration scenario. It is
important to note that it is possible to define packet-based services at a higher
priority than for TDM services, as some real-time services may run on
Ethernet ports, while other, best-effort data services are forwarded over
legacy TDM networks.
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6.7.6 AIS Signaling and Detection
FibeAir IP-10G supports detection of AIS in incoming signals at TDM line
interfaces (E1 or STM-1 VC-11/12). IP-10G also supports AIS signaling in the
optional STM-1 interface. In case of signal failure at the trail going out from
the STM-1 interface, AIS is transmitted at the payload of the VC-11/12. In
addition, IP-10G can be configured to signal AIS at the VC level, in order to
provide indications to SDH multiplexing equipment which may not have the
ability to detect AIS at the payload level.
The feature is enabled or disabled for the entire IDU, and for all its TDM line
interfaces.
In case of detection, the following takes place:
 Signal failure is generated at the corresponding trail. This prevents the far
end from receiving a signal (including trail ID indications) and the trail
status to show “signal failure”.
 An indication is given to the user at the proper interface. Note that this is
not a system alarm, since the problem originates elsewhere in the
network.
In case of signal failure at the trail outgoing from the STM-1 interface, AIS is
transmitted at the payload of the VC-11/12.
In addition, the system can be configured to signal AIS at the VC level (AIS-V)
in the V5 byte of the overhead. This is meant to provide indications to SDH
multiplexing equipment which may not have the ability to detect AIS at the
payload level.
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6.8 Synchronization
This section includes:
 Synchronization Overview
 IP-10G Synchronization Solution
 Available Synchronization Interfaces
 Synchronization Configuration
 Synchronization Using TDM Trails
 SyncE from Co-Located TDM Trails
 Synchronization Using Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) Optimized
Transport
 Native Sync Distribution Mode
 SyncE PRC Pipe Regenerator Mode
 SSM Support and Loop Prevention
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6.8.1 Synchronization Overview
Frequency synchronization consists of the transport of a frequency timing
reference through the physical layer of a certain interface. The interface used
to convey the frequency may be an Ethernet, PDH, SDH or logical interface.
Synchronization enables the receiving side of an interface to lock onto the
physical layer clock of the received signal, which was derived from some
reference clock source, thereby frequency-synchronizing the receiver with
that source.
Synchronization can be used to synchronize network elements by feeding one
node with a reference clock, and having other nodes derive their clocks from
that source.
The following synchronization applications are relevant:
 Distribution of synchronization to equipment that supports synchronous
Ethernet (SyncE) in a PDH-synchronized network (co-located
synchronization):
Synchronization sources are entered into the system as PDH trails
transported through the system. In 2G networks, for example, all PDH
trails are synchronized to a common clock.
In the desired nodes, the frequency is taken from the local trails (which
derive their frequency from the original input).
The transported frequency is used to drive the outgoing Ethernet
signal.
 Distribution of synchronization in a hybrid network, where some of the
sites require SyncE and others require PDH synchronization:
A synchronization source is entered into the network (through
Ethernet or SDH, for example) and distributed through the radio links.
In nodes with PDH support, the reference frequency is conveyed to the
user through an E1 interface used for synchronization.
In nodes with Ethernet support, the reference frequency is conveyed to
the user via SyncE interfaces
 Distribution of synchronization in an Ethernet-only network:
A synchronization source is entered into the network through SyncE or
SDH and distributed through the radio links
The reference frequency is conveyed to the user through the network
via SyncE interfaces.
Note: In order to use this feature, an IP-10G with supporting
hardware is required. A synchronization license is also
required.
Synchronization is an essential part of any mobile backhaul solution and is
sometimes required by other applications as well.
Two unique synchronization issues must be addressed for mobile networks:
 Frequency Lock: Applicable to GSM and UMTS-FDD networks.
Limits channel interference between carrier frequency bands.
Typical performance target: frequency accuracy of < 50 ppb.
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Sync is the traditional technique used, with traceability to a PRS master clock
carried over PDH/SDH networks, or using GPS.
 Phase Lock with Latency Correction: Applicable to CDMA, CDMA-2000,
UMTS-TDD, and WiMAX networks.
Limits coding time division overlap.
Typical performance target: frequency accuracy of < 20 - 50 ppb, phase
difference of < 1-3 ms.
GPS is the traditional technique used.
6.8.1.1 Precision Timing-Protocol (PTP)
PTP synchronization refers to the distribution of frequency, phase, and
absolute time information across an asynchronous packet switched network.
PTP can use a variety of protocols to achieve timing distribution, including:
 IEEE-1588
 NTP
 RTP
Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) Synchronization

6.8.1.2 Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE)
SyncE is standardized in ITU-T G.8261 and refers to a method whereby the
clock is delivered on the physical layer.
The method is based on SDH/TDM timing, with similar performance, and does
not change the basic Ethernet standards.
The SyncE technique supports synchronized Ethernet outputs as the timing
source to an all-IP BTS/NodeB. This method offers the same synchronization
quality provided over E1 interfaces to legacy BTS/NodeB.
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Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE)

6.8.2 IP-10G Synchronization Solution
Ceragon's synchronization solution ensures maximum flexibility by enabling
the operator to select any combination of techniques suitable for the
operator’s network and migration strategy.
 Synchronization using native E1 trails
Including SyncE output from co-located trail support
 PTP optimized transport:
Supports a variety of protocols, such as IEEE-1588 and NTP
Guaranteed ultra-low PDV (<0.035 ms per hop)
Unique support for ACM and narrow channels
 Native Sync Distribution
End-to-End Native Synchronization distribution for nodal
configurations
GE/E1/STM-1 input
GE/FE/E1/STM-1 output
Supports any radio link configuration and network topology
Synchronization Status Messages (SSM) to prevent loops and enable
use of most reliable clock source
User-defined clock source priority level
Automated determination of relative clock source quality levels
 SyncE “Regenerator” mode
PRC grade (G.811) performance for pipe (“regenerator”) applications
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6.8.3 Available Synchronization Interfaces
Frequency signals can be taken by the system from a number of different
interfaces (one reference at a time). The reference frequency may also be
conveyed to external equipment through different interfaces.
The available interfaces for frequency distribution depend on the hardware
assembly, as summarized in the following table:

Hardware
type
Available interfaces as frequency
input (reference sync source)
Available interfaces as frequency
output
IP-10G R2  TDM trails
 E1 interfaces
 STM-1 signal
 STM-1 VC-11/12s
 Radio channels
 PW clock port
 Incoming PW signal
 E1 interfaces
 STM-1 signal
 STM-1 VC-11/12s
 Radio channels
 GE/FE Ethernet interfaces
 PW clock port
 Reference clock for PW signals
IP-10G R3  TDM trails
 E1 interfaces
 STM-1 signal
 STM-1 VC-11/12s
 Radio channels
 GE Ethernet interfaces
 PW clock port
 Incoming PW signal
 E1 interfaces
 STM-1 signal
 STM-1 VC-11/12s
 Radio channels
 GE/FE Ethernet interfaces
 PW clock port
 Reference clock for PW signals
When using a radio channel to distribute a frequency, 2Mbps of bandwidth is
used for this purpose. However the following facts mitigate the loss of
bandwidth:
 When using TDM trails as a synchronization source (co-located mode), no
additional bandwidth is taken (the 2Mbps is already used by the trail).
 When distributing through a network, a single channel per radio link is
necessary to synchronize all the nodes in the network, regardless of their
number.
It is possible to configure up to eight synchronization sources in the system. At
any given moment, only one of these sources is active; the clock is taken from
the active source onto all other appropriately configured interfaces.
Note: At this point there is support for loops and for quality
indicators (SSM) in the radio interfaces only.
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6.8.4 Synchronization Configuration
Frequency is distributed by configuring the following parameters in each
node:
 System synchronization sources (primary/secondary). These are the
interfaces from which the frequency is taken and distributed to other
interfaces. Up to 8 sources can be configured in each node. A revertive
timer can be configured. For each interface, user must configure:
Its clock quality level. The quality level may be fixed (according to ITU-
T G.781 option I for E1 systems, option II for DS1 systems) or
automatic. When the quality level is automatic, it is determined by SSM
messages.
Its priority (1-8). No two interfaces may have the same priority.
 For each interface, the source of its outgoing signal clock. This can be:
Local clock: Causes the interface to generate its signal from a local
oscillator, unrelated to the system reference frequency.
Synchronization reference: Causes the interface to generate its signal
from the system reference clock, which is taken from the
synchronization source.
 The node’s synchronization mode. This can be:
Automatic: In this mode, the active source is selected based on the
interface with highest available quality. Among interfaces with
identical quality, the interface with the highest priority is used.
Force: The user can force the system to use a certain interface as the
reference clock source.
By configuring synchronization sources and transporting the reference
frequency to the related interfaces in a network, a frequency “flow” can be
achieved, as shown in the example below, where the reference frequency from
a single node is distributed to a number of base stations.
Synchronization Configuration
IP-10G Node
IP-10G Node
IP-10G
Converter
IP-10G
Converter
IP-10G
Converter
IP-10G
Converter
IP-10G
Converter
BTS BTS BTS
BTS
Radio Link
Ethernet Interface
E1 Interface
Sync Source
Signal Clock = Reference
Signal Clock = Reference
Signal Clock = Reference
Signal Clock = Reference
Signal Clock = Reference
Signal Clock = Reference Signal Clock = Reference
Sync Source
Sync Source
Sync Source Sync Source Sync Source
Sync Source
Signal Clock = Reference Signal Clock = Reference
Signal Clock = Reference

The following restrictions apply for frequency distribution configuration:
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 Synchronization source interfaces must not be assigned to a TDM trail,
unless the “tdm trail” interface is used. In this case, a pre-existing trail
must be configured.
 An interface can either be used as a synchronization source or can take its
signal from the system reference, but not both (no loop timing available,
except locally in SDH interfaces).
 If no interface is configured as a synchronization source, no interfaces may
take its outgoing clock from the reference.
 If at least one interface is currently taking its outgoing clock from the
reference, the synchronization source cannot be removed.
 The clock taken from a line interface (E1, SDH, VC-11/12, Ethernet) cannot
be conveyed to another line interface in the same IDU.
 The clock taken from a radio channel cannot be conveyed to another radio
channel in the same radio.
 In each IDU, only one line interface at the main board and only one at the
T-card can take its outgoing clock from the reference clock at any given
time. All other interfaces in the same board must make use of the local
clock.
If the signal driving the Ethernet interfaces fails, an alarm will alert the user.
6.8.5 Synchronization Using TDM Trails
Using this technique, each E1 trail carries a native TDM clock, which is
compliant with GSM and UMTS synchronization requirements.
Synchronization using Native E1 Trails

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IP-10G implements a PDH-like mechanism for providing high precision
synchronization of native TDM trails. This implementation ensures high-
quality synchronization while keeping cost and complexity low since it
eliminates the need for a sophisticated centralized SDH-grade clock unit at
each node. The system is designed to deliver E1 traffic and recover E1 clock,
complying with G.823 “synchronization port” jitter and wander. That means
the user can use any or all of the system’s E1 interfaces in order to deliver
synchronization reference via the radio to a remote site.
Each trail is independent of the other, meaning that IP-10G does not imply any
restrictions on the source of the TDM trails. This means that each trail can
have its own clock, and no synchronization between trails is assumed.
Each E1 trail is mapped independently over the radio frame and the
integrated cross-connect elements. Timing can be distributed over user traffic
carrying E1 trails or dedicated “timing” trails. This method eliminates (or
delays) the need to employ emerging techniques for carrying timing over
packet networks (SyncE or PTP).
6.8.6 SyncE from Co-Located TDM Trails
The clock for SyncE output interfaces can be derived from any co-located
traffic-carrying E1 trail at the BTS site.
This is ideal as an intermediate solution for introducing all-packet NodeBs
which are co-located with already installed 2G BTSs.
The figure below illustrates how SyncE from Co-Located E1 trail operates.
Sync from Co-Located E1 Mode

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6.8.7 Synchronization Using Precision Timing Protocol (PTP)
Optimized Transport
This feature requires:
 Enhanced QoS license
This feature cannot be used with:
 Wayside Channel
Related topics:
 Enhanced QoS
IP-10G supports the PTP synchronization protocol (IEEE-1588). IP-10G’s PTP
Optimized Transport guarantees ultra-low PDV (<0.035 ms), and provides
unique support for ACM and narrow channels. Frame delay variation of
<0.035 ms per hop for PTP control frames is supported, even when ACM is
enabled, and even when operating with narrow radio channels.
The Precision Time Protocol (PTP) optimized transport feature is essential for
timing synchronization protocols such as IEEE 1588. The PTP optimized
transport channel is a Constant Bit Rate Channel that is dedicated to the
Precision Time protocol with a constant latency that is unaffected by ACM
profile changes and by congestion conditions that may occur on the payload
traffic path.
Ceragon's unique PTP Optimized Transport mechanism ensures that PTP
control frames (IEEE-1588, NTP, etc.) are transported with maximum
reliability and minimum delay variation, to provide the best possible timing
accuracy (frequency and phase) meeting the stringent requirement of
emerging 4G technologies.
PTP control frames are identified using the advanced integrated QoS classifier.
Upon enabling this feature, a special low PDV channel is created. This channel
has 2 Mb bandwidth and carries all the frames mapped to the eighth Enhanced
QoS priority queue. Once enabling the feature, the user must make sure to
classify all PTP frames to the eighth queue. In this mode, all frames from the
eight queue will bypass the shaper and scheduler and will be sent directly to
the dedicated low PDV channel.
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PTP Optimized Transport

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6.8.8 Native Sync Distribution Mode
This feature requires:
 Synchronization Unit license
 For SyncE input, hardware version R3
Related topics:
 Licensing
In this mode, targeting nodal configurations, synchronization is distributed
natively end-to-end over the radio links in the network.
No TDM trails or E1 interfaces at the tail sites are required.
Synchronization is typically provided by one or more clock sources (SSU/GPS)
at fiber hub sites.
Native Sync Distribution Mode

In native Sync Distribution mode, the following interfaces can be used as the
sync references:
 E1STM-1GE (SyncE)
11

Additionally, the following interfaces can be used for sync output:
 E1GE/FE (SyncE)
Native Sync Distribution mode can be used in any link configuration and any
network topology.
Ring topologies present special challenges for network synchronization. Any
system that contains more than one clock source for synchronization, or in
which topology loops may exist, requires an active mechanism to ensure that:
 A single source is be used as the clock source throughout the network,
preferably the source with the highest accuracy.
 There are no reference loops. In other words, no element in the network
will use an input frequency from an interface that ultimately derived that
frequency from one of the outputs of that network element.


11
SyncE input is only supported in the R3 hardware release.
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IP-10G’s Native Sync Distribution mechanism enables users to define a
priority level for each possible clock source. Synchronization Status Messages
(SSM) are sent regularly through each interface involved in frequency
distribution, enabling the network to gather and maintain a synchronization
status for each interface according to the system’s best knowledge about the
frequency quality that can be conveyed by that interface.
Based on these parameters, the network assigns each interface a quality level
and determines which interface to use as the current clock source. The
network does this by evaluating the clock quality of the available source
interfaces and selecting, from those interfaces with the highest quality, the
interface with the highest user-defined priority.
The synchronization is re-evaluated whenever one of the following occurs:
 Any synchronization source is added, edited, or deleted by a user.
 The clock quality status changes for any source interface.
 The synchronization mode is changed for the node.
6.8.8.1 Native Sync Distribution Examples
The figure below provides a Native Sync Distribution mode usage example in
which synchronization is provided to all-packet Node-Bs using SyncE.
Native Sync Distribution Mode Usage Example

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 209 of 403
The following figure illustrates Native Sync Distribution in a tree scenario.
Native Sync Distribution Mode – Tree Scenario

The following figure illustrates Native Sync Distribution in a ring scenario,
during normal operation.
Native Sync Distribution Mode – Ring Scenario (Normal Operation)

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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The following figure illustrates Native Sync Distribution in a ring scenario,
where a link has failed and the Native Sync timing distribution has been
restored over an alternate path by using SSM messages.
Native Sync Distribution Mode – Ring Scenario (Link Failure)

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6.8.9 SyncE PRC Pipe Regenerator Mode
This feature requires:
 Hardware version R3
 Smart Pipe switching mode
Related topics:
 Licensing
In SyncE PRC pipe regenerator mode, frequency is transported between the
GbE interfaces through the radio link.
PRC pipe regenerator mode makes use of the fact that the system is acting as a
simple link (so no distribution mechanism is necessary) in order to achieve
the following:
 Improved frequency distribution performance:
PRC quality
No use of bandwidth for frequency distribution
 Simplified configuration
In PRC pipe regenerator mode, frequency is taken from the incoming GbE
Ethernet signal, and used as a reference for the radio frame. On the receiver
side, the radio frame frequency is used as the reference signal for the outgoing
Ethernet PHY.
Frequency distribution behaves in a different way for optical and electrical
GbE interfaces, because of the way these interfaces are implemented:
 For optical interfaces, separate and independent frequencies are
transported in each direction.
 For electrical interfaces, each PHY must act either as clock master or as
clock slave in its own link. For this reason, frequency can only be
distributed in one direction, determined by the user.
PRC regenerator mode does not completely override the regular
synchronization distribution, but since it makes use of the Ethernet interfaces,
the following limitations apply:
 In PRC regenerator mode, Ethernet interfaces cannot be configured as a
synchronization source for distribution.
 In PRC regenerator mode, Ethernet interfaces cannot be configured to take
the system reference clock for their outgoing signal.
 Frequency distribution through the radio is independent for each
mechanism and is carried out at a different layer.
For PRC pipe regenerator mode to work, the following is necessary:
 The system must be configured to Smart Pipe mode.
 Interface Eth1 (GbE) must be enabled.
 Ethernet interfaces must not be configured as the system synchronization
source.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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The user can configure the following:
 PRC regenerator mode admin
 Direction of synchronization distribution (applicable only for electrical
GbE interfaces; for optical interfaces, this parameter is ignored)
Line to radio
Radio to line
6.8.10 SSM Support and Loop Prevention
In order to provide topological resiliency for synchronization transfer, IP-10G
implements the passing of SSM messages over the radio interfaces.
In addition, the SSM mechanism provides reference source resiliency, since a
network may have more than one source clock.
The following are the principles of operation:
 At all times, each source interface has a “quality status” which is
determined as follows:
If quality is configured as fixed, then the quality status becomes
“failure” upon interface failure (such as LOS, LOC, LOF, etc.).
If quality is automatic, then the quality is determined by the received
SSMs or becomes “failure” upon interface failure (such as LOS, LOC,
LOF, etc.).
 Each unit holds a parameter which indicates the quality of its reference
clock. This is the quality of the current synchronization source interface.
 The reference source quality is transmitted through SSM messages to all
relevant radio interfaces.
 Each unit determines the current active clock reference source interface:
The interface with the highest available quality is selected.
From among interfaces with identical quality, the interface with the
highest priority is selected.
 In order to prevent loops, an SSM with quality “Do Not Use” is sent
towards the active source interface
At any given moment, the system enables users to display:
 The current source interface quality.
 The current received SSM status for every source interface.
 The current node reference source quality.
As a reference, the following are the possible quality values (from highest to
lowest):
AUTOMATIC (available only in interfaces for which SSM support is
implemented)
G.811
SSU-A
SSU-B
G.813/8262 - default
DO NOT USE
Failure (cannot be configured by user)
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7. Radio Frequency Units (RFUs)
This chapter includes:
 RFU Overview
 RFU Selection Guide
 RFU-C
 1500HP/RFU-HP
 RFH-HS
 RFU-SP
 1500P
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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7.1 RFU Overview
FibeAir Radio Frequency Units (RFUs) were designed with sturdiness, power,
simplicity, and compatibility in mind. These advanced systems provide high-
power transmission for short and long distances and can be assembled and
installed quickly and easily. Any of the RFUs described in this chapter can be
used in an IP-10G system.
FibeAir RFUs deliver the maximum capacity over 3.5-56 MHz channels with
configurable modulation schemes from QPSK to 256QAM. The RFU supports
low to high capacities for traditional voice, mission critical, and emerging
Ethernet services, with any mix of interfaces, pure Ethernet, pure TDM, or
hybrid Ethernet and TDM interfaces (Native
2
).
High spectral efficiency can be ensured with XPIC, using the same bandwidth
for double the capacity, via a single carrier, with vertical and horizontal
polarizations.
IP-10G works with the following RFUs:
Standard Power
 FibeAir RFU-C
 FibeAir RFU-SP
 FibeAir 1500P
High Power
 FibeAir 1500HP
 FibeAir RFU-HP
 FibeAir RFU-HS
The following RFUs can be installed in a split-mount configuration:
 FibeAir RFU-C (6–42 GHz)
12


FibeAir
1500HP/RFU-HP (6–11 GHz)
 FibeAir RFU-HS (6–8 GHz)
 FibeAir RFU-SP (6–8 GHz)
 FibeAir 1500P (11–38 GHz)
The following RFUs can be installed in an all-indoor configuration:
 FibeAir 1500HP/RFU-HP (6–11 GHz)
The IFU and RFU are connected by a coaxial cable RG-223 (100 m/300 ft),
Belden 9914/RG-8 (300 m/1000 ft) or equivalent, N-type connectors (male).
The antenna connection can be:
 Direct or remote mount using the same antenna type.
 Remote mount: standard flexible waveguide (frequency dependent)
13



12
Refer to RFU-C roll-out plan for availability of each frequency.
13
Remote mount configuration is not supported for 42 GHz.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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7.2 RFU Selection Guide
The following table can be used to help you select the RFU that is appropriate
to your location.
 For the 13-42
14
GHz frequency range, use FibeAir RFU-C
 For the low frequencies please refer to the options below:
RFU Selection Guide
Character
RFU-C
(6 – 42GHz)
1500HP
(6 – 11GHz)
RFU-HP
(6 – 8GHz)
RFU-HS
(6 – 8GHz)
RFU-SP
(6 – 8GHz)
1500P
(11 – 38GHz)
Installation Type
Split Mount √ √ √ √


All-Indoor -- √ √ --
--

Space Diversity
Method
SD (BBS/IFC) BBS BBS + IFC
15
BBS BBS BBS BBS
Frequency
Diversity
FD (BBS) √ √ √ √ √ √
Configuration
1+0/2+0/1+1/2+2 √ √ √ √ √ √
N+1 -- √ √ -- -- --
N+0 ( N>2) -- √ √ -- -- --
Tx Power (dBm)
High Power
(up to 29 dBm)
-- √ √ √ -- --
Ultra High Power
(up to 32 dBm)
-- √ √ -- -- --
RFU Mounting
Direct Mount
Antenna
√ -- -- √ √

Bandwidth
(BW)
3.5MHz – 56 MHz √ -- √ -- -- --
10 MHz – 30 MHz √ √ √ √ √ √
56 MHz √ -- √ √ √ √
Power Saving
Mode
Adjustable Power
Consumption
-- -- √ -- -- --



14
42GHz RFU-C is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.
15
1500 HP (11 GHz ) 40 MHz bandwidth does not support IF Combining. For this frequency,
Space Diversity is only available via BBS.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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7.3 RFU-C
FibeAir RFU-C is a fully software configurable, state-of-the-art RFU that
supports a broad range of interfaces and capacities from 10 Mbps up to 500
Mbps. RFU-C operates in the frequency range of 6-42 GHz.
RFU-C supports low to high capacities for traditional voice and Ethernet
services, as well as PDH/SDH/SONET or hybrid Ethernet and TDM interfaces.
Traffic capacity throughput and spectral efficiency are optimized with the
desired channel bandwidth. For maximum user choice flexibility, channel
bandwidths can be selected together with a range of modulations from QPSK
to 256 QAM.
With RFU-C, traffic capacity throughput and spectral efficiency are optimized
with the desired channel bandwidth. For maximum user choice flexibility,
channel bandwidths can be selected together with a range of modulations
from QPSK to 256 QAM over 3.5-56 MHz channel bandwidth.
When RFU-C operates in co-channel dual polarization (CCDP) mode using
XPIC, two carrier signals can be transmitted over a single channel, using
vertical and horizontal polarization. This enables double capacity in the same
spectrum bandwidth.
7.3.1 Main Features of RFU-C
 Frequency range – Operates in the frequency range 6 – 42 GHz
 Frequency accuracy – ±4 ppm
16

 More power in a smaller package - Up to 24 dBm for extended distance,
enhanced availability, use of smaller antennas
 Configurable Modulation – QPSK – 256 QAM
 Configurable Channel Bandwidth – 3.5 MHz – 56MHz
 Compact, lightweight form factor - Reduces installation and
warehousing costs
 Supported configurations
17
:
1+0 – direct and remote mount
1+1 – direct and remote mount
2+0 – direct and remote mount
2+2 – remote mount
4+0 – remote mount
 Efficient and easy installation - Direct mount installation with different
antenna types


16
Over temperature.
17
Remote mount configuration is not supported for 42 GHz.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 217 of 403
7.3.2 RFU-C Frequency Bands
Frequency Band TX Range RX Range Tx/Rx Spacing
6L GHz
6332.5-6393 5972-6093
300A
5972-6093 6332.5-6393
6191.5-6306.5 5925.5-6040.5
266A
5925.5-6040.5 6191.5-6306.5
6303.5-6418.5 6037.5-6152.5
6037.5-6152.5 6303.5-6418.5
6245-6290.5 5939.5-6030.5
260A
5939.5-6030.5 6245-6290.5
6365-6410.5 6059.5-6150.5
6059.5-6150.5 6365-6410.5
6226.89-6286.865 5914.875-6034.825
252B
5914.875-6034.825 6226.89-6286.865
6345.49-6405.465 6033.475-6153.425
6033.475-6153.425 6345.49-6405.465
6181.74-6301.69 5929.7-6049.65
252A
5929.7-6049.65 6181.74-6301.69
6241.04-6360.99 5989-6108.95
5989-6108.95 6241.04-6360.99
6300.34-6420.29 6048.3-6168.25
6048.3-6168.25 6300.34-6420.29
6235-6290.5 5939.5-6050.5
240A
5939.5-6050.5 6235-6290.5
6355-6410.5 6059.5-6170.5
6059.5-6170.5 6355-6410.5
6H GHz
6924.5-7075.5 6424.5-6575.5
500
6424.5-6575.5 6924.5-7075.5
7032.5-7091.5 6692.5-6751.5
340C
6692.5-6751.5 7032.5-7091.5
6764.5-6915.5 6424.5-6575.5
340B 6424.5-6575.5 6764.5-6915.5
6924.5-7075.5 6584.5-6735.5
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 218 of 403
Frequency Band TX Range RX Range Tx/Rx Spacing
6584.5-6735.5 6924.5-7075.5
6781-6939 6441-6599
340A
6441-6599 6781-6939
6941-7099 6601-6759
6601-6759 6941-7099
6707.5-6772.5 6537.5-6612.5
160A
6537.5-6612.5 6707.5-6772.5
6767.5-6832.5 6607.5-6672.5
6607.5-6672.5 6767.5-6832.5
6827.5-6872.5 6667.5-6712.5
6667.5-6712.5 6827.5-6872.5
7 GHz
7783.5-7898.5 7538.5-7653.5
7538.5-7653.5 7783.5-7898.5
7301.5-7388.5 7105.5-7192.5
196A
7105.5-7192.5 7301.5-7388.5
7357.5-7444.5 7161.5-7248.5
7161.5-7248.5 7357.5-7444.5
7440.5-7499.5 7622.5-7681.5

7678.5-7737.5 7496.5-7555.5
7496.5-7555.5 7678.5-7737.5
7580.5-7639.5 7412.5-7471.5
168C
7412.5-7471.5 7580.5-7639.5
7608.5-7667.5 7440.5-7499.5
7440.5-7499.5 7608.5-7667.5
7664.5-7723.5 7496.5-7555.5
7496.5-7555.5 7664.5-7723.5
7609.5-7668.5 7441.5-7500.5
168B
7441.5-7500.5 7609.5-7668.5
7637.5-7696.5 7469.5-7528.5
7469.5-7528.5 7637.5-7696.5
7693.5-7752.5 7525.5-7584.5
7525.5-7584.5 7693.5-7752.5
7273.5-7332.5 7105.5-7164.5 168A
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 219 of 403
Frequency Band TX Range RX Range Tx/Rx Spacing
7105.5-7164.5 7273.5-7332.5
7301.5-7360.5 7133.5-7192.5
7133.5-7192.5 7301.5-7360.5
7357.5-7416.5 7189.5-7248.5
7189.5-7248.5 7357.5-7416.5
7280.5-7339.5 7119.5-7178.5
161P
7119.5-7178.5 7280.5-7339.5
7308.5-7367.5 7147.5-7206.5
7147.5-7206.5 7308.5-7367.5
7336.5-7395.5 7175.5-7234.5
7175.5-7234.5 7336.5-7395.5
7364.5-7423.5 7203.5-7262.5
7203.5-7262.5 7364.5-7423.5
7597.5-7622.5 7436.5-7461.5
161O
7436.5-7461.5 7597.5-7622.5
7681.5-7706.5 7520.5-7545.5
7520.5-7545.5 7681.5-7706.5
7587.5-7646.5 7426.5-7485.5
161M
7426.5-7485.5 7587.5-7646.5
7615.5-7674.5 7454.5-7513.5
7454.5-7513.5 7615.5-7674.5
7643.5-7702.5 7482.5-7541.5
161K
7482.5-7541.5 7643.5-7702.5
7671.5-7730.5 7510.5-7569.5
7510.5-7569.5 7671.5-7730.5
7580.5-7639.5 7419.5-7478.5
161J
7419.5-7478.5 7580.5-7639.5
7608.5-7667.5 7447.5-7506.5
7447.5-7506.5 7608.5-7667.5
7664.5-7723.5 7503.5-7562.5
7503.5-7562.5 7664.5-7723.5
7580.5-7639.5 7419.5-7478.5
161I
7419.5-7478.5 7580.5-7639.5
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 220 of 403
Frequency Band TX Range RX Range Tx/Rx Spacing
7608.5-7667.5 7447.5-7506.5
7447.5-7506.5 7608.5-7667.5
7664.5-7723.5 7503.5-7562.5
7503.5-7562.5 7664.5-7723.5
7273.5-7353.5 7112.5-7192.5
161F
7112.5-7192.5 7273.5-7353.5
7322.5-7402.5 7161.5-7241.5
7161.5-7241.5 7322.5-7402.5
7573.5-7653.5 7412.5-7492.5
7412.5-7492.5 7573.5-7653.5
7622.5-7702.5 7461.5-7541.5
7461.5-7541.5 7622.5-7702.5
7709-7768 7548-7607
161D
7548-7607 7709-7768
7737-7796 7576-7635
7576-7635 7737-7796
7765-7824 7604-7663
7604-7663 7765-7824
7793-7852 7632-7691
7632-7691 7793-7852
7584-7643 7423-7482
161C
7423-7482 7584-7643
7612-7671 7451-7510
7451-7510 7612-7671
7640-7699 7479-7538
7479-7538 7640-7699
7668-7727 7507-7566
7507-7566 7668-7727
7409-7468 7248-7307
161B
7248-7307 7409-7468
7437-7496 7276-7335
7276-7335 7437-7496
7465-7524 7304-7363
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 221 of 403
Frequency Band TX Range RX Range Tx/Rx Spacing
7304-7363 7465-7524
7493-7552 7332-7391
7332-7391 7493-7552
7284-7343 7123-7182
161A
7123-7182 7284-7343
7312-7371 7151-7210
7151-7210 7312-7371
7340-7399 7179-7238
7179-7238 7340-7399
7368-7427 7207-7266
7207-7266 7368-7427
7280.5-7339.5 7126.5-7185.5
154C
7126.5-7185.5 7280.5-7339.5
7308.5-7367.5 7154.5-7213.5
7154.5-7213.5 7308.5-7367.5
7336.5-7395.5 7182.5-7241.5
7182.5-7241.5 7336.5-7395.5
7364.5-7423.5 7210.5-7269.5
7210.5-7269.5 7364.5-7423.5
7594.5-7653.5 7440.5-7499.5
154B
7440.5-7499.5 7594.5-7653.5
7622.5-7681.5 7468.5-7527.5
7468.5-7527.5 7622.5-7681.5
7678.5-7737.5 7524.5-7583.5
7524.5-7583.5 7678.5-7737.5
7580.5-7639.5 7426.5-7485.5
154A
7426.5-7485.5 7580.5-7639.5
7608.5-7667.5 7454.5-7513.5
7454.5-7513.5 7608.5-7667.5
7636.5-7695.5 7482.5-7541.5
7482.5-7541.5 7636.5-7695.5
7664.5-7723.5 7510.5-7569.5
7510.5-7569.5 7664.5-7723.5
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 222 of 403
Frequency Band TX Range RX Range Tx/Rx Spacing
8 GHz
8396.5-8455.5 8277.5-8336.5
119A
8277.5-8336.5 8396.5-8455.5
8438.5 – 8497.5 8319.5 – 8378.5
8319.5 – 8378.5 8438.5 – 8497.5
8274.5-8305.5 7744.5-7775.5
530A
7744.5-7775.5 8274.5-8305.5
8304.5-8395.5 7804.5-7895.5
500A
7804.5-7895.5 8304.5-8395.5
8023-8186.32 7711.68-7875
311C-J
7711.68-7875 8023-8186.32
8028.695-8148.645 7717.375-7837.325
311B
7717.375-7837.325 8028.695-8148.645
8147.295-8267.245 7835.975-7955.925
7835.975-7955.925 8147.295-8267.245
8043.52-8163.47 7732.2-7852.15
311A
7732.2-7852.15 8043.52-8163.47
8162.12-8282.07 7850.8-7970.75
7850.8-7970.75 8162.12-8282.07
8212-8302 7902-7992
310D
7902-7992 8212-8302
8240-8330 7930-8020
7930-8020 8240-8330
8296-8386 7986-8076
7986-8076 8296-8386
8212-8302 7902-7992
310C
7902-7992 8212-8302
8240-8330 7930-8020
7930-8020 8240-8330
8296-8386 7986-8076
7986-8076 8296-8386
8380-8470 8070-8160
8070-8160 8380-8470
8408-8498 8098-8188
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 223 of 403
Frequency Band TX Range RX Range Tx/Rx Spacing
8098-8188 8408-8498
8039.5-8150.5 7729.5-7840.5
310A
7729.5-7840.5 8039.5-8150.5
8159.5-8270.5 7849.5-7960.5
7849.5-7960.5 8159.5-8270.5
8024.5-8145.5 7724.5-7845.5
300A
7724.5-7845.5 8024.5-8145.5
8144.5-8265.5 7844.5-7965.5
7844.5-7965.5 8144.5-8265.5
8302.5-8389.5 8036.5-8123.5
266C
8036.5-8123.5 8302.5-8389.5
8190.5-8277.5 7924.5-8011.5
266B
7924.5-8011.5 8190.5-8277.5
8176.5-8291.5 7910.5-8025.5
266A
7910.5-8025.5 8176.5-8291.5
8288.5-8403.5 8022.5-8137.5
8022.5-8137.5 8288.5-8403.5
8226.52-8287.52 7974.5-8035.5
252A
7974.5-8035.5 8226.52-8287.52
8270.5-8349.5 8020.5-8099.5 250A
10 GHz

10501-10563 10333-10395
168A
10333-10395 10501-10563
10529-10591 10361-10423
10361-10423 10529-10591
10585-10647 10417-10479
10417-10479 10585-10647
10501-10647 10151-10297
350A
10151-10297 10501-10647
10498-10652 10148-10302
350B
10148-10302 10498-10652
10561-10707 10011-10157
550A
10011-10157 10561-10707
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Frequency Band TX Range RX Range Tx/Rx Spacing
10701-10847 10151-10297
10151-10297 10701-10847
10590-10622 10499-10531
91A
10499-10531 10590-10622
10618-10649 10527-10558
10527-10558 10618-10649
10646-10677 10555-10586
10555-10586 10646-10677
11 GHz

11425-11725 10915-11207
All
10915-11207 11425-11725
11185-11485 10700-10950
10695-10955 11185-11485
13 GHz

13002-13141 12747-12866
266
12747-12866 13002-13141
13127-13246 12858-12990
12858-12990 13127-13246
12807-12919 13073-13185
266A
13073-13185 12807-12919
12700-12775 12900-13000
200
12900-13000 12700-12775
12750-12825 12950-13050
12950-13050 12750-12825
12800-12870 13000-13100
13000-13100 12800-12870
12850-12925 13050-13150
13050-13150 12850-12925
15 GHz

15110-15348 14620-14858
490
14620-14858 15110-15348
14887-15117 14397-14627
14397-14627 14887-15117
15144-15341 14500-14697 644
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 225 of 403
Frequency Band TX Range RX Range Tx/Rx Spacing
14500-14697 15144-15341
14975-15135 14500-14660
475
14500-14660 14975-15135
15135-15295 14660-14820
14660-14820 15135-15295
14921-15145 14501-14725
420
14501-14725 14921-15145
15117-15341 14697-14921
14697-14921 15117-15341
14963-15075 14648-14760
315
14648-14760 14963-15075
15047-15159 14732-14844
14732-14844 15047-15159
15229-15375 14500-14647
728
14500-14647 15229-15375
18 GHz

19160-19700 18126-18690
1010
18126-18690 19160-19700
18710-19220 17700-18200
17700-18200 18710-19220
19260-19700 17700-18140
1560
17700-18140 19260-19700
23 GHz

23000-23600 22000-22600
1008
22000-22600 23000-23600
22400-23000 21200-21800
1232 /1200
21200-21800 22400-23000
23000-23600 21800-22400
21800-22400 23000-23600
24UL GHz

24000 - 24250 24000 - 24250 All
26 GHz
25530-26030 24520-25030
1008
24520-25030 25530-26030
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 226 of 403
Frequency Band TX Range RX Range Tx/Rx Spacing
25980-26480 24970-25480
24970-25480 25980-26480
25266-25350 24466-24550
800
24466-24550 25266-25350
25050-25250 24250-24450
24250-24450 25050-25250
28 GHz

28150-28350 27700-27900
450
27700-27900 28150-28350
27950-28150 27500-27700
27500-27700 27950-28150
28050-28200 27700-27850 350
27700-27850 28050-28200
27960-28110 27610-27760
27610-27760 27960-28110
28090-28315 27600-27825 490
27600-27825 28090-28315
29004-29453 27996-28445 1008
27996-28445 29004-29453
28556-29005 27548-27997
27548-27997 28556-29005
29100-29125 29225-29250 125
29225-29250 29100-29125
31 GHz
31000-31085 31215-31300 175
31215-31300 31000-31085
32 GHz
31815-32207 32627-33019 812
32627-33019 31815-32207
32179-32571 32991-33383
32991-33383 32179-32571
38 GHz

38820-39440 37560-38180 1260
37560-38180 38820-39440
38316-38936 37045-37676
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 227 of 403
Frequency Band TX Range RX Range Tx/Rx Spacing
37045-37676 38316-38936
39650-40000 38950-39300
700
38950-39300 39500-40000
39300-39650 38600-38950
38600-38950 39300-39650
37700-38050 37000-37350
37000-37350 37700-38050
38050-38400 37350-37700
37350-37700 38050-38400


40550-41278 42050-42778
42 GHz
18
42050-42778 40550-41278 1500
41222-41950.5 42722-43450
42722-43450 41222-41950.5



18
42GHz support is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 228 of 403
7.3.3 RFU-C Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications
RFU-C Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications
RFU-C
Height: 200 mm
Width: 200 mm
Depth: 85 mm
Weight: 4kg/9 lbs
RFU-Antenna Connection
Direct mount or remote using the same antenna type
Remote mount: Standard flexible waveguide (frequency dependent)
IDU-RFU Connection
Coaxial cable RG-223 (100 m/300 ft), Belden 9914/RG-8 (300
m/1000 ft) or equivalent, N-type connectors (male)
Polarization Vertical or Horizontal
Standard Mounting OD Pole 50 mm-120 mm/2”-4.5” (subject to vendor and antenna size)
Operating Range -40.5 to -72 VDC
Storage
ETS 300 019-2-1 class T1.2, with a temperature range of -25°C
to+85°C.
Transportation
ETS 300 019-2-2 class 2.3, with a temperature range of -40°C
to+85°C.
Power Consumption RFU-C
6-26 GHz
1+0: 22W
1+1: 39W
Power Consumption RFU-C
28-42 GHz
1+0: 26W
1+1: 43W
Operating Temperature
Temperature range for continuous operating temperature with high
reliability:
-33°C to +55°C
(-27°F to 131°F)
Temperature range for exceptional temperatures; tested
successfully, with limited margins:
-45°C to +60°C
(-49°F to 140°F)
Relative Humidity 5% to 100%

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 229 of 403
7.3.4 RFU-C Mediation Device Losses
RFU-C Mediation Device Losses
Notes: The antenna interface is always the RFU-C interface.
If other antennas are to be used, an adaptor with a 0.1 dB
loss should be considered.
7.3.5 RFU-C Antenna Connection
RFU-C uses Andrew, RFS, Xian Putian, Radio Wave, GD and Shenglu antennas.
RFU-C can be mounted directly for all frequencies (6-42 GHz) using the
following antenna types (for integrated antennas, specific antennas PNs are
required):
 Andrew: VHLP series
 GD
 Radio Wave
 Xian Putian: WTG series
 Shenglu
For remote mount installations, the following flexible waveguide flanges
should be used (millimetric). The same antenna type (integrated) as indicated
above can be used (recommended).
Other antenna types using the flanges listed in the table below may be used.


19
42GHz RFU-C is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.
Configuration Interfaces 6-8 GHz 11 GHz
13-15
GHz
18-26
GHz
28-42
19

GHz
Flex WG
Remote Mount
antenna
Added on remote
mount configurations
0.5 0.5 1.2 1.5 1.5
1+0 DirectMount Integrated antenna 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.5
1+1 HSB
Direct Mount
Main Path 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.8
with asymmetrical coupler Secondary Path 6 6 6 6 6
2+0 DP (OMT) Direct Mount Integrated antenna 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
2+2 HSB (OMT)
Remote Mount
Main Path 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.1
with asymmetrical coupler Secondary Path 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5
2+0/1+1 FD SP Integrated antenna 3.8 3.8 3.9 4 4
4+0 DP (OMT) Remote Mount 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 230 of 403
7.3.6 RFU-C Waveguide Flanges
RFU-C – Waveguide Flanges
Frequency (GHz) Waveguide Standard Waveguide Flange Antenna Flange
6 WR137 PDR70 UDR70
7/8 WR112 PBR84 UBR84
10/11 WR90 PBR100 UBR100
13 WR75 PBR120 UBR120
15 WR62 PBR140 UBR140
18-26 WR42 PBR220 UBR220
28-38 WR28 PBR320 UBR320
42
20
WR22 UG383/U UG383/U
If a different antenna type (CPR flange) is used, a flange adaptor is required.
Please contact your Ceragon representative for details.
For RFU-C transmit power specifications:
 RFU-C Transmit Power (dBm)
For FRU-C receiver threshold specifications:
 RFU-C Receiver Threshold (RSL)

(dBm @ BER = 10-6)


20
42GHz RFU-C is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 231 of 403
7.4 1500HP/RFU-HP
FibeAir 1500HP and RFU-HP are high transmit power RFUs designed for long
haul applications with multiple carrier traffic. Together with their unique
branching design, 1500HP/RFU-HP can chain up to five carriers per single
antenna port and 10 carriers for dual port, making them ideal for Trunk or
Multi Carrier applications. The 1500HP/RFU-HP can be installed in either
indoor or outdoor configurations.
The field-proven 1500HP/RFU-HP was designed to enable high quality
wireless communication in the most cost-effective manner. With tens of
thousands of units deployed worldwide, the 1500HP/RFU-HP serves mobile
operators enabling them to reach over longer distances while enabling the use
of smaller antennas. The RFU-HP also includes a power-saving feature (“green
mode”) that enables the microwave system to automatically detect when link
conditions allow it to use less power.
1500HP and RFU-HP 1RX support Space Diversity via Baseband Switching in
the IDU (BBS). 1500HP 2RX, supports Space Diversity through IF Combining
(IFC). Both types of Space Diversity are valid solutions to deal with the
presence of multipath.
Notes: 1500 HP (11 GHz) 40 MHz bandwidth does not support IF
Combining. For this frequency, Space Diversity is only
available via BBS.
1500HP/RFU-HP is compatible with IP-10G hardware
releases R2 and R3. It cannot be used with R1.
7.4.1 Main Features of 1500HP/RFU-HP
21

 Frequency range –
1500HP 2RX: 6-11GHz
1500HP 1RX: 6-11GHz
RFU-HP: 6-8GHz
 Frequency accuracy – ±4 ppm
22

 Frequency source – Synthesizer
 Installation type – Split mount – remote mount, all indoor (No direct
mount)
 Diversity – Optional innovative IF Combining Space Diversity for
improved system gain (for 1500HP)
23
, as well as BBS Space Diversity (all
models)
 High transmit power – Up to 33dBm in all indoor and split mount
installations


21
For guidance on the differences between 1500HP and RFU-HP, refer to RFU Selection Guide
on page 215.
22
Over temperature.
23
1500 HP (11 GHz ) 40 MHz bandwidth does not support IF Combining. For this frequency,
space diversity is only available via BBS.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 232 of 403
 Configurable Modulation – QPSK – 256 QAM
 Configurable Channel Bandwidth –
1500HP 2RX (6-11GHz): 10-30MHz
1500HP 1RX (6-11GHz): 10-30MHz
1500HP 1RX (11GHz wide): 24-40MHz
RFU-HP 1RX (6-8GHz): 3.5-56MHz
 System Configurations – Non-Protected (1+0), Protected (1+1), Space
Diversity, 2+0/2+2 XPIC, N+0, N+1
 Variety of interfaces for TDM and IP
 XPIC and CCDP – Built-in XPIC (Cross Polarization Interference Canceller)
and Co-Channel Dual Polarization (CCDP) feature for double transmission
capacity, and more bandwidth efficiency
 Power Saving Mode option - Enables the microwave system to
automatically detect when link conditions allow it to use less power (for
RFU-HP)
 Tx Range (Manual/ATPC) – Up to 20dB dynamic range
 ATPC (Automatic Tx Power Control)
 RF Channel Selection – Via EMS/NMS
 NEBS – Level 3 NEBS compliance
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 233 of 403
7.4.2 1500HP/RFU-HP Frequency Bands
The frequency band of each radio is listed in the following table.

Frequency Band
Frequency Range
(GHz)
Channel Bandwidth
L6 GHz 5.925 to 6.425 29.65/56MHz
U6 GHz 6.425 to 7.100
20 MHz to
40/56 /60 MHz
7 GHz
7.425 to 7.900 14 MHz to 28/56 MHz
7.425 to 7.725 28/56 MHz
7.110 to 7.750 28/56 MHz
8 GHz
7.725 to 8.275 29.65 MHz
8.275 to 8.500 14 MHz to 28/56 MHz
7.900 to 8.400 14 MHz to 28/56 MHz
11 GHz 10.700 to 11.700 10 MHz to 40/56
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 234 of 403
7.4.3 1500HP/RFU-HP Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental
Specifications
1500HP/RFU-HP Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications
Transceiver (RFU)
Dimensions
 Height: 490 mm (19”)
 Width: 144 mm (6”)
 Depth: 280 mm (11”)
 Weight: 7 kg (15 lbs) (excluding Branching)
OCB Branching
(Split Mount and
Compact All-Indoor )
 Height: 420 mm (19”)
 Width: 110 mm (6”)
 Depth: 380 mm (11”)
 Weight: 7 kg (15 lbs) (excluding Branching)
 Recommended torque for RFU-OCB connection: 17 Nm
IDU-RFU Connection
Coaxial cable RG-223 (100 m/300 ft), Belden 9914/RG-8 (300 m/1000 ft)
or equivalent, N-type connectors (male)
RFU Power
Consumption
 Split Mount (29dBm): 80W
 All indoor (32dBm) : 100W
Storage ETS 300 019-2-1 class T1.2, with a temperature range of -25°C to+85°C.
Transportation ETS 300 019-2-2 class 2.3, with a temperature range of -40°C to+85°C.
Power Supply -40.5 to -72 VDC
Operating Temperature
Temperature range for continuous operating temperature with high
reliability:
-33°C to +55°C
(-27°F to 131°F)
Temperature range for exceptional temperatures; tested successfully, with
limited margins:
-45°C to +60°C
(-49°F to 140°F)
Relative Humidity 5% to 100%
For additional information:
 Power Consumption with RFU-HP in Power Saving Mode
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 235 of 403
7.4.4 1500HP/RFU-HP Functional Block Diagram and Concept of
Operation
The RFU handles RF signal processing. The RFU encompasses the RF
transmitter and receiver with all their related functions.
The 1500HP/RFU-HP product line was designed to answer the need for a high
power RF module together with IF combining functionality and the ability to
concatenate several carriers with minimal RF branching loss.
This section briefly describes the basic block diagrams for the various types of
RFUs included in the 1500HP/RFU-HP product line.
Figure 1: 1500HP 2RX in 1+0 SD Configuration
Q
u
a
d
p
l
e
x
e
r
PSU
IDU
(Ntype conn.)
XPIC source
sharing \ RSL ind.
(TNC conn.)
IF & controller Board
Antenna
main
Controller and
peripherals
Chassis
350MHz
140MHz
Pre-
Amp
LNA
RX Main
RX
C
o
n
n
e
c
t
o
r
DC / CTRL
IF TX
chain
VCO
VCO
PA
RX
chain
C
o
n
n
e
c
t
o
r
FSK
-48V
OCB
XPIC SW
R
F

L
P
B
K
RX Diversity
LNA
RX
chain
combiner
TX
diplexer
TCXO
XLO
10M
TX
RX
Antenna
Diversity
RX
TX Board
Extention port

Figure 2: 1500HP 1RX in 1+0 SD Configuration
Q
u
a
d
p
l
e
x
e
r
PSU
IDU
(Ntype conn.)
XPIC source
sharing \ RSL ind.
(TNC conn.)
IF & controller Board
Antenna
main
Controller and
peripherals
Chassis
350MHz
140MHz
FMM
LNA
RX Main
RX Board
C
o
n
n
e
c
t
o
r
DC / CTRL
IF TX
chain
VCO
VCO
FLM
RX
chain
C
o
n
n
e
c
t
o
r
FSK
-48V
OCB
XPIC SW
R
F

L
P
B
K
TX
diplexer
TXCO
XLO
10M
TX
RX
TX Board
Extention port

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 236 of 403
Figure 3: RFU-HP 1RX in 1+0 SD Configuration
XPIC source
sharing \ RSL ind.
(TNC conn.)
Antenna
main OCB
TX
RX
Extention port
Q
u
a
d
p
l
e
x
e
r
PSU section
I
D
U

(
B
M
A

c
o
n
n
.
)
X
P
I
C

s
o
u
r
c
e

s
h
a
r
i
n
g

\

R
S
L

i
n
d
.
(
B
M
A

c
o
n
n
.
)
PSC
Controller and
peripherals
Chassis
350MHz
140MHz
Pre-
Amp
LNA
TRX
C
o
n
n
e
c
t
o
r
DC / CTRL
IF TX
chain
VCO
VCO
PA
RX
chain
C
o
n
n
e
c
t
o
r
FSK
-48V
XPIC SW
R
F

L
P
B
K
RX
RFIC
TX
RFIC
diplexer
40M
XLO
40M

Each of these RFU types must be connected to an OCB (Outdoor Circulator
Block) which serves as both a narrow diplexer and a mediation device to
facilitate antenna connection.
For additional information:
 1500HP/RFU-HP OCBs
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 237 of 403
7.4.5 1500HP/RFU-HP Comparison Table
The following table summarizes the differences between the 1500HP 2RX and
1RX and the RFU-HP.
1500HP/RFU-HP Comparison Table
Feature 1500HP 2RX 1500HP 1RX RFU-HP 1RX Notes
Frequency Bands Support 6L,6H,7,8,11GHz 6L,6H,7,8,11GHz 6L,6H,7,8GHz
3.5MHz – 56 MHz -- -- √
10 MHz – 30 MHz √ √ √
40MHz -- √** √ ** 11GHz only – supports 24-
40MHz channels only
Split-Mount √ √ √ All are compatible with OCBs from
both generations
All-Indoor √ √ √ All are compatible with ICBs
Space Diversity BBS and IFC
24
BBS BBS IFC - IF Combining
BBS - Base Band Switching
Frequency Diversity √ √ √
1+0/2+0/1+1/2+2 √ √ √
N+1 √ √ √
N+0 ( N>2) √ √ √
High Power √ √ √ Only the RFU-HP has the same
power for split mount and all indoor
installation. Refer to 1500HP/RFU-
HP Models and Part Numbers on
page 261.
Direct Mount Antenna -- -- --
Power Saving Mode -- -- √ Power consumption changes with
TX power

Note that the main differences between the 1500HP 1RX and RFU-HP 1RX are:
 RFU-HP offers higher TX power for split mount
 The RFU-HP 1RX offers full support for 3.5M-56MHz channels.
 The RFU-HP 1RX supports the green-mode feature
Both systems are fully compatible with all OCB and ICB devices.


24
1500 HP (11 GHz ) 40 MHz bandwidth does not support IF Combining. For this frequency,
space diversity is only available via BBS.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 238 of 403
7.4.6 1500HP/RFU-HP System Configurations
7.4.6.1 Split Mount and All indoor
The 1500HP/RFU-HP radios can be installed either in split mount or in all
indoor configurations.
The following configurations are applicable for Split-Mount or all indoor
installations:
 Unprotected N+0 - 1+0 to 10+0 – Data is transmitted through N
channels, without redundancy (protection)
 Hot Standby - 1+1 HSB, 2+2 HSB – Two RFUs use the same RF channel
connected via a coupler. One channel transmits (Active) and the other acts
as a backup (Standby). A 2+2 HSB configuration uses two RFUs which are
chained using two frequencies and connected via a coupler to the other
pair of RFUs.
 N+1 Frequency Diversity - N+1 (1+1 to 9+1) – Data is transmitted
through N channels and an additional (+1) frequency channel, which
protects the N channels. If failure or signal degradation occurs in one of the
N channels, the +1 channel carries the data of the affected N carrier.
Additional configurations, such as 14+2, can be achieved using two racks.
Notes:
 Space Diversity can be used in each of the configurations.
When using BBS for SD (1500HP 1RX/RFU-HP), ACM is not supported.
 When the 1500HP/RFU-HP is mounted in a Split-Mount configuration, up to five RFUs can be
chained on one pole mount (the total is ten RFUs for a dual pole antenna).
When the 1500HP/RFU-HP is installed in an All Indoor configuration, there
are several installation options:
 In ETSI rack – up to ten radio carriers per rack
 In 19” open rack – up to five radio carriers per subrack
 Compact assembly – up to two radio carriers in horizontal placement
(without a subrack)
Two types of branching options are available for all indoor configurations:
 Using ICBs – Vertical assembly, up to 10 carriers per rack (five carriers
per subrack)
 Using OCBs – Compact horizontal assembly, up to 2 carriers per subrack
7.4.7 1500HP/RFU-HP Space Diversity Support
In long distance wireless links, multipath phenomenon commonly exist,
whereby fading occurs over time, space, and frequency. The 1500HP RFU
provides two types of Space Diversity optimizations, which are ideal solutions
for the multipath phenomenon:
 IF Combining (IFC)
 BBS (Base Band Switching)
The RFU-HP supports BBS Space Diversity, but not IFC.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 239 of 403
Space Diversity with Multiple RFUs Space Diversity with Single RFU


7.4.7.1 IF Combining (IFC) Mechanism
FibeAir 1500HP includes an IF combining mechanism, which uses an
innovative digital optimization algorithm to combine the signals received from
both antennas in order to improve signal quality. When distortion occurs, it is
measured in both receiver paths, and a new combined signal is produced. This
can improve the system gain by up to 3 dB. IFC Space Diversity can be used
with single and multiple RFUs.
A delay calibration for the diversity waveguide is required and is performed
automatically via the NMS.
Each 1500HP has built-in IFC Space Diversity functionality, with one
transmitter and two receivers. The receivers receive two different signals
from two antennas, which are installed 10-20 meters apart.
There are two options for connecting the RFUs to the diversity antennas:
 Waveguide to coaxial cable – Uses a waveguide adaptor (CPR type)
connected to an N-type coaxial cable. This is the default option.
 Elliptical waveguide – Uses a waveguide connector (CPR type) with an
elliptical waveguide.
7.4.7.2 Baseband Switching (BBS)
Both FibeAir 1500HP and FibeAir RFU-HP support BBS Space Diversity. In
this option, there are two RFUs instead of a single RFU with two receivers.
The actual BBS Space Diversity switching is performed in the IDU. The modem
switches to the other RF signal when interference occurs, and returns to the
main signal when the interference is gone. In this way, the system performs
optimum signal receiving by using the signal that provides the best
performance.
Note: When using BBS for SD (1500HP 1RX/RFU-HP), ACM is not
supported
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 240 of 403
7.4.8 Split Mount Configuration and Branching Network
For multiple carriers, up to five carriers can be cascaded and circulated
together to the antenna port.
Branching networks are the units which perform this function and route the
signals from the RFUs to the antenna. The branching network can contain
multiple OCBs or ICBs. When using a Split-Mount or All-Indoor compact
(horizontal) configuration, the OCB branching network is used. When using an
All-Indoor vertical configuration, the ICB branching network is used.
The main differences in branching concept between the OCB and the ICB
relate to how the signals are circulated.
 OCB – The Tx and the Rx path circulate together to the main OCB port.
When chaining multiple OCBs, each Tx signal is chained to the OCB Rx
signal and so on (uses S-bend section). For more details, refer to
1500HP/RFU-HP OCBs on page 241.
 ICB – All the Tx signals are chained together to one Tx port (at the ICC) and
all the Rx signals are chained together to one Rx port (at the ICC). The ICC
circulates all the Tx and the Rx signals to one antenna port. For more
information, refer to Indoor Circulator Block (ICB) on page 248.
All-Indoor Vertical Branching Split-Mount Branching and All-Indoor Compact

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 241 of 403
7.4.8.1 1500HP/RFU-HP OCBs
The OCB (Outdoor Circulator Block) has the following main purposes:
 Hosts the circulators and the attached filters.
 Routes the RF signal in the correct direction, through the filters and
circulators.
 Enables RFU connection to the Main and Diversity antennas.
FibeAir 1500HP and RFU-HP supports two types of OCBs:
 OCB (Older Type)
 New OCB
Old OCB New OCB


7.4.8.2 Old OCB
The Older Type OCB has two types, Type 1 and Type 2. The difference
between the two types is the circulator direction. Depending on the
configuration, OCB Type 1 or Type2 is used together with waveguide shorts,
loads, U Bends, or couplers.
Each OCB has four waveguide access points: two in the front, and two at the
rear. The diversity access point is optional.
If the system is not configured for diversity, all the relevant access points on
the OCB must be terminated using waveguide shorts.
The two OCB types (with and without IFC Space Diversity) have different part
numbers.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 242 of 403
The following block diagrams show the difference between the two OCBs and
the additional Diversity Circ block which is added in some diversity
configurations.
Old OCB – Type 1

Old OCB – Type 1 and Type 2 Description

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 243 of 403
7.4.8.3 New OCB
The new OCB is optimized for configurations that do not use IFC Space
Diversity. To support IFC Space Diversity, a diversity block is added.
The new OCB has only one type, and can be connected to an antenna via a
flexible waveguide.
The new OCB connection is at the rear of the OCB. It includes proprietary
accessories (different than those used for the older OCB).
Each OCB has three waveguide access points: The In/Out port is located at the
rear of the OCB.
The OCB ports include:
 Tx port
 Rx Port
 Diversity port
If the system is not configured for diversity, all the relevant access points on
the OCB must be terminated using waveguide shorts. Unused Rx ports are
terminated with a 50 ohm termination. New OCB and DCB Block Diagram

New OCB components include the following:
RF Filters
RF Filters are used for specific frequency channels and Tx/Rx separation. The
filters are attached to the OCB, and each RFU contains one Rx and one Tx filter.
In an IFC Space Diversity configuration, each RFU contains two Rx filters
(which combine the IF signals) and one Tx filter. The filters can be replaced
without removing the OCB.
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DCB (Diversity Circulator Block)
THE DCB is an external block which is added in IFC Space Diversity
configurations. The DCB is connected to the diversity port and can chain two
OCBs.
Coupler Kit
The coupler kit is used for 1+1 Hot Standby (HSB) configurations.
U Bend
The U Bend connects the chained DCB (Diversity Circulator Block) in N+1/N+0
configurations.
S Bend
The S Bend connects the chained OCB (Outdoor Circulator Block) in N+1 /N+ 0
configurations.
Pole Mount Kit
The Pole Mount Kit can fasten up to five OCBs and the RFUs to the pole. The kit
enables fast and easy pole mount installation.
7.4.8.4 New OCB Component Summary
New OCB Component Summary
Component Name Marketing Model Marketing Description Picture
DCB DCBf DCB Diversity Block f GHz kit

CPLR OCB-CPLR-f OCB Coupler f GHz

CPLR Sym OCB-CPLR_SYM-f OCB symmetrical Coupler fGHz

U Bend DCB-UBend DCB Ubend connection f GHz

S Bend OCB-SBend
OCB SBend connection f GHz

Pole Mount OCB-Pole Mount OCB-Pole Mount

Note: f= 6L, 6H, 7, 8, 11 GHz
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7.4.9 Split-Mount Branching Loss
When designing a link budget calculation, the branching loss (dB) should be
considered as per specific configuration. This section contains tables that list
the branching loss for the following Split-Mount configurations.
Interfaces 1+0 1+1 FD/ 2+0
2+1
3+0
3+1
4+0
4+1
5+0
5+1
6+0
6+1
7+0
7+1
8+0
8+1
9+0
9+1
10+0
CCDP with DP
Antenna
0 (1c) 0 (1c) 0.5 (2c) 0.5 (2c) 1.0 (3c) 1.0 (3c) 1.5 (4c) 1.5 (4c) 2 (5c) 2 (6c)
SP Non-adjacent
Channels
0 (1c) 0.5 (2c) 1.0 (3c) 1.5 (4c) 2.0 (5c) NA NA NA NA NA
Notes:
 (c) – Radio Carrier
 CCDP – Co-channel dual polarization
 SP – Single pole antenna
 DP – Dual pole antenna
In addition, the following losses will be added when using these items:

Item Where to Use Loss (dB)
Flex WG All configurations 0.5
15m Coax cable Diversity path 6-8/11 GHz 5/6.5
Symmetrical Coupler Adjacent channel configuration. 3.5
Asymmetrical coupler 1+1 HSB configurations
Main: 1.6
Coupled: 6.5
7.4.9.1 Upgrade Procedure
The following components need to be added when upgrading from a 1+0 to an
N+1 Split-Mount configuration:
 • OCBs
 • RFUs
 • IDU/IDMs
 • Flexible waveguides
When adding RF channels or carriers, RFUs and OCBs with specific filters need
to be added as well.
The OCBs are chained together using couplers (for the same frequency) or
U bends/S bends (for different frequencies), in accordance with the specific
configuration.
Open ports on the OCBs are terminated with 50 ohm terminations.
Detailed upgrade procedure documents are available for specific
configurations.
Please note that legacy OCBs can be upgraded and cascaded with the new OCB.
Please contact your Ceragon representative for details.
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7.4.10 1500HP/RFU-HP All Indoor Configurations and Branching
Network
All-Indoor configurations are when all the equipment is installed indoors
(room, shelter) and an elliptical waveguide connects the radio output port
from the room to the antenna.
A basic block diagram for a trunk system, including the main blocks, is shown
in the following figure. The block diagram includes marked interface points
which shall serve as reference points for several technical parameters used in
this document.
Block Diagram of Trunk System

All-Indoor System with Five IP-10 Carriers

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All-Indoor System with Ten IP-10 Carriers

The branching concept (as described in Split Mount Configuration and
Branching Network on page 240) is similar to All-Indoor application.
When using All-Indoor configurations, there are two types of branching
implementations:
 Using ICBs – Vertical assembly, up to 10 carriers per rack (five carriers
per subrack).
 Using NEW OCBs – Compact horizontal assembly, up to two carriers per
subrack.
All-Indoor Installations

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7.4.10.1 RFU Subrack Components
Subrack for ETSI Rack

Subrack
The subrack hosts all the RFU components and connections, as shown in the
previous figure.
The subrack includes up to five RFUs per subrack (each RFU connects to an
ICB).
RFU with Branching

Indoor Circulator Block (ICB)
Each RFU is connected to one ICB, and several ICBs are chained to each other.
The chained ICBs carry different RF channels and are connected to a single
ICC, which sums the RF signals.
The main ICB functions include:
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 Hosts the circulators and filters.
 Routes the RF signals in the correct direction, via the filters and
circulators.
The ICB is a modular standalone unit. When system expansion is necessary,
additional ICBs are added and chained with the existing ICBs.
The branching chain to neighbor ICB goes through the holes at the side. A long
screw connects the ICBs to each other and the last ICB at the chain is
terminated with a 50ohm termination, as shown below.
Note: The diversity port does not need to be terminated if the
diversity filter is not attached to the ICB.
ICB Branching Chain

RF Filters
The RF Filters are used for specific frequency channels and Tx/Rx separation.
The filters are attached to the ICB, and each RFU contains one Rx and one Tx
filter.
In an IFC Space Diversity configuration, each RFU contains two Rx filters to
combine the IF signals, along with one Tx filter.
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Indoor Combiner Circulator (ICC)
The ICC does not perform space diversity ICB summing (single output port).
ICC

The ICC sums the Rx and Tx signals and combines the N channels to the output
ports (one or two, in accordance with the configuration).
Indoor Combiner Circulator Diversity (ICCD)
The ICCD performs space diversity ICB summing (two output ports).
ICCD

Patch Panel
The ICB’s IF and XPIC cables are connected to the patch panel. The IDU’s IF
cables are connected to the specific RFU location. An XPIC cable is used
between two RFUs which are using the same Tx and Rx filters with different
polarizations (V and H).
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Fan Tray
The fan tray contains eight controlled and monitored fans, which cool the RFU
heat dissipations. The fan tray is a tray which is part of ETSI rack (as shown
above), while when using a 19” frame rack a fan tray is a separate unit which
must be assembled separately (shown below).
Fan Tray in 19” Frame Rack

Rigid Waveguides - T12, T13 and T14
Rigid waveguide sections are assembled in the rack to connect the ICC/ICCD
from the bottom to the top of the rack (C’). The specific Rigid WG sections to
be used depend on the configuration.
T12 Rigid Waveguide T13 Rigid Waveguide


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7.4.10.2 All-Indoor Configuration Example
In this configuration, three ICBs are chained together and connected to a
vertical ICC, and two ICBs are chained together and connected to a horizontal
ICC polarization.
The RF components include:
 Five RFUs
 Five ICBs
 Two ICCs
4+1 XPIC Assembly Configuration

Additional Assembly Configuration Examples

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7.4.10.3 All-Indoor Rack Types
Three types of racks can be used in an all-indoor configuration:
 19” lab rack ( open frame )
 19” rack
 ETSI rack
The 19” rack is not commonly used in Ceragon configurations.
The 19” lab rack (open frame) contains a subrack that is preassembled at the
factory and then shipped. The customer can also use an existing rack and the
subrack is installed separately at the site.
7.4.10.4 Rack Type Examples
Lab Rack (Open Frame) Examples

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19” Rack Example

ETSI Rack Example

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When a configuration includes more than ten carriers, two racks are
assembled and connected.
Configuration with More than Ten Carriers – Two Connected Racks


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7.4.10.5 All-Indoor Branching Loss
ICC has a 0 dB loss, since the RFU is calibrated to Pmax, together with the filter
and 1+0 branching loss. The following table presents the branching loss per
configuration and the Elliptical wave guide (WG) losses per meter which will
be add for each installation (dependant on the WG length).
Configuration Interfaces 1+0
1+1
FD
2+0
2+1
3+0
3+1
4+0
4+1
5+0
All-Indoor
WG losses per 100m
6L 4
6H 4.5
7/8GHz 6
11GHz 10
Symmetrical Coupler
Added to adjacent
channel configuration
3
CCDP with DP antenna
Tx and Rx 0.3 (1c) 0.3 (1c) 0.7 (2c) 0.7 (2c) 1.1 (3c)
Diversity RX 0.2 (1c) 0.2 (1c) 0.6 (2c) 0.6 (2c) 1.0 (3c)
SP Non adjacent channels
Tx and Rx 0.3 (1c) 0.7 (2c) 1.1 (3c) 1.5 (4c) 1.9 (5c)
Diversity RX 0.2 (1c) 0.6 (2c) 1.0 (3c) 1.4 (4c) 1.8 (5c)
CCDP with DP antenna
Upgrade Ready
Tx and Rx 0.3 (1c) 0.7 (1c) 1.1 (2c) 1.1 (2c) 1.5 (3c)
Diversity RX 0.2 (1c) 0.6 (1c) 1.0 (2c) 1.0 (2c) 1.4 (3c)
Configuration Interfaces
5+1
6+0
6+1
7+0
7+1
8+0
8+1
9+0
9+1
10+0
All-Indoor
WG losses per 100m
6L 4
6H 4.5
7/8GHz 6
11GHz 10
Symmetrical Coupler
Added to adjacent
channel configuration
3
CCDP with DP antenna
Tx and Rx 1.5 (3c) 1.9 (4c) 1.9 (4c) 2.3 (5c) 2.3 (6c)
Diversity RX 1.4 (3c) 1.8 (4c) 1.8 (4c) 2.2 (5c) 2.2 (6c)
SP Non adjacent channels
Tx and Rx
NA NA NA NA NA
Diversity RX
CCDP with DP antenna
Upgrade Ready
Tx and Rx 1.5 (3c) 1.9 (4c) 1.9 (4c) 2.3 (5c) 2.3 (6c)
Diversity RX 1.4 (3c) 1.8 (4c) 1.8 (4c) 2.2 (5c) 2.2 (6c)

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7.4.11 1500HP/RFU-HP All Indoor Compact (Horizontal)
For minimal rack space usage, an All-Indoor configuration can be installed in
horizontal position using the new OCB in a 19” rack or ETSI open rack/ frame
rack. The New OCB is compliant with NEBS GR-1089-CORE, GR-63-CORE
standards.
Note: This installation type and configuration does not require a
fan tray.
This installation type is compatible with the following RFUs PN:
Non Space Diversity All-Indoor
 15HPA-1R-RFU-f
 15HPA-2R-RFU-f
 15HPA-1R-RFU-11w
1500HP RFU All-Indoor 1Rx RF Unit

1500HP RFU All-Indoor Space Diversity

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1500HP RFU All-Indoor 1Rx RF Unit, 11G 40MHz

Main Configurations
 1+0
 1+0 East West
 1+1
 1+1 East West
1+1 HSB Compact Front View


1+1 HSB Compact Rear View

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7.4.11.1 All-Indoor Compact (Horizontal) Placements Components
The following table lists the components for All-Indoor compact placements:
All-Indoor Compact Placement Components
Component Name Marketing Model Marketing Description
Picture
DCB DCBf DCB Diversity Block f GHz kit

CPLR OCB-CPLR-f OCB Coupler f GHz

SBend OCB-SBend OCB SBend Connection f GHz

Rack Adapter OCB 19” Rack Adapt OCB-Pole Mount

Rack Adapter OCB ETSI Rack Adapt OCB-Pole Mount

Note: f= 6L, 6H, 7, 8, 11 GHz
7.4.11.2 Power Distribution Unit (PDU)
The PDU distributes the power supply (-48V) from the main power input to
the relevant IDU. The PDU is preassembled and wired in an ETSI rack and is
provided separately, when required, for a 19” lab rack. When ordering a 19”
configuration, there are two rack assembly options:
 19” lab rack provided separately
 19” lab rack provided by the customer
For both options, a PDU for 19” can be provided upon request.
There are two types of PDU. The default PDU which has been assembled with
each ETSI rack contains:
 Two main switches – one for each five IDU carriers
 Two FAN tray switches

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1A. The default PDU which is assembled with the ETSI rack has a special
addition of a plastic cover.
For special cases, when PDU protection is required, a PDU with plastic
protection cover can be provided.
The PN for this PDU with protection cover is: 32T-PDU_CVR.

A PDU which distributes 10 x DC signals, the PDU type can be preassembled
with an ETSI Rack and needs to be specially ordered because it is not the
default PDU.
PDU with 10 Switches PN: 32T-PDU10

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7.4.12 1500HP/RFU-HP Models and Part Numbers
The following table lists and describes the available 1500HP/RFU-HP models.
RFU Models
Marketing Model Description
15HP-RFU-7 1500HP 7G 2RX SM / All Indoor
15HP-RFU-8 1500HP 8G 2RX SM / All Indoor
15HP-RFU-6L 1500HP 6LG 2RX SM / All Indoor
15HP-RFU-6H 1500HP 6HG 2RX SM / All Indoor
15HP-RFU-11 1500HP 11G 2RX SM / All Indoor


15HPS-1R-RFU-7 1500HP 7G 1RX SM
15HPS-1R-RFU-8 1500HP 8G 1RX SM
15HPS-1R-RFU-6L 1500HP 6LG 1RX SM
15HPS-1R-RFU-6H 1500HP 6HG 1RX SM
15HPS-1R-RFU-11 1500HP 11G 1RX SM
15HPS-1R-RFU-11w 1500HP 11G 1RX SM 40M (24-40MHz channels)


15HPA-1R-RFU-7 1500HP 7G 1RX All Indoor
15HPA-1R-RFU-8 1500HP 8G 1RX All Indoor
15HPA-1R-RFU-6L 1500HP 6LG 1RX All Indoor
15HPA-1R-RFU-6H 1500HP 6HG 1RX All Indoor
15HPA-1R-RFU-11 1500HP 11G 1RX All Indoor


15HPA-2R-RFU-7 1500HP 7G 2RX All Indoor
15HPA-2R-RFU-8 1500HP 8G 2RX All Indoor
15HPA-2R-RFU-6L 1500HP 6LG 2RX All Indoor
15HPA-2R-RFU-6H 1500HP 6HG 2RX All Indoor
15HPA-2R-RFU-11 1500HP 11G 2RX All Indoor


RFU-HP-1R-6H RFU-HP 6HG 1Rx up to 56M SM / All Indoor
RFU-HP-1R-6L RFU-HP 6LG 1Rx up to 56M SM / All Indoor
RFU-HP-1R-7 RFU-HP 7G 1Rx up to 56M SM / All Indoor
RFU-HP-1R-8 RFU-HP 8G 1Rx up to 56M SM / All Indoor
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7.4.13 OCB Part Numbers
The following table presents the various RFU options and the configurations
in which they are used.
OCB Part Numbers
Diversity/Non-Diversity Split-Mount
Space Diversity IFC (2Rx) (6, 7, 8 ,11GHz) 15OCBf-SD-xxxy-ZZZ-H/L
Non Space Diversity (1Rx) (6, 7, 8GHz) 15OCBf-xxxy-ZZ-H/L
11GHz Non Space Diversity (1Rx)
25
15OCB11w-xxxy-ZZ-H/L
OCB Part Numbers for All Indoor Compact
Diversity/Non-Diversity All Indoor Compact
Space Diversity IFC (2Rx) (6, 7,8 GHz) 15OCBf-SD-xxxy-ZZ-H/L
Space Diversity IFC (2Rx) (11GHz) 15OCB11w-SD-xxxy-ZZ-H/L
Non Space Diversity (1Rx) (6, 7,8GHz) 15OCBf-xxxy-ZZ-H/L
11GHz Non Space Diversity (1Rx)
26
15OCB11w-xxxy-ZZ-H/L
7.4.13.1 OCB Part Number Format

Place Holder in
Marketing Model
Possible Values Description and
Remarks
f 6L,6H,7,8,11
xxx 000-999 [MHz] TRS in MHz
Y A…Z Ceragon TRS block
designation
ZZZ Examples:
1W3 – “Wide” filters covering channels 1-3
03 – Only channel 03, 28MHz channel
3-5 – 56MHz “Narrow” filters allowing
concatenation using OCBs covering channels
3 and 4.
Designation of the channels
the OCB is covering
H/L H or L Designating TX High and TX
low


25
11GHz OCB is a wide BW OCB which supports up to 40MHz, while the other OCBs (6L, 6H, 7,
8GHz) support up to 30MHz.
26
11GHz OCB is a wide BW OCB which supports up to 40MHz, while the other OCBs (6L, 6H, 7,
8GHz) support up to 30MHz.
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7.4.14 Generic All-Indoor Configurations Part Numbers
The following tables contain a list of typical All-Indoor configurations.
All-Indoor Configurations (1+0 /1+1 HSB)
1+0 / 1+1 HSB
32T-f_1+0 3200T-f_1+0
32T-f_1+0_EW 3200T-f_1+0_East West
32T-f_1+0_SD 3200T-f_1+0_Space Diversity
32T-f_1+0_SD_EW 3200T-f_1+0_Space Diversity East West
32T-f_1+1_HSB 3200T-f_1+1_HSB
32T-f_1+1_HSB_EW 3200T-f_1+1_HSB_East West
32T-f_1+1_HSB_SD 3200T-f_1+1_HSB_Space Diversity
32T-f_1+1_HSB_SD_EW 3200T-f_1+1_HSB_Space Diversity East West
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0/N+1 XPIC)
N+0 / N+1 XPIC
32T-f_1+1/2+0_X 3200T-f_1+1/2+0 XPIC
32T-f_2+1/3+0_X 3200T-f_2+1/3+0 XPIC
32T-f_3+1/4+0_X 3200T-f_3+1/4+0 XPIC
32T-f_4+1/5+0_X 3200T-f_4+1/5+0 XPIC
32T-f_5+1/6+0_X 3200T-f_5+1/6+0 XPIC
32T-f_6+1/7+0_X 3200T-f_6+1/7+0 XPIC
32T-f_7+1/8+0_X 3200T-f_7+1/8+0 XPIC
32T-f_8+1/9+0_X 3200T-f_8+1/9+0 XPIC
32T-f_9+1/10+0_X 3200T-f_9+1/10+0 XPIC
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All-Indoor Configurations (N+0 / N+1 XPIC Space Diversity)
N+0 / N+1 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_1+1/2+0_X _SD 3200T-f_1+1/2+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_2+1/3+0_X _SD 3200T-f_2+1/3+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_3+1/4+0_X_SD 3200T-f_3+1/4+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_4+1/5+0_X_SD 3200T-f_4+1/5+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_5+1/6+0_X_SD 3200T-f_5+1/6+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_6+1/7+0_X_SD 3200T-f_6+1/7+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_7+1/8+0_X_SD 3200T-f_7+1/8+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_8+1/9+0_X_SD 3200T-f_8+1/9+0 XPIC Space Diversity
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0 / N+1 XPIC Space Diversity)
N+0 / N+1 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_1+1/2+0_X _SD 3200T-f_1+1/2+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_2+1/3+0_X _SD 3200T-f_2+1/3+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_3+1/4+0_X_SD 3200T-f_3+1/4+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_4+1/5+0_X_SD 3200T-f_4+1/5+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_5+1/6+0_X_SD 3200T-f_5+1/6+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_6+1/7+0_X_SD 3200T-f_6+1/7+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_7+1/8+0_X_SD 3200T-f_7+1/8+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_8+1/9+0_X_SD 3200T-f_8+1/9+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_9+1/10+0_X_SD 3200T-f_9+1/10+0 XPIC Space Diversity
32T-f_1+1/2+0_X_EW 3200T-f_1+1/2+0 XPIC East West
32T-f_2+1/3+0_X_EW 3200T-f_2+1/3+0 XPIC East West
32T-f_3+1/4+0_X_EW 3200T-f_3+1/4+0 XPIC East West
32T-f_4+1/5+0_X_EW 3200T-f_4+1/5+0 XPIC East West
32T-f_1+1/2+0_X_SD_EW 3200T-f_1+1/2+0 XPIC East West Space Diversity
32T-f_2+1/3+0_X_SD_EW 3200T-f_2+1/3+0 XPIC East West Space Diversity
32T-f_3+1/4+0_X_SD_EW 3200T-f_3+1/4+0 XPIC East West Space Diversity
32T-f_4+1/5+0_X_SD_EW 3200T-f_4+1/5+0 XPIC East West Space Diversity
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All-Indoor Configurations (N+0/N+1 Single Pol)
N+0/N+1 Single Pol
32T-f_1+1/2+0_SP 3200T-f_1+1/2+0_SP
32T-f_2+1/3+0_SP 3200T-f_2+1/3+0_SP
32T-f_3+1/4+0_SP 3200T-f_3+1/4+0_SP
32T-f_4+1/5+0_SP 3200T-f_4+1/5+0_SP
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0/N+1 Single Pol Space Diversity)
N+0/N+1 Single Pol Space Diversity
32T-f_1+1/2+0_SP_SD 3200T-f_1+1/2+0_Single Pole Space Diversity
32T-f_2+1/3+0_SP_SD 3200T-f_2+1/3+0_Single Pole Space Diversity
32T-f_3+1/4+0_SP_SD 3200T-f_3+1/4+0_Single Pole Space Diversity
32T-f_4+1/5+0_SP_SD 3200T-f_4+1/5+0_Single Pole Space Diversity
32T-f_1+1/2+0_SP_EW 3200T-f_1+1/2+0_Single Pole East West
32T-f_2+1/3+0_SP_EW 3200T-f_2+1/3+0_Single Pole East West
32T-f_3+1/4+0_SP_EW 3200T-f_3+1/4+0_Single Pole East West
32T-f_4+1/5+0_SP_EW 3200T-f_4+1/5+0_Single Pole East West
32T-f_1+1/2+0_SP_SD_EW 3200T-f_1+1/2+0_Single Pole Space Diversity East West
32T-f_2+1/3+0_SP_SD_EW 3200T-f_2+1/3+0_Single Pole Space Diversity East West
32T-f_3+1/4+0_SP_SD_EW 3200T-f_3+1/4+0_Single Pole Space Diversity East West
32T-f_4+1/5+0_SP_EW 3200T-f_4+1/5+0_Single Pole East West
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0/N+1 XPIC Upgrade ready)
N+0/N+1 XPIC Upgrade Ready
32T-f_1+1/2+0_X_UR 3200T-f_1+1/2+0_XPIC_Upgrade Ready
32T-f_2+1/3+0_X_UR 3200T-f_2+1/3+0_XPIC_Upgrade Ready
32T-f_3+1/4+0_X_UR 3200T-f_3+1/4+0_XPIC_Upgrade Ready
32T-f_4+1/5+0_X_UR 3200T-f_4+1/5+0_XPIC_Upgrade Ready
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 266 of 403
All-Indoor Configurations (N+0/N+1 XPIC Space Diversity Upgrade-Ready)
N+0/N+1 XPIC Space Diversity Upgrade Ready
32T-f_1+1/2+0_X_SD_UR 3200T-f_1+1/2+0_XPIC_Space Diversity Upgrade Ready
32T-f_2+1/3+0_X_SD_UR 3200T-f_2+1/3+0_XPIC_Space Diversity Upgrade Ready
32T-f_3+1/4+0_X_SD_UR 3200T-f_3+1/4+0_XPIC_Space Diversity Upgrade Ready
32T-f_4+1/5+0_X_SD_UR 3200T-f_4+1/5+0_XPIC_Space Diversity Upgrade Ready
All-Indoor Configurations (19" Without Rack)
19" Without Rack
32T19-f_1+0_WO_rack 3200T19_inch-f_1+0_Without_rack
32T19-f_1+0_EW_WO_rack 3200T19_inch-f_1+0_East West Without rack
32T19-f_1+0_SD_WO_rack 3200T19_inch-f_1+0_Space Diversity Without rack
32T19-f_1+0_SD_EW_WO_rack 3200T19_inch-f_1+0_Space Diversity East West Without rack
32T19-f_1+1_HSB_WO_rack 3200T19_inch-f_1+1_HSB_Without_rack
32T19-f_1+1_HSB_SD_WO_rack 3200T19_inch-f_1+1_HSB_Space Diversity Without rack
32T19-f_1+1_HSB_EW_WO_rack 3200T19_inch-f_1+1_HSB_East West Without rack
32T19-f_1+1_HSB_SD_EW_WO_rack 3200T19_inch-f_1+1_HSB_Space Diversity East West Without rack
For additional configurations and details, please contact your Ceragon
representative.
For 1500HP/RFU-HP transmit power specifications
 1500HP/RFU-HP Transmit Power (dBm)
For 1500HP/RFU-HP receiver threshold specifications:
 1500HP/RFU-HP Receiver Threshold (RSL)

(dBm @BER = 10-6)
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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7.5 RFH-HS
FibeAir RFU-HS is a high transmit power RFU for long-haul applications.
Based on Ceragon’s field-proven 1500HP technology, RFU-HS supports
capacities of up to 500 Mbps for TDM and IP interfaces.
With its high transmit power, FibeAir RFU-HS is designed to enable high
quality wireless communication in the most cost-effective manner, reaching
over longer distances while enabling the use of smaller antennas.
7.5.1 Main Features of RFU-HS
 Frequency range – Operates in the frequency range of 6-8 GHz
 Ultra high transmit power - Up to 30 dBm for longer distances, enhanced
availability
 Configurable Modulation – QPSK – 256 QAM
 Configurable Channel Bandwidth – 3.5 MHz – 56MHz
 Direct or remote mount - Flexible installation saves costs and reduces
transmission loss
 Supported configurations:
1+0 - direct and remote mount
1+1 - direct and remote mount
2+0 - direct and remote mount
2+2 - remote mount
 XPIC and CCDP – Built-in XPIC (Cross Polarization Interference Canceller)
and Co-Channel Dual Polarization (CCDP)
 ATPC (Automatic Tx Power Control)
 Simple and Easy Installation
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 268 of 403
7.5.2 RFU-HS Frequency Bands
Frequency Band Frequency Range (GHz) Channel Bandwidth Standard
L6 GHz 5.925 to 6.425 29.65/56MHz ITU-R F.383
U6 GHz 6.425 to 7.100
20 MHz to
40/56 /60 MHz
ITU-R F.384
7 GHz
7.425 to 7.900 14 MHz to 28/56 MHz ITU-R F.385 Annex 4
7.425 to 7.725 28/56 MHz ITU-R F.385 Annex 1
7.110 to 7.750 28/56 MHz ITU-R F.385 Annex 3
8 GHz
7.725 to 8.275 29.65 MHz ITU-R F.386 Annex 1
8.275 to 8.500 14 MHz to 28/56 MHz ITU-R F.386 Annex 3
7.900 to 8.400 14 MHz to 28/56 MHz ITU-R F.386 Annex 4
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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7.5.3 RFU-HS Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental
Specifications
RFU-HS Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications
RFU Dimensions
 Height: 409mm
 Width: 286 mm
 Depth: 86 mm
 Weight: 8 kg
RFU Antenna
Connection
Standard flexible waveguide (frequency dependent)
IDU-RFU Connection
Coaxial cable RG-223 (100 m/300 ft), Belden 9914/RG-8 (300 m/1000 ft)
or equivalent, N-type connectors (male)
Maximum System
Power Consumption
(IDU and RFU)
 1+0: 88W
 1+1: 134W
Storage ETS 300 019-2-1 class T1.2, with a temperature range of -25°C to+85°C.
Transportation ETS 300 019-2-2 class 2.3, with a temperature range of -40°C to+85°C.
Operating Temperature
Temperature range for continuous operating temperature with high
reliability:
-33°C to +55°C
(-27°F to 131°F)
Temperature range for exceptional temperatures; tested successfully, with
limited margins:
-45°C to +60°C
(-49°F to 140°F)
Relative Humidity 5% to 100%
Power Supply -40.5 to -72 VDC (up to -57 VDC for USA market)

7.5.4 RFU-HS Antenna Types
The following antennas support direct and remote mount installations for
RFU-HS.

Vendor Frequency Band Diameter Manufacturer PN Marketing Model
Andrew 7/8 GHz 4ft VHLP4-7W-CR3 A-4-7_8-A
Andrew 7/8 GHz 6ft VHLP6-7W-CR3 A-6-7_8-A
RFS 6L 4ft SU4-59CVA A-4-6L-R
RFS 6L 6ft SU6-59CVA A-6-6L-R
RFS 6U 4ft SU4-65CVA A-4-6H-R
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Vendor Frequency Band Diameter Manufacturer PN Marketing Model
RFS 6U 6ft SU6-65CVA A-6-6H-R
RFS 7/8 GHz 4ft SB4-W71CVA A-4-7_8-R
RFS 7/8 GHz 6ft SU6B-W71CVA A-6-7_8-R
Xian Putian 6L 4ft WTG12-58DAR A-4-6L-X
Xian Putian 6L 6ft WTG18-58DAR A-6-6L-X
Xian Putian 6U 4ft WTG12-64DAR A-4-6H-X
Xian Putian 6U 6ft WTG18-64DAR A-6-6H-X
Xian Putian 7/8 GHz 4ft WTG12-W71DAR A-4-7_8-X
Xian Putian 7/8 GHz 6ft WTG18-W71DAR A-6-7_8-X
7.5.5 RFU-HS Antenna Connection
The RFU is connected to the antenna via a flexible waveguide (which is
frequency-dependent), in accordance with the following table. (The antenna
type and the waveguide flanges are imperial.)

Frequency (GHz) Waveguide Standard Waveguide Flange
6L WR137 CPR137F
6H WR137 CPR137F
7 WR112 CPR112F
8 WR112 CPR112F
7.5.6 RFU-HS Mediation Device Losses
The following table lists branching losses for RFU-HS antennas.

Configuration Interfaces 6-8 GHz
Flex WG
Remote Mount
antenna
Added on remote mount
configurations
0.5
1+0 Integrated antenna Integrated antenna 0
1+1 HSB
Integrated antenna
Main TR 1.6
with asymmetrical coupler Secondary TR 6.5
1+1/2+2 HSB
Remote antenna
Main TR 1.6
with asymmetrical coupler Secondary TR 6.5
2+0 SP (with CPLR) Integrated antenna 4
4+0 DP Remote mount antenna 4
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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For RFU-HS transmit power specifications:
 RFU-HS Transmit Power (dBm)
For RFU-HS receiver threshold specifications:
 RFU-HS Receiver Threshold (RSL)

(dBm @ BER = 10-6)
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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7.6 RFU-SP
FibeAir RFU-SP supports multiple capacities, frequencies, modulation
schemes, and configurations for various network requirements. RFU-SP
operates in the frequency range of 6-8 GHz, and supports capacities of 40
Mbps to 400 Mbps for TDM and IP interfaces. The capacity can easily be
doubled using XPIC.
7.6.1 Main Features of RFU-SP
 Frequency Range – Operates in the frequency range of 6-8 GHz.
 Configurable Capacity – from 40 Mbps to 500 Mbps.
 Configurable Modulation – QPSK – 256 QAM
 Configurable Channel Bandwidth – 3.5 MHz – 56MHz
 Antenna Mount – Direct or remote.
 Main Configurations – 1+1, 1+0, 2+0
 XPIC and CCDP – Built-in XPIC and Co-Channel Dual Polarization (CCDP)
 ATPC (Automatic Tx Power Control)
 Simple and Easy Installation
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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7.6.2 RFU-SP Frequency Bands
The frequency band of each radio is listed in the following table.
RFU-SP Frequency Bands
Frequency Band Frequency Range (GHz) Channel Bandwidth
L6 GHz 5.925 to 6.425 29.65/56MHz
U6 GHz 6.425 to 7.100 20 MHz to 40/56 /60 MHz
7 GHz
7.425 to 7.900 14 MHz to 28/56 MHz
7.425 to 7.725 28/56 MHz
7.110 to 7.750 28/56 MHz
8 GHz
7.725 to 8.275 29.65 MHz
8.275 to 8.500 14 MHz to 28/56 MHz
7.900 to 8.400 14 MHz to 28/56 MHz
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7.6.3 RFU-SP Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental
Specifications
RFU-SP Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications
RFU Dimensions
 Height: 409mm
 Width: 286 mm
 Depth: 86 mm
 Weight: 8 kg
RFU Antenna
Connection
Standard flexible waveguide (frequency dependent)
IDU-RFU Connection
Coaxial cable RG-223 (100 m/300 ft), Belden 9914/RG-8 (300 m/1000 ft)
or equivalent, N-type connectors (male)
Maximum System
Power Consumption
(IDU and RFU)
 1+0: 88W
 1+1: 130W
Storage ETS 300 019-2-1 class T1.2, with a temperature range of -25°C to+85°C.
Transportation ETS 300 019-2-2 class 2.3, with a temperature range of -40°C to+85°C.
Operating Temperature
Temperature range for continuous operating temperature with high
reliability:
-33°C to +55°C
(-27°F to 131°F)
Temperature range for exceptional temperatures; tested successfully, with
limited margins:
-45°C to +60°C
(-49°F to 140°F)
Relative Humidity 5% to 100%
Power Supply -40.5 to -72 VDC (up to -57 VDC for USA market)

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 275 of 403
7.6.4 RFU-SP Direct Mount Installation
The following antennas support direct and remote mount installations:
RFU-HS-SP Antennas
Vendor
Frequency
Band
Diameter Manufacturer PN
Marketing
Model
Andrew 7/8 GHz 4ft VHLP4-7W-CR3 A-4-7_8-A
Andrew 7/8 GHz 6ft VHLP6-7W-CR3 A-6-7_8-A
RFS 6L 4ft SU4-59CVA A-4-6L-R
RFS 6L 6ft SU6-59CVA A-6-6L-R
RFS 6U 4ft SU4-65CVA A-4-6H-R
RFS 6U 6ft SU6-65CVA A-6-6H-R
RFS 7/8 GHz 4ft SB4-W71CVA A-4-7_8-R
RFS 7/8 GHz 6ft SU6B-W71CVA A-6-7_8-R
Xian Putian 6L 4ft WTG12-58DAR A-4-6L-X
Xian Putian 6L 6ft WTG18-58DAR A-6-6L-X
Xian Putian 6U 4ft WTG12-64DAR A-4-6H-X
Xian Putian 6U 6ft WTG18-64DAR A-6-6H-X
Xian Putian 7/8 GHz 4ft WTG12-W71DAR A-4-7_8-X
Xian Putian 7/8 GHz 6ft WTG18-W71DAR A-6-7_8-X
7.6.5 RFU-SP Antenna Connection
RFU-SP is connected to the antenna via a flexible waveguide, which is
frequency-dependent, in accordance with the following table.

Frequency (GHz) Waveguide Standard Waveguide Flange
6L WR137 CPR137F
6H WR137 CPR137F
7 WR112 CPR112F
8 WR112 CPR112F
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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7.6.6 RFU-SP Mediation Device Losses
The following table lists branching losses for RFU-SP antennas.

Configuration Interfaces
6-8
GHz
Flex WG
Remote Mount
antenna
Added on remote
mount configurations
0.5
1+0 Integrated antenna Integrated antenna 0
1+1 HSB
Integrated antenna
Main TR 1.6
with asymmetrical coupler Secondary TR 6.5
1+1/2+2 HSB
Remote antenna
Main TR 1.6
with asymmetrical coupler Secondary TR 6.5
2+0 SP (with CPLR) Integrated antenna 4
4+0 DP Remote mount antenna 4

For RFU-SP transmit power specifications:
 RFU-SP Transmit Power (dBm)
For RFU-SP receiver threshold specifications:
 RFU-SP Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6)
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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7.7 1500P
7.7.1 1500P Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications
1500P Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Specifications
RFU Dimensions
 Diameter: 270 mm (10.8”)
 Depth: 140 mm (4.5”)
 Weight: 8 kg (18 lbs)
IDU-RFU Connection
Coaxial cable RG-223 (100 m/300 ft), Belden 9914/RG-8 (300 m/1000 ft)
or equivalent, N-type connectors (male)
Maximum System
Power Consumption
(IDU and RFU)
 1+0: 65W
 1+1: 105W
Storage ETS 300 019-2-1 class T1.2, with a temperature range of -25°C to+85°C.
Transportation ETS 300 019-2-2 class 2.3, with a temperature range of -40°C to+85°C.
Operating Temperature
Temperature range for continuous operating temperature with high
reliability:
-33°C to +55°C
(-27°F to 131°F)
Temperature range for exceptional temperatures; tested successfully, with
limited margins:
-45°C to +60°C
(-49°F to 140°F)
Relative Humidity 5% to 100%
Power Supply -40.5 to -72 VDC (up to -57 VDC for USA market)

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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7.7.2 1500P Mediation Device Losses
The following table lists branching losses for 1500P antennas.
1500P Mediation Device Losses
Configuration Interfaces
11
GHz
13-15
GHz
18-26
GHz
28-39
GHz
Flex WG
Remote Mount
antenna
Added on remote
mount configurations
0.5 1.2 1.5 1.5
1+0 Integrated antenna Integrated antenna 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.5
1+1 HSB
Integrated antenna
Main TR 1.8 1.8 1.8 2
with asymmetrical coupler Secondary TR 7.2 7.2 7.5 7.5
1+1/2+2 HSB
Remote antenna
Main TR 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8
with asymmetrical coupler Secondary TR 7.1 7.1 7.5 7.5
For 1500P transmit power specifications:
 1500P Transmit Power (dBm)
For 1500P receiver threshold specifications:
 1500P Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6)
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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8. Typical Configurations
This chapter includes:
 IP-10G Configuration Options
 Point-to-Point Configurations
 Nodal Configurations
Note: The component tables in this section show the number of
components and accessories required for each
configuration, but do not include regular traffic cables, and
optional cables such as alarm and user channel cables. They
do include splitters and Y cables required for protected
configurations.
For optical (SFP) interfaces, two cables are required for
each interface, one for TX and one for RX.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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8.1 IP-10G Configuration Options
The following are some of the typical configurations supported by the FibeAir
IP-10G.
 1+0
 1+1 HSB
 1+1 Space Diversity (BBS)
 1+1 Frequency Diversity (BBS)
 2+0/4+0
XPIC – optional
Multi-Radio - optional
Line/IDU/switch/XC protection - optional
 2+2/4+4 HSB
XPIC – optional
Multi-Radio - optional
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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8.2 Point-to-Point Configurations
This section includes:
 Basic 1+0
 1+1 HSB
 1+0 with 32 E1s
 1+0 with 64 E1s
 2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s – No Multi-Radio
 2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s – Multi-Radio
 2+0/XPIC Link with 32 E1s + STM-1 Mux Interface,
no Multi-Radio, up to 168 E1s over the radio
 1+1 HSB with 32 E1s
 1+1 HSB with 64 E1s
 1+1 HSB with 84 E1s
 1+1 HSB Link with 16 E1s+ STM-1 Mux Interface
(Up to 84 E1s over the radio)
 Native
2
2+2/XPIC/Multi-Radio MW Link, with 2xSTM-1 Mux
(up to 150 E1s over the radio)
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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8.2.1 Basic 1+0 Configuration
Integrated Ethernet switching can be enabled for multiple local Ethernet
interfaces support
Basic 1+0 Configuration

1+1 Components
Component Number Comments
IDU 1
RFU 1
T-Card – E1 or STM-1 1 (optional) Optional, for 16 additional E1, or STM-1
IF Cable 1

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8.2.2 1+1 HSB
 Integrated Ethernet switching can be enabled for multiple local Ethernet
interface support.
 Redundancy covers failure of all control and data path components.
 Local Ethernet and TDM interface protection support via Y cables or
protection-panel.
 <50 ms switchover time.
1+1 HSB Configuration

1+1 HSB Components
Component Number Comments
IDU 2
RFU 2
T-Card – E1 or STM-1 2 (optional) Optional, for 16 additional E1, or STM-1
Ethernet Y Cable N Per number of Ethernet (electrical) ports used for traffic.
Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
Optical Y Splitter 0-4 Per number of Ethernet ports (optical) used for traffic. Two
cables are required for each optical port used; one for RX
and one for TX. Used to provide single input/output to/from
the IDUs.
E1 Y Cable 1 or 2 2 if E1 T-Card used. Used to provide single input/output
to/from the IDUs.
Cross Ethernet Cable 1 Used to connect the IDUs for protection.
IF Cable 2
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8.2.3 1+0 with 32 E1s
1+0 with 32 E1s

1+0 with 32 E1s Components (Each Side of Link)
Component Number Comments
IDU 1
RFU 1
T-Card – E1 1
IF Cable 1

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8.2.4 1+0 with 64 E1s
1+0 with 64 E1s

1+0 with 64 E1s Components (Each Side of Link)
Component Number Comments
IDU 2
RFU 1
T-Card – E1 2
IF Cable 1

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8.2.5 2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s – No Multi-Radio
 Ethernet traffic - Each of the two units:
Feeds Ethernet traffic independently to its radio interface.
Can be configured independently for “switch” or “pipe” operation
No Ethernet traffic is shared internally between the two radio carriers
 TDM traffic
Each of the two radio interfaces supports separate E1 services
E1 Services can optionally be protected using SNCP
2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s – No Multi-Radio

2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s (no Multi-Radio) Components (Each Side of Link)
Component Number Comments
IDU 2
RFU 2
T-Card – E1 2
Main Nodal Enclosure 1
IF Cable 2

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8.2.6 2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s – Multi-Radio
 Ethernet traffic
One of the units acts as the Master unit and feeds Ethernet traffic to
both radio carriers
Traffic is distributed between the two carriers at the radio frame level
The Master IDU can be configured for switch or pipe operation.
The Slave IDU has all its Ethernet interfaces and functionality
effectively disabled.
 TDM traffic
Each of the two radio interfaces supports separate E1 services
E1 services can optionally be protected using SNCP
2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s – Multi-Radio

2+0/XPIC Link with 64 E1s (Multi-Radio) Components (Each Side of Link)
Component Number Comments
IDU 2
RFU 2
T-Card – E1 2
Main Nodal Enclosure 1
IF Cable 2

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8.2.7 2+0/XPIC Link with 32 E1s + STM-1 Mux Interface,
no Multi-Radio, up to 168 E1s over the radio
2+0/XPIC Link, with 32 E1s + STM-1 Mux Interface, no Multi-Radio, up to 168 E1s
Over the Radio

Required Components (Each Side of Link)
Component Number Comments
IDU 2
RFU 2
T-Card – STM-1 2
Main Nodal Enclosure 1
IF Cable 2

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8.2.8 1+1 HSB with 32 E1s
1+1 HSB with 32 E1s

1+1 HSB with 32 E1s Components (Each Side of the Link)
Component Number Comments
IDU 2
RFU 2
T-Card – E1 2
Ethernet Y Cable N Per number of Ethernet ports (electrical) used for traffic.
Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
Optical Y Splitter 0-4 Per number of Ethernet ports (optical) used for traffic. Two
cables are required for each optical port used; one for RX
and one for TX. Used to provide single input/output to/from
the IDUs.
E1 Y Cable 2 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
Cross Ethernet Cable 1 Used to connect the IDUs for protection.
IF Cable 2

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8.2.9 1+1 HSB with 64 E1s
1+1 HSB with 64 E1s

1+1 HSB with 64 E1s Components (Each Side of the Link)
Component Number Comments
IDU 4
RFU 2
T-Card – E1 4
Main Nodal Enclosure 1
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
1
Ethernet Y Cable N Per number of Ethernet ports (electrical) used for traffic.
Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
Optical Y Splitter 0-4 Per number of Ethernet ports (optical) used for traffic. Two
cables are required for each optical port used; one for RX
and one for TX. Used to provide single input/output to/from
the IDUs.
E1 Y Cable 2 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
IF Cable 2

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8.2.10 1+1 HSB with 84 E1s
1+1 HSB with 84 E1s

1+1 HSB with 84 E1 Components (Each Side of the Link)
Component Number Comments
IDU 6
RFU 2
Main Nodal Enclosure 1
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
2
T-Card – E1 6
Ethernet Y Cable N Per number of Ethernet ports (electrical) used for traffic.
Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
Optical Y Splitter 0-4 Per number of Ethernet ports (optical) used for traffic. Two
cables are required for each optical port used; one for RX
and one for TX. Used to provide single input/output to/from
the IDUs.
E1 Y Cable 2 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
IF Cable 2

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8.2.11 1+1 HSB Link with 16 E1s+ STM-1 Mux Interface
(Up to 84 E1s over the radio)
1+1 HSB Link with 16 E1s+ STM-1 Mux Interface

1+1 HSB Link with 16 E1s+ STM-1 Components (Each Side of the Link)
Component Number Comments
IDU 2
RFU 2
T-Card – STM-1 2
Ethernet Y Cable N Per number of Ethernet ports (electrical) used for traffic.
Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
Optical Y Splitter 0-4 Per number of Ethernet ports (optical) used for traffic. Two
cables are required for each optical port used; one for RX
and one for TX. Used to provide single input/output to/from
the IDUs.
STM-1 Y Cable 1 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
E1 Y Cable 1 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
Cross Ethernet Cable 1 Used to connect the IDUs for protection.
IF Cable 2

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8.2.12 Native
2
2+2/XPIC/Multi-Radio MW Link, with 2xSTM-1 Mux
(up to 150 E1s over the radio)
Native
2
2+2/XPIC/Multi-Radio MW Link, with 2xSTM-1 Mux
(up to 150 E1s over the radio)

Native
2
2+2/XPIC/Multi-Radio MW Link, with 2xSTM-1 Components (Each Side
of the Link)
Component Number Comments
IDU 4
RFU 4
Main Nodal Enclosure 1
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
1
T-Card – STM-1 4
Ethernet Y Cable N Per the number of electrical Ethernet ports used for traffic.
Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
Optical Y Splitter 0-8 Per the number of Ethernet ports (optical) used for traffic.
Two cables are required for each optical port used; one for
RX and one for TX. Used to provide single input/output
to/from the IDUs.
STM-1 Y Cable 2 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
E1 Y Cable 2 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
IF Cable 4

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8.3 Nodal Configurations
This section includes:
 Chain with 1+0 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux
 Node with 2 x 1+0 Downlinks and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink
 Chain with 1+1 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux
 Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site
 Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+1 HSB Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site
 Node with 1 x 1+1 HSB Downlink and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink with STM-1 Mux
 Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 Links, with STM-1 Mux
 Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + Spur Link 1+0
 Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (5 hops total), with
STM-1 Mux
 Native
2
Ring with 2 x 2+0/XPIC MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (3 hops total),
with 2 x STM-1 Mux
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8.3.1 Chain with 1+0 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux
Chain with 1+0 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux

Chain with 1+0 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux Components
(Entire Chain)
Component Number Comments
IDU 6
RFU 6
Main Nodal Enclosure 1
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
1
T-Card – STM-1 2
Ethernet Y Cable N Per the number of Ethernet ports used for traffic. Used to
provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
Optical Y Splitter 0-8 Per the number of Ethernet ports (optical) used for traffic.
Two cables are required for each optical port used; one for
RX and one for TX. Used to provide single input/output
to/from the IDUs.
STM-1 Y Cable 2 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
IF Cable 6
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8.3.2 Node with 2 x 1+0 Downlinks and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink
Node with 2 x 1+0 Downlinks and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink

Node with 2 x 1+0 Downlinks and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink Components (Entire
Node)
Component Number Comments
IDU 8
RFU 8
Main Nodal Enclosure 1
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
1
T-Card – E1 2
Ethernet Y Cable N Per the number of Ethernet ports (electrical) used for
traffic. Used to provide single input/output to/from the
IDUs.
Optical Y Splitter 0-8 Per the number of Ethernet ports (optical) used for traffic.
Two cables are required for each optical port used; one for
RX and one for TX. Used to provide single input/output
to/from the IDUs.
E1 Y Cable 3 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
IF Cable 8

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8.3.3 Chain with 1+1 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux
Chain with 1+1 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux

Chain with 1+1 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM-1 Mux Components
(Entire Chain)
Component Number Comments
IDU 8
RFU 8
Main Nodal Enclosure 1
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
1
T-Card – STM-1 2
Ethernet Y Cable N Per the number of Ethernet ports used for traffic. Used to
provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
Optical Y Splitter 0-16 Per the number of Ethernet ports (optical) used for traffic.
Two cables are required for each optical port used; one for
RX and one for TX. Used to provide single input/output
to/from the IDUs.
E1 Y Cable 3 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
STM-1 Y Cable 1 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
IF Cable 8
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8.3.4 Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main
Site
Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site

Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site
Components (Entire Ring)
Component Number Comments
IDU 6
RFU 6
Main Nodal Enclosure 3
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
3
T-Card – STM-1 2
IF Cable 6
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8.3.5 Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+1 HSB Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at
Main Site
Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+1 HSB Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site

Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+1 HSB Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site
Components (Entire Ring)
Component Number Comments
IDU 12
RFU 12
Main Nodal Enclosure 3
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
3
T-Card – STM-1 2
Ethernet Y Cable N Per the number of Ethernet ports (electrical) used for
traffic. Used to provide single input/output to/from the
IDUs.
Optical Y Splitter 0-24 Per the number of Ethernet ports (optical) used for traffic.
Two cables are required for each optical port used; one for
RX and one for TX. Used to provide single input/output
to/from the IDUs.
E1 Y Cable 6 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
STM-1 Y Cable 1 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
IF Cable 12
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8.3.6 Node with 1 x 1+1 HSB Downlink and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink with
STM-1 Mux
Node with 1 x 1+1 HSB Downlink and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink with STM-1 Mux

Node with 1 x 1+1 HSB Downlink and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink with STM-1 Mux
Components (Entire Node)
Component Number Comments
IDU 8
RFU 8
Main Nodal Enclosure 1
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
1
T-Card – STM-1 2
Ethernet Y Cable N Per the number of Ethernet ports (electrical) used for
traffic. Used to provide single input/output to/from the
IDUs.
Optical Y Splitter 0-16 Per the number of Ethernet ports (optical) used for traffic.
Two cables are required for each optical port used; one for
RX and one for TX. Used to provide single input/output
to/from the IDUs.
E1 Y Cable 4 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
STM-1 Y Cable 1 Used to provide single input/output to/from the IDUs.
IF Cable 8
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8.3.7 Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 Links, with STM-1 Mux
Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 Links, with STM-1 Mux

Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 Links, with STM-1 Components (Entire Ring)
Component Number Comments
IDU 8
RFU 8
Main Nodal Enclosure 4
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
4
T-Card – STM-1 1
IF Cable 8

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8.3.8 Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + Spur Link 1+0
Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + Spur Link 1+0

Native
2
Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + Spur Link 1+0 Components (Entire Ring)
Component Number Comments
IDU 8
RFU 8
Main Nodal Enclosure 3
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
3
IF Cable 8

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8.3.9 Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (5 hops
total), with STM-1 Mux
Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (5 hops total), with STM-1
Mux

Native
2
Ring with 4 x 1+0 MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link with STM-1 Mux
Components (Entire Ring)
Component Number Comments
IDU 8
RFU 8
Main Nodal Enclosure 3
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
3
T-Card – STM-1 4
IF Cable 8

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8.3.10 Native
2
Ring with 2 x 2+0/XPIC MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (3
hops total), with 2 x STM-1 Mux
Native
2
Ring with 2 x 2+0/XPIC MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (3 hops total), with 2 x
STM-1 Mux

Native
2
Ring with 2 x 2+0/XPIC MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link with 2 x STM-1
Components (Entire Ring)
Component Number Comments
IDU 8
RFU 8
Main Nodal Enclosure 2
Extension Nodal
Enclosure
4
T-Card – STM-1 6
IF Cable 8

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9. FibeAir IP-10G Management
This chapter includes:
 Management Overview
 Management Communication Channels and Protocols
 Web-Based Element Management System (Web EMS)
 Command Line Interface (CLI)
 Floating IP Address
 In-Band Management
 Out-of-Band Management
 System Security Features
 Ethernet Statistics
 Software Update Timer
 CeraBuild
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9.1 Management Overview
The Ceragon management solution is built on several layers of management:
 NEL – Network Element-level CLI
 EMS – HTTP web-based EMS
 NMS and SML – NetMaster or PolyView platform
Each IP-10 Network Element includes an HTTP web-based element manager
(CeraWeb) that enables the operator to perform element configuration, RF,
Ethernet, and PDH performance monitoring, remote diagnostics, alarm
reports, and more.
In addition, Ceragon provides an SNMP V1/V2c/V3 northbound interface on
the IP-10G.
Ceragon’s management suite also includes a number of CeraBuild™ tools,
which ease the operator’s task of installing, maintaining, and provisioning
Ceragon equipment.
Ceragon offers NetMaster and PolyView network management systems (NMS).
Both NetMaster and PolyView provide centralized operation and maintenance
capability for the complete range of network elements in an IP-10G system.
In addition, management, configuration, and maintenance tasks can be
performed directly via the IP-10G Command Line Interface (CLI). The CLI can
be used to perform configuration operations for standalone IP-10G units or
units connected in a nodal configuration, as well as to configure several IP-10G
units in a single batch command. In a nodal configuration, all commands are
available both in the main and extension units unless otherwise stated.
Integrated IP-10G Management Tools

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9.2 Management Communication Channels and Protocols
Related Topics:
 Secure Communication Channels
Network Elements can be accessed locally via serial or Ethernet management
interfaces, or remotely through the standard Ethernet LAN. The application
layer is indifferent to the access channel used.
PolyView can be accessed through its GUI interface application, which may
run locally or in a separate platform; it also has an SNMP-based northbound
interface to communicate with other management systems.
Dedicated Management Ports
Port number Protocol Packet structure Details
161 SNMP UDP Sends SNMP Requests to the network elements
162 Configurable SNMP (traps) UDP Sends SNMP traps forwarding (optional)
25 SMTP (mail) TCP Sends PolyView reports and triggers by email
(optional)
69 TFTP UDP Uploads/ downloads configuration files (optional)
80 HTTP TCP Manages devices
443 HTTPS TCP Manages devices (optional)
From 21 port to any
remote port (>1023)
FTP Control Port TCP Downloads software and configuration files.
(FTP Server responds to client's control port)
(optional)
From Any port
(>1023) to any
remote port (>1023)
FTP Data Port TCP Downloads software and configuration files.
The FTP server sends ACKs (and data) to
client's data port.
Optional
FTP server random port range can be limited
according to need (i.e., according to the number
of parallel configuration uploads).
All remote system management is carried out through standard IP
communications. Each NE behaves as a host with a single IP address.
The communications protocol used depends on the management channel
being accessed.
As a baseline, these are the protocols in use:
 Standard HTTP for web-based management
 Standard telnet for CLI-based management
 PolyView uses a number of ports and protocols for different functions:
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PolyView Server Receiving Data Ports
Port number Protocol Packet structure Details
162
Configurable
SNMP (traps) UDP Receive SNMP traps from network
elements
4001
Configurable
Propriety TCP CeraMap Server
69 TFTP UDP Downloads software and files (optional)
21 FTP Control
Port
TCP Downloads software and configuration
files. (FTP client initiates a connection)
(optional)
To any port (>1023) from any
Port (>1023)
FTP Data Port TCP Downloads software and configuration
files.(FTP Client initiates data connection
to random port specified by server)
(optional)
FTP Server random port range can be
limited according to needed configuration
(number of parallel configuration uploads).
9205
Configurable
Propriety TCP User Actions Logger server (optional)
9207
Configurable
Propriety TCP CeraView Proxy (optional)
Web Sending Data Ports
Port number Protocol Packet structure Details
80 HTTP TCP Manages device
443 HTTPS TCP Manages device (optional)
Web Receiving Data Ports
Port number Protocol Packet structure Details
21 FTP TCP Downloads software files (optional)
Data port FTP TCP Downloads software files (optional)
Additional Management Ports for IP-10G
Port number Protocol Packet structure Details
23 telnet TCP Remote CLI access (optional)
22 SSH TCP Secure remote CLI access (optional)

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9.3 Web-Based Element Management System (Web EMS)
The CeraWeb Element Management System (Web EMS) is an HTTP web-based
element manager that enables the operator to perform configuration
operations and obtain statistical and performance information related to the
system, including:
 Configuration Management – Enables you to view and define
configuration data for the IP-10G system.
 Fault Monitoring – Enables you to view active alarms.
 Performance Monitoring – Enables you to view and clear performance
monitoring values and counters.
 Maintenance Association Identifiers – Enables you to define
Maintenance Association Identifiers (MAID) for CFR protection.
 Diagnostics and Maintenance – Enables you to define and perform
loopback tests, software updates, and IDU-RFU interface monitoring.
 Security Configuration – Enables you to configure IP-10G security
features.
 User Management – Enables you to define users and user groups.
A Web-Based EMS connection to the IP-10G can be opened using an HTTP
Browser (Explorer or Mozilla Firefox). The Web EMS uses a graphical
interface. All system configurations and statuses are available via the Web
EMS, including all L2-Switch configurations such as port type, VLANs, QoS.
The Web EMS shows the actual node configuration and provides easy access
to any IDU in the node.
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9.4 Command Line Interface (CLI)
A CLI connection to the IP-10G can be opened via terminal (serial COM, speed:
115200, Data: 8 bits, Stop: 1 bit, Flow-Control: None), or via telnet (SSH is
supported as well). The Terminal format should be VT-100 with a screen
definition of 80 columns X 24 rows.
All parameter configurations can be performed via CLI.
All IDUs in a nodal enclosure can be accessed via the CLI interface, by using a
command which enables the user to logon to any slot in the node.
9.4.1 Text CLI Configuration Scripts
CLI configuration text scripts, written in Ceragon CLI format, can be
downloaded into the IDU. It is not possible to upload the IDU’s configuration
into a text file.
CLI scripts can only be downloaded and handled via CLI. CLI scripts cannot be
downloaded via the Web EMS.
The user can perform the following operations on CLI scripts:
 Set the file name of the script:
 Download CLI script file to the IDU
 Download the CLI script file:
 Get the status of the downloaded script.
 Show the last downloaded CLI script content.
 Execute (activate) a CLI script.
 Delete the current script which resides inside the IDU.
 Protection “copy-to-mate” command
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9.5 Floating IP Address
The floating IP address feature provides a single IP address that will always
provide direct access to the currently active main unit in a 1+1 or 2+2 HSB
configuration. This is used primarily for web-based management and telnet
access.
The user can configure a floating IP address in the active unit, and this IP
address will be automatically copied to the standby unit. The following
limitations apply:
 The floating IP address must be different from the system IP address.
 The floating IP address must be in the same subnet as the system IP
address.
The remote floating IP address can be viewed and configured using the local-
remote channel.
The individual units’ IP addresses are maintained in order to provide a
mechanism to connect directly to the standby unit should this be necessary for
any reason.
For SNMP access, a mechanism exists to similarly enable automatic access to
active protected extension units. Note that when using the SNMP protocol, the
actual IDU being accessed depends on the community/context string. The
floating IP address feature can still be used to ensure access if one of the main
units fails.
The floating IP mechanism can be enabled or disabled. When it is enabled,
then upon a protection switch, the existing floating IP address is assigned to
the unit that was previously in standby mode and has switched to active mode.
This unit will have a different MAC address than the previously active IDU. For
this reason, a gratuitous ARP (GARP) message is automatically sent after the
switch.
However, when connected directly to some older network equipment, re-
establishment of the management Ethernet ports’ link may take a few seconds
after a protection switch. In this case, the GARP message may be lost. For this
reason, users can configure a number of GARP transmission retries (default is
5 retries, maximum is 10). Retries will be sent one time per second.
In the unlikely case of repeated protection switches (which may take place as
a result of permanent radio channel problems), communication may be lost
due to the fact that the ARP changes are taking place once every few seconds.
In this case, the floating IP address will be automatically locked to one of the
IDUs so that users can maintain remote management access to the system.
Note that the IDU may be a standby unit. The IP address will automatically
return to the active unit when the situation stabilizes.
Alternatively, users can access any of the IDUs in the node using their local IP
addresses.
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9.6 In-Band Management
FibeAir IP-10G can optionally be managed In-Band, via its radio and Ethernet
interfaces. This method of management eliminates the need for a dedicated
interface and network. In-band management uses a dedicated management
VLAN, which is user-configurable.
With In-Band management, the remote IDU is managed by specific frames that
are sent as part of the traffic. These frames are identified as management
frames by a special VLAN ID configured by the user. This VLAN ID must be
used only for management. It is not possible to configure more than a single
VLAN ID for management.
Note: It is strongly recommended to classify the management
VLAN ID to the highest queue, in order to ensure the ability
to manage remote units even under congestion scenarios.
The local unit is the gateway for In-Band management. The remote unit is
managed via its traffic ports (the radio port, for example), so that no
management ports are needed.
9.6.1 In-Band Management Isolation in Smart Pipe Mode
This feature is designed for operators that provide Ethernet leased lines to
third party users. The third party user connects its equipment to the Ethernet
interface of the IP-10G, while all the other network interfaces, particularly the
radios, are managed by the “carrier of carriers” user. In that case, management
frames that are sent throughout the network to manage the “carrier of carrier”
equipment must not egress the line interfaces that are used by the third party
customer, since these frames will, in effect, spam the third party user network.
The following figure describes the management blocking scenario.
In-Band Management Isolation
IP-10 IP-10
Provider Network
Management Center
Mng
Frames
Carrier of carriers network
(Provider Network)
Mng
Frames
Block provider’s
management Frames
Block provider’s
management Frames
3
rd
Party User
Network
3
rd
Party User
Network

In switch modes, it is very easy to achieve the required functionality by a
simple VLAN exclude configuration on the relevant ports. However, in Single
Pipe mode, VLANs cannot be used to block traffic, since the line and radio
interfaces are transparent by definition to all VLANs. Thus, this management
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blocking capacity is a special feature for Single Pipe applications that blocks
management frames from egressing the line interface.
This feature is also relevant only to standalone units or the main unit in a
nodal configuration. There is no purpose in blocking the In-Band management
VLAN in extension units, since the management VLAN can be blocked in the
Ethernet switch port.
9.7 Out-of-Band Management
With Out-of-Band management, the remote system is managed using the
Wayside channel. On both local and remote units, the Wayside channel must
be connected to a management port using an Ethernet cross-cable. The
Wayside channel can be configured to narrow capacity (~64kbps) or wide
capacity (~2Mbps). It is recommended to use wide WSC in order to get better
management performance, since narrow WSC might be too slow.
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9.8 System Security Features
To guarantee proper performance and availability of a network as well as the
data integrity of the traffic, it is imperative to protect it from all potential
threats, both internal (misuse by operators and administrators) and external
(attacks originating outside the network).
System security is based on making attacks difficult (in the sense that the
effort required to carry them out is not worth the possible gain) by putting
technical and operational barriers in every layer along the way, from the
access outside the network, through the authentication process, up to every
data link in the network.
9.8.1 Ceragon’s Layered Security Concept
Each layer protects against one or more threats. However, it is the
combination of them that provides adequate protection to the network. In
most cases, no single layer protection provides a complete solution to threats.
The layered security concept is presented in the following figure. Each layer
presents the security features and the threats addressed by it. Unless stated
otherwise, requirements refer to both network elements and the NMS.
Security Solution Architecture Concept

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9.8.2 Defenses in Management Communication Channels
Since network equipment can be managed from any location, it is necessary to
protect the communication channels’ contents end to end.
These defenses are based on existing and proven cryptographic techniques
and libraries, thus providing standard secure means to manage the network,
with minimal impact on usability.
They provide defense at any point (including public networks and radio
aggregation networks) of communications.
While these features are implemented in Ceragon equipment, it is the
responsibility of the operator to have the proper capabilities in any external
devices used to manage the network.
In addition, inside Ceragon networking equipment it is possible to control
physical channels used for management. This can greatly help deal with all
sorts of DoS attacks.
Operators can use secure channels instead or in addition to the existing
management channels:
 SNMPv3 for all SNMP-based protocols for both NEs and NMS
 HTTPS for access to the NE’s web server
 SSH-2 for all CLI access SFTP for all software and configuration download
between NMS and NEs
All protocols run with secure settings using strong encryption techniques.
Unencrypted modes are not allowed, and algorithms used must meet modern
and client standards.
Users are allowed to disable all insecure channels.
In the network elements, the bandwidth of physical channels transporting
management communications is limited to the appropriate magnitude, in
particular, channels carrying management frames to the CPU.
Attack types addressed
 Tempering with management flows
 Management traffic analysis
 Unauthorized software installation
 Attacks on protocols (by providing secrecy and integrity to messages)
 Traffic interfaces eavesdropping (by making it harder to change
configuration)
 DoS through flooding
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9.8.3 Defenses in User and System Authentication Procedures
9.8.3.1 User Identification
IP-10G supports the following user identification features:
 Configurable inactivity time-out for closing management channels
 Password strength is enforced; passwords must comply with the following
rules:
Be at least 8 characters long
Include both numbers and letters (or spaces, symbols, etc.)
Include both uppercase and lowercase letters
When calculating the number of character classes, upper-case letters
used as the first character and digits used as the last character of a
password are not counted
A password cannot be repeated within the past 5 password changes
 Password aging: users can be prompted do change passwords after a
configurable amount of time
 Users may be suspended after a configurable number of unsuccessful login
attempts
 Users can be configured to expire at a certain date
 Mandatory change of password at first time login can be enabled and
disabled upon user configuration. It is enabled by default.
9.8.3.2 Remote Authentication
Certificate-based strong standard encryption techniques are used for remote
authentication. Users may choose to use this feature or not for all secure
communication channels.
Since different operators may have different certificate-based authentication
policies (for example, issuing its own certificates vs. using an external CA or
allowing the NMS system to be a CA), NEs and NMS software provide the tools
required for operators to enforce their policy and create certificates according
to their established processes.
Server authentication capabilities are provided.
9.8.3.3 Authorization
Users are assigned to user groups. Each group has separate and well-defined
authorization to access resources. Security configuration can only be
performed by the group with the highest permission level.
In the NMS, it is possible to customize groups and group permissions.
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9.8.3.4 RADIUS Support
The RADIUS protocol provides centralized user management services. IP-10G
supports RADIUS server and provides a RADIUS client for authentication and
authorization.
When RADIUS is enabled, a user attempting to log into the system from any of
the management channels (CLI, WEB, SNMP) is not authenticated locally but
rather, his or her credentials are sent to a centralized standard RADIUS server
which indicates to the IP-10G whether the user is known, and which privilege
is to be given to the user.
RADIUS login works as follows:
 If the RADIUS server is reachable, the system expects authorization to be
received from the server:
The server sends the appropriate user privilege to the IP-10G, or
notifies the IP-10G that the user was rejected.
If rejected, the user will be unable to log in. Otherwise, the user will log
in with the appropriate privilege and will continue to operate
normally.
 If the RADIUS server is unavailable, the IP-10G will attempt to authenticate
the user locally, according to the existing list of defined users.
Note: Local login authentication is provided in order to enable
users to manage the system in the event that RADIUS server
is unavailable. This requires previous definition of users in
the system. If the user is only defined in the RADIUS server,
the user will be unable to login locally in case the RADIUS
server is unavailable.
In order to support IP-10G - specific privilege levels, the vendor-specific field
is used. Ceragon’s IANA number for this field is 2281.
The following RADIUS servers are supported:
 FreeRADIUS
 RADIUS on Windows Server (IAS)
Windows Server 2008
Windows Server 2003
 Cisco ACS
9.8.3.5 Attack Types Addressed
 Impersonation
 Unauthorized software installation
 Traffic interfaces eavesdropping
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9.8.4 Secure Communication Channels
IP-10G supports a variety of standard encryption protocols and algorithms, as
described in the following sections.
9.8.4.1 SSH (Secured Shell)
 SHHv1 and SSHv2 are supported.
 SSH protocol can be used as a secured alternative to Telnet.
 SSH protocol will always be operational. Admin users can choose whether
to disable Telnet protocol, which is enabled by default. Server
authentication is based on IP-10G’s public key.
 Key exchange algorithm is RSA.
 Supported Encryptions: aes128-cbc, 3des-cbc, blowfish-cbc, cast128-cbc,
arcfour128, arcfour256, arcfour, aes192-cbc, aes256-cbc, aes128-ctr,
aes192-ctr, aes256-ctr.
 MAC (Message Authentication Code): SHA-1-96 (MAC length = 96 bits, key
length = 160 bit). Supported MAC: hmac-md5, hmac-sha1, hmac-
ripemd160, hmac-sha1-96, hmac-md5-96'
 The server authenticates the user based on user name and password. The
number of failed authentication attempts is not limited.
 The server timeout for authentication is 10 minutes. This value cannot be
changed.
9.8.4.2 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)
Administrators can configure secure access via HTTPS protocol.
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9.8.4.3 SFTP (Secure FTP)
SFTP can be used for the following operations:
 Configuration upload and download,
 Uploading unit information
 Uploading a public key
 Downloading certificate files
 Downloading software
Users with admin privileges can enforce secure FTP by disabling standard
FTP.
9.8.4.4 Creation of Certificate Signing Request (CSR) File
In order to create a digital certificate for the NE, a Certificate Signing Request
(CSR) file should be created by the NE. The CSR contains information that will
be included in the NE's certificate such as the organization name, common
name (domain name), locality, and country. It also contains the public key that
will be included in the certificate. Certificate authority (CA) will use the CSR to
create the desired certificate for the NE.
While creating the CSR file, the user will be asked to input the following
parameters that should be known to the operator who applies the command:
 Common name – The identify name of the element in the network (e.g., the
IP address). The common name can be a network IP or the FQDN of the
element.
 Organization – The legal name of the organization.
 Organizational Unit - The division of the organization handling the
certificate.
 City/Locality - The city where the organization is located.
 State/County/Region - The state/region where the organization is located.
 Country - The two-letter ISO code for the country where the organization is
location.
 Email address - An email address used to contact the organization.
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9.8.4.5 SNMP
IP-10G supports SNMP v1, V2c or v3. The default community string in NMS
and the SNMP agent in the embedded SW are disabled. Users are allowed to
set community strings for access to IDUs.
SNMPv3 connections are authenticated with a single user ID and password.
Admin users can configure this user ID and password.
IP-10G supports the following MIBs:
 RFC-1213 (MIB II)
 RMON MIB
 Ceragon (proprietary) MIB.
Access to all IDUs in a node is provided by making use of the community and
context fields in SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c/SNMPv3, respectively.
For additional information:
 FibeAir IP-10G I6.9 MIB Reference, DOC- 00015446
9.8.4.6 Server authentication (SSL / SLLv3)
 All protocols making use of SSL (such as HTTPS) use SLLv3 and support
X.509 certificates-based server authentication.
 Users with type of “administrator” or above can perform the following
server (IDU) authentication operations for certificates handling:
Generate server key pairs (private + public)
Export public key (as a file to a user-specified address)
Install third-party certificates
The Admin user is responsible for obtaining a valid certificate.
Load a server RSA key pair that was generated externally for use by
protocols making use of SSL.
 Non-SSL protocols using asymmetric encryption, such as SSH and SFTP,
can make use of public-key based authentication.
Users can load trusted public keys for this purpose.
9.8.4.7 Encryption
 Encryption algorithms for secure management protocols include:
Symmetric key algorithms: 128-bit AES
Asymmetric key algorithms: 1024-bit RSA
9.8.4.8 SSH
 The CLI interface supports SSH-2
Users of type of “administrator” or above can enable or disable SSH.
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9.8.5 Security Log
The security log is an internal system file which records all changes performed
to any security feature, as well as all security related events.
Note: The Security log can only be accessed via the CLI.
The security log file has the following attributes:
 The file is of a “cyclic” nature (fixed size, newest events overwrite oldest).
 The log can only be read by users with "admin" or above privilege.
 The log can be viewed using the following command:
/management/mng-services/log-srv/security log/view-security log
 The contents of the log file are cryptographically protected and digitally
signed.
In the event of an attempt to modify the file, an alarm will be raised.
 Users may not overwrite, delete, or modify the log file.
The security log records:
 Changes in security configuration
Carrying out “security configuration copy to mate”
Management channels time-out
Password aging time
Number of unsuccessful login attempts for user suspension
Warning banner change
Adding/deleting of users
Password changed
SNMP enable/disable
SNMP version used (v1/v3) change
SNMPv3 parameters change
Security mode
Authentication algorithm
User
Password
SNMPv1 parameters change
Read community
Write community
Trap community for any manager
HTTP/HTTPS change
FTP/SFTP change
Telnet and web interface enable/disable
FTP enable/disable
Loading certificates
RADIUS server
Radius enable/disable
Remote logging enable/disable (for security and configuration logs)
Syslog server address change (for security and configuration logs)
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System clock change
NTP enable/disable
 Security events
 Successful and unsuccessful login attempts
 N consecutive unsuccessful login attempts (blocking)
 Configuration change failure due to insufficient permissions
 SNMPv3/PV authentication failures
 User logout
 User account expired
For each recorded event the following information is available:
 User ID
 Communication channel (WEB, terminal, telnet/SSH, SNMP, NMS, etc.)
 IP address, if applicable
 Date and time
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9.9 Ethernet Statistics
The FibeAir IP-10G platform stores and displays statistics in accordance with
RMON and RMON2 standards.
The following groups of statistics can be displayed:
 Ingress line receive statistics
 Ingress radio transmit statistics
 Egress radio receive statistics
 Egress line transmit statistics
Notes:
 Statistic parameters are polled each second, from system startup.
 All counters can be cleared simultaneously.
 The following statistics are displayed every 15 minutes (in the Radio and
E1 performance monitoring windows):
Utilization - four utilizations: ingress line receive, ingress radio
transmit, egress radio receive, and egress line transmit
Packet error rate - ingress line receive, egress radio receive
Seconds with errors - ingress line receive
9.9.1 Ingress Line Receive Statistics
 Sum of frames received without error
 Sum of octets of all valid received frames
 Number of frames received with a CRC error
 Number of frames received with alignment errors
 Number of valid received unicast frames
 Number of valid received multicast frames
 Number of valid received broadcast frames
 Number of packets received with less than 64 octets
 Number of packets received with more than 12000 octets (programmable)
 Frames (good and bad) of 64 octets
 Frames (good and bad) of 65 to 127 octets
 Frames (good and bad) of 128 to 256 octets
 Frames (good and bad) of 256 to 511 octets
 Frames (good and bad) of 512 to 1023 octets
 Frames (good and bad) of 1024 to 1518 octets
 Frames (good and bad) of 1519 to 12000 octets
9.9.2 Ingress Radio Transmit Statistics
 Sum of frames transmitted to radio
 Sum of octets transmitted to radio
 Number of frames dropped
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9.9.3 Egress Radio Receive Statistics
 Sum of valid frames received by radio
 Sum of octets of all valid received frames
 Sum of all frames received with errors
9.9.4 Egress Line Transmit Statistics
 Sum of valid frames transmitted to line
 Sum of octets transmitted
9.9.5 Radio Ethernet Capacity
 Peak Capacity
 Average Capacity
 Exceed Capacity threshold seconds
9.9.6 Radio Ethernet Utilization
These statistics represent actual Ethernet throughput, relative to the potential
Ethernet throughput of the radio.
 Peak Utilization
 Average Utilization
 Exceed Utilization threshold seconds
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9.10 Software Update Timer
Software in the main unit of a nodal configuration or in a standalone system
enables the user to set a timer for installation of a software update. This timer
can be set in each unit in the node, including the main unit itself as well as the
mate unit in a protection configuration.
9.11 CeraBuild
CeraBuild is an application that enables installation and maintenance
personnel to initiate and produce commissioning reports to ensure that an IP-
10G system was set up properly and that all components are in order for
operation.
CeraBuild includes the following tools:
 Site Commission Tool
 Link Commission Tool
 PM Commission Tool
 Diagnostics Tool
For additional information:
 FibeAir CeraBuild Commission Reports Guide, DOC-00028133
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10. Network Management
This chapter includes:
 OAM
 Automatic Network Topology Discovery with LLDP Protocol
 NMS Options
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10.1 OAM
FibeAir IP-10G provides complete Operations Administration and
Maintenance (OAM) functionality at multiple layers, including:
 Alarms and events
 Maintenance signals, such as LOS, AIS, and RDI.
 Performance monitoring
 Maintenance commands, such as loopbacks and APS commands.
OAM Functionality

10.1.1 Configurable RSL Threshold Alarms and Traps
Users can configure alarm and trap generation in the event of RSL degradation
beneath a user-defined threshold. An alarm and trap are generated if the RSL
remains below the defined threshold for at least five seconds. The alarm is
automatically cleared if the RSL subsequently remains above the threshold for
at least five seconds.
The RSL threshold is based on the nominal RSL value minus the RSL
degradation margin. The user defines both the nominal RSL value and the RSL
degradation margin.
10.1.2 Alarms Editing
Users can change the description text (by appending extra text to the existing
description) or the severity of any alarm in the system. This feature is
available through CLI only.
This is performed as follows:
 Each alarm in the system is identified by a unique name (see separate list
of system alarms and events).
 The user can perform the following operations on any alarm:
View current description and severity
Define the text to be appended to the description and/or severity
Return the alarm to its default values
 The user can also return all alarms and events to their default values.
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10.1.3 Connectivity Fault Management (CFM)
The IEEE 802.1ag standard defines Service Layer OAM (Connectivity Fault
Management). The standard facilitates the discovery and verification of a path
through 802.1 bridges and local area networks (LANs).
IEEE 802.1ag Ethernet CFM (Connectivity Fault Management) protocols
consist of three protocols that operate together to aid in debugging Ethernet
networks: continuity check, link trace, and loopback.
FibeAir IP-10G utilizes these protocols to maintain smooth system operation
and non-stop data flow.
The following are the basic building blocks of CFM:
 Defines maintenance domains, their constituent maintenance points, and
the managed objects required to create and administer them.
 Defines the relationship between maintenance domains and the services
offered by VLAN-aware bridges and provider bridges.
 Describes the protocols and procedures used by maintenance points to
maintain and diagnose connectivity faults within a maintenance domain.
 Provides means for future expansion of the capabilities of maintenance
points and their protocols.
User should be aware of the following set of limitations and recommendations
with respect to CFM:
 The Domain Name is unique for different levels.
 The maximum supported number of local MEPs per single IDU is 256.
 The maximum supported number of remote MEPs per single IDU is 256.
 The IDU supports single Local MEP for each MAID.
 The number of allowed MAIDs is limited to 512 MAIDs.
 Only MEPs, but not MIPs, can be defined on a Single Pipe port.
 Before activating the IDU loopback option (e.g., IF loopback), CFM
proactive monitoring should be disabled, or Error messages of CFM should
be ignored by the user for a period of up to the “CFM remote MEP
learning” time (default value is 60 seconds) after disabling the IDU
loopback.
 The CFM proactive monitor does not run on level 0 (only levels 1 to 7 are
supported).
 Each Domain Level can be assigned a single Domain.
 A CFM monitoring failure caused by receiving an unexpected remote MEP
ID may remain in failure state even after the failure has ceased to exist for
a period of up to the CFM remote MEP learning time (default value is 60
seconds).
 A loopback command from a MEP to a MIP on the same device cannot be
sent.
 Higher domain levels (e.g., customer level) must “envelope” lower domain
levels (e.g., operator level) according to the 802.1ag model. A domain that
is added in between domains, and that does not obey this limitation, might
not be operational, which may affect other domains.
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Domain
Level
-
+
Customer Level
Provider Level
Customer
Bridge A
Customer
Bridge B
Provider
Bridge A
Provider
Bridge B
Customer Level MEP
Customer Level MIP
Provider Level MEP
Provider Level MIP
0
7

 MEP ID & Remote MEP IDs must be unique. A MEP ID should NOT be
reused for Remote MEP IDs on the same (specific) MAID.
CFM works according to the outer VLAN. In Managed Switch mode, the service
is identified by the 802.1Q VLAN, while in Metro Switch (Provider Bridge)
mode, the service is recognized only by the outer “S-tag”, which might
encapsulate an inner C-tag (CQ19849). This is illustrated in the following
example
Trunk Trunk
CN CN PN PN Access Access
Radio
C-tagged
LTM
Stripping C-tag
Untagged
LTR
1
2
3
4
Metro Switch Managed Switch
Discard
untagged
LTR
Metro Switch Managed Switch

The example above assumes that a Managed Switch (802.1Q bridge) trunk
port is connected to a Metro Switch CN port. MEP is defined on the leftmost
access port, and MIP, with the same level, is defined on the leftmost CN port.
When an LTM (Link-trace message) egresses the leftmost trunk port, it is
tagged (step 1). This LTM ingresses the leftmost CN port, and reaches the CPU.
The CPU strips its VLAN (step 2), and generates an LTR (Link-trace Response)
message back to the CN port.
This LTR message does not carry any VLAN (step 3). Now when it ingresses
the leftmost trunk port, it is discarded (step 4). This example demonstrates
that a MIP issued on the CN port does not reply to LTM. In such scenarios, MIP
should be avoided on a CN port. CN ports are part of a provider domain. Thus,
MIP or MEP on these ports are part of the provider OAM domain, and should
be defined as such.
Automatic link-trace timer is a trigger for an automatic link-trace process that
might take longer than the value to which the timer is configured, due to the
number of remote MEPs (each link-trace process takes around 12 seconds).
When automatic link-trace timer is set to a new value, the new cycle period
will take place only after the current cycle period is terminated
The maximum number of MEPs guaranteed to provide reliable indications is
50 per IDU.
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10.2 Automatic Network Topology Discovery with LLDP
Protocol
FibeAir IP-10G supports the Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP), a vendor-
neutral layer 2 protocol that can be used by a station attached to a specific
LAN segment to advertise its identity and capabilities and to receive identity
and capacity information from physically adjacent layer 2 peers. LLDP is a part
of the IEEE 802.1AB – 2005 standard that enables automatic network
connectivity discovery by means of a port identity information exchange
between each port and its peer. Each port periodically sends and also expects
to receive frames called Link Layer Discovery Protocol Data Units (LLDPDU).
LLDPDUs contain information in TLV format about port identity, such as MAC
address and IP address.
The following TLV fields are included in the LLDPDU:
 Chassis ID TLV – Contains the IP address of the shelf.
 Port ID TLV – Contains the MAC address of the port.
 Port Description TLV – Contains a string of 2 digits representing the slot
ID and port number, respectively. Standalone units are represented by
slot-Id 0.
 System Description TLV – System description string.
 System capabilities TLV – Bridge only.
 Management address – Shelf management address.
LLDP can be set in four operation modes: Disabled, Transmit only, Receive only,
or Transmit and Receive.
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10.3 NMS Options
For network management, Ceragon offers NetMaster, a comprehensive NMS
that provides centralized operation and maintenance capability for the
complete range of network elements in an IP-10G system. NetMaster is built
using state-of-the-art technology as a scalable, cross-platform NMS that
supports distributed network architecture. Ceragon also offers PolyView, with
best-in-class end-to-end Ethernet service management, network monitoring,
and NMS survivability using advanced OAM. PolyView provides simplified
network provisioning, configuration error prevention, monitoring, and
troubleshooting tools that ensure better user experience, minimal network
downtime, and reduced expenditures on network-level maintenance.
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11. Standards and Certifications
This chapter includes:
 Carrier Ethernet Functionality
 Supported Ethernet Standards
 MEF Certifications for Ethernet Services
 Supported Pseudowire Encapsulations
 Standards Compliance
 Network Management, Diagnostics, Status, and Alarms
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11.1 Carrier Ethernet Functionality
Latency over the radio link < 0.15 ms @ 400 Mbps
"Baby jumbo" Frame Support Up to 1632Bytes
General
Enhanced link state propagation
Enhanced MAC header compression
Integrated Carrier Ethernet Switch
Integrated non-blocking switch with 4K active VLANs
MAC address learning with 8K MAC addresses
802.1ad provider bridges (QinQ)
802.3ad link aggregation
Enhanced link state propagation
Enhanced MAC header compression
Full switch redundancy (hot stand-by)
QoS
Advanced CoS classification and remarking
Advanced traffic policing/rate-limiting
Per interface CoS based packet queuing/buffering (8 queues)
Per queue statistics
Tail-drop and WRED with CIR/EIR support
Flexible scheduling schemes (SP/WFQ/Hierarchical)
Per interface and per queue traffic shaping
Ethernet Service OA&M
802.1ag CFM
Automatic "Link trace" processing for storing of last known
working path
Performance Monitoring
Per port Ethernet counters (RMON/RMON2)
Radio ACM statistics
Enhanced radio Ethernet statistics (Frame Error Rate,
Throughput, Capacity, Utilization)
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11.2 Supported Ethernet Standards
Supported Ethernet Standards
Standard Description
802.3 10base-T
802.3u 100base-T
802.3ab 1000base-T
802.3z 1000base-X
802.3ac Ethernet VLANs
802.1Q Virtual LAN (VLAN)
802.1p Class of service
802.1ad Provider bridges (QinQ)
802.3x Flow control
802.3ad Link aggregation
802.1ag – Ethernet service OA&M (CFM)
802.1w RSTP
802.1AB Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)
Auto MDI/MDIX for 1000baseT
RFC 1349 IPv4 TOS
RFC 2474 IPv4 DSCP
RFC 2460 IPv6 Traffic Classes
11.3 MEF Certifications for Ethernet Services
Certification Description
MEF-9 Abstract Test Suite for Ethernet Services at the UNI.
Certified for all service types (EPL, EVPL & E-LAN).
MEF 10.2 MEF 10.2 Ethernet Services Attributes Phase 2
MEF-14 Abstract Test Suite for Traffic Management Phase 1.
Certified for all service types (EPL, EVPL & E-LAN).

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11.4 Supported Pseudowire Encapsulations
Certification Description
VLAN (MEF8) Circuit Emulation Services over Ethernet
IP/UDP (IETF) User Datagram Protocol
MPLS (MFA) Multiprotocol Label Switching

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11.5 Standards Compliance
Specification IDU RFU
EMC EN 301 489-4 EN 301 489-4
Safety IEC 60950 IEC 60950
Ingress Protection IEC 60529 IP20 IEC 60529 IP56
Operation ETSI 300 019-1-3 ETSI 300 019-1-4
Storage ETSI 300 019-1-1
Transportation ETSI 300 019-1-2

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11.6 Network Management, Diagnostics, Status, and Alarms
Network Management System Ceragon PolyView NMS
NMS Interface protocol
SNMPv1/v2c/v3
XML over HTTP/HTTPS toward NMS
Element Management Web based EMS, CLI
Management Channels &
Protocols
HTTP/HTTPS
Telnet/SSH-2
FTP/SFTP
Authentication, Authorization &
Accounting
User access control
X-509 Certificate
Management Interface Dedicated Ethernet interfaces (up to 3) or In-Band
Local Configuration and
Monitoring
Standard ASCII terminal, serial RS-232
In-Band Management Support dedicated VLAN for management (in "smart pipe" and switch modes)
TMN
Ceragon NMS functions are in accordance with ITU-T recommendations for
TMN
External Alarms
5 Inputs: TTL-level or contact closure to ground.
1 output: Form C contact, software configurable.
RSL Indication Accurate power reading (dBm) available at IDU, RFU
27
, and NMS
Performance Monitoring Integral with onboard memory per ITU-T G.826/G.828



27
Note that the voltage at the BNC port on the RFUs is not accurate and should be used only as
an aid
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12. Specifications
This chapter includes:
 General Specifications
 Transmit Power Specifications
 Receiver Threshold Specifications
 Radio Capacity Specifications
 Ethernet Latency Specifications
 E1 Latency Specifications
 Interface Specifications
 Mechanical Specifications
 Power Input Specifications
 Power Consumption Specifications
 Environmental Specifications
Related Topics:
 Standards and Certifications
Note: All specifications are subject to change without prior
notification.
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12.1 General Specifications
12.1.1 6-15 GHz
Specification 6L,6H GHz 7,8 GHz 10 GHz 11 GHz 13 GHz 15 GHz
Standards ETSI ETSI ETSI ETSI ETSI ETSI
Operating Frequency
Range (GHz)
5.85-6.45, 6.4-7.1 7.1-7.9, 7.7-8.5 10.0-10.7 10.7-11.7 12.75-13.3 14.4-15.35
Tx/Rx Spacing (MHz)
252.04, 240, 266,
300, 340, 160,
170, 500
154, 119, 161,
168, 182, 196,
208, 245, 250,
266, 300,310,
311.312, 500, 530
91, 168,350, 550 490, 520, 530 266
315, 420, 475,
644, 490, 728
Frequency Stability +0.001%
Frequency Source Synthesizer
RF Channel Selection Via EMS/NMS
System Configurations Non-Protected (1+0), Protected (1+1), Frequency Diversity, Space Diversity 2+0/2+2 XPIC
Tx Range (Manual/ATPC) Up to 20dB dynamic range
12.1.2 18-42 GHz

Specification 18 GHz 23 GHz 24UL GHz 26 GHz 28 GHz 32 GHz 36 GHz 38 GHz 42
28
GHz
Standards ETSI ETSI ETSI ETSI ETSI ETSI ETSI ETSI ETSI
Operating Frequency
Range (GHz)
17.7-19.7 21.2-23.65 24.0-24.25 24.2-26.5 27.35-29.5 31.8-33.4 36.0-37.0 37-40
40.55-
43.45
Tx/Rx Spacing (MHz)
1010, 1120,
1008, 1560
1008, 1200,
1232
Customer-
defined
800,
1008
350, 450,
490, 1008
812 700
1000,
1260, 700
1500
Frequency Stability +0.001%
Frequency Source Synthesizer
RF Channel Selection Via EMS/NMS
System
Configurations
Non-Protected (1+0), Protected (1+1), Space Diversity, 2+0/2+2 XPIC
Tx Range
(Manual/ATPC)
Up to 20dB dynamic range



28
42GHz RFU-C is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.
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12.2 Transmit Power Specifications
This section includes:
 RFU-C Transmit Power (dBm)
 1500HP/RFU-HP Transmit Power (dBm)
 RFU-HS Transmit Power (dBm)
 RFU-SP Transmit Power (dBm)
 1500P Transmit Power (dBm)
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12.2.1 RFU-C Transmit Power
29
(dBm)
Modulation 6-8 GHz 10-15 GHz 18-23 GHz 24GHz UL* 26 GHz 28 GHz 32,38 GHz 42
30
GHz
QPSK 26 24 22 -17 21 14 18 16
8 PSK 26 24 22 -18 21 14 18 16
16 QAM 25 23 21 -19 20 14 17 15
32 QAM 24 22 20 --19 19 14 16 14
64 QAM 24 22 20 --19 19 14 16 14
128 QAM 24 22 20 -19 19 14 16 14
256 QAM 22 20 18 -21 17 12 14 12
*For 1ft ant or lower
12.2.2 1500HP/RFU-HP Transmit Power (dBm)
1500HP Split-Mount 1500HP All-Indoor RFU-HP-1R
Modulation 6-8 GHz 11 GHz 6-8 GHz 11 GHz 6-8 GHz
QPSK 30 27 33 30 33
8 PSK 30 27 33 30 33
16 QAM 30 27 33 30 33
32 QAM 30 26 33 29 33
64 QAM 29 26 32 29 32
128 QAM 29 26 32 29 31
256 QAM 27 24 30 27 30


29
Refer to RFU-C roll-out plan for availability of each frequency.
30
42GHz RFU-C is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 342 of 403
12.2.3 RFU-HS Transmit Power (dBm)
Modulation 6-8 GHz
QPSK 30
8 PSK 30
16 QAM 30
32 QAM 30
64 QAM 29
128 QAM 29
256 QAM 27
12.2.4 RFU-SP Transmit Power (dBm)
Modulation 6-8 GHz
31

QPSK 24
8 PSK 24
16 QAM 24
32 QAM 24
64 QAM 24
128 QAM 24
256 QAM 22
12.2.5 1500P Transmit Power (dBm)
Modulation 11-15 GHz 18 GHz 23-26 GHz 28-32 GHz 38 GHz
QPSK 23 23 22 21 20
8 PSK 23 23 22 21 20
16 QAM 23 21 20 20 19
32 QAM 23 21 20 20 19
64 QAM 22 20 20 19 18
128 QAM 22 20 20 19 18
256 QAM 21
32
19 19 18 17


31
1dBm higher for 6L GHz.
32
20dBm for 11GHz.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 343 of 403
12.3 Receiver Threshold Specifications
This section includes:
 RFU-C Receiver Threshold (RSL)

(dBm @ BER = 10-6)
 1500HP/RFU-HP Receiver Threshold (RSL)

(dBm @BER = 10-6)
 RFU-HS Receiver Threshold (RSL)

(dBm @ BER = 10-6)
 RFU-SP Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6)
 1500P Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6)
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 344 of 403
12.3.1 RFU-C Receiver Threshold (RSL)
33
(dBm @ BER = 10-6)
Note: RSL values are typical.
Profile Modulation
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth 99%
Frequency (GHz)
6-15 18 23 24 26 28 31 32, 38 42
34

0 QPSK
7 MHz 6.5 MHz
-91.5 -91.0 -89.5 -86.5 -89.0 -89.0 -88.0 -89.5 -89.5
1 8 PSK -88.4 -87.9 -86.4 -83.4 -85.9 -85.9 -84.9 -86.4 -87.0
2 16 QAM -86.4 -85.9 -84.4 -81.4 -83.9 -83.9 -82.9 -84.4 -84.0
3 32 QAM -83.8 -83.3 -81.8 -78.8 -81.3 -81.3 -80.3 -81.8 -81.0
4 64 QAM -82.3 -81.8 -80.3 -77.3 -79.8 -79.8 -78.8 -80.3 -80.0
5 128 QAM -80.0 -79.5 -78.0 -75.0 -77.5 -77.5 -76.5 -78.0 -77.5
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -76.8 -76.3 -74.8 -71.8 -74.3 -74.3 -73.3 -74.8 -74.0
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -73.3 -72.8 -71.3 -68.3 -70.8 -70.8 -69.8 -71.3 -73.0
0 QPSK
14 MHz 12.5 MHz
-90.3 -89.8 -88.3 -85.3 -87.8 -87.8 -86.8 -88.3 -88.5
1 8 PSK -86.5 -86.0 -84.5 -81.5 -84.0 -84.0 -83.0 -84.5 -85.5
2 16 QAM -83.1 -82.6 -81.1 -78.1 -80.6 -80.6 -79.6 -81.1 -81.0
3 32 QAM -81.5 -81.0 -79.5 -76.5 -79.0 -79.0 -78.0 -79.5 -79.0
4 64 QAM -80.1 -79.6 -78.1 -75.1 -77.6 -77.6 -76.6 -78.1 -78.0
5 128 QAM -77.1 -76.6 -75.1 -72.1 -74.6 -74.6 -73.6 -75.1 -75.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -74.1 -73.6 -72.1 -69.1 -71.6 -71.6 -70.6 -72.1 -72.0
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -71.8 -71.3 -69.8 -66.8 -69.3 -69.3 -68.3 -69.8 -68.5



33
Refer to RFU-C roll-out plan for availability of each frequency.
34
42GHz RFU-C is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 345 of 403
Receiver Threshold (RSL) with RFU-C
35
(dBm @ BER = 10-6) (Continued)
Profile Modulation
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth 99%
Frequency (GHz)
6-15 18 23 24 26 28 31 32, 38 42
36

0 QPSK
28 MHz 26 MHz
-89.1 -88.6 -87.1 -84.1 -86.6 -86.6 -85.6 -87.1 -87.5
1 8 PSK -85.0 -84.5 -83.0 -80.0 -82.5 -82.5 -81.5 -83.0 -83.5
2 16 QAM -82.7 -82.2 -80.7 -77.7 -80.2 -80.2 -79.2 -80.7 -81.0
3 32 QAM -78.0 -77.5 -76.0 -73.0 -75.5 -75.5 -74.5 -76.0 -76.5
4 64 QAM -76.0 -75.5 -74.0 -71.0 -73.5 -73.5 -72.5 -74.0 -74.5
5 128 QAM -71.6 -71.1 -69.6 -66.6 -69.1 -69.1 -68.1 -69.6 -70.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -71.0 -70.5 -69.0 -66.0 -68.5 -68.5 -67.5 -69.0 -69.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -68.0 -67.5 -66.0 -63.0 -65.5 -65.5 -64.5 -66.0 -66.5
0 QPSK
40 MHz 36.5 MHz
-93.3 -92.8 -91.3 -88.3 -90.8 -90.8 -89.8 -91.3 -85.0
1 8 PSK -89.6 -89.1 -87.6 -84.6 -87.1 -87.1 -86.1 -87.6 -79.5
2 16 QAM -78.9 -78.4 -76.9 -73.9 -76.4 -76.4 -75.4 -76.9 -77.0
3 32 QAM -75.1 -74.6 -73.1 -70.1 -72.6 -72.6 -71.6 -73.1 -73.5
4 64 QAM -71.9 -71.4 -69.9 -66.9 -69.4 -69.4 -68.4 -69.9 -70.0
5 128 QAM -70.7 -70.2 -68.7 -65.7 -68.2 -68.2 -67.2 -68.7 -69.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -68.4 -67.9 -66.4 -63.4 -65.9 -65.9 -64.9 -66.4 -66.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -65.8 -65.3 -63.8 -60.8 -63.3 -63.3 -62.3 -63.8 -64.0
0 QPSK
56 MHz 52 MHz
-86.4 -85.9 -84.4 -81.4 -83.9 -83.9 -82.9 -84.4 -84.5
1 8 PSK -81.1 -80.6 -79.1 -76.1 -78.6 -78.6 -77.6 -79.1 -79.5
2 16 QAM -80.0 -79.5 -78.0 -75.0 -77.5 -77.5 -76.5 -78.0 -78.5
3 32 QAM -75.8 -75.3 -73.8 -70.8 -73.3 -73.3 -72.3 -73.8 -74.0
4 64 QAM -73.5 -73.0 -71.5 -68.5 -71.0 -71.0 -70.0 -71.5 -72.0
5 128 QAM -70.5 -70.0 -68.5 -65.5 -68.0 -68.0 -67.0 -68.5 -69.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -68.1 -67.6 -66.1 -63.1 -65.6 -65.6 -64.6 -66.1 -66.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -65.1 -64.6 -63.1 -60.1 -62.6 -62.6 -61.6 -63.1 -63.5



35
Refer to RFU-C roll-out plan for availability of each frequency.
36
42GHz RFU-C is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 346 of 403
12.3.2 1500HP/RFU-HP Receiver Threshold (RSL)
37
(dBm @BER = 10-6)
Note: RSL values are typical.
1500HP/RFU-HP
Profile Modulation
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth 99%
6 GHz 7-11GHz
38

0 QPSK
7 MHz 6.5 MHz
-91.5 -91.0
1 8 PSK -88.4 -87.9
2 16 QAM -86.4 -85.9
3 32 QAM -83.8 -83.3
4 64 QAM -82.3 -81.8
5 128 QAM -80.0 -79.5
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -76.8 -76.3
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -73.3 -72.8
0 QPSK
14 MHz 12.5 MHz
-90.3 -89.8
1 8 PSK -86.5 -86.0
2 16 QAM -83.1 -82.6
3 32 QAM -81.5 -81.0
4 64 QAM -80.1 -79.6
5 128 QAM -77.1 -76.6
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -74.1 -73.6
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -71.8 -71.3



37
1500HP supports channels with up to 30MHz occupied bandwidth.
38
Threshold figures for 11GHz are for 1500HP only
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 347 of 403
1500HP/RFU-HP Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @BER = 10-6)
(Continued)
1500HP/RFU-HP
Profile Modulation
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth 99%
6 GHz 7-11GHz
39

0 QPSK
28 MHz 26 MHz
-89.1 -88.6
1 8 PSK -85.0 -84.5
2 16 QAM -82.7 -82.2
3 32 QAM -78.0 -77.5
4 64 QAM -76.0 -75.5
5 128 QAM -71.6 -71.1
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -71.0 -70.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -68.0 -67.5
0 QPSK
40 MHz 36 MHz
-86.9 -86.4
1 8 PSK -81.4 -80.9
2 16 QAM -78.9 -78.4
3 32 QAM -75.1 -74.6
4 64 QAM -71.9 -71.4
5 128 QAM -70.7 -70.2
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -68.4 -67.9
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -65.8 -65.3
0 QPSK
56 MHz 52 MHz
-86.4 -85.9
1 8 PSK -81.1 -80.6
2 16 QAM -80.0 -79.5
3 32 QAM -75.8 -75.3
4 64 QAM -73.5 -73.0
5 128 QAM -70.5 -70.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -68.1 -67.6
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -65.1 -64.6



39
Threshold figures for 11GHz are for 1500HP only
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 348 of 403
12.3.3 RFU-HS Receiver Threshold (RSL)
40
(dBm @ BER = 10-6)
Note: RSL values are typical.
Profile Modulation
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth 99%
6-8 GHz
- 16 QAM
3.5 MHz 3.24 MHz
N/A
- 64 QAM N/A
0 QPSK
7 MHz 7 MHz
-91.5
1 8 PSK -89.0
2 16 QAM -86.0
3 32 QAM -83.0
4 64 QAM -82.0
5 128 QAM -79.5
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -76.0
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -75.0
0 QPSK
14 MHz 13 MHz
-90.5
1 8 PSK -87.5
2 16 QAM -83.0
3 32 QAM -81.0
4 64 QAM -80.0
5 128 QAM -77.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -74.0
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -70.5



40
1500HP supports channels with up to 30MHz occupied bandwidth.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 349 of 403
RFU-HS Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6) (Continued)
Profile Modulation
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth 99%
6-8 GHz
0 QPSK
28 MHz 26 MHz
-89.5
1 8 PSK -85.5
2 16 QAM -83.0
3 32 QAM -78.5
4 64 QAM -76.5
5 128 QAM -72.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -71.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -68.5
0 QPSK
40 MHz 36.5 MHz
-87.0
1 8 PSK -81.5
2 16 QAM -79.0
3 32 QAM -75.5
4 64 QAM -72.0
5 128 QAM -71.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -68.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -66.0
0 QPSK
56 MHz 52 MHz
-86.5
1 8 PSK -81.5
2 16 QAM -80.5
3 32 QAM -76.0
4 64 QAM -74.0
5 128 QAM -71.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -68.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -67.0

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 350 of 403
12.3.4 RFU-SP Receiver Threshold (RSL)
41
(dBm @ BER = 10-6)
Note: RSL values are typical.
Profile Modulation
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth 99%
6-8 GHz
- 16 QAM
3.5 MHz 3.24 MHz
N/A
- 64 QAM N/A
0 QPSK
7 MHz 7 MHz
-91.5
1 8 PSK -89.0
2 16 QAM -86.0
3 32 QAM -83.0
4 64 QAM -82.0
5 128 QAM -79.5
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -76.0
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -75.0
0 QPSK
14 MHz 13 MHz
-90.5
1 8 PSK -87.5
2 16 QAM -83.0
3 32 QAM -81.0
4 64 QAM -80.0
5 128 QAM -77.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -74.0
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -70.5



41
1500HP supports channels with up to 30MHz occupied bandwidth.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 351 of 403
RFU-SP Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6) (Continued)
Profile Modulation
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth 99%
6-8 GHz
0 QPSK
28 MHz 26 MHz
-89.5
1 8 PSK -85.5
2 16 QAM -83.0
3 32 QAM -78.5
4 64 QAM -76.5
5 128 QAM -72.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -71.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -68.5
0 QPSK
40 MHz 36.5 MHz
-87.0
1 8 PSK -81.5
2 16 QAM -79.0
3 32 QAM -75.5
4 64 QAM -72.0
5 128 QAM -71.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -68.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -66.0
0 QPSK
56 MHz 52 MHz
-86.5
1 8 PSK -81.5
2 16 QAM -80.5
3 32 QAM -76.0
4 64 QAM -74.0
5 128 QAM -71.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -68.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -67.0

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 352 of 403
12.3.5 1500P Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6)
Note: RSL values are typical.
Profile Modulation
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth 99%
Frequency
(GHz)
11-18 23-28 31 32,38
- 16 QAM
3.5 MHz 3.24 MHz
N/A N/A N/A N/A
- 64 QAM N/A N/A N/A N/A
0 QPSK
7 MHz 7 MHz
-91.0 -90.5 -90.5 -89.5
1 8 PSK -88.5 -88.0 -88.0 -87.0
2 16 QAM -85.5 -85.0 -85.0 -84.0
3 32 QAM -82.5 -82.0 -82.0 -81.0
4 64 QAM -81.5 -81.0 -81.0 -80.0
5 128 QAM -79.0 -78.5 -78.5 -77.5
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -75.5 -75.0 -75.0 -74.0
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -74.5 -74.0 -74.0 -73.0
0 QPSK
14 MHz 13 MHz
-90.0 -89.5 -89.5 -88.5
1 8 PSK -87.0 -86.5 -86.5 -85.5
2 16 QAM -82.5 -82.0 -82.0 -81.0
3 32 QAM -80.5 -80.0 -80.0 -79.0
4 64 QAM -79.5 -79.0 -79.0 -78.0
5 128 QAM -76.5 -76.0 -76.0 -75.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -73.5 -73.0 -73.0 -72.0
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -70.0 -69.5 -69.5 -68.5
0 QPSK
28 MHz 26 MHz
-89.0 -88.5 -88.5 -87.5
1 8 PSK -85.0 -84.5 -84.5 -83.5
2 16 QAM -82.5 -82.0 -82.0 -81.0
3 32 QAM -78.0 -77.5 -77.5 -76.5
4 64 QAM -76.0 -75.5 -75.5 -74.5
5 128 QAM -71.5 -71.0 -71.0 -70.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -71.0 -70.5 -70.5 -69.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -68.0 -67.5 -67.5 -66.5

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 353 of 403
1500P Receiver Threshold (RSL) (dBm @ BER = 10-6) (Continued)
Profile Modulation
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth 99%
Frequency
(GHz)
11-18 23-28 31 32,38
0 QPSK
40 MHz 36.5 MHz
-86.5 -86.0 -86.0 -85.0
1 8 PSK -81.0 -80.5 -80.5 -79.5
2 16 QAM -78.5 -78.0 -78.0 -77.0
3 32 QAM -75.0 -74.5 -74.5 -73.5
4 64 QAM -71.5 -71.0 -71.0 -70.0
5 128 QAM -70.5 -70.0 -70.0 -69.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -68.0 -67.5 -67.5 -66.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -65.5 -65.0 -65.0 -64.0
0 QPSK
56 MHz 52 MHz
-86.0 -85.5 -85.5 -84.5
1 8 PSK -81.0 -80.5 -80.5 -79.5
2 16 QAM -80.0 -79.5 -79.5 -78.5
3 32 QAM -75.5 -75.0 -75.0 -74.0
4 64 QAM -73.5 -73.0 -73.0 -72.0
5 128 QAM -70.5 -70.0 -70.0 -69.0
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) -68.0 -67.5 -67.5 -66.5
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) -66.5 -66.0 -66.0 -63.5

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 354 of 403
12.4 Radio Capacity Specifications
This section includes three sets of capacity specifications:
 Capacity without header compression
 Capacity with legacy MAC header compression
 Capacity with Multi-Layer (enhanced) header compression
Note: Ethernet Capacity depends on average packet size.
12.4.1 Radio Capacity without Header Compression
12.4.1.1 3.5 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average Ethernet
frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
16 QAM 10 11 4 12 11 10 10 10 9
64 QAM 25 15 6 18 16 15 14 14 14
12.4.1.2 7 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average
Ethernet frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 10 10 4 12 11 10 10 9 9
1 8 PSK 25 15 6 18 16 15 14 14 14
2 16 QAM 25 20 8 24 22 20 20 19 19
3 32 QAM 25 25 10 30 27 25 25 24 24
4 64 QAM 25 29 12 35 32 30 29 28 28
5 128 QAM 50 33 13 41 36 34 33 33 32
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 50 39 16 48 43 40 39 38 38
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 50 41 17 50 45 42 41 40 40

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 355 of 403
12.4.1.3 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average
Ethernet frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 25 21 8 25 23 21 21 20 20
1 8 PSK 25 29 12 36 32 30 29 29 28
2 16 QAM 50 43 18 53 47 44 43 42 42
3 32 QAM 50 50 20 62 55 52 50 49 49
4 64 QAM 50 57 24 72 64 60 58 57 57
5 128 QAM 100 69 29 86 77 72 70 69 68
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 100 80 34 101 90 85 82 81 80
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 100 87 37 109 97 92 89 87 87

12.4.1.4 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average
Ethernet frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 50 41 17 51 45 43 41 40 40
1 8 PSK 50 55 23 68 61 57 55 54 54
2 16 QAM 100 78 33 97 87 82 79 78 77
3 32 QAM 100 105 44 132 118 111 107 105 105
4 64 QAM 150 130 55 164 147 138 133 131 130
5 128 QAM 150 158 68 200 179 168 163 160 159
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 176 76 223 199 187 181 178 177
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 200 186 80 235 210 197 191 188 187

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 356 of 403
12.4.1.5 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth  Ultra high capacity (Class 6A, ACAP
only)
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average
Ethernet frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 50 43 17 53 47 44 43 42 42
1 8 PSK 50 57 24 70 63 59 57 56 56
2 16 QAM 100 82 34 102 91 86 83 82 81
3 32 QAM 100 109 46 137 123 115 112 110 109
4 64 QAM 150 135 57 170 152 143 138 136 135
5 128 QAM 150 165 70 208 186 175 169 166 165
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 182 78 230 206 193 187 184 183
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 200 195 83 246 220 207 200 197 196

12.4.1.6 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average
Ethernet frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 50 56 23 70 62 59 57 56 55
1 8 PSK 100 83 35 104 93 88 85 83 83
2 16 QAM 100 121 51 152 136 128 124 122 121
3 32 QAM 150 151 65 191 171 161 155 153 152
4 64 QAM 150 189 81 239 214 201 195 191 190
5 128 QAM 200 211 84 267 239 225 217 214 213
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 240 84 303 271 255 247 243 241
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 300 255 84 324 290 272 263 259 257

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 357 of 403
12.4.1.7 56 MHz Channel Bandwidth

Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average
Ethernet frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 100 76 32 95 85 80 77 76 76
1 8 PSK 100 113 48 143 128 120 116 114 114
2 16 QAM 150 150 64 190 170 159 154 152 151
3 32 QAM 200 199 84 252 226 212 205 202 201
4 64 QAM 300 248 84 314 281 264 255 251 249
5 128 QAM 300 297 84 377 337 317 306 301 299
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 400 338 84 429 383 360 349 343 341
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 400 367 84 465 416 391 378 372 370
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 358 of 403
12.4.2 Radio Capacity with Legacy MAC Header Compression
12.4.2.1 3.5 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header
compression (per average Ethernet frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
16 QAM 10 11 4 14 11 10 10 10 10
64 QAM 25 15 6 20 17 15 15 14 14

12.4.2.2 7 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header
compression (per average Ethernet frame
size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 10 10 4 13 11 10 10 9 9
1 8 PSK 25 15 6 20 17 15 15 14 14
2 16 QAM 25 20 8 28 23 21 20 20 19
3 32 QAM 25 25 10 34 29 26 25 24 24
4 64 QAM 25 29 12 40 34 31 29 29 28
5 128 QAM 50 33 13 47 39 35 34 33 33
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 50 39 16 55 46 41 39 38 38
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 50 41 17 57 48 44 41 40 40

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 359 of 403
12.4.2.3 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header
compression (per average Ethernet frame
size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 25 21 8 29 24 22 21 20 20
1 8 PSK 25 29 12 41 34 31 30 29 29
2 16 QAM 50 43 18 60 50 46 44 43 42
3 32 QAM 50 50 20 70 59 53 51 50 49
4 64 QAM 50 57 24 82 68 62 59 58 57
5 128 QAM 100 69 29 98 82 75 71 69 69
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 100 80 34 115 96 87 83 81 81
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 100 87 37 125 104 95 90 88 87

12.4.2.4 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header
compression (per average Ethernet frame
size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 50 41 17 58 48 44 42 41 40
1 8 PSK 50 55 23 78 65 59 56 55 54
2 16 QAM 100 78 33 111 93 85 81 79 78
3 32 QAM 100 105 44 151 126 115 109 106 105
4 64 QAM 150 130 55 188 157 142 136 132 131
5 128 QAM 150 158 68 229 191 174 165 161 160
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 176 76 255 213 194 184 180 178
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 200 186 80 268 224 204 194 189 188

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 360 of 403
12.4.2.5 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth  Ultra high capacity (Class 6A, ACAP
only)
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header
compression (per average Ethernet frame
size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 50 43 17 60 50 46 43 42 42
1 8 PSK 50 57 24 81 67 61 58 57 56
2 16 QAM 100 82 34 117 98 89 85 82 82
3 32 QAM 100 109 46 157 131 119 113 111 110
4 64 QAM 150 135 57 194 162 147 140 137 136
5 128 QAM 150 165 70 238 199 181 172 168 166
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 182 78 263 220 200 190 186 184
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 200 195 83 281 235 214 203 198 197

12.4.2.6 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header
compression (per average Ethernet frame
size)
64
bytes
128
byte
s
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 50 56 23 80 67 61 58 56 56
1 8 PSK 100 83 35 119 100 90 86 84 83
2 16 QAM 100 121 51 174 146 132 126 123 122
3 32 QAM 150 151 65 218 183 166 158 154 153
4 64 QAM 150 189 81 274 229 208 198 193 191
5 128 QAM 200 211 84 305 255 232 221 215 214
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 240 84 347 290 264 251 245 243
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 300 255 84 370 309 281 268 261 259

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 361 of 403
12.4.2.7 56 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header
compression (per average Ethernet frame
size)
64
bytes
128
byte
s
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 100 76 32 109 91 83 79 77 76
1 8 PSK 100 113 48 163 137 124 118 115 114
2 16 QAM 150 150 64 217 181 165 157 153 151
3 32 QAM 200 199 84 288 241 219 209 203 202
4 64 QAM 300 248 84 358 300 272 259 253 251
5 128 QAM 300 297 84 430 360 327 311 304 301
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 400 338 84 490 409 372 354 345 343
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 400 367 84 532 444 404 385 375 372

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 362 of 403
12.4.3 Radio Capacity with Multi-Layer Enhanced Header Compression
Note: The capacity figures in this section are for standard
IPv4/UDP encapsulation with double VLAN tagging (QinQ).
Capacity for IPv6 encapsulation is higher. A Capacity
Calculator tool is available for more detailed capacity
specifications. Please contact your Ceragon representative.
12.4.3.1 3.5 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer header
compression (per average Ethernet frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
16 QAM 10 11 4 34 16 12 11 10 10
64 QAM 25 15 6 51 24 18 16 15 14

12.4.3.2 7 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer
header compression (per average Ethernet
frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 10 10 4 34 16 12 10 10 10
1 8 PSK 25 15 6 51 24 18 16 15 14
2 16 QAM 25 20 8 71 33 25 22 20 20
3 32 QAM 25 25 10 87 40 30 27 25 25
4 64 QAM 25 29 12 103 47 36 31 30 29
5 128 QAM 50 33 13 118 55 41 36 34 33
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 50 39 16 138 64 48 42 40 39
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 50 41 17 146 67 51 45 42 41

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 363 of 403
12.4.3.3 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer
header compression (per average Ethernet
frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 25 21 8 72 33 25 22 21 20
1 8 PSK 25 29 12 103 48 36 32 30 29
2 16 QAM 50 43 18 153 71 53 47 44 43
3 32 QAM 50 50 20 180 83 63 55 52 51
4 64 QAM 50 57 24 207 96 72 64 60 59
5 128 QAM 100 69 29 250 115 87 76 72 70
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 100 80 34 295 136 103 90 85 83
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 100 87 37 316 146 110 97 91 89

12.4.3.4 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer
header compression (per average Ethernet
frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 50 41 17 147 68 51 45 42 41
1 8 PSK 50 55 23 198 91 69 60 57 56
2 16 QAM 100 78 33 282 131 98 86 81 80
3 32 QAM 100 105 44 382 177 133 117 110 108
4 64 QAM 150 130 55 476 220 166 146 137 134
5 128 QAM 150 158 68 580 268 202 178 167 164
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 176 76 646 299 225 198 186 182
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 200 186 80 681 315 237 209 196 192

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 364 of 403
12.4.3.5 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth  Ultra high capacity (Class 6A, ACAP
only)
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer
header compression (per average Ethernet
frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 50 43 17 153 71 53 47 44 43
1 8 PSK 50 57 24 204 94 71 63 59 58
2 16 QAM 100 82 34 296 137 103 91 85 84
3 32 QAM 100 109 46 398 184 139 122 115 112
4 64 QAM 150 135 57 492 227 171 151 142 139
5 128 QAM 150 165 70 603 279 210 185 174 170
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 182 78 667 308 232 204 192 188
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 200 195 83 713 330 248 218 205 201

12.4.3.6 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer
header compression (per average Ethernet
frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 50 56 23 202 93 70 62 58 57
1 8 PSK 100 83 35 302 140 105 93 87 85
2 16 QAM 100 121 51 442 204 154 135 127 125
3 32 QAM 150 151 65 554 256 193 170 160 156
4 64 QAM 150 189 81 694 321 242 213 200 196
5 128 QAM 200 211 84 775 358 270 237 223 219
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 240 84 880 407 306 269 253 248
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 300 255 84 938 434 327 287 270 265

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 365 of 403
12.4.3.7 56 MHz Channel Bandwidth)
Profile Modulation Minimum
required
capacity
license
Radio
Throughput
(Mbps)
Max # of
supported
E1s
Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer
header compression (per average Ethernet
frame size)
64
bytes
128
bytes
256
bytes
512
bytes
1024
bytes
1518
bytes
0 QPSK 100 76 32 276 128 96 85 80 78
1 8 PSK 100 113 48 414 192 144 127 119 117
2 16 QAM 150 150 64 549 254 191 168 158 155
3 32 QAM 200 199 84 732 338 255 224 211 207
4 64 QAM 300 248 84 909 420 317 279 262 257
5 128 QAM 300 297 84 1000 505 380 334 314 308
6 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 400 338 84 1000 574 433 381 358 351
7 256 QAM (Light FEC) 400 367 84 1000 624 470 413 388 381

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 366 of 403
12.5 Ethernet Latency Specifications
12.5.1 Ethernet Latency – 3.5 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM
Working
Point
Modulation Latency (usec) with GE Interface Latency (usec) with FE Interface
Frame
Size
64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518
16 QAM 1375 1429 1542 1769 2223 2449 2660 1380 1438 1560 1806 2297 2541 2769
64 QAM 1263 1299 1379 1530 1836 1990 2133 1268 1308 1397 1567 1910 2082 2242

12.5.2 Ethernet Latency – 7 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM
Working
Point
Modulation Latency (usec) with GE Interface Latency (usec) with FE Interface
Frame
Size
64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518
1 QPSK 918 972 1085 1312 1766 1992 2203 923 981 1103 1349 1840 2084 2312
2 8 PSK 700 736 817 968 1273 1427 1570 705 745 835 1005 1347 1519 1679
3 16 QAM 573 601 656 769 994 1107 1212 578 610 674 806 1068 1199 1321
4 32 QAM 507 530 576 668 852 945 1031 512 539 594 705 926 1037 1140
5 64 QAM 591 611 651 730 889 969 1043 596 620 669 767 963 1061 1152
6 128 QAM 613 630 665 735 875 945 1010 618 639 683 772 949 1037 1119
7
256 QAM
(Strong FEC)

610 625 655 715 836 897 954 615 634 673 752 910 989 1063
8
256 QAM
(Light FEC)

574 588 617 674 790 848 902 579 597 635 711 864 940 1011

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 367 of 403
12.5.3 Ethernet Latency – 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM
Working
Point
Modulation Latency (usec) with GE Interface Latency (usec) with FE Interface
Frame
Size
64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518
1 QPSK 458 488 547 667 907 1027 1138 463 497 565 704 981 1119 1247
2 8 PSK 337 358 397 476 635 714 788 342 367 415 513 709 806 897
3 16 QAM 243 257 286 343 458 515 568 248 266 304 380 532 607 677
4 32 QAM 214 225 249 297 393 441 486 219 234 267 334 467 533 595
5 64 QAM 276 286 307 349 435 477 517 281 295 325 386 509 569 626
6 128 QAM 270 279 297 333 406 442 476 275 288 315 370 480 534 585
7
256 QAM
(Strong FEC)

261 269 285 317 380 412 441 266 278 303 354 454 504 550
8
256 QAM
(Light FEC)

225 233 248 278 338 368 396 230 242 266 315 412 460 505

12.5.4 Ethernet Latency – 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM
Working
Point
Modulation Latency (usec) with GE Interface Latency (usec) with FE Interface
Frame
Size
64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518
1 QPSK 233 247 276 333 448 505 559 238 256 294 370 522 597 668
2 8 PSK 185 196 218 262 351 395 436 190 205 236 299 425 487 545
3 16 QAM 136 144 160 193 259 292 322 141 153 178 230 333 384 431
4 32 QAM 106 112 125 151 202 228 252 111 121 143 188 276 320 361
5 64 QAM 120 125 136 158 202 224 245 125 134 154 195 276 316 354
6 128 QAM 113 118 128 147 185 204 222 118 127 146 184 259 296 331
7
256 QAM
(Strong FEC)

120 124 133 151 186 204 221 125 133 151 188 260 296 330
8
256 QAM (Light
FEC)

110 115 123 140 175 192 208 115 124 141 177 249 284 317

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 368 of 403
12.5.5 Ethernet Latency – 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM
Working
Point
Modulation Latency (usec) with GE Interface Latency (usec) with FE Interface
Fram
e Size
64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518
1 QPSK 176 187 208 251 338 382 422 181 196 226 288 412 474 531
2 8 PSK 125 133 148 180 242 273 302 130 142 166 217 316 365 411
3 16 QAM 92 98 110 133 179 202 224 97 107 128 170 253 294 333
4 32 QAM 78 83 93 113 152 172 190 83 92 111 150 226 264 299
5 64 QAM 88 92 100 117 151 168 184 93 101 118 154 225 260 293
6 128 QAM 93 97 105 120 152 168 183 98 106 123 157 226 260 292
7
256 QAM (Strong
FEC)

96 99 107 121 151 165 179 101 108 125 158 225 257 288
8
256 QAM (Light
FEC)

87 90 97 111 140 154 167 92 99 115 148 214 246 276

12.5.6 Ethernet Latency – 56 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM
Working
Point
Modulation Latency (usec) with GE Interface Latency (usec) with FE Interface
Frame
Size
64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 64 128 256 512 1024 1280 1518
1 QPSK 220 229 245 279 345 379 410 225 238 263 316 419 471 519
2 8 PSK 164 170 182 206 255 279 302 169 179 200 243 329 371 411
3 16 QAM 139 144 154 173 213 233 251 144 153 172 210 287 325 360
4 32 QAM 119 123 131 148 181 197 212 124 132 149 185 255 289 321
5 64 QAM 139 142 150 164 193 207 221 144 151 168 201 267 299 330
6 128 QAM 138 142 148 161 187 200 212 143 151 166 198 261 292 321
7
256 QAM (Strong
FEC)

143 146 152 164 188 200 212 148 155 170 201 262 292 321
8
256 QAM (Light
FEC)

136 139 145 157 180 192 203 141 148 163 194 254 284 312

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 369 of 403
12.6 E1 Latency Specifications
12.6.1 E1 Latency – 3.5 MHz Channel Bandwidth
Modulation Fixed Modulation Mode (usec)

First hop in
TDM trail
Any additional hop
in TDM trail
16 QAM 1306 1069
64 QAM 1328 1091
12.6.2 E1 Latency – 7 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM working
point
Modulation Fixed Modulation Mode (usec) ACM Mode (usec)

First hop in
TDM trail
Any additional
hop in TDM trail
First hop in
TDM trail
Any additional
hop in TDM trail
1 QPSK 1513 1276
1645 1408
2 8 PSK 1178 941
3 16 QAM 983 746
4 32 QAM 880 643
5 64 QAM 959 722
6 128 QAM 976 739
7 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 957 720
8 256 QAM (Light FEC) 899 662

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 370 of 403
12.6.3 E1 Latency – 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM working
point
Modulation Fixed Modulation Mode (usec) ACM Mode (usec)

First hop in
TDM trail
Any additional
hop in TDM trail
First hop in
TDM trail
Any additional
hop in TDM trail
1 QPSK 977 740
1156 919
2 8 PSK 793 556
3 16 QAM 674 437
4 32 QAM 629 392
5 64 QAM 685 448
6 128 QAM 671 434
7 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 656 419
8 256 QAM (Light FEC) 618 381
12.6.4 E1 Latency – 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM working
point
Modulation Fixed Modulation Mode (usec) ACM Mode (usec)

First hop in
TDM trail
Any additional
hop in TDM trail
First hop in
TDM trail
Any additional
hop in TDM trail
1 QPSK 663 426
871 634
2 8 PSK 598 361
3 16 QAM 533 296
4 32 QAM 493 256
5 64 QAM 502 265
6 128 QAM 491 254
7 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 496 259
8 256 QAM (Light FEC) 485 248

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 371 of 403
12.6.5 E1 Latency – 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM working
point
Modulation Fixed Modulation Mode (usec) ACM Mode (usec)

First hop in
TDM trail
Any additional
hop in TDM trail
First hop in
TDM trail
Any additional
hop in TDM trail
1 QPSK 587 350
944 707
2 8 PSK 520 283
3 16 QAM 476 239
4 32 QAM 457 220
5 64 QAM 462 225
6 128 QAM 465 228
7 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 467 230
8 256 QAM (Light FEC) 456 219
12.6.6 E1 Latency – 56 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM working
point
Modulation Fixed Modulation Mode (usec) ACM Mode (usec)

First hop in
TDM trail
Any additional
hop in TDM trail
First hop in
TDM trail
Any additional
hop in TDM trail
1 QPSK 621 384
951 714
2 8 PSK 541 304
3 16 QAM 502 265
4 32 QAM 470 233
5 64 QAM 488 251
6 128 QAM 484 247
7 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 489 252
8 256 QAM (Light FEC) 467 230

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 372 of 403
12.7 Interface Specifications
12.7.1 Ethernet Interface Specifications
Supported Ethernet Interfaces
5 x 10/100base-T (RJ-45)
2 x 10/100/1000Base-T (RJ-45) or 1000base-X (SFP)
Supported SFP Types Optical 1000Base-LX (1310 nm) or SX (850 nm)
12.7.2 E1 Interface Specifications

Interface Type E1
Number of Ports
16 x E1
Additional 16 x E1 on T-Card
Connector Type MDR 69-pin
Framing Unframed (full transparency)
Coding HDB3
Line Impedance
120 ohm/100 ohm balanced. Optional 75 ohm unbalanced supported using BNC
panel with integrated impedance adaption.
Compatible Standards
ITU-T G.703, G.736, G.775, G.823, G.824, G.828, ITU-T I.432, ETSI ETS 300 147,
ETS 300 417, Bellcore GR-253-core, TR-NWT-000499
12.7.3 Smart TDM Pseudowire Interface Specifications
Processing capability 16 E1 s per TDM PW processing T-Card
Circuit-Emulation Modes
RFC 4553 – SAToP
RFC 5086 - CESoPSN
Packet payload size Configurable – 1 byte to max MTU
De-Jitter buffer size Configurable – 1 ms to 32 ms
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 373 of 403
12.7.4 Optical STM-1 SFP Interface Specifications

Transceiver Name SH1310 LH1310 LH1550
Application Code S-1.1 L-1.1 L-1.2
Operating Wavelength (nm) 1261-1360 1263-1360 1480-580
Transmitter
Source Type MLM SLM SLM
Max RMS Width (nm) 7.7 - -
Min Side Mode Suppression
Ratio (dB)
- 30 30
Min Mean Launched Power
(dBm)
-15 -5 -5
Max Mean Launched Power
(dBm)
-8 0 0
Min Extinction Ratio (dB) 8.2 10 10
Receiver
Min Sensitivity (BER of 1x10-
42 EOL (dBm)
-28 -34 -34
Min Overload (dBm) -8 -10 -10
Max Receiver Reflectance (dB) - - -25
Optical Path between S and R
Max Dispersion (ps/nm) 96 - -
Min Optical Return
Loss of Cable (dB)
- - -20
Max Discreet
Reflectance (dB)
- - 25
Max Optical Path
Penalty (dB)
1 1 1
12.7.5 Auxiliary Channel Specifications
Wayside Channel 2 Mbps or 64 Kbps, Ethernet 10/100BaseT
Engineering Order Wire Audio channel (64 Kbps) G.711
User Channel Asynchronous V.11/RS-232 up 19.2 kbps
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 374 of 403
12.8 Mechanical Specifications
IDU Dimensions
Height: 42.6 mm (1RU)
Width: 439 mm
42

Depth: 188 (fits in ETSI rack) mm
I+ Nodal Enclosure
Dimensions
Height: 2RU
Width: 482.6 mm
Depth: 210 mm
IDU Weight 2.8 kg (with T-Card installed)
I+ Nodal Enclosure
Weight
1.5 kg

12.9 Power Input Specifications
Standard Input -48 VDC
DC Input range -40.5 to -57.5 VDC
Optional Inputs
110-220 VAC
24 VDC


42
When installed with 19 inch brackets, the unit width is 486 mm.
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 375 of 403
12.10 Power Consumption Specifications
Max power consumption
IP-10G IDU (basic configuration)
25W
Additional Power Consumption with XPIC ~3.5W per IDU
Max system power consumption RFU-C +
IP-10G IDU
1+0 with RFU-C 6-26 GHz: 47W
1+0 with RFU-C 28-42 GHz: 51W
1+1 with RFU-C 6-26 GHz: 84W
1+1 with RFU-C 28-42 GHz: 88W
Max system power consumption 1500P +
IP-10G IDU
1+0: 65W
1+1: 105W
Max system power consumption RFU-SP
+ IP-10G IDU
1+0: 80W
1+1: 130W
Max system power consumption RFU-HS
+ IP-10G IDU
1+0: 88W
1+1: 134W
Max system power consumption RFU-HP
+ IP-10G IDU
1+0: 105W
1+1: 150W
Additional power consumption for
16 E1 T-Card
2.5W
Additional power consumption for 16 E1
Pseudowire processing T-Card
5W
Additional power consumption for
STM-1 Mux T-Card
5W (including SFP)
12.10.1 Power Consumption with RFU-HP in Power Saving Mode
Note: These values reflect power consumption for the RFU only,
and do not include IDU power consumption.

Bias TX Power Range [dBm] 6L&H [Watt] 7 and 8 [Watt]
High 33-26 77 77
Medium 25-20 48 53
Low 19-11 34 34
Mute NA 20 20
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 376 of 403
12.11 Environmental Specifications
Specification IDU RFU
Operating Temperature
-5°C to +55°C
(23°F to 131°F)
Temperature range for continuous
operating temperature with high reliability:
-33°C to +55°C
(-27°F to 131°F)
Temperature range for exceptional
temperatures; tested successfully, with
limited margins:
-45°C to +60°C
(-49°F to 140°F)
Storage Temperature
-40°C to +70°C
(-40°F to +158°F)
-25°C to+85°C
(-13°F to+185°F)
Transportation Temperature
-40°C to +70°C
(-40°F to +158°F
-40°C to+85°C
(-40°F to+185°F)
Relative Humidity
0 to 95%,
Non-condensing
5% to 100%
Altitude 3,000m (10,000ft)

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
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13. Components and Accessories
This chapter includes:
 Cable and Accessory Overview
 IDU Unit
 Nodal Enclosure Units
 T-Card Options
 SFP Options
 Additional IDU Accessories
 Ethernet Cables and Splitters (Electrical)
 Ethernet Cables and Splitters (Optical)
 E1 Cables
 E1 Expansion Panels
 Alarms Cables
 User Channel Cables
 IF Cable
 Software License Marketing Models
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 378 of 403
13.1 Cable and Accessory Overview
Accessories and cables for a 1+0 unit include the following:
 Termination cables
 Adaptors/Panels
IDU 1+0 Termination Cable Adaptors



Accessories and cables for a 1+1 system include the following:
 Protection cables
 Termination cables
 Adaptors/Panels
IDU 1+1 Protection (Y) Cable Termination Cable Adaptors



FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 379 of 403
The following figure and the table underneath illustrate the cables and
accessories, both mandatory and optional, in a 1+0 system.
Ethernet + 32 E1s, 1+0

Number in Diagram Model Description
1 IP10-TCard-16 E1 IP10 TDM T-Card for 16 E1
2 IDU-EXT-ALARMS-CBL-2.5m IDU external alarms open cable 2.5m
3
SFP-GE-SX
Or
SFP-GE-LX
SFP optical interface 1000Base-SX
OR
SFP optical interface 1000Base-LX*ROHS
4 EOW-1500P Engineering Order Wire set for FibeAir products
5
15R-USER-CHAN-ASYNC-CBL-2.5M
or
15R-USER-CHAN-SYNC-CBL-2.5M
1500R Async User Channels open cable 2.5

1500R Sync User Channels open cable 2.5
6 IP10-CBL-16IO-5/10/25M IP-10 16 I/O ports cable open 5/10/25M
7 OP-SM-CBL-LC-LC-DPLX-5/10M
Duplex Optical Cable LC-LC SM 3/10M (two for
each optical port in use, one for TX and one for
RX)
8 IP10-CBL-FE-0.5M
IP-10 FE Prot cable straight 0.5m (one for each
electrical Ethernet port in use)
9 IDU_ODU_CBL IDU-ODU Cable
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 380 of 403
The following figure and the table underneath illustrate the cables and
accessories, both mandatory and optional, in a 1+1 system.
Note: This table only includes components that are unique for
protected configurations.
Ethernet + 32 E1s, 1+1 HSB

Number in Diagram Model Description
1 IP10-EXT-ALARMS-CBL-2.5m-PROT Ext. Alarms cable 2.5m – with protection
2
15P-PROT-CBL +
15R-USER-CHAN-ASYNC-CBL-2.5M
OR
2 x 15P-PROT-CBL +
15R-USER-CHAN-SYNC-CBL-2.5M
1500R Async User Channels open cable 2.5
OR
1500R Sync User Channels open cable 2.5
3 X-WSC-E1/T1
E1/T1 WSC x-ed cable (used for Out-of-Band
management)
4 IP10-CBL-16E1-PROT-Y IP-10 16E1 protection Y cable, MDR68
5 IP10-CBL-16IO-5/10/25M IP-10 16 I/O ports cable open 5/10/25M
6 GBE-SPL-MM/SM
MM/SM LC Optical splitter (two for each optical
port in use, one for TX and one for RX)
7 15P-PROT-CBL
E1/T1/Ethernet Y cable (one for each electrical
Ethernet port in use)
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 381 of 403
13.2 IDU Unit
Basic IP-10G Unit

IP-10G Unit with Dual-Feed Power


Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10G(R3)-16E1-TSlt-SU IP10-G(R3) Eth,16E1,Tslt,SyncU
IP10G(R3)-16E1-TSlt-SU-2DC IP10-G(R3) Eth,16E1,Tslt,SyncU,2xDC
IP10G(R3)-16T1-TSlt-SU-XPC-2DC IP10-G(R3) Eth,16T1,Tslt,SyncU,XPIC,2xDC
13.3 Nodal Enclosure Units
Main Nodal Enclosure Unit

Extension Nodal Enclosure Unit

Marketing Model Marketing Description
I+Main-Enclosure I+ stackable enclosure, for main units 2U
I+Expansion-Enclosure I+ stackable enclosure, for exp units 2U
I+Blank I+ blank panel, for main & exp units 1U
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 382 of 403
13.4 T-Card Options
E1 T-Card STM-1 T-Card Pseudowire T-Card



Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-TCard-16E1 IP10 TDM Tcard for 16E1
IP10-TCard-1x STM-1 Mux IP10 TDM Tcard 1x STM-1 Mux, SFP
IP10-TCard-Smart-16E1/T1-ACR IP10 T-Card 16E1/T1 Smart-TDM proc,w/ACR
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 383 of 403
13.5 SFP Options
An SFP optical interface plug-in is available for the GbE optical ports on the IP-
10G. This plug-in is used when an optical connection up to 10KM is required.
The SFP optical interface can be ordered for single mode or multi-mode.
SFP Optical Interface Plug-In


Marketing Model Marketing Description
SFP-GE-SX
SFP optical interface 1000Base-SX
Multimode 850 nm 1.0625 Gbit/s Fiber Channel 1.25 Gigabit
Ethernet Transceiver, with packing RoHS compliance
SFP-GE-LX
SFP optical interface 1000Base-LX*ROHS
Small Form Factor Pluggable LC Optical Transceiver, LP -
bail wire de-latch, 3.3V, 1310 nm, with packing ROHS
13.6 Additional IDU Accessories
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-Fans-Drawer IP10 Fans Drawer
IP10-TCard-Blank IP10 blank panel for Tcard slot
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 384 of 403
13.7 Ethernet Cables and Splitters (Electrical)
13.7.1 Ethernet Cables and Splitters (Copper)
Ethernet Cable and Splitter (Copper) Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
Description
IP10-CBL-FE-0.5M IP-10 FE Prot cable straight 0.5m CABLE,RJ45 TO RJ45,0.5M,CAT-5E
X-WSC-E1/T1 E1/T1 WSC x-ed cable CABLE,RJ45 TO RJ45 CROSS,0.5M,CAT-5E
RJ-45ETHCross cable RJ-45ETHCross cable CABLE,RJ45 TO RJ45 CROSS,2M,CAT5
X-2FE-CON Dual channel Ethernet x-ed cable
CABLE,RJ45 TO RJ45 DUAL CROSS,2M,CAT-
5E,100 OHM
15P-PROT-CBL E1/T1/Ethernet protection cable CABLE,RJ45 TO 2XRJ45F,1.34M,CAT-5E
FE-SPL-1xRJ45F-to-2xRJ45F FE splitter 1xRJ45F to 2xRJ45F

13.7.2 Ethernet RJ45 - RJ45 Cables
Ethernet RJ45 - RJ45 Cable Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
Description
IP10-CBL-ETH-RJ45-0.6m IP-10 ETH RJ45 cable 0.6m,str. (yellow)
IP10-CBL-ETH-RJ45-1m IP-10 ETH RJ45 cable 1m, str. (yellow)
IP10-CBL-ETH-RJ45-2m IP-10 ETH RJ45 cable 2m, str. (yellow)
IP10-CBL-ETH-RJ45-XED-0.6m IP-10 ETH RJ45 cable 0.6m, cross(orange)
IP10-CBL-ETH-RJ45-XED-1m IP-10 ETH RJ45 cable 1m, cross (orange)
IP10-CBL-ETH-RJ45-XED-2m IP-10 ETH RJ45 cable 2m, cross (orange)
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 385 of 403
13.7.3 WSC Protection Cable
A 0.2 meter Ethernet CAT-5E cross-connect cable (male – male) is used to
connect two IDUs in a protected (HSB) configuration. This cable is not
necessary when a nodal enclosure is used.
WSC Protection Cable

WSC Protection Cable Marketing Model
Marketing Model Marketing Description
X-WSC-E1/T1 E1/T1 WSC x-ed cable
13.7.4 Ethernet Cross-Connect Cable
A 2 meter Fast Ethernet CAT- 5E cross-connect cable (RJ-45 – RJ-45, 100
OHM) is used to connect between IDUs in multiple-IDU protected (HSB)
configurations. This cable is not necessary when a nodal enclosure is used.
Ethernet Cross-Connect Cable

Ethernet Protection Cable Marketing Model
Marketing Model Marketing Description
X-2FE-CON Dual channel Ethernet x-ed cable
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 386 of 403
13.7.5 Ethernet Y Cable
A 1.34 meter CAT- 5E Y cable (1 x RJ-45 – 2 x RJ-45 female) is used to provide
a single input/output to and from the two IDUs in the protected pair in
protected (HSB) configurations. An Ethernet cross-cable (X-2FE-CON) is used
to convert the common port to male.
Ethernet Y Cable

Ethernet Y Cable Marketing Model
Marketing Model Marketing Description
15P-PROT-CBL E1/T1/Ethernet protection cable

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 387 of 403
13.8 Ethernet Cables and Splitters (Optical)
13.8.1 Optical Y Cables, Adaptors, and Extension Cables
An optical Y splitter (3 x male) is required to provide a single input/output to
and from the optical GbE interface in the IDUs in the protected pair in
protected (HSB) configurations. Two cables are required for each protected
optical interface, one for RX and one for TX.
A female-female optical adaptor is required between the Y splitter and an
extension cable. Two adaptors and two extension cables are required for each
protected optical interface, one for RX and one for TX.
Optical Y Cable, Adaptor, and Extension Cable

Optical Y Cables, Adaptors, and Extension Cable Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
Description
GBE-SPL-SM SM/LC Optical splitter conn. 1300nm 50/5 Optical Splitter (Single Mode)
GBE-SPL-MM-0.6M MM/LC Optical splitter 62.5/125 0.6M Optical Splitter (Multi-Mode – 0.6 meters)
GBE-SPL-MM-1M MM/LC Optical splitter 62.5/125 1M Optical Splitter (Multi-Mode – 1 meter)
GBE-SPL-MM-2M MM/LC Optical splitter 62.5/125 2M Optical Splitter (Multi-Mode – 2 meters)
OP-SM-LC-LC-ADPT-DPLX Adaptor Female/Female LC-LC Duplex Optical Splitter Adaptor
OP-SM-CBL-LC-LC-DPLX 3M Duplex Optical Cable LC-LC SM 3M Duplex Optical Cable, LC-LC, 3 meters
OP-SM-CBL-LC-LC-DPLX 10M Duplex Optical Cable LC-LC SM 10M Duplex Optical Cable, LC-LC, 10 meters
OP-SM-CBL-LC-SC-DPLX 3M Duplex Optical Cable LC-SC SM 3M
Duplex Optical Cable, LC-SC, 3 meters (Single
Mode)
OP-MM-CBL-LC-LC-DPLX
0.5M Duplex Optical Cable LC-LC MM 0.5M
Duplex Optical Cable, LC-SC, 0.5 meters (Multi-
Mode)
OP-MM-CBL-LC-LC-DPLX 3M Duplex Optical Cable LC-LC MM 3M Duplex Optical Cable, LC-SC, 3 meters (Multi-Mode)
OP-MM-CBL-LC-LC-DPLX 6M Duplex Optical Cable LC-LC MM 6M Duplex Optical Cable, LC-SC, 6 meters (Multi-Mode)
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 388 of 403
13.8.2 Optical H Cables
Optical H cables are used to interconnect between two protected terminals.
Two cables are required for each protected terminal, one for RX and one for
TX. The TX of 1 unit should be connected to the RX of the other.
Optical H Cable Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
Description
OP-SM-HSPL-LC-LC 0.5M/0.5M Opt. H-splt SM 1310nm, LC/LC, 0.5M/0.5M Optical H Cable (Single Mode, 0.5/0.5 meters)
OP-SM-HSPL-LC-LC 1M/1M Opt. H-splt SM 1310nm, LC/LC, 1M/1M Optical H Cable (Single Mode, 1/1 meters)
OP-MM-HSPL-LC-LC 0.5M/0.5M Opt. H-splt MM 850nm, LC/LC, 0.5M/0.5M Optical H Cable (Multi-Mode, 0.5/0.5 meters)
OP-MM-HSPL-LC-LC 1M/1M Opt. H-splt MM 850nm, LC/LC, 1M/1M Optical H Cable (Multi-Mode, 1/1 meters)
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 389 of 403
13.9 E1 Cables
13.9.1 E1 Open-End Extension Cable
A male SCSI68 left-angle120 ohm cable is used to connect from the IP-10G
16E1 connector on one end, with open ends for the 16E1 on the other end
(120 ohm). When conversion to 75 ohm is required, a special adaptation panel
is necessary. This cable can be ordered in lengths of 3, 5, 10, and 15 meters.
E1 Open-End Extension Cable

E1 Open-End Extension Cable Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-CBL-16E1-OE-3M IP-10 16E1 cable open-end, 3M
IP10-CBL-16IO-5M IP-10 16 I/O ports cable open 5M
IP10-CBL-16IO-10M IP-10 16 I/O ports cable open 10M
IP10-CBL-16IO-25M IP-10 16 I/O ports cable open 25M
13.9.2 E1 Extension Cable with RJ-45 Female End
A male 0.3 meter SCSI68 left-angle120 ohm cable with RJ-45 female adaptors
is used to connect from the IP-10G 16E1 connector on one end to four single
E1s on the other end (120 ohm).
E1 Extension Cable with RJ-45 Female End

E1 Extension Cable with RJ-45 Female End Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-CBL-4E1-RJ45F-0.3M IP-10 4E1 ports RJ45 socket (female), 0.3M
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 390 of 403
13.9.3 E1 RJ-45 Male-to-Male Extension Cable
A male SCSI68 left-angle120 ohm cable with RJ-45 female adaptors is used to
connect from the IP-10G 16E1 connector on one end to a single 8 single E1
(120 ohm) on the other end. When conversion to 75 ohm is required, a special
adaptation panel is necessary. This cable can be ordered for 4 E1s in a length
of 0.3 meters, and for 8 E1s in lengths of 0.3, 1.5, and 3 meters.
E1 Male-to-Male Extension Cable

E1 Male-to-Male Extension Cable Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-CBL-4E1-MDR-RJ45-XED-0.3m IP-10 4E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 0.3M, cross
IP10-CBL-8E1-MDR-RJ45-XED-0.3m IP-10 8E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 0.3M, cross
IP10-CBL-8E1-MDR-RJ45-XED-1.5m IP-10 8E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 1.5M, cross
IP10-CBL-8E1-MDR-RJ45-XED-3m IP-10 8E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 3M, cross
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 391 of 403
13.9.4 E1 Termination Cables
E1 Open-End Termination Cables
Marketing Model Marketing Description Description
IP10-CBL-16IO-5M IP-10 16 I/O ports cable open 5M
CABLE,SCSI68 LEFT ANGLE TO
OE,5M,120 OHM
IP10-CBL-16IO-10M IP-10 16 I/O ports cable open 10M
CABLE,SCSI68 LEFT ANGLE TO
OE,10M,120 OHM
IP10-CBL-16IO-25M IP-10 16 I/O ports cable open 25M
CABLE,SCSI68 LEFT ANGLE TO
OE,25M,120 OHM
IP10-CBL-16E1-OE-3M IP-10 16E1 cable open-end, 3M
IP10-CBL-8E1-OE-3M IP-10 8E1 cable open-end, 3M
IP10-CBL-16E1-OE-40M IP-10 16E1 cable open-end, 40M
E1 RJ-45 Female (Socket) Termination Cables
Marketing Model Marketing Description Description
IP10-CBL-4E1-RJ45F-0.3M IP-10 4E1 ports RJ45 socket (female), 0.3M
E1 RJ-45 Male Termination Cables
Marketing Model Marketing Description Description
IP10-CBL-4E1-MDR-
RJ45-XED-0.3m
IP-10 4E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 0.3M,
cross
CABLE,SCSI68 Male TO 4xRJ45 Male
CROSS,0.3M,120 OHM
IP10-CBL-8E1-MDR-
RJ45-XED-0.3m
IP-10 8E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 0.3M,
cross
CABLE,SCSI68 Male TO 8xRJ45 Male
CROSS,0.3M,120 OHM
IP10-CBL-8E1-MDR-
RJ45-XED-1.5m
IP-10 8E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 1.5M,
cross
CABLE,SCSI68 Male TO 8xRJ45 Male
CROSS,1.5M,120 OHM
IP10-CBL-8E1-MDR-
RJ45-XED-3m
IP-10 8E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 3M,
cross
CABLE,SCSI68 Male TO 8xRJ45 Male
CROSS,3M,120 OHM
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-LA-
RJ45-XD3m
IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68-RJ45
3M,LA,cross
IP10-CBL-16E1MDRLA-
RJ45-XD1.5m
IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68-RJ45
1.5M,LA,crs
CABLE,SCSI 68PIN TO 16*RJ-
45,1.5M,120 Ohm,LEFT ANGLE,CROSS
IP10-CBL-16E1MDRLA-
RJ45XD-1.25m
IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68-
RJ45,Cross, 1.25M
IP10-CBL-4E1-MDR-
RJ45-0.3m
IP-10 4E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 0.3M
CABLE,SCSI 68PIN TO 4*RJ-
45,0.3M,120 Ohm
IP10-CBL-8E1-MDR-
RJ45-0.3m
IP-10 8E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 0.3M
CABLE,SCSI 68PIN TO 8*RJ-
45,0.3M,120 Ohm
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 392 of 403
Marketing Model Marketing Description Description
IP10-CBL-8E1-MDR-
RJ45-1.5m
IP-10 8E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 1.5M
CABLE,SCSI 68PIN TO 8*RJ-
45,1.5M,120 Ohm
IP10-CBL-8E1-MDR-
RJ45-3m
IP-10 8E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 3M
CABLE,SCSI 68PIN TO 8*RJ-45,3M,120
Ohm
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-LA-
RJ45-1.5m
IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 1.5M,
L.Ang.
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-LA-
RJ45-3m
IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 3M,
L.Angle
CABLE,SCSI 68PIN TO 16*RJ-
45,3M,120 Ohm,LEFT ANGLE
13.9.5 E1 RJ-45 - RJ-45 Cables
Marketing Model Marketing Description Description
IP10-CBL-E1-RJ45-RJ45-0.6m IP-10 E1 RJ45 cable 0.6m, str. (green)
IP10-CBL-E1-RJ45-RJ45-1m IP-10 E1 RJ45 cable 1m, straight (green)
IP10-CBL-E1-RJ45-RJ45-2m IP-10 E1 RJ45 cable 2m, straight (green)
IP10-CBL-E1-RJ45-RJ45-XED-0.6m IP-10 E1 RJ45 cable 0.6m, cross (blue)
IP10-CBL-E1-RJ45-RJ45-XED-1m IP-10 E1 RJ45 cable 1m, cross (blue)
IP10-CBL-E1-RJ45-RJ45-XED-2m IP-10 E1 RJ45 cable 2m, cross (blue)
13.9.6 E1 MDR69 - MDR69 Cross Cables (for Chaining Applications)
E1 MDR69 - MDR69 Cross Cables (for Chaining Applications)
Marketing Model Marketing Description Description
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-XED-2m IP10 16 E1 ports crossed cable 2m

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 393 of 403
13.9.7 E1 Special Cables
E1 Special Cables

Marketing Model Marketing Description Description
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-2xDTYPE-1.5m IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68/2xDB37 1.5m
IP10-CBL-16E1MDRRA-RJ45-XD1.5m IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 1.5M,RA,crs
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-RJ45-XED-1.5m IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 1.5M, cross
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-RJ45-1.5m IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 1.5M
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-RJ45-XED-3m IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68-RJ45 3M, cross
IP10-CBL-E1-RJ45-RJ45F-XED-0.3m IP-10 E1 RJ45 to RJ45F cable 0.3m, cross
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-EXT-0.6m IP-10 16E1 Extension cable 0.6m, MDR68
CABLE,SCSI68
LEFT ANGLE TO
SCSI68
FEMALE,0.6M,120
OHM, WITH
ADAPTATION.
IP10-CBL-16E1-OE-PROT-5M IP-10 16 E1s cable open-end ,5M w/ prot.
CABLE,2xSCSI68
LEFT ANGLE TO
OE,0.6M+5M,120
OHM, WITH
ADAPTATION

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 394 of 403
13.9.8 E1 Y Cable
A 0.6 meter SCSI168 left angle 120 ohm Y splitter cable (2 x male, 1 x female)
is used to provide a single input/output to and from the two 16 E1 ports of the
IDUs in the protected pair to a single external source in protected (HSB)
configurations.
E1 Y Cable

E1 Y Cable Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-CBL-16E1-PROT-Y IP-10 16E1 protection Y cable, MDR68

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 395 of 403
13.10 E1 Expansion Panels
13.10.1 E1 Expansion Panel with RJ-45 Female Sockets
An expansion panel with RJ-45 female sockets is used for 16 E1 expansion to
single E1 RJ-45 sockets in a panel (120 ohm). Two kits of 8 female-female
adaptors should be ordered for 16 E1. The panel is used with a male SCS168
left angle 120 ohm cross cable with RJ-45 adaptors. The cable can be ordered
in sizes of 1.5 and 3 meters.
E1 Expansion Panel with RJ-45 Female Sockets

Expansion Panel, Adaptor, and Cable Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
Description
IP10-PANEL-32E1/T1-RJ45 IP-10 32E1/T1 panel, for RJ45F adapters Expansion Panel
IP10-ADAP-RJ45F-E1/T1-XED x8 IP-10 RJ45F/RJ45F adapter,E1/T1,cross x8 Adaptor (Cross)
IP10-ADAP-RJ45F-RJ45F x8 IP-10 RJ45F/RJ45F adapter, straight x8 Adaptor (Straight)
IP10-CBL-16E1MDRLA-RJ45-XD1.5m
IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68-RJ45
1.5M,LA,crs
1.5 meter male
termination cable
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-LA-RJ45-XD3m
IP-10 16E1 cable MDR68-RJ45
3M,LA,cross
3 meter male
termination cable
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 396 of 403
13.10.2 E1 Expansion Panel to 75 ohm
A 75 ohm panel is available for expansion to unbalanced 75 ohm connectors
with BNC. A two-way male SCS168 cable is used with this panel.
E1 75 ohm Expansion Panel

75 ohm Expansion Panel Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
Description
IP10-PANEL-16E1-PROT-75ohm-BNC IP-10 16E1 panel w/ 75ohm adap&prot, BNC Expansion Panel
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-0.6m IP-10 16 E1 ports cable straight 0.6m E1 Straight Cable (0.6 meters)
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-1.5m IP-10 16 E1 ports cable straight 1.5m E1 Straight Cable (1.5 meters)
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-5m IP-10 16 E1 ports cable straight 5m E1 Straight Cable (5 meters)
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-10m IP-10 16 E1 ports cable straight 10m E1 Straight Cable (10 meters)
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-25m IP-10 16 E1 ports cable straight 25m E1 Straight Cable (25 meters)

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 397 of 403
13.10.3 E1 75 ohm Extension for 1+1 HSB Configurations
A 75 ohm extension is available for 1+1 HSB configurations. A 0.6 meter 16E1
SCSI68 Y splitter cable (2 x male, 1 x female) is used with this extension, as
well as a two-way male SCS168 cable.
E1 75 ohm Extension for 1+1 HSB Configurations

75 ohm Extension Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
Description
IP10-PANEL-16E1-ADAP-75ohm-BNC IP-10 16E1 panel w/ 75ohm adap , BNC Expansion Panel
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-0.6m IP-10 16 E1 ports cable straight 0.6m E1 Straight Cable (0.6 meters)
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-1.5m IP-10 16 E1 ports cable straight 1.5m E1 Straight Cable (1.5 meters)
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-5m IP-10 16 E1 ports cable straight 5m E1 Straight Cable (5 meters)
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-10m IP-10 16 E1 ports cable straight 10m E1 Straight Cable (10 meters)
IP10-CBL-16E1-MDR-MDR-25m IP-10 16 E1 ports cable straight 25m E1 Straight Cable (25 meters)
IP10-CBL-16T1-PROT-Y IP-10 16T1 protection Y-cable, MDR68 Y Cable
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 398 of 403
13.11 Alarms Cables
Alarms cable can be used to connect to the IP-10G’s alarms interfaces. In a 1+1
HSB protected system, an alarms Y cable is used to connect to the alarms
interfaces of each unit.
The alarms cables are not connectorized at the other end. The length of the
cables is 2.5 meter.
Alarms Cable

Alarms Y Cable

Alarm Cable Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-EXT-ALARMS-CBL-2.5m IP-10 Ext. Alarms open cable 2.5m
IP10-EXT-ALARMS-CBL-2.5m-PROT Ext. Alarms cable 2.5m – with protection

FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 399 of 403
13.12 User Channel Cables
A 2.5 meter cable is used for the user channel connection in 1+0
configurations. A synchronous or asynchronous cable can be ordered. The
cables are not connectorized on the other end.
For a protected 1+1 or 2+2 HSB configuration, a Y cable must also be used. If
synchronous cables are being used, two Y cables should be ordered in order to
support protection mode.
User Channel Cable

User Channel Cable with Y Cable

User Channel Cable with Two Y Cables (Synchronous)

User Channel Cable Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
15P-PROT-CBL E1/T1/Ethernet protection cable
15R-USER-CHAN-ASYNC-CBL-2.5M 1500R Async User Channels open cable 2.5
15R-USER-CHAN-SYNC-CBL-2.5M 1500R Sync User Channels open cable 2.5m
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 400 of 403
13.13 IF Cable
Each IDU-RFU connection requires an RG8 IF cable and two N-Type BNC
connectors.
IF Cable Marketing Models
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IDU_ODU_CBL IDU-ODU Cable
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 401 of 403
13.14 Software License Marketing Models
13.14.1 ACM License
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-SL-ACM IP-10 IDU ACM Enabled
13.14.2 L2 Switch License
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-SL-Metro IP-10 IDU Metro Switch Enabled
13.14.3 Capacity Upgrade License
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-SL-CAP-25 IP-10 IDU Capacity 25 Mbps
IP10-SL-CAP-50 IP-10 IDU Capacity 50 Mbps
IP10-SL-CAP-100 IP-10 IDU Capacity 100 Mbps
IP10-SL-CAP-150 IP-10 IDU Capacity 150 Mbps
IP10-SL-CAP-200 IP-10 IDU Capacity 200 Mbps
IP10-SL-CAP-300 IP-10 IDU Capacity 300Mbps
IP10-SL-CAP-ALL SW license: Capacity All
IP10-SL-UPG-010-025 SW license Cap Upg 10-25 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-010-050 SW license Cap Upg 10-50 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-010-100 SW license Cap Upg 10-100 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-010-150 SW license Cap Upg 10-150 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-010-200 SW license Cap Upg 10-200 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-010-300 SW license Cap Upg 10-300 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-010-ALL SW license Cap Upg 10-All
IP10-SL-UPG-025-050 SW license Cap Upg 25-50 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-025-100 SW license Cap Upg 25-100 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-025-150 SW license Cap Upg 25-150 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-025-200 SW license Cap Upg 25-200 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-025-300 SW license Cap Upg 25-300 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-025-ALL SW license Cap Upg 25-All
IP10-SL-UPG-050-100 SW license Cap Upg 50-100 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-050-150 SW license Cap Upg 50-150 Mbps
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 402 of 403
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-SL-UPG-050-200 SW license Cap Upg 50-200 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-050-300 SW license Cap Upg 50-300 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-050-ALL SW license Cap Upg 50-All
IP10-SL-UPG-100-150 SW license Cap Upg 100-150 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-100-200 SW license Cap Upg 100-200 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-100-300 SW license Cap Upg 100-300 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-100-ALL SW license Cap Upg 100-All
IP10-SL-UPG-150-200 SW license Cap Upg 150-200 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-150-300 SW license Cap Upg 150-300 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-150-ALL SW license Cap Upg 150-All
IP10-SL-UPG-200-300 SW license Cap Upg 200-300 Mbps
IP10-SL-UPG-200-ALL SW license Cap Upg 200-All
IP10-SL-UPG-300-ALL SW license Cap Upg 300-All
IP10-SL-UPG-Metro IP-10 IDU SW license:Upg to Metro switch
IP10-SL-UPG-ACM IP-10 IDU SW license:Upg to ACM
13.14.4 Network Resiliency License
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-SL-Network-Resiliency IP-10 IDU Network Resiliency Enabled
13.14.5 TDM Traffic Only License
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-SL-CAP-32E1 IP-10 IDU Capacity TDM only - 32 E1
IP10-SL-CAP-48E1 IP-10 IDU Capacity TDM only - 48 E1
IP10-SL-CAP-64E1 IP-10 IDU Capacity TDM only - 64 E1
IP10-SL-CAP-75E1 IP-10 IDU Capacity TDM only - 75 E1
13.14.6 Synchronization Unit License
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-SL-Sync-Unit IP-10 IDU Sync. Unit Enabled
FibeAir® IP-10G Product Description
Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential Page 403 of 403
13.14.7 Enhanced QoS License
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-SL-Enhanced-QoS IP-10 IDU Enhanced QoS Enabled
IP10-SL-UPG-Enhanced-QoS IP-10 SW license:Upg to Enhanced QoS
13.14.8 Asymmetrical Scripts License
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-SL-Asymmetrical links IP-10 IDU Asymmetrical Links Enabled
13.14.9 Enhanced Header Compression License
Marketing Model Marketing Description
IP10-SL- Enhanced Compression
IP-10 IDU Enhanced Compression
Enabled