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E-F.

Codd, the famous mathematician has introduce 12 rules for the


relational model for databases commonly known as Codd's rules. The rules
mainly define what is required for a DBMS for it to be considered relational ,
i.e., an RDBMS. There is also one more rule i.e Rule00 which specifies the
relational model should use the relational way to manage the database. The
rules and their description is as follows:-
Rule 000: A RDBMS system should be capable of using its relational
facilities (exclusively) to manage the database.
Rule 1: The information rule : All information in the database is to be
represented in one and only one way. This is achieved by values in column
positions within rows of tables.
Rule 2 : The guaranteed access rule : All data must be accessible with no
ambiguity.This is achieved in the RDBMS by using the primary key concept.
Rule 3: Systematic treatment of null values : The DBMS must allow each
field to remain null. The null can be stored in any field of any datatype.
Rule 4: Active online catalog based on the relational model : The authorized
users can access the database structure by using common language i.e SQL.
Rule 5: The comprehensive data sublanguage rule : The system must
support at least one relational language that has simple syntax and
transaction management facilities. It can be used in the application as well
as in the RDBMS systems.
Rule 6: The view updating rule : All views must be updatable by the system.
Rule 7: High-level insert, update, and delete : The system is able to insert,
update and delete operations fully. It can also perform the operations on
multiple rows simultenously.
Rule 8: Physical data independence : Changes to the physical storage
structure must not require a change to an application based on the
structure.
Rule 9: Logical data independence : Changes to the logical level (tables,
columns, rows, and so on) must not require a change to an application
based on the structure.
Rule 10: Integrity independence : All the Integrity constraints like primary
key, uniques key etc must be specified separately from application programs
and stored in the catalog.
Rule 11: Distribution independence : The distribution of portions of the
database to various locations should be invisible to users of the database.
Rule 12: The nonsubversion rule : If the system provides a low-level
(record-at-a-time) interface, then that interface cannot be used to subvert
the system, for example, bypassing a relational security or integrity
constraint.
Note:- Any database management system which fulfills 6 or more than 6
rules can be considered as the RDBMS.
Maulin Thaker Codd's Rule
There are 13 (0 to 12) rules which were presented by Dr. E.F.Codd ,in June
1970,in ACM (Association of Computer Machinery)
Rule 0. Relational Database management A relational database
management system must use only its relational capabilities to manage the
information stored in the database.
Rule 1. The information rule All information in the database to be
represented in one and only one way, Namely by values in column positions
within rows of tables.
Rule 2. Logical accessibility This rule says about the requirement of primary
keys. Every individual value in the database must be logically addressable by
specifying the name of table, column and the primary key value of the row.
Rule 3. Representation of null values The DBMS is required to support a
representation of "missing information and inapplicable information" (for
example, 0 'Zero' is different from other Numbers), This type of information
must be represented by the DBMS in a systematic way (For example Null
Character ).
Rule 4. Catalog Facilities The system is required to support an on line, in
line, relational data access to authorized users by using their Query
language.
Rule 5. Data Languages. The system must support a least one relational
language (It may support more than one relational language) that (a) has a
linear syntax,
(b) can be used in two ways and within application programs,
(c) supports data operations security and integrity constraints, and
transaction management operations (commit).
Rule 6. View Updatability All views that are theoretically updatable must be
updatable by the system.
Rule 7. update and delete. The system must support INSERT, UPDATE, and
DELETE operators.
Rule 8. Physical data independence Changes to the physical level (how the
data is stored, whether in arrays or linked lists etc.) must not require a
change to an application based on the structure.
Rule 9. Logical data independence Changes made to tables to modify any
data stored in the tables must not require changes to be made to application
programs. Logical data independence is more difficult to achieve than
physical data independence.
Rule 10. Integrity Constraints Integrity constraints must be specified
separately from application programs and stored in the catalog. It must be
possible to change such constraints when they are unnecessarily affecting
existing applications.
Rule 11. Database Distribution The RDBMS may spread across more than
one system and across several networks, however the tables should appear
in same manner to every user like local users.
Rule 12. The Non Subversion rule If the system provides a low-level
interface, then that interface cannot be used to weaken the system (e.g.)
bypassing a relational security or integrity constraint.