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BRIT. J. APPL. PHYS., 1962, VOL.


Rubber models of yarns and cords: continu~mtheory
The Cotton Silk and Man-made Fibres Research Association, Shirley Institute,
Didsbury, Manchester 20
MS. received 12th February 1962

A theory of rubber-filament models of yarns is developed, using two alternative basic
assumptions, namely 1, no lateral pressure between filaments, and 2, uniform lateral
pressure between filaments. Treating the stress distribution as continuous, formulae are
derived for the axial force and couple required to maintain a specified axial extension and
torsion. It is shown that 2, though more complicated, is free from certain logical
inconsistencies inherent in 1.
Numerical examples show the increasing effect of lateral pressure with increasing axial
extension. It is shown also that with increasing axial extension the behaviour of the model
2 approximates to the behaviour of a solid cylinder of rubber subjected to equivalent
The effects of torsion and bending of the filaments, neglected in the main treatment,
are considered in an Appendix. It is shown that the couple arising directly from filament
torsion is not necessarily negligible compared with the couple arising from tension along
the filament axes, even when the ratio of filamenr radius to yarn radius is small.

1. Introduction density of the rubber. This density nil1 also be assumed to
In the first paper of this series (Wilson and Treloar 1961, to be independent of the state of strain, in accordance with the
be referred to as I) the stresses in a two-filament rubber usual assumption of constancy of volume. In practice the
model were considered both theoretica11y and experimentally. material may not be close-packed, but in such a case the
In the following paper (Wilson 1962) a comparable study is theory may still be applied by introducing a constant
made of multi-filament models containing 7 and 19 filaments, numerical factor into all the stress equations, provided, of
respectively, arranged in discrete layers. For such systems course, that the packing density remains constant across the
the geometrical disposition of the individual filaments in the yarn section and independent of strain.
strained state may be specified and the resultant forces acting It iiiay be noted that the application of torsional strain to
on the assembly may be calculated by summation of the such a n assembly of filaments in mutual contact, subject to
forces acting on the individual filaments. The paper also the above assumptions regarding the filament strains, involves
includes an experimental study of a yarn containing 127 some rearrangement of individual filaments with respect to
filaments. With such a large number of filaments the discrete one another. Thus, for example, for filaments of circular
filament type of theory is neither convenient nor appropriate. section, the section normal t o the filament axis remains
The more appropriate type of theory is one in which the circular after twisting; the section normal to the yarn axis
system is treated as a continuum, in which the stress and therefore becomes an ellipse, whose area may be shown to
strain vary continuously from point to point, the properties be the same as that of the unstrained filament. The packing
of the filament being introduced only for the purpose of of a set of such ellipses necessitates rearrangement, since the
specifying the local stresses. The development of the con- centres of the ellipses cannot coincide with the centres of the
tinuum theory in a form applicable to these experimental original circles. This rearrangement does not affect the
data is the purpose of the present paper. number of filaments in any radial shell.
Two types of theoretical model will be considered. In the
first the individual filaments are assumed to be in a state of 2.1. Elastic properiies of iiiaierial
simple extension, with uniform transverse contraction, and
the only stress considered is the tensile stress in the direction The elastic properties of the filament material are repre-
of the filament axis. In the second the state of strain is the sented, as in I, by the two-constant Mooney formula,
same, but in addition to the tensile stress along the filament according to which the stored energy W , per unit volume,
axis a lateral pressure between filaments is introduced. The in a pure homogeneous strain defined by the principal
properties of these models will be compared with each other, extension ratios h,, h2 and A,, may be written (Rivlin and
and also with the properties of a solid rod of rubber subjected Saunders 1951)
to the same type of deformation.
W = C,(hl' + A2' - A;' - 3)

2. Fundamental assumptions
In the theoretical treatment it is formally assumed that the
filaments in the yarn are close-packed in the sense of occupy- For a cylindrical filament of initial radius bo subjected to
ing the whole volume of space within the yarn boundary, combined axial extension in the ratio A and torsion T (in
and that the density of material at all points is equal to the radians per unit stretched length), the axial tension f (in the
3 14

absence of lateral pressure) and couple m are given by (Rivlin of the filament axis, at any given radial position r. To obtain
and Saunders 1951) the total axial force and couple about the yarn axis it is
necessary to refer the local stresses to a fixed set of axes,
which may conveniently be a cylindrical system (r, 8, z ) ,
where the z axis corresponds to the direction of the yarn
axis (figure 1). For a simple tensile stress t , inclined at an

It will be noted that the second term in (2), involving the
torsion 7, varies as bo4, while the first term varies as bo'.
It can be shown in consequence that for a given yarn radius
and twist the contribution of the second ?erm to the total
effective forces becomes relatively less important as the
radius of the filament decreases, and vanishes in the limit as
the filament radius tends to zero, while the number of fila-
ments increases indefinitely. (This is shown explicitly in the
Appendix.) In calculating the force and couple on the
yarn the second term in (2) will therefore be neglected. By
the same argument the effect of the bending moment in the
filaments, which also depends on bo4, will be neglected in
comparison with the couple due to the tension along the
filament axes (see Appendix). The effect of the couple about Figure 1. Components of stress in cylindrical coordinate
the filament axes, represented by (3), will also be neglected. system.
This, however, is less generally valid and is a possible source
of error at small axial strains (see Appendix).
With the above assumptions the force in the direction of angle ct to the z axis, the corresponding stress components
the filament axis is given by the first term of (2). The in the transformed system are obtained by the usual trans-
corresponding tensile stress t l , measured a i t h respect to the formation equations (Love 1927), from which we obtain
strained cross-sectional area, namely 7ibo2/h,is rZZ = tl cos' a toz = tl sin ol cos ol (8)
t2_ and fez being respectively the normal and tangential
components of stress on planes normal to the z axis. The
This represents the stress for the case when the lateral total axial force F , is given by
pressure between filaments is zero. The modification
necessary to take account of lateral pressure %ill be intro-
duced in the appropriate section.

3. Model 1. Lateral pressure neglected Introducing the value of t,, from (8), and converting to the
variable ol by means of (6), we obtain
3.1. Geonietuicalparaiiieievs
The model will be considered to be in the form of a cylinder
of radius ro in the unstrained stare. This is subjected to an
Fl = J tl cosz x 27i
cos3 x
dol =
tl tan olda (10)
axial extension in the ratio A, and to a torsion about the
axis of amount $, measured in radians per unit stretched where the upper limit of integration is the filament angle E,,,
length. From the condition for constancy of volume the at the yarn surface. On substituting the value of tl from (4)
yarn radius r,,, in the stretched state is given by and utilizing ( 7 ) this becomes

and is independent of yarn torsion.
A filament at the radial position r (measured in the strained
state) will be inclined t o the yarn axis at an angle ol given by
tan 6: = +r. (6) or
The extension ratio A for such a filament, measured with sin ol 1 .
sin ol)
respect to the filament axis, is
h = A, sec x . (7) sin ol 1
sin 0: cos ct))dct. (12)
Equations (5), (6) and (7) define the geometry of the system A,'
in the strained state in terms of the yarn radius and the On integration we obtain
strain parameters h, and 4. From these parameters, together
with (4), the stresses in the system may readily be calculated.

3.2. Axial tension
By the application of the above equations, and in particular 1 .
hc(sec a,,,- 1) - 2A,- sinz x,,,)]. (13)
of equation (4), we obtain the tensile stress in the direction
2" 315

On putting first to determine the stresses with respect to coordinates
tan? E, A, tan' aln referred to the filament axis; these are then transformed, as
$2 = __ = ~_ (14) in the case of model 1, to a cylindrical coordinate system
Tin' r02 fixed with respect t o the yarn axis.
this becomes finally To define the state of stress with respect to the filament
we take a set of rectangular axes given by (i) the axial direction
= 2c1
A, -,: cot? Zm(l - cos b:,J
:i of the filament, (ii) the transverse direction in the filament
which coincides with the yarn radius, and (iii) the transverse
direction in the filament at right angles to (i) and (ii).
2 cot? %,,,(secr,, - I) - For a state of pure homogeneous strain the relations
between the three principal (tensile) stresses i l , t2 and t j and
the corresponding extension ratios h,, h, and A,, for a
3.3. Coirple aboirt axis material having the stored-energy function represented by
The total couple about the axis is related simply to the equation (I), are of the form (Treloar 1959)
stress component t j ; gi\en by (8). For a cylindrical shell the
contribution to the total couple M is the product of the
f I - t2 = 2(A1' - h,')(C, + Xj'C,). (20)
tangential force and the radius r, hence In the present case x2 = = 1/Al1'?,and therefore
fl - r2 = 2(h,' - l/A,)(C, + C2/hl). (21)
Also, for uniform lateral pressure
Therefore, from (S),

The stress components referred to the cylindrical coordinate
system (r, 0, z), in which the z axis coincides with the yarn
Introducing the value of t l given by (4), we thus obtain axis (figure I), are given by (Love 1927)
t,, = tl cos' a - t3 sin' a ; toz = (tl - t2)sin xcos E 1
tge = t l sin' b: T t j cos' a ; t r e = tr, = O p (23)
rrr = t2. J
It is to benoted that equation (21) does not give the absolute
value of the stresses rl and t2, but only their difference. Con-
Integration and elimination of $ through (14) yields finally sequently equations (23) do not, in themselves, yield a direct
solution for the normal stress components fTZ, etc. To obtain
these it is necessary t o consider the radial variation of the
stress components, and to introduce the boundary condition
that the normal stress at the yarn surface shall be zero.
The differential equations for the variation of stress
components in a cylindrical coordinate system have been
given by Rivlin (Rivlin 1949). In the present system the
stress components are functions of I' only; for this case
Rivlin's equations reduce to the single relation

which is the form which he derived for the comparable
problem of a twisted cylinder (Rivlin 1949, equation (4.5)).
4. Model 2. Lateral pressure included Hence from (23), with (22),
4.1. Introduction 1
The strain geometry for this model is identical with that
- -(t, - r2) sin'
y: = 0.

of model 1, but the state of stress is not the same. In model 1
the only stress component considered is the tensile stress It follows that
along the direction of the filament axis. In model 2 we
have in addition to this tensile stress a lateral compressive
stress acting on the surface of the filament. It is assumed
that this lateral pressure acts uniformly round the filament, Substituting for r I - t2 from (21) and ( 7 ) , and converting
i.e. that it has the same value at all points on the surface of to the variable SI via (6), as in the case of model 1. we thus
a filament; this is the only assumption which is compatible obtain
with the assumed state of strain, i.e. uniform contraction of
the transverse dimensions of the filaments.

4.2. Components o[stress
Our initial assumptions enable us to specify the state of
stress at any point of the assembly. To do this it is necessary

The constant is determined from the boundary condition variable LY through (6), and subsequently eliminate $ from
that t2 = 0 at the yarn surface, i.e. when a = an,. Integration the final expression by means of (14). The result of these
subject to this condition yields operations is
= cl(: (sec2 + 1) -
cot2 a:,(sec a, - 1)
2 2 7
- ( C ' ( A ~ sec2 n,, i-- cos n,) - A, sec2 nIn- - cos a,,, r
A, hc2 i

2h, sec am- >-
cos2 a,,,)). (28) T
C2 -cot' a:,(sec3 a:, -I) + 42 cot2 a, log sec a:,
This equation determines t2 at all points of the system, and
hence also the remaining stress components in (23).
The total axial force is obtained from (32), using the values
4.3. Axial tension
of Fl, from (15) and of Fp from (35).
The axial stress component is obtained from (23) with
(22), i.e. 4.4. Couple about axis
rz3 = ti cos2 x t3 sin? a: = tl cos2 a t2 sin2 cc + From (23) the tangential stress component toZ is given by
= (tl - f2) cos2 cc - tl. (29)
fez = (tl - 13) sin LY cos a = ( t , - t2) sin cc cos a:. (36)
The total axial force F2 is obtained by integration over the
Introducing the value of ti - t2 from (21),
cross section of the yarn, i.e.

F2 = ~0r~12nid~. (30)

Introducing the value of ti - f 2 from (21) into (29): and where h, is the extension ratio in the direction of the filament
making use of (7), we thus obtain axis. This is identical with the corresponding expression for
fg, for model 1, obtained from equations (4) and (8). Since
the state of strain at each value of r is the same for both
models it follows that the stress components fez are identical,
at all values of Y. The total couple in the case of model 2
is therefore the same as for model 1, and is represented by
equation (19).
Comparison of (31) a i t h the corresponding expression (11) 5. Energy method
for model 1 shous the former to direr only by the additional
5.1. Introdiiction
term t2. The integral (31) may therefore be expressed as the
sum of t\so parts, namely The two preceding treatments were both dependent on a
direct analysis of the state of stress within the yam. In this
F2 = F, + Fp (32) section an alternative and simpler method of approach, based
where Fl is seen to be identical with the quantity which has on energy considerations, is given. This involves the cal-
already been evaluated in the case of model 1, and is culation of the total energy of the system, for a specified
represented by equation (16), and Fp is an additional term state of strain, and the derivation of the axial force and
representing the effect of the lateral pressure. This term is couple by differentiation of the energy with respecr to the
given by length and angular variables.
To avoid excessive mathematical detail, only the principal
Fp= 2 7 [
r2rdr. (33)
steps in the argument will be presented.

5.2. Axial tension and couple
Substitution of the expression (28) for t2 gives
We shall consider an assembly of filaments having unit
length in the unstrained state. A filament having the
extension ratio h in the strained state will, according to
equation (I), have a stored energy of amount W, per unit
volume, where
W f = C1(A2 - 2,'h - 3) - C2(1,'XZ + 2A - 3). (38)
For a cylindrical shel! of axial length h, and thickness dr
the total energy of the filaments is W&m dr. Hence for
the whole assembly

w = 2 . ; ; ~J~ {cl(h,2 sec2 + A,2 cos E - 3)
In the second integra! in (34) the expression within the
braces is a constant; this integral may therefore be evaluated
very simply. For the first integral we coniert to the single

This is integrated by transforming to the single variable a 6. Numerical calculations
in the usual way. The resulting integral is then converted To illustrate the nature of the effects deduced from the
to the variable 8, representing the total angular rotation, and preceding theories, values of tensile force and couple
defined by 8 = +A,. The result is calculated for a number of values of yarn axial extension are
reproduced. To simplify the calculations the second constant
C, has been neglected, the values of the constants chosen
being C1 = 1.0, C2 = 0. It may be shown, however, that
the results would not be very different if a finite value of c,
were included.
6.1. Couple
Figure 2 shows the variation of the couple with torsion for
models 1 and 2 at constant yarn extension, for four values
of the extension parameter A,. These curves are derived
from equation (19), and are expressed in terms of the variable
tan a,.
The behaviour of a solid rod under torsion is shown for
The axial tension is obtained by differentiation of this comparison. The relevant data were calculated on the basis
expression with respect to length, at constanr angular of equation (3), the yarn radius and yarn torsion being
defornzation 6'. (This is not the same as constant twist.) substituted for the filament radius and filament torsion. It
For unit initial length the final length is h,, hence is convenient to retain the variable a,,,which in the case of
a solid rod is the inclination of a generator of the unstrained
cy!inder. It is seen that at small extensions the multi-
filament model behaves very differently from the solid rod,
but that with increasing extension the difference progressively
The resuit, after differentiation and re-conversion to the

parameter a,, is
F 5 1.41
- 3hc secZa, I- A, cot2 a,(sec4 aln - 1)
2 ,,

a, - h,-
cot' a, log sec' a,,,

- 6 sec a, T - cot' a,(sec3 K, - 1)). (42)
3 J

This expression may be shown to be equivalent to the result
previously obtained for model 2, represented by equation
(32), with the expression (15) for Fl and (55) for Fp.
The axial couple M is similarly obtained by differentiation
of the stored energy with respect to the angle 8,at constant
axial length, i.e.
(-) (43)
a0 jC.

The result is
w03 -
C1 2h,'12 cot a, sec' am--X,*/7C O ~ ~ X , ( S-~ IC) ~ ~ ,

4 8
L .-
, cot a, cos a, - ?p cot: a,(sec a,, - 1))
i C2
cot a, cos2 E,, - X 2C ~ cot3
/~ E, log sec7 a, Tan K~

Figure 2. Dependence of couple on torsion, for various
values of yarn axial extension. C1 = 1.O,Cz = 0. 1, models
_, - 41!2cotE , sec a, - 1 and 2 (equation (19)); 2, solid rod (equation (3)).
I A,
6.2. Axial tension
which may be transformed to the previously obtained The variation of axial tension with torsion, for the W
equation (19). models, is shown in figure 3, together with corresponding

in which 4 is the torsion, referred to the stretched length,
and r and ,Y are the radial position and maximum radius
respectively in the stretched state. Comparison with the
curves for model 2 again shows the tendency of this model
to approximate to the behaviour of a solid rod as the extension
is increased.


- - >. .
-0,4/ -..
30 02 -0.4 0.6 0.8 13
tan ffim 1
Figure 3. Dependence of axial tension on torsion, for various -2
values of yarn axial extension. C1 = 1 '0,C2 = 0. 1, model 1 00 0.2 0.4 0.6 08 IO
(equation (15)); 2, model 2 (equation (321, with (15) and (35)); Radial oosition rlrm
3. solid rod (equation (2)).
Figure 4. Variation of component of tensiie stress normal to
yarn axis with radial position, for two valnes of axial extension.
curves for the solid rod of equal radius, derived from CI = 1 .O, C2 = 0,CL, = 45". 1, model 1. (from equations (4)
equation (2). At small values of axial extension the difference and (8)); 2, model 2 (from equations (29) with (21) and (7) for
between model 1 and model 2 is slight, but with higher axial tl - i? and (28) for t z ) ; 3, solid rod (equation (45)).
extensions the difference increases, and the behaviour of
model 2 appioximates to that for a solid rod. This change- 7 . Discussion
over is particularly apparent because for model 1 the tension,
at constant axial length, increases with increase of torsion, 7.1. Comparison of models 1 and 2
whereas in a solid rod it decreases. Although the equations for model 2 are considerably more
complex than those for model 1, the difference between these
two models can be understood in physical terms rather
6.3. Disrribiiiion of novmal stress simply. Since the state of strain is the same in both, the
The distribution of the tensile stress across the end surface condition for volume incompressibility requires that the
of the cylindrical assembly, for a particular value of the respective stresses at any point shall differ only by the
torsion, is shokvn in figure 4. Comparison of the curves for equivalent of a superimposed hydrostatic pressure. The
the two models shows the effect of the lateral pressure term stress system in model 2 is thus equivalent t o that in model 1,
in reducing the tensile stress-an effect which is zero at the together with a hydrostatic pressure whose value is a function
surface of the yarn and builds up to a maximum at the of radial position. This additional pressure produces an
centre. The difference between the two sets of curves gives extra term in the stress, which has the effect of reducing the
the value of the lateral stress t2. In the case of model 1 the total axial tension. Since a hydrostatic pressure has no
resultant stress is positive (i.e. tensile) over the whole section, component of shearing stress, the coupie about the axis,
for all values of A,. This is a direct consequence of the which is derived from the tangential stress component tg:, is
neglect of all stress components except the tensile stress unaffected; this couple is therefore the same for both models.
along the filament axes. For model 2, on the other hand, It has been shown in S 5 that the energy method is fully
The stress becomes negative in the central region, for suf- consistent with model 2, but not with model 1. The reason
ficiently small values of the axial extension. for this difference is that, while both the energy method and
Figure 4 gives also the radial stress distribution for a solid model 2 are logically self-consistent, this is not true of
rod in torsion. The relevant formula, expressed in terms of model 1. While it may be convenient in certain cases to
strained. instead of initial radial position, is (Rivlin 1949) ignore the lateral pressure between filaments, this is not
logically permissible, since a filament under axial tension
cannot be maintained in a curved (e.g. helical) form without
the presence of a lateral pressure. In terms of stress com-
ponents, it is seen from equation (24) that a finite value of

the circumferential stress component teg necessarily implies with the value of F , previously calculated (equation (15) with
a finite value of the radial stress component t r y . However, C2 0). Thus
if we put t2 = t3 = 0 in equations (23) we find that t g g
remains finite while t r y vanishes. F"
-- - - bo'
I - A& - cos3 a,)
6 YO' A, (2iA:) cot2 iy,(l - COS (51)
Fl - U,,)'

7.2. Relevance to textile yarn theories The factor bo2/ro2is of the order of the reciprocal of the
Despite its defects, model 1 is not without interest, because number of filaments, hence it tends to zero as this number
it corresponds with a type of theory frequently applied to is increased indefinitely. The remaining expression continues
textile yarns. A more rigorous type of theory, comparable to be finite. Its behaviour at small twists can be examined
with model 2, has indeed been worked out by Hearle (195X), by expanding the trigonometrical functions in terms of
but this treatment is limited t o small strains. tan r,. Writing tan a, = f we obtain
The consideration of the energy method, and the demon-
stration by an example that this method is equivalent to the
inclusion of lateral pressure, is also significant in relation to
textile yarn theories, for it offers the possibility of treating For variations of A3 (in the range h, > 1) the effect is greatest
problems whose solution by the stress-analysis method might when h, = I,for which (5Ia) becomes
be impractical, on account of the mathematical difficulties.
The method has in fact been applied recently to the develop-
ment of a large-strain theory of the properties of textile
yarns (Treloar and Riding, to be published).
Couple about axis
Appendix The couple about the axis is affected by (i) the reduction
Eijiect of torsion and bending of filaments of tensile force in the filament due to filament torsion,
To avoid undue complexity, the effects of torsion and (ii) the couple about the filament axis due directly to filament
bending of the filaments on the axial force and total couple torsion and (iii) the couple due to curvature of the filament
will be calculated for the case C2 = 0. These effects are, axis (bending moment). Each of these effects will be con-
however, not sensitive to the precise form of the stored- sidered separately.
energy function. Also, for simplicity, the analysis will be
based on mode! 1. (i) Couple due to effect offilanient torsion on tension in filament
The effect o f f " in equation (46) on the tangential stress
Axial force component tg, is (from (S), (46) and (47))
For the case C2 = 0 the tensile force in the direction of j7rr2b04cos E sin = - +Clho2h-
1 sin3
. LY cos3 r .
the filament axis (equation (2)) may be written re.-' =
By the application of (1 6) the corresponding contribution
M' to the total couple about the axis is
where f" represents the effect of the torsion in the filament,
neglected in the original treatment. The torsion 'T is equal
to the tortuosity of the corresponding helix (Treloar 1956)
and is given by
1 .
'T =- sin z cos r. (47)

The term f" makes a contribution t":: t o the axial stress
component, wjhose effect may be calculated separately. Comparing this with the value of the couple given by
Since the cross-sectional area of the filament in the strained equation (19), with C2 = 0,
state is .Tibo2,'h.\%ehave, from (S), (46) and (47);

With the introduction of h, through (7), the contribution of
this additional term to the total axial force, on the basis
of equation (9), becomes (55)
As with equation (51) the correction involves the factor
bo2,ro2. Expanding in terms of r we obtain

By conversion to the variable E through (6) and integration,
1 The correction is largest for h, = 1. For this case
F" = - -nClbo2Ac(l - cos3 E,), (50)
The effect of the term F" may be seen by comparing it

(ii) Couple clue to couple about filament axis extension the couple M” initially exceeds MI,however small
The couple arising from the couple about the filament axes the ratio bo/ro,though its absolute magnitude decreases in
is obtained by simple addition of the components of the the ratio (bo/ro)’.
couple in each filament. The couple in a single filament is,
from (3) with (47), (iii) Couple due to bending of filaments
1 . The bending moment g in a filament subjected to combined
n i = .;iC1rbo4 = TC b - sin a cos r. (56) extension and curvature has already been examined (Wilson
l o r
and Treloar 1961). The result, for the case C, = 0, is
Each filament occupies an area (nbo’,’h, sec a ) sec r or
;rbo2h, in the section norma! to the yarn axis. The com-
ponent of the couple in a single filament in the direction of
the yarn axis being m cos x , the total couple about the yarn
axis due to the couples in the filament is therefore where b is the radius of the filament in the strained state,
and p is the radius of curvature. For a helix of radius r and
angle a, p = risin2 a. Hence,

M” = Z~Clbo’h,’ ’ro Cot a,(l - COS .
E (58) This is the couple acting about a n axis perpendicular to the
Hence principal plane of curvature, i.e. about an axis inclined at a n
angle +a - r to the yarn axis. The component of this
couple about the yarn axis is g sin r. This acts on an area
ab’ sec x of the section normal t o the yarn axis. The couple
A;’ ’cot a, (1 - cos a,) about the yarn axis, per unit area of section, at the radial
position r, is therefore
h,l 2 tan u.,~ 4A,-5 2 - cos a,)
cot3 c~,~{(i - (sec x,n - 1))’
a b 2 sec ci
1 (
- ?C,
- A’ +- (t)
b2 - cos U. sin3 E . (62)
Expanding in po\\ers of t,
_ _-- bo’ t -2t3 - . . . Putting b2 = bo2/A, and introducing (7), we obtain for the
M, roz t - X,-3(- +
t 13 - -:% t5 + . . .)’ (594 total couple about the axis
The behaviour of this ratio requires more careful examina-
tion. For large values of A, there is no difficulty: we have the
which gives on integration
M“‘ = nClbo’ro cot a,
The correction thus varies as bo2ilyo2,as in case (i). However,
when A, approaches unity the situation is less simple. Thus
for the case A, = 1
x XL1 ‘(sec rm - 1) - +
X,I ‘(1 - cos u.,~)
sin4 a,


In series form, with tan CL,,
= t, this becomes

which tends t o infinity as t tends to zero.
This result means that for the case of zero axial strain
the effect of the couple due to torsion of the filaments is not
negligible at small values of the torsion. It is, in fact, the
predominant term. With increasing twist, however, the
relative importance of this contribution diminishes. Thus, Expressing this as a ratio to the couple MI we obtain, for the
for example, for bo,’ro= 0.1, M”/M, = 1 when tan a, = 0.1, case A, = 1,
and M”/iM, = 0.25 when tan r, = 0.2, approximately. In
the presence of a small axial extension the ratio M”/.MI
decreases in inverse proportion to the strain; for a strain of
1 %, with bo/ro = 0.1, its limiting value as t + 0 is 0.33.
From the physical standpoint this behaviour is associated
with the fact that for small twists the filament torsion is which is of the same form as (55b) above, except for a
approximately equal to the yarn torsion. The couple due to numerical factor.
filament torsion therefore increases initially as the first power The results represented by the above formulae may be
pfthe torsion. The couple due to the tension in the filaments, summarized as follows:
in the case of high axial extension, also increases as the first 1. The relative values of the corrections to the axial tension
PoWer of the yarn torsion, but for zero yarn extension it and axial couple arising from the effect of filament torsion
builds up more slowly, namely as the cube of the yarn torsion on the tension in the filament are proportional to bo2/ro2
(cf. denominator of ( 5 . 5 ~ )and also figure 2). Hence for zero and independent of yarn torsion, for small values of yarn

torsion. These corrections therefore become negligible
- _ as References
the number of filaments is made large.
2. The relative value of the correction to the axial couple J. W. S., 1958, J . Text. Inst., 49, T389.
arising from the bending moment in the filaments likewise LOVE,A. E. H., 1927, Mathematical Theory of Elasricitji
varies as ho2/ro2, and is independent of yarn torsion, for (Cambridge: University Press), p. 80.
small values of yarn torsion. RIVLIN,R. S . , 1949, Phil. Trans A; 242, 173, equation (6.12).
3. The relative value of the correction to the axial couple
arising from the couple in the filament due to filament RIVLIX,R. S., and SAUNDERS,
D. W., 1951, Phil. Trans A,
torsion is proportional to bo2/ro2,but varies with yarn 243, 251.
extension and yarn torsion in a complex way. For zero yarn TRELOAR, L. R. G., 1956, J. Text. Inst., 47, T348.
extension it increases indefinitely as the yarn torsion -1959, The Physics of Rrihber Elasticity, 2nd edn (London:
approaches zero, and hence may be significant: even though Oxford University Press), p. 160.
bo.:rois small.
The result 3 is of particular interest, since it has a close WILSON:N., 1962, Brit. J . Appl. Pliys., 13, 323.
connection with the state of greatest interest in actual textile WILSON,N., and TRELOAR, L. R . G.. 1961, Brit. J . Appi.
yarns (i.e. small axial extension). Piiys., 12, 147.

Notes and news
Change to the Metrie System? Sessions will be devoted to instrumentation and techniques,
The British Standards Institution have recently published structures, metals and alloys, defect lattices andlor radiation
a statement Change to the nzefric system? giving the findings damage, with a special session on x-ray and electron
3f a special committee set up to review any trends towards diffraction microscopy. Dame Kathleen Lonsdale, of the
the use of the metric system by British industry and to Chemistry Department, University of London, will be the
recommend action to be taken by B.S.I. This statement will guest speaker for the Thursday evening meeting.
be put before the Divisional Councils and Industry Standards Further information about the conference may be obtained
Committee of the B.S.I., in order that the case for a change from W. H. Robinson, Carnegie Institute of Technology.
to the metric system should be examined industry by industry Pittsburgh 13, Pennsylvania.
and a conclusion reached.
The topics covered in the leaflet are: Increasing advocacy
of a change within a defined period, Should change be
dependent on parallel action by the U.S.A., Education for Units and standards of measurement employed at the National
Physical Laboratory
the metric system, Considerations relevant to B.S.I. action
and Action by B.S.I. An Appendix gives a preliminary We have received from the National Physical Laboratory
study for a conversion of the United Kingdom to a fully copies of two booklets in their series 'Units and standards of
metric system over a period of 20 years and a tentative measurement employed at the National Physical Laboratory'.
programme of action t e be taken. These are a completely revised edition of Booklet N o . 1;
Change to the metric sysfenz? may be obtained from the Length, mass, time-interval andfieqirency. and Booklet No. IV?
British Standards Institution, 2 Paik Street, London, W.1. Tenzperatirre.
These booklets are published for the Department of
Pittsburgh Diffraction Conference Scientific and Industrial Research by Her Majesty's Stationery
The twsentieth annual Pittsburgh Diffraction Conference Office, price Is. 6d. each. The others in the series are entitled
will be held from 7th to 9th November 1962 at Mellon Light pliotometry, colorintetry and radionietry (No. 2) and
Institute, Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania. Elecrriciry (No. 3).

3 22