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TeIevIsIon PIIot Production Report


2014, FilmL.A. Research
6255 W. Sunset Blvd., 12th Floor Los Angeles, CA 90028 213.977.8600 www.filmla.com
EMBARGO: Hold until 12:00 p.m. PDT on
Tuesday, 6/24/14







About this Report

ThisreportistheproductofindependentresearchconductedbyFilmL.A,Inc.FilmL.A.isLosAngeles
regionalfilmoffice,servingtheCityandCountyofLosAngelesandaneverincreasingrosteroflocal
municipalities.Providingstreamlinedpermitprocessing,comprehensivecommunityrelations,marketing
services,filmpolicyanalysisandmoretothesejurisdictions,FilmL.A.workstoattractandretainfilm
productioninGreaterLosAngeles.

IntegraltoFilmL.A.sworkisongoingresearchintothebenefitsthatlocalfilmingbringstotheLos
Angelesregion.Tothatend,thecompanymaintainsaninternalresearchdivisiondevotedtothe
production,collectionanddisseminationofinformationregardingtheU.S.filmproductioneconomy.
OnbehalfofeveryoneatFilmL.A.andthosewhodependonlocalentertainmentproductionfortheir
livelihoods,wethankyouforyourinterestinthisreport.Ifyouhaveanyquestionsaboutthecontent
herein,theauthorswelcomeyourinquiries.

AdrianMcDonald,LeadResearchAnalyst
CorinaSandru,ResearchAnalyst
FilmL.A.Research
6255W.SunsetBlvd.,12thFloor
Hollywood,CA90028
213.977.8636
www.filmla.com

1

EachyearbetweenJanuaryandApril,LosAngelesresidentsobserveamarkedincreaseinlocalon
locationfilming.Newtelevisionpilots,producedinanticipationofMayscreeningsfortelevisionadvertisers,join
continuingTVseries,featurefilmsandcommercialprojectsincompetitionfortalent,crews,stagespaceand
soughtafterlocations.

However,LosAngelesisn'ttheonlyplaceinNorthAmericahostingpilotproduction.Otherjurisdictions,
mostnotablytheCityofNewYork,theVancouverareaandtheCityofToronto,haveestablishedthemselvesas
strongcompetitorsforthislucrativepartofHollywoodsbusinesstradition.Morerecently,Atlanta,Georgiahas
emergedasastrongcontenderforpilotproductions,surpassingevenTorontointotalnumberofpilotsproduced
for2014.

FilmL.A.thenotforprofitorganizationthatcoordinatespermitsforfilmedentertainmentshoton
locationintheCityofLosAngeles,unincorporatedpartsofLosAngelesCountyandotherlocaljurisdictions
recentlyupdateditsongoingannualstudyoftelevisionpilotsinproduction.

FilmL.A.sofficialcountshowsthat203broadcast,cableandnewmediatelevisionpilotswereproduced
duringthe13/14developmentcycle,makingthepastyearthemostproductiveonrecordbyalargemargin.Out
ofthose203televisionpilots,atotalof90projectswerefilmedintheLosAngelesregion.

WhilethisisthefourthlargestannualpilottallyinLosAngeleshistory,itisstill11fewerthanL.A.
handledduringitspeakyearof'04/'05.Intermsofoverallmarketshare,L.A.capturedjust44percentofallpilots
inthecurrentcycle.ThisisthelowestonrecordbyawidemarginandthefirsttimethatL.A.smarketsharehas
fallenbelow50percent.Needlesstosay,itisaveryfarcryfromL.A.srecord82percentsharein06/07.

TVDramas

In13/14,theLosAngelesregioncapturedjust17percentofalltelevisiondramapilots.Thisrepresentsa
staggeringdeclineof73percentfromthepeakin06/07,whenL.A.sdramasharewasacommanding63percent.
Foronehourdramapilots,the13/14cycleisalsoL.A.slowestmarketshareonrecordandthefirsttimethe
regionspilotproductionsharehasdippedbelow20percent.


2

Inthe12/13cycle,theratioofdramapilotsfilmedoutsideL.A.wasover4to1.Duringtheprevious
threedevelopmentcycles(09/1011/12),dramapilotswerefilmedoutsidetheL.A.regionbyaratioofmore
than2to1.Alarmingly,theseratiosnowseemrosycomparedtothe13/14cycle,inwhichtheratioofdrama
pilotsfilmedoutsideL.A.wasalmost5to1.

TVComedies

L.A.sshareofcomedypilotsproducedin13/14was76percent,downfrom83percentintheprevious
cycleandsubstantiallysmallerthanits91percentsharein11/12.ThenumberofcomedypilotsproducedinL.A.
was71in13/14comparedto75inthepreviouscycle.

L.A.sstatusasthepremierpilotproductioncentercontinuestohingeonindustrywillingnesstoproduce
comedyprojectsinLosAngeles.Untilrecently,generousfilmincentivesinotherlocationshavenotbeenas
successfulatsiphoningcomedyproductionfromL.A.AnemergingexceptiontothatruleisNewYork,whichhas
seenremarkablegrowth(discussedlaterinthisreport).However,with11comedypilotsproducedinNewYork,it
remainsaverydistantsecondtoLosAngeles.


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Multicamera,stageboundcomedies,whichL.A.hasbeenabletoretainingreatnumbers,costupto$1.5
milliontoproduceperepisode.In13/14,therewere40multicamerapilotsproduced(37inL.A.).By
comparison,in12/13,therewere40multicamerapilotsproduced(36inL.A.).Creativereasons,asopposedto
economicreasons,presentlykeeptheseproductionsinLosAngeles.

Singlecameracomediesthatregularlyshootonlocationcostslightlymoretomakeatupto$2.0million
perepisode.In13/14,therewere52singlecamerapilotsproduced(33inL.A.).Bycomparison,in12/13,there
were50singlecamerapilotsproduced(39inL.A.).

PilotProductionLocations

Duringthe13/14developmentcycle,90televisionpilotswerefilmedonLosAngelesstreetsand
stages.However,113otherpilotsofwhich91werecovetedonehourdramaprojectswereproduced
outsidetheregionincompetingjurisdictions.Inthepreviousdevelopmentcycle,only90totalpilotswere
producedoutsidetheregion.

AfterL.A.,thetopfourcompetitorsforpilotproductionin13/14wereNewYork(35pilots),Vancouver
(17pilots),Atlanta(12pilots)andToronto(8pilots).TrailingthetopfourwastheStateofTexas,whichhostedfive
totalpilots(Austin:3;Dallas:2).

Theavailabilityoffinancialproductionincentivesandproductioninfrastructurearekeyfactors
influencingwherepilotproducerschoosetofilm.Asinprioryears,someformoffilmproductionincentivewas
availableineveryoneofthenonCalifornialocationsusedduringthe13/14developmentcycle.Indeed,the
availabilityofgenerousfinancialincentivesandtheavailabilityofanestablishedand/orrapidlygrowingproduction
infrastructureproveddecisivefortwoofL.A.stopcompetitors:NewYork&Georgia.

NewYork

In2009,theStateofNewYorkincreasedtheamountofavailablefundsunderthestatesfilmtaxcredit
programtoover$400million.Theincreasedfundingbecamenecessaryduetothegreatlyincreaseddemandand
popularityoftheprogramaftertherateoftheincentiveinNewYorkwasincreasedfrom10percentto30percent
inlate2008.

4

Inthe09/10developmentcycle,theyearbeforeitsprogramtookeffect,justfivetotalpilotswere
producedinNewYork.Theverynextyear,duringthe10/11developmentcycle,thenumberofpilotsproduced
inNewYorkexplodedto17,a240percentincreaseovertheprioryear.Withthe35totalpilotsproducedinNew
Yorkduringthe13/14cycle,NewYorkhasseenthevolumeoftotalpilotsproducedwithinitsbordersincreaseby
600percentsincethestateincreasedtherateandavailabilityofitsfilmtaxcreditprogram.

Whenitcomestoonehourdramapilots,thegrowthinNewYorksincethestateincreaseditsincentiveis
evenmoredramatic.In09/10,justtwoonehourdramapilotsfilmedinNewYork.Duringthemostrecent
cycle,thatnumberhadclimbedtoarecordhighof24onehourdramasin13/14.Fortheeconomicallylucrative
onehournetworkdramas(whichtypicallyshoottwiceasmanyepisodeseachseasoncomparedtocable),New
Yorkwentfromhostingzeronetworkdramapilotsin09/10to12inthe13/14cycle.Bycomparison,Los
Angelessawthenumberofonehournetworkpilotsdeclinefrom14tojustsevenduringthesameperiod,a50
percentdecline.

The13/14cyclealsomarksanothermilestoneforNewYork.Forthefirsttimeonrecord,NewYork
hostedmoreonehourdramapilotsthanCalifornia.TheEmpireStatehosted24onehourdramapilotscompared
tojust19forLosAngeles.

NewYorkhasalsoseenremarkablegrowthinthenumberofcomedypilotsproducedinthestate.During
the13/14developmentcycle,comedypilotproductionactivityinNewYorkincreased83percentovertheprior
year,with11comedypilotsproducedintheEmpireState.

Moreimportantly,14ofthe17comedypilotsproducedinNewYorkoverthelasttwoyearshavebeenfor
covetedsinglecamerashows,whichcostmoretoproducethanmulticameracomedies.

Georgia

In2008,theStateofGeorgiaenactedanuncappedfilmtaxcreditprogramthatcoversupto30percentof
productionexpendituresincurredwithinthestate.AsinNewYork,Georgiasawasignificantincreasein
productionspendingwithinitsborders,includinganincreaseinthenumberofTVpilotsshotthere.Inthe08/09
developmentcycle,whichoccurredjustbeforethenewincentivebegantotakeeffect,justonepilotwasproduced
inthePeachState.Thefollowingyear,however,withthenewincentiveinfulleffect,thenumberofpilotsshotin
Georgiaquadrupled.Duringthe13/14cycle,atotalof12pilotsfilmedinGeorgia,anincreaseof1,100percent
overthe08/09cyclewhenGeorgiaenacteditslargeincentive.

Inadditiontoitsgenerousuncappedincentiveprogram,Georgiahasbeenaggressivelybuildingupits
nativefilminfrastructure.Filmmaker(andGeorgianative)TylerPerrysstudiosarecurrentlyundergoingamassive
expansionthatwillnearlydoubletheircurrent38acres.UnitedKingdombasedPinewoodStudiosisalso
expandingitspresenceinGeorgiaandcurrentlyoperatessixstateoftheartsoundstagesatits288acrecampus,
whereithasplanstobuildatleastsixmore.Morerecently,GeorgiaGovernorNathanDealhasexpressedinterest
inhaving1,000ormoreacresoflandinGeorgiaconvertedintouseforamovieranchsimilartothosefoundin
SouthernCalifornia.


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Georgiasgenerousincentiveandinvestmentininfrastructurearehavingaprofoundeffectonthe
popularityofthestateasafilmingdestination.Lastyear,GeorgiaovertookLouisianaasthethirdlargestUSstate
intotalproductionspending.

DigitalPlatformsReshapingTelevisionLandscape

Injustthelastseveralyears,nontraditionalprogrammingavailablefromonlineserviceslikeAmazonand
Netflixhasbegunalteringhowmoretraditionaltelevisionbroadcasteracquireanddelivercontent.

InAugust2013,actorKevinSpacey,thestarofNetflixshitseriesHouseofCards,gaveaspeechatthe
EdinburghTelevisionFestivalinwhichhepredicteddifferentiationbetweencontentdeliveryplatformswouldend
withinadecade:

Onewaythatourindustrymightfailtoadapttothecontinuallyshiftingsandsistokeepadogmatic
differentiationintheirmindsbetweenvariousmediaseparatingfilmandTVandminiseriesand
webisodesandhoweverelseyoumightwanttolabelnarrativeformats...Ipredictthatinthenextdecade
ortwo,anydifferentiationbetweentheseformatstheseplatformswillfallaway.

Is13hourswatchedasonecinematicwholereallyanydifferentthanafilm?Dowedefinefilmbybeing
somethingtwohoursorless?Surelyitgoesdeeperthanthat.Ifyouarewatchingafilmonyourtelevision,
isitnolongerafilmbecauseyou'renotwatchingitinthetheater?IfyouwatchaTVshowonyouriPadis
itnolongeraTVshow?Thedeviceandlengthareirrelevant.Thelabelsareuselessexceptperhapsto
agentsandmanagersandlawyerswhousetheselabelstoconductbusinessdeals.Forkidsgrowingup
nowtheresnodifferencewatchingAvataronaniPadorwatchingYouTubeonaTVandwatchingGame
ofThronesontheircomputer.It'sallcontent.It'sallstory.

Inthe2010/11season,justsixdigitalserieswerebeingproducedfornontraditionaldigitalplatforms.
Thegrowthinthenumberofdigitalseries
1
thatbeganairingsincethattimehasbeenremarkable:


1
Digital Platforms include: Amazon, AOL, Crackle, Hulu, MSN, Netflix, Playstation, XBOX, Yahoo, YouTube
(Source: Baseline Studio Systems)

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Amazon

In13/14,AmazonStudiosproducedsevenliveactionpilots(plusanadditionalthreeanimated)forits
AmazonPrimesubscriptionstreamingservice,justonemorethanthesixliveactionpilotsthestudioproducedin
thepreviouscycle.However,Amazonpickedupfiveofthesevenliveactionpilotsproducedin13/14,compared
tojusttwo(ofsix)inthepreviouscycle.Amazonselectswhichpilotsreceivefullseriesordersbasedinlargepart
onthenumberoftimesashowisstreamedandthepercentageofviewerswhofinishthepilot.Unlikenetwork
television,onAmazontherearenocommercialinterruptionsandadvertiserinfluenceiseffectivelytakenoutof
theequation.

TheresponsefromviewersappearstobeverypromisingforAmazon.AccordingtoAmazon,thenumber
ofstreamsforeachpilotproducedinthe13/14cycleincreasedby100percentcomparedtolastyear.Some
industryobserverspointtoarumoreddoublingofAmazonPrimessubscriberbaseoverthepastyear,whichcould
helpexplainwhythenumberofviewsforpilotsthisyeardoubledaswell.Whilethatisavalidexplanation,its
worthnotingthatthefivepilotsproducedforchildrensawthenumberofstreamsincreaseby200percentover
lastyear.AmazonistightlyguardedaboutrevealingexactlyhowmanysubscribersAmazonPrimehas,but
unofficialestimatesplaceitaround20million.

ItspossibletheincreasedsubscriberbaseforAmazonPrimeincludedmorefamilieswithchildren.It
couldalsoreflectagenerationalrealitythatchildren,unliketheirparents,aremuchmorelikelytoconsume
contentvianontraditionalplatformsandviewingdevices.ItsalsopossiblethenumberofsubscriberstoAmazon
increasedbecauseofthegrowingamountoforiginalcontentbeingproducedoutsidetraditionaltelevision
broadcastingandthemannerinwhichcontentisdelivered.

Netflix

UnlikeAmazon,theoriginalprogrammingonNetflixhasallconsistedofstraighttoseriesorders.Rather
thanreleaseepisodesonaweeklybasisliketraditionalnetworks,Netflixmakesallepisodesavailableatonetime,
whichalsotakesadvertisersoutoftheequation.

Ratherthanmakeviewerstuneinweekly,Netflixallowsviewerstobingeonanentireseasonof
episodesasquicklyastheyplease.Moreover,becausetherearenocommercialinterruptionsorgapsbetween
episodes,Netflixallowsscreenwriterstocontrolthepaceandflowofthestory,avoidingcommercialinterruptions
ortheneedforweeklycliffhangers.TheNetflixmodelappearstobeahitwithviewers.

WhenNetflixrolledoutitsonlinestreamingservicein2008,thecompanyhad8.2millionsubscribers.By
thecloseof2010,thenumberofsubscribershadsoaredtoalmost20million.Bytheendof2013,thecompany
hadmorethan40millionsubscribersworldwide,includingover33millionintheU.S.and9.7millionoverseas
(comparedtolessthanonemillioninternationalsubscribersinearly2011).In2011,Netflixbeganacquiring
originalcontenttoairexclusivelyonitsstreamingsubscriptionservice,anditsfirstoriginalseries,Lillyhammer,
wasreleasedin2012.In2013,Netflixaddedfivemoreseriesoforiginalcontent,includinghitserieslikeHouseof
CardsandOrangeistheNewBlack.Attheendof2014,Netflixwillhaveatotalof11originalseries(including
threeanimatedshows).In2015,Netflixplanstoaddsevenmoreseriestoitsoriginalcontentlineup,includingthe
firstof60episodesinaseriesproducedbyDisneyfeaturingMarvelsuperheroes.

Netflixdemandshighqualityforitsoriginalcontentandhasbeenwillingtopaytopdollartogetit.Total
spendinginMarylandforthefirstthreeseasonsofHouseofCardsisexpectedtoexceed$173million.Marvel
Studiosisexpectedtospend$200millioninNewYork,whereall60episodesofitsfoursuperheroserieswillbe
filmed.NewYorkalsobenefitsfromroughly$4millionspentmakingeachepisodeofOrangeistheNewBlack,for
atotalof$104millioninitsfirsttwoseasons.


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Project Location Spending
HouseofCards(S1S3) Maryland $173million
MarvelSuperheroSeries NewYork $200million
OrangeistheNewBlack (S1S2) NewYork $104million

PresumeforamomentthatsuchseriescouldhavebeenmadeinCalifornia,wereincentivesinplaceto
bringthemhere.ThelostopportunitytotheCaliforniaeconomyfromjustthesethreeNetflixseriesapproaches
$475million.

TheMainstreamingofStraighttoSeriesProduction

Astheinitialepisodeofaproposedtelevisionseries,manypilotsaremade,butonlyafewwilleverbe
showntoviewersonbroadcastorcabletelevision.Beforeapilotcanbegreenlightedforseries,itmustfirstbe
deemedmarketabletotelevisionadvertisersandforeigndistributors.

Fordecades,broadcastnetworkshavecourtedadvertisersinanexpensiveandseasonallydriven
upfrontsprocess.EveryyearinlateMay,advertiserspreviewtheshowsthatwillgoontobeairedonbroadcast
networksinthefallorearlythefollowingyearasmidseasonreplacements.

Cablenetworksalsoscreenavarietyofscriptedcontent.Unlikenetworkpilots,cablepilotsareproduced
yearroundandhaveincreasedinnumbertocontributemightilytodevelopmentcycleyields.Newcableseries
debutthroughouttheyear.

Notonlyhavethetraditionalbroadcastandcabletelevisionnetworksbeguntorespondtothepresence
ofnewcompetitors,itappearstheyareadaptingtheirownbusinessmodelstosuit.Accordingtotheformer
chairmanofentertainmentatFoxBroadcasting,KevinReillyattheTelevisionCriticsAssociationinJanuary,the
gamehadalreadychangedandtherewasadesireatthenetworktoplaybynewrules.AsofJanuary2014,Fox
announcedtotheworldthatitwouldskippilotproductionaltogether:

WevebeentryingtodoawaywithpilotseasonforalongtimeatFox.Thebroadcastschedulingprocess
wasbuiltforadifferenterawhentherewerethreenetworksthathadanearmonopoly.Wedontlivein
thatageanymore.

Iftheindustryhasenteredadifferentera,whatdoesthatmeanfortelevisionshowrunners?As
screenwriterTravisBeahhamtoldtheLosAngelesTimesearlierthisyear,theresultingcreativefreedomcouldhelp
makeunusualshowconceptsmorecommerciallyviable:

AfewyearsagoFoxpassedonmakingapilotfortheproposedseriesbyscreenwriterTravisBeacham,
whichseemedlikethekissofdeath...Thisyear,however,Foxdecidedtotaketheseries.Butitdidn'tjust
orderapilotitordered13episodes.

Thebiggestadvantageofaseriesorderisthatitgivesusacrucialheadstartonthesortofpreparationit
takestorealizeaworldaslushandcomplexasthis,BeachamtoldTheTimesinanemail.It'shardto
investthatkindofeffortinapilotthatmayormaynotseethelightofday.Withoutaseriescommitment,
it'salmostimpossibleforsomethinglikeHieroglyphtohappen.

Ifadaptingtoaneweraoftelevisionbroadcastingmeansadoptingthepracticeoforderingmoreshows
straighttoseries,areviewofFilmL.A.shistoricaldatasuggeststhe13/14cyclemarksyearoneofthenewera.
Atotalof38network,cableandnewmediashowswereorderedstraighttoseriesinthe13/14cycle,whichis
morethandoublethecombinedtotalofthethreepreviousdevelopmentcycles.

Lookingatthetrendsforbothcategoriesindividuallyrevealsotherpatterns.Whenitcomestodrama,
cablenetworkshavebeenmoreaggressivethanbroadcastnetworksineachofthelastfourcycles.Inthethree
cyclespriorto13/14,thenumberofdramasorderedstraighttoseriesforcableoutpacednetworkordersbya71
margin.Whereasinthe13/14cycle,cableordersstilloutpacednetworkorders,butonlybya21margin.The20
cabledramaordersin13/14representa122percentincreaseoverthepriorcycle.Bycomparison,the10
networkdramaordersin13/14representa400percentincreaseoverthepriortwocyclescombined.

Whenitcomestocomedy,neithercablenorbroadcastnetworksplacedapriorityonorderingshows
straighttoseriespriorto13/14,whenalmostthreetimesasmanycomedieswereorderedthanthepriorthree
cyclescombined.Comedystraighttoseriesordersforcableoutpacednetworkordersbynearlya31margin.


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PilotsEconomicImportance

Pilotproductionisworthyofstudybecausetheactivitycreatessignificanteconomicbenefitsforthe
hostingregion.Accordingtoindustrysources,theaverageonehourdramapilotcandirectlyemploy150230
peopleforthedurationoftheproject.

Typicalpilotproductioncosts,havingrisenovertheyears,nowaverageabout$2million(forcomedy
pilots)and$6millionto$8million(fordramapilots).Presentations,whicharesometimesmadeinlieuofpilots,
costupto40percentlesstoproducethanfulllengthpilots.

Basedonthesefigures,FilmL.A.estimatesthatapproximately$290millionwasspentontelevisionpilot
productioninLosAngelesduringthe13/14developmentcycle,anincreaseoverthe$278millionspentinL.A.
duringthepreviouscycle.
2
Thisisroughly30percentofthetotalamountspentbyproducersinalllocations.


2
While there were six fewer pilots producing in L.A. during the 13/14 cycle, total spending increased due an
increase in the estimated cost to produce a one-hour drama. During the previous cycle, the average cost for a drama
pilot was $5.5 million.

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RunawaySeriesProduction

Pilotproducersongoingwanderlustintroducesapairofrelatedconcernsforthosewhoworkintelevision
inL.A.Ononehand,lostproductionsharecarrieswithitthethreatofdiminishedpilotseasonspending.But
another,moreserious,concernisthattheonetimelossofapilotcaneasilyleadtothelossofapromisingseries.

Historically,pilotsmadeinLosAngeleswerehighlylikelytostayintheregionifpickedupforseries
production.Inrecentyears,however,agrowingnumberofproductionshavebeguntobuckthistrend.Evena
pilotshotinL.A.forashowthatissetinL.A.hasnoguaranteeofstayinginL.A.forseries.

AfterfilmingthepilotepisodeforUSAsSouthernCaliforniasetdramaGracelandinL.A.,producers
relocatedtheseriestoFloridaafteritfailedtoreceivetheCaliforniaFilm&TelevisionTaxCredit.Asaresult,the
remaining11episodesforGracelandsfirstseasonfilmedinFlorida.Onaverage,Gracelandspentmorethan
$151,000foreachdayofproductioninMiami.ThisrepresentsalosstoCaliforniaofmorethan$19million,
including$10.2millionspentonwages,forjustthisoneshow.Unfortunately,GracelandwasntCaliforniasonly
recentseriesloss.

PlanswererecentlyannouncedtorelocateTheWhispers,anetworkdramaseries,toVancouverafter
filmingthepilotinL.A.ThetwopartpilotepisodefortheNCISspinoff,NCIS:NewOrleans,reportedlyspentthe
bulkofits$10.7millionbudgetinL.A.,buttheseriesisrelocatingtoNewOrleans.Whileforthelatterthereare
obviouscreativeconsiderationsinplay,allpriorseriesintheNCISfranchisehavebeenL.A.based,andproducers
pointtoLouisianasgeneroustaxcreditprogramasanimportantfactorindeterminingtheirchoiceoflocation.

This comes on the heels of losingAmerican HorrorStory, anothercoveted onehour drama, to Louisiana
aftertheshowfilmeditsfirsttwoseasonsinLosAngeles.TheonlyreasonAmericanHorrorStorydidnotrelocate
afterseasononeisthatproducerswerehopingseasontwowouldmakeitoffthewaitinglistfortheCaliforniaFilm
&TelevisionTaxCredit.Unfortunately,thegambledidnotpayoffandtheshow,whichspendsroughly$60million
makingeachseason,movedtoNewOrleans.

FromPilottoSeriesProduction

Today,theavailabilityofproductionincentivesandestablishedproductioninfrastructureoutsideLos
Angelesmakeitpossibletofilmseriesinotherplaces.Thisfact,combinedwithnetworkdecisionsaboutwhich
showstopickuporcancelinagivenyear,posesaseriousthreattoestablishedproductioncenterslikeLos
Angeles.

Inanefforttohelpquantifythisproblem,FilmL.A.researchersanalyzednewandcontinuingseries
pickupseachyearfromthe2010/2011fallviewingseasontotheforthcoming2014/15fallviewingseasonon
majorbroadcastnetworksduringprimetime.Thisanalysisexcludedcableandwebproductions,becauseoftheir
irregularseriesstartpatterns,aswellasreality,animatedandnonscriptedbroadcastingsuchassportsandnews
programming.

Threeyearsago,the2012/2013seasonmarkedthefirsttimeduringFilmL.A.songoingstudyinwhich
L.A.accountedforlessthan50percentofnetworkscreentimedevotedtoprimetimescripteddramas.Sincethen,
L.A.sshareofnetworkscreentimedevotedtodramashasfallenbelow40percentforthesecondtimeinarow
headingintothisfall.

Atthebeginningofthe2013/2014fallviewingseason,L.A.sshareofnetworkscreentimedevotedto
primetimescripteddramasfellbelow40percent,arecordlow.Inall,viewerslastfallwereexposedto38L.A.
basedshows(15dramas,23comedies).Viewerswerealsoexposedto27showsfilmedoutsidetheregion(26
dramas,1comedy).


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Bythebeginningofthe2014/2015fallviewingseason,L.A.sshareofnetworkscreentimedevotedto
primetimescripteddramaswill,forthesecondyearinarow,againfallbelow40percent.Inall,viewerswillbe
exposedto36L.A.basedshows(14dramas,22comedies).Theywillalsobeexposedto23shows(alldramas)
filmedoutsidetheregion.

IsThereAnyGoodNews?

Fortheforthcomingfallseason,nineof29newnetworkdramasserieswillfilminLosAngeles.Whilethis
maysoundlikebleaknews,itstillrepresentsaremarkablerecoveryconsideringthelasttwoyears.Lastfall,just
fiveof26newnetworkdramaseriesfilmedinL.A.,andonlytwoof22newnetworkdramasseriesfilmedinL.A.
duringthepriorcycle.

TheCaliforniaFilm&TelevisionTaxCreditprogramhashelpedreverseatinyamountofrunaway
production.In2014,theprogramhelpedrelocateseventelevisionseriesthatfilmedtheirpilotepisodesand/or
priorseasonsfromoutsideofthestate.Asaresult,thesesevenproductionswillspendmorethan$170millionin
thestateandsustainover30,000full&parttimepositionsthisyear.

Production Background&
Standins
Cast Crew QualifiedSpending PriorLocation
DeliveranceCreek 3,450 120 200 $23,425,111 Austin,TX(Pilot)
Franklin&Bash 3,580 261 142 $20,128,375 Atlanta,GA(Pilot)
Justified 3,705 331 140 $29,457,855 Pennsylvania(Pilot)
Perception 4,554 179 207 $27,748,988 Toronto,ON(Pilot)
PrettyLittleLiars 10,500 313 130 $40,181,676 Vancouver,BC(Pilot)
TeenWolf 3,570 20 130 $24,069,925 Atlanta,GA(Pilot,
Season1)
LetsStayTogether 480 10 86 $5,6645,55 Atlanta,GA(Season14)

Itsworthnotingthattwooftheseproductions,(TeenWolf&LetsStayTogether)relocatedafterfilming
priorseasonsinGeorgia,wheretheincentiveisalmostdoublewhatCaliforniaoffers.Moreover,LetsStay
TogetherfilmeditspilotepisodeinCaliforniabeforemovingtheshowtoGeorgiaandonlyrelocatedtobacktoLos
AngelesafteritwasoneoftheluckyfewproductionsabletosecureataxcreditunderCaliforniascurrent
program.Similarly,hadtherebeenenoughtaxcreditstopreventashowlikeAmericanHorrorStoryfromgetting
waitlisted,itmighthavepreventedtheshowfrommovingtoLouisiana(whichoffersthesameamountasGeorgia).

Alsoofnote,noneofthetelevisionseriesthathavereceivedtheCaliforniaFilm&TelevisionTaxCredit
sincetheprogramsinceptionin2009haveeverrelocatedtoanotherjurisdictionoutsideofthestate.Oncea

13

seriesgetstheCaliforniataxcredit,theshowstaysinthestate.Similarly,everyseriesthathasfilmedpriorseasons
orpilotepisodesoutsideofthestatehasrelocatedtoCaliforniauponreceivingthestatesfilmincentive.

Talk,Talent&VarietyinL.A.

Thoughnotafocusofthisreport,othersoundstagereliantfacetsofLosAngelestelevisionproduction
industryareworthyofmention.

TheL.A.regionhostsnumeroustelevisiontalkshows,includingConan,TheLateLateShowwithCraig
Ferguson,JimmyKimmelLive,TheTalk,EllenandDr.Phil.

Locallyproducedgameshowsinclude,butarenotlimitedto,Jeopardy,WheelofFortune,LetsMakea
Deal,SharkTank,Wipeout,TheBiggestLoserandThePriceisRight.

TalentshowsinL.A.includeAmericanIdol,AmericasBestDanceCrew,TheVoice,TheXFactor,Americas
GotTalent,SoYouThinkYouCanDance,DancingwiththeStars,DuetsandAmericasNextTopModel.

METHODOLOGY

SinceJanuary,2005,FilmL.A.hasconductedongoingprimaryandsecondaryresearchtokeeptrackof
newtelevisionpilots.

Thisreportcapturesallpilotproductions,presentations,andstraighttoseriestelevisionprojects
intendedforprimetimeviewingonmajorbroadcastandcablenetworksandpremiumwebservices.

OurlistsincludeallpilotsofwhichFilmL.A.hasbeenmadeawarethroughprimaryandsecondary
research,andforwhichaprimaryproductionlocationcouldbeverified.

Pleasenotethatitisrareforunscripted(reality)televisionseriestoproducepilots.Afewturnupineach
developmentcyclesurvey,butreportauthorsopttoexcludethemfromofficialcounts.

NOTES

1.FilmL.A.usesthewordpilotthroughoutthisstudytorefertoalloriginalscriptedpilots,shorterlengthpresentationsor
hiddenpilotscapturedduringthedevelopmentcycle.Pilotcountswithinadevelopmentcycleincludebothstagebasedand
locationbasedprojectsmadeinanylocation,ofanyrunningduration,intendedforprimetimedebutoneitherbroadcastor
cablenetworksservingU.S.audiences.Originalwebseriesareincludedforthisanalysis,butanimatedpilotproductionsarenot
counted.

2.Networksmaychoosetoskippilotandpresentationproductionandimmediatelygreenlightpromisingnewshowsfor
seriesproduction.Ratherthandiscountnewproductionoccurringanywherewithinthedevelopmentcycle,FilmL.A.includes
thefirstepisodeofthesestraighttoseriesproductionsashiddenpilotsinallofitscounts.

3.FilmL.A.definesadevelopmentcycleastheperiodleadinguptotheearliestpossibledatethatnewpilotswouldair,post
pickup.Thus,the13/14developmentcycleincludesproductionactivitythatstartsin2013andcontinuesinto2014forshow
startsatanytimein2014(orlater).

4.FilmL.A.accountsforthedifferencebetweenfullpilotandpresentationcostsinitsoverallpilotseasonspendingestimates.