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photosynthesis

0.04% CO2 in
attmosphere
Carbon in plants
(producers)
Fossil fuels
(e.g. coal, oil, gas)
Fossilisation
(Incomplete
decomposition)
waste
(urine & faeces)
death

Decomposers
(fungi & bacteria)
Phloem tubes – made of cells joined
end to end- sieve tube elements & end
walls of sieve tubes called sieve plates;
carry sucrose & amino acids made in
photosynthesis to sink, roots, seeds,
flowers - translocation
Xylem vessels – made of hollow dead
cells, forming long, hollow tubes; carry
water & minerals from roots to leaves



Spongy mesophyll – layer of round cells
beneath palisade layer, contain some
chloroplasts as some photosynthesis occurs
here. It has lots of air spaces for quick gas
diffusion
respiration
waste
(urine & faeces)
death

feeding
feeding
respiration
respiration
feeding
Carbon in primary
consumers
(herbivore)
respiration
waste
(urine
& faeces)
death

combustion
 Take a destarched plant & enclose a plant leaf with a transparent bag with soda lime
to absorb CO2
 Leave the plant in bright light for a few days & then test for starch
 The leaf enclosed in the bag stays red/brown, showing that starch is not present
 Set up a control experiment in exactly the same way but without the soda lime
Carbon in secondary
consumers
(carnivore)
water + carbon dioxide glucose + oxygen
6H
2
O + 6CO
2
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2

Plants with a lack of
nitrate ions show
stunted growth.
Plants need
magnesium ions
to make
chlorophyll.
Plants with a lack of
magnesium ions
have yellow leaves
(chlorosis) &
sometimes stunted
growth
Carbon dioxide is one of the raw materials
for photosynthesis; it diffuses into the leaves
from the air, through the stomata, down a
concentration gradient.
Photosynthesis means “making with light”; it ´s the process by which plants make glucose
(used to make starch) from H2O & CO2, in the presence of chlorophyll & using light as energy.
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the
chloroplasts of the leaf. It absorbs light
energy needed for photosynthesis to take
place.
 Take a destarched variegated plant
 Leave plant in bright light for a few days & then test one leaf from the plant for
starch
 Only the green parts of the leaf go blue-black showing that starch is present; the
white parts stay red/brown showing that starch is not present
Light provides the energy for the process of
photosynthesis. It is converted during
photosynthesis into chemical bond energy in
the simple sugars.
 Take a destarched plant & cover part of a leaf from the plant with a template
 Leave plant in bright light for a few days & then test the leaf for starch
 The part of the leaf not covered by the template goes blue-black, showing that starch
is present, the one covered stays red/brown showing that starch is not present
Plants need nitrate
ions to make amino
acids, which are
used to make
proteins. Proteins
are needed for
growth.
Is the sudden increase in the nutrient content of a lake or river. It
can happen when fertilisers are washed away off the land by
rainwater into rivers or lakes.
Increase of nitrate Cause rapid growth of algae which
concentrations in water forms a bloomover the water
surface
Decomposers, bacteria & fungi Blocks light to plants below
feed on these dead plants which then die

Oxygen is used up by Aerobic organisms Dead
decomposers & its level die lake
in the lake falls


Cuticle - thin & transparent layer allows
light to pass through & reduces water lost
by evaporation
Upper epidermis –
single layer of cells with
no chloroplasts. Light
goes straight through
Palisade mesophyll – near the leaf surface,
it is full of chloroplasts. Cells are closely packed
together to maximise light absorption & carry
out most of photosynthesis
Lower epidermis -
no thick cuticle, has
lots of tiny holes
called stomata
Guard cells - are a specialised
type of cells responsible for the
gas exchange
Stoma (plural stomata) – are controlled by guard
cells, opened during day for the diffusion of gases in &
out of the leaf. Closed at night & in hot dry weather to
reduce water loss

A unit containing all of the organisms (community) & their environment
interacting together in a given area (habitat)
A chart showing the flow of energy (food) from one organism
to the next beginning with a producer.

The position of an organism in a food chain or food web e.g.
producer = trophic level 1
mahogany tree caterpillar song bird hawk
producer primary consumer secondary consumer tertiary consumer
) herbivore carnivore carnivore



10
00
A network of interconnected food chains
showing the energy flow through part of an
ecosystem
An organism (fungi & bacteria) that gets its energy from
dead or waste organic matter

Respiration
Waste (indigested food)
Movement


Less energy available to top consumers as much
energy (90%) is lost on each trophic level
Less number of organisms (also the size increases
as they are predators)


(animal that gets its energy
by eating plants)
(animal that gets its energy by
eating other animals)
(organism that makes its own
organic nutrients usually by
using energy from sunlight
through photosynthesis)