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International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2006, 28, 61–68

Investigating hair properties relevant for hair
‘handle’. Part I: hair diameter, bending and
frictional properties1

F.-J. Wortmann* and A. Schwan-Jonczyk 
In cooperation with the working group2 ‘Hair Care Products’ of the DGK (Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer
Wissenschaftliche und Angewandte Kosmetik e.V.: German Association for Scientific and Applied Cosmetics)
*DWI at RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 8, D-52074 Aachen, Germany and  Wella AG, Berliner Allee 65,
64274 Darmstadt, Germany

Received 2 February 2005, Accepted 5 December 2005

Keywords: bending stiffness, diameter, feel, friction, handle, human hair
1
Dedicated to the memory of our revered teacher, colleague and friend Prof. Dr Dres. h.c. Helmut Zahn.
2
Members of the DGK Working Group ‘Hair Care Products’: H. Schmidt-Lewerkuehne, Chairman (Beiers-
dorf), H. Leidreiter, Deputy Chairman (Degussa), U. Assmus (Fresenius), H. Hensen (Cognis), P. Hoessel
(BASF), G. Lang (Wella), A. Markowetz (Procter & Gamble), V. Martin (Zschimmer & Schwarz), B. Noecker
(KPSS), E. Poppe (Henkel-Schwarzkopf), E. Schulze-zur-Wiesche (Henkel-Schwarzkopf), A. Schwan-Jonczyk
(Wella), A. Wendt (National Starch & Chemicals), J. Wood (KPSS), F.-J. Wortmann (DWI).

the capstan method in the root, middle and tip
Synopsis
regions. Significant differences were determined
The expert working group ‘Hair Care Products’ of between the hair types in diameters, ellipticity,
the DGK currently conducts a wide study to contrib- bending stiffness and friction. The results lead to
ute to the understanding of how single hair fibre conclude that ‘handle’ is perceived as inferior when
and hair collective properties contribute towards the hair is thick and bending stiffness thus high. For
hair ‘handle’ and ‘feel’. During the first stage of this such hair differences in handle rating are related to
study four hair types were selected from a large differences in friction, namely in the tip region. For
group of individual European hair braids, according thin and thus ‘soft’ hair fibre friction seems to play
to either similar or widely different panel ratings for only a minor role.
handle. Against the background of the panel test
and the state of the literature the working group
Résumé
readily identified the bending properties of single
fibres interacting in the tress as a fibre collective Le groupe d’experts ‘Hair Care Products’ du DGK
and fibre friction as being of central relevance for entreprend actuellement une large étude afin de
hair ‘handle’ and ‘feel’. Fibre diameters of the hair contribuer à comprendre de la façon dont la fibre
types were determined by Optical Fibre Diameter simple, aussi bien que les propriétés de collective
Analyzer and by weighing. From these data mean de cheveux, contribuent vers la ‘main’ et ‘sensa-
ellipticity and bending stiffness distributions were tion’ des cheveux. Pendant la première étape de
calculated. Single fibre friction was determined by l’étude, quatre types des cheveux ont été choisis
parmi un grand groupe de différentes tresses
européennes de cheveux, selon les estimations
Correspondence: F.-J. Wortmann, University of Manche-
ster, Dep. Textiles & Paper, Sackville Street, Manchester
semblables ou largement différentes de panneau
M60 1QD, UK, Tel.: +44 (0) 161 306 4158; fax: +44 (0) pour la main. Selon l’expertise de panneau, aussi
161 306 4153; E-mail: f-j.wortmann@manchester.ac.uk bien que la littérature, le groupe de travail a

ª 2006 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie 61
Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

aisément identifié les propriétés de recourbement in the selected tresses, the conclusions that can be
des fibres simples agissant l’un sur l’autre dans les drawn thereof for their bending properties and
tresses comme une collective des fibres, et le frotte- results for single fibre friction. The results are con-
ment de fibre, qu’étant de l’importance centrale sidered in relation to panel ratings for handle.
pour la ‘main’ et ‘sensation’ des cheveux. Les di-
amétres des fibres des cheveux ont été déterminés
Materials and methods
par OFDA et en pesant. De ces données nous av-
ons calculées les distributions d’ellipticité moyenne
Material
et de la rigidité à la flexion. Le frottement de fibre
simple a été déterminé par la méthode de cabestan This study is based on hair tresses derived from
pour les régions de racine, milieu, et de bout. Des four individual braids that were cosmetically
différences significatives ont été déterminées entre unprocessed. The hair types were selected by the
les différents types de cheveux saisit des diamétres, members of the working group as reflecting
l’ellipticité, la rigidité à la flexion et le frottement. extremes in ‘hair handle’ and were derived from a
Les résultats ménent à conclure que la ‘main’ est larger collective on the basis of panel tests conduc-
perçue en tant que subordonné, quand les fibres ted in various companies, represented in the work-
de cheveu sont épaisses, donc la rigidité à la flex- ing group. The hair types were coded for the
ion est haute. Pour un tel cheveu les différences context of this report as H1, H2, GA1 and GC3.
dans l’estimation de main sont liées aux différences H1 and H2 were medium brown, GA1 and GC3
dans le frottement, particuliérement, dans la light brown in colour. The tresses derived from
région de bout. Pour les fibres minces, donc ‘doux’, hair cut about 10 cm above the scalp. They were
le frottement de fibre de cheveux semble jouer rather long (25 cm long, 4 cm wide, approxi-
seulement un rôle mineur. mately 4 g) for hair types H1, GA1 and GC3 and
somewhat shorter (approximately 20 cm) for H2.
For the tests described below, the hair was gener-
Introduction
ally considered in three segments, referred to for
The expert working group ‘Hair Care Products’ of ease of semantics as root/middle/tip, irrespective of
the DGK (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftli- the fact that the hair material was obviously
che und Angewandte Kosmetik: German Associ- obtained at some distance from the scalp.
ation for Scientific and Applied Cosmetics)
currently conducts a wide study to contribute to
Handle determination
the understanding of how single hair fibre and
hair collective properties contribute towards hair The hair types were handled by panels comprising
‘handle’ and ‘feel’. an overall of about 30 experienced consumers and
During the first stage of this study a large group experts and were rated simply as either ‘good’ or
of European hair braids from individuals, made up ‘bad’. Table I summarizes the percentages of posit-
into tresses, was assessed for handle. From this ive ratings associated with each hair type.
group four braids were selected, for which experts
and experienced consumer panels in various com-
Diameter determination
panies had determined either similar or widely dif-
ferent ratings, respectively, for their overall Determining the diameter of human hair is not a
handle. straightforward task, due to hair ellipticity, variabil-
Discussing, against the background of the panel ity between hairs on a head and along an individual
test and the state of the literature [1–3], the con- fibre [4]. Against this background the diameter
tributions of specific physical and mechanical measurement by means of an Optical Fibre Diam-
properties of hair towards ‘handle’ and ‘feel’, the eter Analyzer (OFDA 100, BSC Electronics, Myaree,
working group readily identified the bending prop- WA, Australia) was chosen. This technique is based
erties of single fibres interacting in the tress as a on the principles of light microscopy and well estab-
fibre collective and fibre friction as being of central lished for wool [5]. The method enables to measure
relevance. within a few minutes a large number of fibre snip-
This paper describes investigations of the diam- pets (approximately 2000) and thus to determine a
eter and the cross-sectional geometry of the hair highly accurate diameter value for the collective.

62 ª 2006 International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 28, 61–68
Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

Table I Positive ratings from panels
(n»30) for four selected hair types Hair Panel (n » 30) Diameter Diameter
and hair diameter type positive ratings in % (OFDA) in lm* CV  in % (weight) in lm* Ellipticity

H1 41 93.1 ± 0.64 17 79.7 ± 2.0 1.36
H2 69 96.1 ± 0.76 16 83.4 ± 1.7 1.33
GA1 94 89.5 ± 0.75 20 74.5 ± 2.5 1.45
GC3 94 89.3 ± 0.59 17 75.1 ± 1.7 1.42

Mean fibre diameter and coefficient of variation (CV) determined by Optical Fibre Diameter
Analyzer (OFDA) (n»2000). Diameter determined by weighing (n ¼ 6) and the ellipticity
value derived according to Eq. (2).
*±95% confidence range.
 CV ¼ standard deviation/mean·100%

For the OFDA measurement 2 mm fibre snippets are equivalent area. Bending stiffness (flexural
spread under standard climatic conditions (20C, stiffness, bending rigidity) of a hair is given by:
65% rh) thinly on a microscopic slide. Under these
B¼EI ð3Þ
conditions the generally elliptical snippets will tend
to lie on the long axis, so that the diameter values where E is the elastic or Young’s modulus and I
will be strongly biased towards the long axis of the the moment of inertia of the cross-section or more
hair fibre cross-section. precisely the second moment of the area.
For the measurements fibre snippets were It is reasonable to assume that hairs on a head
obtained by means of a microtome at three posi- in reality will preferentially bend about their minor
tions along a tress (root, middle and tip). The snip- elliptic axis [3], so that
pets were pooled and the mean hair diameter was
I ¼ ab3 =4 ð4Þ
determined under standard climatic conditions
(20C, 65% rh). With Eq. (1) this yields:
In parallel, mean fibre diameter was determined
through weighing bundles of fibres of known num- I ¼ a4 =ð4"3 Þ ð5Þ
bers and length under standard climatic conditions. so that Eq. (3) becomes:
This determination was conducted for each of the
braids six-fold and for samples taken from the root B ¼ Ea4 =ð4"3 Þ: ð6Þ
and the tip section of a given braid. The results were
pooled to give the overall result for a hair type, For the current argument it is assumed that the
namely the diameter of the circle with an area equal Young’s modulus is homogeneous over the cross-
to that of the generally elliptical hair fibres. section and is equal for compressional and exten-
sional deformations as they occur in bending.
While the latter assumption is reasonable in view
Calculation of bending stiffness of the small deformations of hair during handling,
On the assumption that the OFDA measurement the first assumption has to be viewed with some
yields the value close to that for the long axis of care [6], namely due to the potentially substantial
the ellipse and the weight determination of the area contribution of the cuticle [3, 7, 8]. A reasonable
and diameter of the equivalent circle, ellipticity e, estimate for the extensional modulus of hair under
being the ratio of the long and the short axis of standard climatic conditions (20C, 65% rh) is
the ellipse: E ¼ 5.5 GPa [9].

" ¼ a=b ð1Þ
Measurement of single fibre friction
is given by:
Twenty-five hairs were removed at random from
" ¼ ð2aÞ2 =d 2 ð2Þ
the tresses and washed with lauryl ether sulfate
where a is the long, b the short half-axis of the solution (LES 15%, pH 6.8). The hairs were dried
ellipse and d the diameter of the circle of under a hood-type drier and stored under standard

ª 2006 International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 28, 61–68 63
Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

climatic conditions (22C, 55% rh) for 24 h. Fric- connected to the first. The third group of terms
tion was measured in a tensile tester (Zwick 1425, (23%) described the tactile properties of hair, that is
Ulm, Germany) by a variation of the high-load the perception of surface roughness and thus fric-
capstan test, described by Scott and Robbins [10]. tion. The fourth and least quoted group of terms
For the friction measurement a hair was clamped (12%) comprised descriptions associated with hair
at the root end. The free end was wound com- collective properties. The details of this part of the
pletely around a PVC-cylinder (4.5 cm circumfer- investigation will be reported elsewhere.
ence) and a weight of 500 mg was attached. After
pulling the fibre over the cylinder over a distance
Diameter
of 1 cm (10 cm min)1) for positioning purposes,
the force was recorded over a further distance of Due to the obvious relevance of hair bending prop-
6–15 cm, depending on the hair type. Subse- erties for ‘handle’, which in turn is largely con-
quently, the hair was clamped at the tip end and trolled by hair diameter, special emphasis was
the test repeated. For each tress 25 hairs were placed on the consideration of this fibre property
measured. After every fourth test the cylinder was for the different hair types. Table I gives the diam-
thoroughly cleaned with isopropanol to remove eters and the coefficients of variation of the hair
potential surface deposits. types as determined by OFDA and thus based on a
From the recorded force curves the mean large number of measurements. Judging by the
frictional force for the root-to-tip (RT) and for the confidence range and confirmed by the statistically
tip-to-root (TR) direction were determined. Further- non-conservative Least Significant Difference (LSD)
more, the curves were separated into three test [11] it turned out that, with the exception of
segments, termed for ease of semantics as ‘root’, the pair GA1 and GC3 (P ¼ 0.8), the other diame-
‘middle’ and ‘tip’, to arrive at frictional data for ters are significantly different from each other.
these parts of a hair. For each of these segments the Figure 1 summarizes the results for the OFDA
‘local’ RT- and TR-frictional forces were determined. diameters in the form of a box-and-whisker plot,
According to theory and experiment [9] the results characterized by the mean (symbol), the 95% con-
are expected to be independent of hair diameter. fidence range (box) and the standard deviation
(whisker). Due to the large number of diameter
values the confidence ranges are very small com-
Results and discussion
pared to the standard deviations. The diameter dis-
Table I summarizes the percentages of positive rat- tributions overlap in fact very considerably.
ings of hair handle for the four hair types. The To further document this observation, Fig. 2
widely differing ratings lead to assigning the hair gives the experimental diameter distributions for
types to three classes, one with a low percentage hair types H2 and GA1 that have the largest and
of positive ratings (H1, 41%), one in the medium lowest diameter, respectively, and the normal dis-
range (H2, 69%) and two very similar ones in the tributions fitted to the data. Corroborating the
high range (GA1 and GC3, 94%). results in Table I and Fig. 1, the peaks are separ-
The observation of ‘good handle’ was associated ated for the distributions, though fibre diameters
by the panel members with the adjectives are spread over a range between 40 and 140 lm.
‘smooth’, ‘soft’ and ‘flexible’. Negative adjectives This leads to a strong overlap of the distributions,
associated with ‘bad handle’ were stated much less making the differences determined through the
frequent, however, ‘coarse’ and ‘blunt’ were used. statistical analysis, even for these extreme hair
In the context of the present study it is interesting types, not so very obvious.
to note, that the terms associated by the panel mem- In Table I, in addition the material diameter
bers with handle fell into four groups. The first and determined by weighing under standard climatic
largest group of terms with a quotation rate of 39% conditions is given. Again GA1 and GC3 appear as
was genuinely connected to handle and could be very similar, with pronounced differences compared
linked to geometrical hair properties, such as diam- to H1 and H2. The ellipticity values derived by
eter. The second group (26%) comprised terms rela- means of Eq. (2) are at the low end but still well
ted to fibre mechanical properties, namely bending. within the range expected for European hair [12].
Through the dependence of the bending properties However, despite the wide overlap between the
on fibre diameter (see Eq. 6), this group is directly diameter distributions, the results support and

64 ª 2006 International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 28, 61–68
Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

Figure 1 Hair diameters for the
four hair types as determined by
Optical Fibre Diameter Analyzer (left
y-axis), described by the arithmetic
mean ( ), the 95% confidence limits
(box) and the standard deviation
(whisker). Decadic logarithms of
bending stiffness ( ) for the hair
types (right y-axis). The units for
bending stiffness, not included in the
logarithm for reasons of simplicity,
are given. For the statistical signifi-
cance of differences see text.

Figure 3 Bending stiffness distributions for hair types
Figure 2 Diameter distributions for hair types H2 ( ) H2 ( ) and GA1 (•). The lines through the data points
and GA1 (•), as determined by Optical Fibre Diameter derive from moving average smoothing and approach
Analyzer (n»2000). log-normal distributions.

corroborate the initial hypothesis, that the differ- more pronounced than those for the related diam-
ences in handle as perceived between the groups eters (Fig. 2).
H1 and H2 versus GA1 and GC3, are connected It is readily shown that the data are not nor-
with lower diameters and with the higher elliptici- mally, but largely log-normally distributed. The
ties of the latter. means, the 95% confidence limits and the coeffi-
cients of variation (CV) of bending stiffness on the
log10-scale are given in Table II. The data are
Bending
graphically summarized in Fig. 1. Judging by the
The differences between hair types become more 95% confidence limits all differences between the
pronounced when bending stiffness is considered, means on the log scale are statistically significant.
where with Eq. (6) the diameter of the long axis, This observation is corroborated by the LSD test. It
as determined by OFDA, and ellipticity enter with is interesting to note from Table II that the width
high powers. Figure 3 shows the estimated stiff- of the distribution, as given by the CV value, is in
ness distributions when bending hairs of types H2 fact substantially higher for the ‘good handle’ G-
and GA1 over their short axis, while the long axis pair compared to the ‘bad handle’ H-pair. This
defines the neutral plane. Again the distributions means that the G-types, already having lower
strongly overlap though the differences are much diameters and bending stiffness, furthermore

ª 2006 International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 28, 61–68 65
Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

Table II Hair bending properties
Hair Panel (n » 30) B: geometric
type positive ratings in % log B* CV in % mean (10)9 Nm2)

H1 41 0.88 ± 0.012 35 7.59
H2 69 0.97 ± 0.015 31 9.25
GA1 94 0.72 ± 0.015 49 5.23
GC3 94 0.75 ± 0.011 40 5.66

Positive ratings from panels (n ¼ 30) for the four hair types. Arithmetic mean for
log10(bending stiffness) and coefficient of variation (CV) determined according to Eq. (6)
and on the basis of Optical Fibre Diameter Analyzer measurements combined with the
ellipticity values in Table I. The units for bending stiffness are 10)9 Nm2, which for reasons
of simplicity are not included in log B. Geometric mean for the bending stiffness calculated
thereof.
B, bending stiffness.
*±95% confidence range.

contain, besides rather stiff hairs, a comparatively
Friction
large population of hairs with very low diameter
and bending stiffness. Figure 4 shows the experimental curves from
The geometric means for bending stiffness are frictional measurements for the RT and TR direc-
given in Table II, showing differences that are con- tions, respectively, on a hair fibre taken from
siderably more pronounced between the H- and hair type H1. The curve for the RT direction,
the G-pair than just for diameter. The results show that is with the cuticle scales, is comparatively
that, namely H2 has a bending stiffness that is smooth and shows a minor tendency for an
about 80% higher than for GA1, which in turn is increase towards the tip end. Starting the meas-
similar to GC3. The general difference between the urement in the tip region and for the against-
H- and the G-pair of hairs for this property corres- scales direction (TR) generates a frictional force
ponds to the panel ratings. that is roughly twice as high. It is interesting to
In the context of this investigation it is interest- note that the frictional force drops considerably
ing to note that H2 has a significantly higher when approaching the middle region to a con-
bending stiffness than H1, but still a substantially stant level that is just about 50% higher than
better rating. This indicates that the second for the with-scales (RT) measurement. These
parameter investigated in this study, namely fric- high frictional forces in the tip region indicate
tion, is expected to play a major role for this more strong hair surface damage, either by cosmetic
subtle facet of handle. or natural influences.

Figure 4 Experimental curve for
frictional force for a fibre of hair
type H1, measured in the cuticle
scales, root-to-tip (RT) direction
(lower curve) and the against cuti-
cle scales, tip-to-root (TR) direction
(upper curve) respectively.

66 ª 2006 International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 28, 61–68
Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

Table III Mean frictional forces of single hairs for the root, middle and tip segments

Frictional force*, cN

RT direction TR direction

Hair
type Root Middle Tip Root Middle Tip

H1 0.64 ± 0.02 0.64 ± 0.02 0.64 ± 0.03 0.97 ± 0.04 1.06 ± 0.04 1.19 ± 0.05
H2 0.62 ± 0.02 – 0.58 ± 0.02 0.96 ± 0.04 – 1.08 ± 0.04
GA1 0.67 ± 0.02 0.65 ± 0.02 0.63 ± 0.02 0.98 ± 0.03 1.09 ± 0.02 1.38 ± 0.04
GC3 0.81 ± 0.05 0.79 ± 0.04 0.81 ± 0.04 1.20 ± 0.07 1.29 ± 0.06 1.52 ± 0.07

Tests were conducted on 25 hairs for each hair type for the RT and TR directions under conditions of standard climate (22C, 55% rh).
*±95% confidence range.

Table III summarizes the results for frictional As was to be expected, frictional forces are sub-
forces in the RT and TR directions for the four stantially higher for the TR direction compared to
hair types, differentiating between root–middle–tip the RT direction, that is against rather than with
regions. Hair type H2 was somewhat shorter than the cuticle scales. The data are summarized in
the other hair types so that only the differentiation Table III and illustrated in Fig. 6. Hair types H1,
between tip and root section was possible. H2 and GA1 again show obvious similarities,
Figure 5 summarizes the results for the RT namely for the root and the middle segment, while
direction in the form of a box-and-whisker plot. It GC3 shows significantly higher frictional forces.
is quite obvious that H1, H2 and GA1 exhibit sim- For H1, H2 and GA1 all differences between the
ilar frictional forces for this test design, all being frictional forces along the hair and for the TR
around 0.65 cN and with a rather small and con- direction are significant on the 95% level. For GC3
sistent variability. For H1 no change along fibre the level still reaches 90%. Friction thus increases
length is observed, while for the RT direction there systematically and, as Fig. 4 shows, also discontin-
is a significant decrease towards the tip for H2 and uously from root to tip.
GA1 respectively. The level of frictional forces is It is interesting to note that the slightly higher
significantly and about 20–25% higher for GC3 values of stiffness and frictional forces for GC3
compared to all other hair types. compared to GA1 do not lead to lower ratings for

Figure 5 Arithmetic means (sym-
bol), standard errors (box), and 95%
confidence limits (whisker) for the
frictional forces in root-to-tip (RT)
direction for the four hair types
(n ¼ 25).

ª 2006 International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 28, 61–68 67
Investigation of hair handle F.-J. Wortmann and A. Schwan-Jonczyk

Figure 6 Arithmetic means (sym-
bol), standard errors (box), and 95%
confidence limits (whisker) for the
frictional forces in tip-to-root (TR)
direction for the four hair types
(n ¼ 25).

GC3. However, frictional forces for GA1 and GC3 2. Yin, N.E., Kissinger, R.H., Tolgyesi, W.S. and Cott-
are very similar in the tip region (Fig. 6) which ington, E.M. The effect of fiber diameter on the cos-
the experts consider as very important for the metic aspect of hair. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 139–
overall handle rating of a tress. 150 (1977).
3. Swift, J.A. Some simple theoretical considerations on
the bending stiffness of human hair. Int. J. Cosmet.
Conclusions Sci. 17, 245–253 (1995).
4. Sauermann, G., Hoppe, U. and Lunderstädt, L. Meas-
For the present study four braids were selected on urement of the surface profile of human hair by sur-
the basis of a panel test by a group of experts for face profilometry. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 39, 27–42
similar and dissimilar handle ratings. These were (1988).
investigated in detail for their geometrical and the 5. International Wool Textile Organisation. Test method
derived bending and frictional properties. IWTO-47–98: Measurement of the mean & distribu-
When considering the general difference in the tion of fibre diameter of wool using an optical fibre
handle ratings for H1 and H2 on the one hand diameter analyser. The Woolmark Co., Ilkley (1998).
and GA1 and GC3 on the other, the lower diame- 6. Scott, G.V. and Robbins, C.R. Stiffness of human hair
fibers. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 29, 469–485 (1978).
ters, higher ellipticity and thus low bending stiff-
7. Swift, J.A. The cuticle controls the bending stiffness
ness of the latter appear to play an overriding role.
of hair. J. Cosmet. Sci. 29, 37–38 (2000).
H2 has a better rating than H1, though H2 has a 8. Liu, H. and Bryson, W.G. A three-component model
significantly higher diameter and bending stiffness. of the wool fibre – effects of morphology, elasticity
But it shows lower friction, namely in the tip and intermediate filament arrangement on fibre stiff-
region. On this basis it may be speculated that in ness. J. Text. Inst. 93, 121–131 (2002).
a context where the panel perceives the hair gen- 9. Robbins, C.R. Chemical and physical behavior of
erally as ‘thick’ and ‘strong’ with a generally infer- human hair, 3rd edn. Springer Verlag, New York
ior handle lower frictional forces, namely, in the (1994).
tip region make an overriding contribution 10. Scott, G.V. and Robbins, C.R. Effects of surfactant
towards improved handle ratings. For thin and solutions on hair fiber friction. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem.
31, 179–200 (1980).
thus ‘soft’ hair fibre friction seems to play only a
11. Statistica. Computer program manual. StatSoft Inc.,
minor role.
Tulsa, OK (2001).
12. Teasdale, D., Philippen, H., Schlüter, R., Meichelbeck,
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68 ª 2006 International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 28, 61–68