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Notes 3

Network communications:
1) Client Server Model of Networking – describes
a) Relationship between parts on a network
b) Servers respond to reuests ! multiple
c) Clients send reuests to servers ! single
") Network #nvironment – pathwa$ between clients and servers
a) Network Connection Software
i) %llows computers to communicate
ii) &rovides a common standard network language –
'1) Network &rotocols'Common language ( procedures)
b) Network Connection )ardware
i) Cables* Cards* Networking devices
c) Network Computers
i) Servers
ii) Clients
Software that contain! % set of predefined rules which translates data from one form
into a second form for another device or application can use 'a communications
3) Network Protocol Models(Software)
a) +escribes how information passes across a network
b) ,S- ',pen S$stem -nterconnect) Model 'Model used by most vendors)
% seven la$er model that how network protocols are to work/
c) )ow the ,S- Model 0orks
• Composed of seven la$ers
• 1a$ers2 &rotocols that sta$ within its own la$er
• 1a$ers onl$ communicate with the la$ers above or below itself
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Network Communications
Notes 3
7 Layers
1. Application Layer
2. Presentation Layer
3. Session Layer
4. Transport Layer
5. Network Layer
6. Data Link Layer
7. Physical Layer
&eer #ntities ! 1a$ers which communicate 1a$er to matching 1a$er Counterpart 'Client to Server)
S%& 'Service %ccess &oints) – %ddress where data move between la$ers
Service &rimitive! 3he specific function performed b$ a la$er/
Note: %s data flows down the la$er it is being converted and broken into piece/
&+4'protocol data units)! section of data that a la$er is working on
#ach la$er ma$ call its &+4 format differentl$
Application Layer Message
Presentation Layer Message
Session Layer Message
Transport Layer Segment
Network Layer Packet
Data Link Layer Frame
Physical Layer Bits
5rames(&ackets – 6roup of data bits moving down a wire
#ncapsulation – &rocess of creating data packets:
#ach pack will contain )eader and 3railer information
added b$ each la$er
-### 78"/9 standards
Standards developed b$ the -### to oversee the design and development of new protocols*
standards and technologies/
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Notes 3
7 Layers
1. Application Layer
• Network software and rotocols ! e" for sending #$mail and %eb ages!
• Contains & 'edirector (software install on t)e client) determines t)is is an outgoing message
and sends data down to ot)er layers!
2. Presentation Layer
• Formats data for t)e &lication Layer $ May encryt data
3. Session Layer
• Maintains connections between comuters on a network
4. Transport Layer
• Segments data* and adds FCS (Frame c)eck se+uence for error correction)
• Locates comuters on a network
5. Network Layer
• Manages data flow between devices on a network
• &dds ,P address of sending and receive comuters
6. Data Link Layer
• Converts data into a structure t)e P)ysical Layer can recogni-e
• &dds )ysical addresses of known devices
7. Physical Layer
• Converts .s and /s into electrical or ot)er signals for )ardware
• 0ften burned into Network ,nterface Cards
%t the destination the &rocess is reversed and control information is removed from each packet as it
goes up the 1a$ers/
+etail of 1a$ers:
 1a$er 1 ! &h$sical 1a$er
o 5unctions of the ph$sical la$er
! '&1S) &h$sical Signaling
• #ncodes and decodes data
o #9ample for electrical signals:
o +ata #ncoding:
 Converts digital data to analog signal
 Manchester #ncoding Method' used b$ #thernet signals)
• 4ses rising and falling end of voltage to represent
8 and 1 s
o :it 3iming
 Method used to e9tract data from analog signal
 S$nchronous Communication Method e9/ 'used b$
• 3ransmitting device sends a clock signal that is
used b$ the receiving device to s$nchroni.e its
! '&M%) &h$sical Medium %ttachment
• +efines the transceiver
! 'M+-) Medium +ependant -nterface
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Notes 3
• +ecribes the cables and connectors
 1a$er " ! +ata 1ink 1a$er
" sub la$ers:
1 !M%C 'Media %ccess Control)
Responsible for ph$sical addressing
"! 11C '1ogical 1ink Control)
)elps define the network topolog$
o )ardware addressing mechanism
4ses M%C address on devices
o Network 3opologies and access methods
! %ccess Methods:
• #nsures data can go onto wire
o #rror detection and Correction in +ata 1ink la$er
o +ata 1ink &rotocols include &&&
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