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การวัดความเร็วของ DC Motor แบบไมมีตัวตรวจจับโดยใชระบบประมวลผลสัญญาณเชิงเลข

Speed Sensorless DC Motor Using Digital Signal Processing System
สุวิช กวีกิจวิชชา1*, พยุง เดชอยู1 , สุภรี นวรัตนธารา1, เกริกวุฒิ รังสีปญญา2 และ วิริยะ กองรัตน2
Suwit Kawikitwitcha1*, Phayung Desyoo1, Suparee Navarattara1, Krirkwut Rangseepanya2 and
Wiriya Kongratana2
1
Department of Industrial Physics & Medical Instrumentation, Faculty of Applied Science,
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800, Thailand;
2
Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand;
E-mail address: swkp@kmitnb.ac.th, pdy@freemaild.com

บทคัดยอ : บทความนี้นําเสนอการประมาณคาความเร็ว DC Motor แบบไมมีตัวตรวจจับโดยใชระบบประมวลผล
สัญญาณเชิงเลข การออกแบบทําโดยการสรางรูปจําลองทางคณิตศาสตรของ DC motor ในรูป Discrete State
space Model จากนั้นจะใชตัวประมวลผลสัญญาณเชิงเลขทําการประมาณคาความเร็วของ DC Motor ω ซึ่งเปน
state variable ของระบบ ในการสราง Hardware ไดใช TMS320C31 Floating point digital signal processing เปน
ตัวประมวลผล ผลการทดลองพบวาความเร็วของ DC Motor ที่ถูกประมาณคาโดยระบบประมวลผลสัญญาณเชิง
เลขมีความเที่ยงตรงเมื่อเทียบกับความเร็วที่ Tacho meter
Abstract : This paper proposes a new application of digital signal processing system estimate
speed sensorless DC motor. In the design, the mathematical model of DC motor in discrete state-
space form will be created[1, 2, 8]; the speed of DC motor which is considered as state variable
and can be estimated by using digital signal processing system. In the experiment; TMS320C31
floating point digital signal processor is used for hardware implementation[3, 4]. The experimental
results show the speed of DC motor which is estimated by using digital signal processing system
has good accuracy when compared with the results from tacho-meter.

Introduction : In the past, the motor speed is measured by using to sense. Actually, the tacho-
meter is used for converting the speed-to-voltage; because the structure of DC motor consists of
brush, commutator, mechanical components and etc. To use the tacho-meter for a long time, those
components will be deteriorated and give the error in speed measurement. Also, the motor speed
measurement system without mechanical components was proposed. To overcome this problem,
this paper proposes the design and implementation of motor speed estimation system using digital
signal processor system[6]. The design process uses the continuous time system of motor in
transfer function or state-space form[1, 7, 8] where the system inputs are armature voltage and
armature current, system output determines the speed. Hence, the transform of continuous time
system to discrete time system [2] and implement to digital signal processor chip is considered
and proposed.

Theory : The transfer function of recursive discrete time system is given by
b0 + b1 z −1 + b2 z −2 + ... + bN z − N
H ( z) = (1)
1 + a1 z −1 + a2 z −2 + ... + a N z − N
and the output response of system is rewritten in equation (2).
N N
y (n) = −∑ ak y (n − k ) + ∑ bk x(n − k ) (2)
k =1 k =0
From equation (2), can be expressed as a linear time-invariant state-space realization show in
equation (3) and (4).
v (n + 1) = Fv(n) + qx(n) (3)
y (n) = g t v(n) + dx(n) (4)
Where the elements of matrix F, q, g and d are constants.

Proposed design method : To estimate sensorless motor speed by using digital signal processing
system is proposed as shown in Figure 1.
Linear
Motor
Amplifier

va ia

Digital
ω Signal
Processing
System

Figure 1. Block diagram of sensorless Figure 2. DC motor electrical model
motor speed estimation based
on digital signal processing system

Figure 1, Digital signal processing system is able to estimate the speed of DC motor and
it uses armature voltage ( va ) and armature current ( ia ) as input of digital signal processing system
for speed ( ω ) calculation. The algorithm of digital signal processing system cooperates with the
others parameters of DC motor. The design has to know the characteristics and parameters of DC
motor.
The schematic diagram of an armature controlling by DC servomotor is shown in
Figure.2. The system variables are;
ea : Armature voltage
eb : Back emf
ia : Armature current
T: Torque produced by motor
θ: Angular position of motor shaft
ω: Angular velocity of motor shaft
The parameters of the system are;
Ra : Armature resistance
La : Armature inductance
J: Moment of inertia of motor shaft
B: Coefficient of viscous friction
The system parameters (are not shown in Figure.2) are;
KT : Torque constant
Kb : Back emf constant
Figure. 2, the armature voltages can be found as in Eq. (5);
dia
va = La + Ra ia + eb
dt
eb = K bω
dia
va = La + Raia + K bω (5)
dt
The occurred electrical torque in motor will change depending on the armature current as shown
in Eq. (6);
T = KT ia (6)
The mechanical torque of motor is written as in Eq. (7);

T=J + Bω (7)
dt
For lossless motor, the electrical torque is equal to the mechanical torque. Eqs. (6) and (7) can be
rewritten as in Eq. (8);

KT ia = J + Bω (8)
dt
Eqs. (5), (8) can be rearranged as shown in Eqs. (9) and (10);
dia Ri Kω e
=− a − b + a (9)
dt La La La
dω KT ia Bω
= − (10)
dt J J
The continuous state-space form of Eqs. (9) and (10) can be rewritten as in Eqs. (11) and (12);
 dia   − R −
Kb 
1
 dt   L La   ia   
 = a    + La ea (11)
 dω   K T B  ω   
 dt   J −   0 
J 
i 
yS 0 (t ) = [1 0]  a  (12)
ω 
Compare Eq. (14) with state Eq. it can obtain;
 R Kb 
− LLa 
− 1
F= a  and q =  La 
 KT B  
 −   0 
 J J 
Thus, transform matrix F and matrix q to discrete system by using bilinear transform and
substitute matrix F and matrix q in discrete system[5, 7] to Eq. (1) – (4) for speed estimation.

Design example : The experiment uses DC motor as experimental test set from Feedback
Instrument Inc., motor drive set model SA150D, power supply model PS150E and DC motor
model MT150F. The block diagram of connection is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Block diagram of motor drive test set

The DC motor in the experiment has parameters as shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Parameters of DC motor
Parameter Value
Ra 3.0 Ohm
La 5.16 mH
J 3x10-5Kgm2
B 0.0158
KT 0.0282 Nm/A
Kb 2.78 V/Krpm
Substitute the parameters from Table 1 into Eq. (11), the matrix F and matrix q can be obtained
as shown in Eq. (13);
 −581.40 −538.76  193.8
F=
28.20 −15.8 , q= 0  (13)
   
Transform Eq. (13) to discrete system as shown in Eq. (14), where the given sampling frequency
is 10 kHz.
 0.94344 −0.05229  0.01882 
F=  , q=  (14)
 0.00273 0.99834  0.00002 
Result : In the experiment, let the voltage command is between 7–10 volt, the obtained voltage
from tacho-meter is compared with obtained voltage from digital signal processing system as
shown in Table 2.

Table 2 DC Comparison of motor speed
Voltage Output voltage obtained from Output voltage obtained from digital
command tacho (ω ) signal processing system (ω )
7.0 1.0 1.0
7.5 1.15 1.2
8.0 1.3 1.4
8.5 1.5 1.5
9.0 1.6 1.65
9.5 1.8 1.85
10.0 2.0 1.95
Let the voltage command 7 V and 10 V is square wave signal frequency 0.1. The experimental
results are measured by oscilloscope as shown in Figures 4.

Figure 4. The upper trace is motor speed from tacho-meter
The middle trace is motor speed from digital signal processing
system,
The lower trace is motor speed comparison between tacho-meter
and digital signal processing system

Conclusion : The experimental results show that DC motor speed estimation by using digital
signal processing system will give the results correctly in the vicinity when compared with the
results from tacho-meter. Consequently, Digital signal processing system can be used to estimate
the parameters in dynamic system with high performance which has the advantages for
applications with instrumentation, control system and etc.

Reference : [1] K. Ogata, Modern control engineering. 4th Ed., Upper Saddle River, N.J. :
Prentice Hall, 2002
[2] K. Ogata, Discrete-Time Control Systems. 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, 1995.
[3] Texas Instruments, Minimizing Quantization Effects Using the TMS320 Digital
Signal Processor Family. 1994.
[4] Texas Instruments, TMS320C3x DSP Starter Kit. 1996.
[5] R. G. Brown, P. Y. C. Hwang, Introduction to Random Signals and Applied
Kalman filter. 1997.
[6] F. L. Lewis, Optimal Estimation with an Introduction to Stochastic Control
Theory. School of Electrical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. 1986.
[7] J. V. Candy, Signal Processing The Model-Based Approach. McGraw-Hill Book
Company, 1987
[8] V. Strejc, State Space Theory of Discrete Linear Control. 1981.

Keyword : speed sensorless DC motor, Digital signal processing system.