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You are on page 1of 719

Chapter 0 1

Chapter 1 35

Chapter 2 54

Chapter 3 89

Chapter 4 132

Chapter 5 160

Chapter 6 177

Chapter 7 231

Chapter 8 295

Chapter 9 333

Chapter 10 357

Chapter 11 378

Chapter 12 423

Chapter 13 469

Chapter 14 539

Chapter 15 614

Chapter 16 658

Chapter 17 670

1

Chapter 0

Problems 0.1

1. True; 13 is a negative integer.

2. True, because 2 and 7 are integers and 7 0.

3. False, because the natural numbers are 1, 2, 3,

and so on.

4. False, because

0

0 .

1

=

5. True, because

5

5 .

1

=

6. False, since a rational number cannot have

denominator of zero. In fact,

7

0

is not a number

at all because we cannot divide by 0.

7. False, because 25 5, = which is a positive

integer.

8. True; 2 is an irrational real number.

9. False; we cannot divide by 0.

10. False, because the natural numbers are 1, 2, 3,

and so on, and 3 lies between 1 and 2.

11. True

12. False, since the integer 0 is neither positive nor

negative.

Problems 0.2

1. False, because 0 does not have a reciprocal.

2. True, because

7 3 21

1.

3 7 21

= =

3. False; the negative of 7 is 7 because

7 + (7) = 0.

4. False; 2(3 4) = 2(12) = 24, but

(2 3)(2 4) = 6 8 = 48.

5. False; x + y = y + (x) = y x.

6. True; (x + 2)(4) = (x)(4) + (2)(4) = 4x + 8.

7. True;

2 2

1.

2 2 2 2

x x x +

= + = +

8. True, because .

b ab

a

c c

=

9. False; the left side is 5xy, but the right side is

2

5 . x y

10. True; by the associative and commutative

properties, x(4y) = (x 4)y = (4 x)y = 4xy.

11. distributive

12. commutative

13. associative

14. definition of division

15. commutative and distributive

16. associative

17. definition of subtraction

18. commutative

19. distributive

20. distributive

21. 2x(y 7) = (2x)y (2x)7 = 2xy (7)(2x)

= 2xy (7 2)x = 2xy 14x

22. (a b) + c = [a + (b)] + c = a + (b + c)

= a + [c + (b)] = a + (c b)

23. (x + y)(2) = 2(x + y) = 2x + 2y

24. 2[27 + (x + y)] = 2[27 + (y + x)] = 2[(27 + y) + x]

= 2[(y + 27) + x]

25. x[(2y + 1) + 3] = x[2y + (1 + 3)] = x[2y + 4]

= x(2y) + x(4) = (x 2)y + 4x = (2x)y + 4x

= 2xy + 4x

26. (1 + a)(b + c) = 1(b + c) + a(b + c)

= 1(b) + 1(c) + a(b) + a(c) = b + c + ab + ac

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

2

27. x(y z + w) = x[(y z) + w] = x(y z) + x(w)

= x[y + (z)] + xw = x(y) + x(z) + xw

= xy xz + xw

28. 2 + (4) = 6

29. 6 + 2 = 4

30. 6 + (4) = 2

31. 7 2 = 5

32. 7 (4) = 7 + 4 = 11

33. 5 (13) = 5 + 13 = 8

34. a (b) = a + b

35. (2)(9) = (2 9) = 18

36. 7(9) = (7 9) = 63

37. (2)(12) = 2(12) = 24

38. 19(1) = (1)19 = (1 19) = 19

39.

1

9

1 9

1 9

1

= =

40. (6 + x) = (6) x = 6 x

41. 7(x) = (7x) = 7x

42. 12(x y) = (12)x (12)(y) = 12x + 12y

(or 12y 12x)

43. [6 + (y)] = (6) (y) = 6 + y

44.

3 3 1 3 1

3 15

15 15 5 3 5

= = = =

45.

9 9 9 1 1

9 ( 27)

27 27 9 3 3

= = = =

46. ( ) ( )

a a

a b

b b

= =

47. 2(6 + 2) = 2(4) = 8

48. 3[2(3) + 6(2)] = 3[6 + 12] = 3[6] = 18

49. (2)(4)(1) = 8(1) = 8

50. (12)(12) = (12)(12) = 144

51. X(1) = X

52. 3(x 4) = 3(x) 3(4) = 3x 12

53. 4(5 + x) = 4(5) + 4(x) = 20 + 4x

54. (x 2) = x + 2

55. 0(x) = 0

56.

1 8 1 8

8

11 11 11

= =

57.

5

5

1

=

58.

14 2 7 2

21 3 7 3

x x x

y y y

= =

59.

3 3 3

2 (2 ) 2 x x x

= =

60.

2 1 2 1 2

3 3 3 x x x

= =

61.

(3 ) 3

(3 )

a a b ab

b

c c c

= =

62.

7

(5 ) 7

5

a

a

=

63.

aby a by by

ax a x x

= =

64.

7 1 7 1 7

y x y x xy

= =

65.

2 5 2 5 10

x y x y xy

= =

66.

1 1 3 2 3 2 5

2 3 6 6 6 6

+

+ = + = =

67.

5 3 5 9 5 9 14 2 7 7

12 4 12 12 12 12 2 6 6

+

+ = + = = = =

68.

3 7 9 14 9 14 5 5 1 1

10 15 30 30 30 30 5 6 6

= = = = =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.3

3

69.

4 6 4 6 10

2

5 5 5 5

+

+ = = =

70.

5 5 5

X Y X Y

=

71.

3 1 1 18 3 2 18 3 2 17

2 4 6 12 12 12 12 12

+

+ = + = =

72.

2 3 16 15 16 15 1

5 8 40 40 40 40

= = =

73.

6 6

6 6

x

y

x y y

y x x

= = =

74.

3

1

3 1 3 3

l

l m l l

m m m

= = =

75.

2

2

2 2

x

y

z

xy

x z x xy x

xy z yz

y y

= = =

76.

7

0

is not defined (we cannot divide by 0).

77.

0

0

7

=

78.

0

0

is not defined (we cannot divide by 0).

79. 0 0 = 0

Problems 0.3

1.

3 2 3 2 5

(2 )(2 ) 2 2 ( 32)

+

= = =

2.

6 9 6 9 15

x x x x

+

= =

3.

4 8 4 8 12

w w w w

+

= =

4.

3 2 3 1 2 6

z zz z z

+ +

= =

5.

3 5 3 5 8

9 5 9 5 14

x x x x

y y y y

+

+

= =

6.

12 4 124 48

( ) x x x

= =

7.

3 7 37 21

4 5 45 20

( )

( )

a a a

b b b

= =

8.

5

2 2 5 25 10

3 3 5 35 15

( )

( )

x x x x

y y y y

= = =

9.

2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 23 33 6 9

(2 ) 2 ( ) ( ) 8 8 x y x y x y x y

= = =

10.

2

2 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 22 32

2 2 2 22 4

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

w s w s w s w s

y y y y

= = =

4 6

4

w s

y

=

11.

9

9 5 4

5

x

x x

x

= =

12.

6

4 4 6

5 5 6

6 4 6

6 5 6

46

56

24

30

2 (2 )

7 (7 )

2 ( )

7 ( )

64

117,649

64

117,649

a a

b b

a

b

a

b

a

b

=

=

=

=

13.

3 6 36 18

18 4 14

3 1 3 4

( )

( )

x x x

x x

x x x x

+

= = = =

14.

2 3 3 2 23 32 6 6 12

3 4 34 12 12

12 12 0

( ) ( )

( )

1

x x x x x x x

x x x x

x x

= = =

= =

15. 25 5 =

16.

4

81 3 =

17.

7

128 2 =

18. 0.04 0.2 =

19.

4

4

4

1 1 1

16 2

16

= =

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

4

20.

3

3

3

8 8 2 2

27 3 3

27

= = =

21.

1/ 2

(49) 49 7 = =

22.

1/3 3

(64) 64 4 = =

23.

( )

3

3/ 2 3

9 9 (3) 27 = = =

24.

( )

5/ 2

5/ 2 5 5

1 1 1 1

(9)

243

(9) 3

9

= = = =

25.

( )

2/5

2/5 2 2

5

1 1 1 1

(32)

4

(32) (2)

32

= = = =

26.

1/ 2

1/ 2

1 1 1

(0.09)

0.3 0.09 (0.09)

= = =

3

10

1 10

3

= =

27.

4

4/5 4

5

1 1 1 1

32 32 2 16

= = =

28.

2

2/3 2

3

64 64 4 16

27 27 3 9

= = =

29. 50 25 2 25 2 5 2 = = =

30.

3 3 3 3 3

54 27 2 27 2 3 2 = = =

31.

3 3 3 3 3 3

2 2 2 x x x = =

32. 4 4 2 x x x = =

33.

4 4 2

16 16 4 x x x = =

34.

4 4

4

4

16 2

16

x x x

= =

35.

3 3

3

3

2 8 5 27 128 2 4 2 5 9 3 64 2

2 2 2 5 3 3 4 2

4 2 15 3 4 2

+ = +

= +

= +

36.

2

2

3 3 13 39 39 39

13 13 13 13

13

13

= = = =

37.

4 1/ 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2

(9 ) 9 3 ( ) 3 ( ) z z z z = = =

2

3z =

38.

3 3

8 3/ 4 8 2 4 2 3 4 4

(16 ) 16 (2 ) (2 ) y y y y

= = =

6

8y =

39.

2/3 2/3

3 2 3 2

27 3 3 9

8 2 2 4

t t t t

= = =

40.

3/ 4

3/ 4 4 3

3

12 3 3 3 3

3 9 9

9 3

256 4 4 4

( )

4

64

4

x x x x

x x

x

= = =

= = =

41.

5 3 5

5 3 5

2 2 3 2 3 2

1 1 1 a b a

a b a

c c b c b c

= = =

42.

2/5 3/5

2 3 10 2/5 3/5 10/5 5

2

x y

x y z x y z

z

= =

43.

2 7 2 ( 7) 9

9

5

5 5 5 m m m m

m

+

= = =

44.

1

1

x y x

y

+ = +

45.

2

2 2

1 1

(3)

(3) 9

t

t t

= =

46.

4

4

1

(3 )

(3 )

z

z

=

47.

5 2 2 1/5 1/5 2 1/5 1/5 2/5

5 (5 ) 5 ( ) 5 x x x x = = =

48.

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

9 9

9

9

( ) ( ) ( ) X Y X Y

X Y

Y

X

=

=

=

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.3

5

49.

1/ 2 1/ 2

x y x y =

50.

2 6 3 3 ( 5) 8

5 2 1 ( 6) 2 7

u v w w w

vw u v u v

= =

51.

2 2 3 2 2 3 1/ 4 2 1/ 4 2/ 4 3/ 4 4

( ) x xy z x xy z x x y z = =

9/ 4 3/ 4

1/ 2

x z

y

=

52.

4 3 2 5 4 3 2 1/ 4 5 4

3/ 4 1/ 2 5 4

17/ 4 9/ 2

17/ 4

9/ 2

( ) a b a b a b a b

a b a b

a b

a

b

=

=

=

=

53.

2/3 2 3

(2 ) (2 ) a b c a b c + = +

54.

4 2 3 3/ 4 2 3 3 3 6 9 4

( ) ( ) ab c ab c a b c = =

55.

4/5

4/5

5 4

1 1

x

x

x

= =

56.

1/ 2 1/ 2

2 (2 ) 2 2 x y x y =

57.

3/5 3/5

3/5 3/5

5 5 5 3 3 3 3 5

3 1

3 (3 )

(3 )

3 1 3 1

(3 ) 27

w w

w w

w w w w

=

= =

58.

4 1/5 1/ 6 4/5 1/6 4/30 2/15

[( ) ] [ ] x x x x

= = =

2/15

15 2

1 1

x

x

= =

59.

1/ 2

1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2

6 6 6 5 6 5

5 5 5 5 5

= = =

60.

1/ 4 4 4

4 1/ 4 1/ 4 1/ 4 4

3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2

2

8 16 8 8 2

= = = =

61.

1/ 2

1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2

4 4 4(2 ) 4 2

2 2 (2 ) (2 ) (2 )

x x

x x x x x

= = =

2 2x

x

=

62.

1/ 2

1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2

2 (2 )

2 2 (2 ) (2 ) (2 )

y y y y y y

y y y y y

= = =

2

2

y

=

63.

2 3 2/3

3 1/3 1/3 2/3

(3 ) 1 1 1(3 )

3

3 (3 ) (3 ) (3 )

x x

x

x x x x

= = =

3 2

9

3

x

x

=

64.

1/3 1/3

3

2/3 2/3 1/3

2 3

2 2 2 2 2

3 3

3 3

3

y y y

y y

y y y

y

= = = =

65.

12 12

4 2

3 3

= = =

66.

18

9 3

2

= =

67.

1/ 2 3/ 4 5 5 5

2/ 4 1/ 4 1/ 2 1/ 4 1/ 2 3/ 4

4 2

1/5 1/ 2 3/ 4 4/ 20 10/ 20 15/ 20

20 4 10 15 1/ 20 10 15

2 2 2

2 2

(2 ) 16

a b

a b a b a b

a b

a b a b

ab ab

a b a b

ab ab

= =

= =

= =

68.

1/ 2 2/3 3/6 4/6

3 1/3 1/3 2/3

2 2 2 3 2 3

3

3 3 3 3

= = =

3 4 1/6 6

(2 3 ) 648

3 3

= =

69.

6

2 3 4 6 3

3

2

2 2

x

x y x x y

y

= =

70.

1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2

5/ 2 1/ 2 5/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 2 3

3 3 3 u v u v

u v u v u v u v

= =

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

6

71.

243 243

81 9

3 3

= = =

72.

3 2 5 2 2 6 5 2

10 30 2

20 60

{[(3 ) ] } {[3 ] }

{3 }

3

a a

a

a

=

=

=

73.

0 6 6

2 1/ 2 2 3 6 3/ 2 6 3/ 2

2 1 2

(2 ) 2

y

x y x y x

= =

6 1/ 2 6 1/ 2

3/ 2 1/ 2 2

64 64 y x y x

x x x

= =

74.

5 5/ 2 15/6

11/6

2/3 4/6

3 2

s s s

s

s s

s

= = =

75.

2 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

( )( ) x yz xy x yz xy x y z = =

xyz =

76.

( )

8

1/ 4 8 8/ 4 2 4

3 (3 ) 3 3 9 = = = =

77.

2 2/5 2 5 2/5

2 2

2

2

3 (32) 3 (2 )

3 (2 )

1

3

2

9

4

=

=

=

=

78.

2/5

2 2 1/5 2/5 2 2/ 25 5

[( ) ] ( ) x y x y x y

= =

4/ 25 2/ 25

x y =

79.

4

1 2 2 2 2 4

2

4

(2 ) 2

y

x y x y

x

= =

80.

2/3 3/ 4

4 1/3 1/ 4 1/3 1/ 4 2/3 3/ 4

3

3 3 3 y x

y x y x y x y x

= =

3/ 4 2/3

3x y

xy

=

81.

2 3 2 1/ 2 2 3 1/ 2 2 1/ 2

( ) ( ) x x y xy x x y xy =

1/ 2 3/ 2 1/ 2 2 5/ 2

( )( ) x xy x y x y = =

82.

4 4 1/ 2 4 1/ 2

75 (75 ) [(25 )(3)] k k k = =

2 2 1/ 2 2 1/ 2

[(5 ) 3] 5 3 k k = =

83.

3 8 8 24 8 5 14

1 2 3 3 6 24

( )

( )

ab c a b c a c

a c a c b

= =

84.

3 3 2 3

3

7(49) 7 7 7 7 = = =

85.

2

2 3 3 6 3 2

4 3 2 4 6 2

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

x x x x

x x x x

=

6

2 2 6 12 2 6

12

x

x x x x x

x

= = =

2 2 6 8

6

1

x x x x

x

= = =

86. (6)(6) 36 6 = =

Note that

2

(6) 6 since 6 < 0.

87.

2

3 3 2 5

8 4 4

2

s

s s s s

= =

88.

( )

3

5 3 5 3 3 3 1/ 2 3

15 9 3/ 2

15 3/ 2

9

( ) ( ) ( ) a b c a b c

a b c

a c

b

=

=

=

89.

4

3 2

3 2 2 3 4

2 3

4

3 3

3 3 4

4

4 12 12

4

12 12

3

(3 2 )

2

3

2

(3 )

(2)

3

2

81

16

x y

x y y z

y z

x z

x z

x z

x z

=

=

=

=

=

90.

( )

( )

2 4

1/ 2 2 2 2

10

6

3

1/ 2 2 3 2

10

2 1

2

2 ( ) 2

8

16

16

(16 ) ( )

1 1 1 1

8

x

x x

x

x

x

x

x = = = =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.4

7

Problems 0.4

1. 8x 4y + 2 + 3x + 2y 5 = 11x 2y 3

2.

2

6 10 2 2 4 x xy z xy + + +

2

6 11 2 6 x xy z = + +

3.

2 2 2 2 2 2

8 6 4 2 6 6 2 6 t s s t t s + + = +

4. 2 3 7 x x x x x + + + =

5. 2 3 3 3

5 3

a b c b

a b c

+ +

= +

6. 3a + 7b 9 5a 9b 21 = 2a 2b 30

7.

2

6 10 2 2 4 x xy z xy + +

2

6 9 2 2 4 x xy z = +

8. 2 3 x x x x x + =

9. 2 3 2 3 x y x z y z + =

10. 8z 4w 3w + 6z = 14z 7w

11. 9x + 9y 21 24x + 6y 6 = 15x + 15y 27

12. u 3v 5u 4v + u 3 = 3u 7v 3

13.

2 2 2 2

2 2

5 5 3 8 28

2 33 7

x y xy x xy y

x y xy

+

=

14. 2 [3 + 4s 12] = 2 [4s 9] = 2 4s + 9

= 11 4s

15.

2 2 2

2{3[3 6 2 10]} 2{3[ 16]} x x x + + = +

2 2

2{3 48} 6 96 x x = + = +

16. 4{3t + 15 t[1 t 1]} = 4{3t + 15 t[t]}

2 2

4{3 15 } 4 12 60 t t t t = + + = + +

17.

3 2 2

3 2 2

3 2

3 2

5(8 8 2( 5 2 ))

5(8 8 2 10 4 )

5(8 6 4 10)

40 30 20 50

x x x x

x x x x

x x x

x x x

+ +

= + +

= + +

= +

18. {6a 6b + 6 + 10a + 15b a[2b + 10]}

= {4a + 9b + 6 2ab 10a}

= {6a + 9b + 6 2ab}

= 6a 9b 6 + 2ab

19.

2 2

(4 5) 4(5) 9 20 x x x x + + + = + +

20.

2 2

(5 2) 2(5) 7 10 u u u u + + + = + +

21.

2

2

( 2)( 5) ( 5 2) 2( 5)

3 10

w w w x

w w

+ = + + +

=

22.

2 2

(7 3) (7)(3) 10 21 z z z z + + = +

23. (2 )(5 ) [(2)(2) (3)(5)] 3(2) x x x + + +

2

10 19 6 x x = + +

24. (t)(2t) + [(1)(7) + (5)(2)]t + (5)(7)

2

2 3 35 t t =

25.

2 2 2 2

2( )(2 ) (2 ) 4 4 X X Y Y X XY Y + + = + +

26.

2 2 2

(2 ) 2(2 )(1) 1 4 4 1 x x x x + = +

27.

2 2 2

2(5) 5 10 25 x x x x + = +

28.

( )

2

(1 2) [(1)(5) (1)(2)] (1)(5) x x + + +

2 3 5 x x = +

29.

( ) ( )

2

2

3 2 3 (5) (5)

3 10 3 25

x x

x x

+ +

= + +

30.

( )

2

2

3 9 y y =

31.

2 2 2

(2 ) 1 4 1 s s =

32.

2 2 2 4 2

( ) (3 ) 9 z w z w =

33.

2

( 4) 3( 4) x x x + +

3 2

4 3 12 x x x = +

34.

2 2

( 3) 1( 3) x x x x x + + + + +

3 2 2

3 3 x x x x x = + + + + +

3 2

2 4 3 x x x = + + +

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

8

35.

2 2 2

4 3 2 2

4 3 2

(3 2 1) 4(3 2 1)

3 2 12 8 4

3 2 13 8 4

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x

+ +

= + +

= + +

36.

3 2 3 2

4 3 2 3 2

4 3 2

3 (4 2 3 ) 2(4 2 3 )

12 6 9 8 4 6

12 2 13 6

y y y y y y y

y y y y y y

y y y y

+ +

= + +

= +

37.

2 2

2 2

2

3 2

{2( 2 35) 4[2 12 ]}

{2 4 70 8 48 }

{10 52 70}

10 52 70

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x

x x x

+

= +

=

=

38.

2 2 2 2 2

[(2 ) 1 ](4 1) [4 1](4 1) z z z z + = +

2 2 2 4

(4 ) 1 16 1 z z = =

39. x(3x + 2y 4) + y(3x + 2y 4) + 2(3x + 2y 4)

2 2

3 2 4 3 2 4 6 4 8 x xy x xy y y x y = + + + + +

2 2

3 2 5 2 8 x y xy x = + + +

40.

2 2

[ ( 1)] x x + +

2 2 2 2

( ) 2 ( 1) ( 1) x x x x = + + + +

4 3 2 2

2 2 2 1 x x x x x = + + + + +

4 3 2

2 3 2 1 x x x x = + + + +

41.

3 2 2 3

3 2

(2 ) 3(2 ) (3) 3(2 )(3) (3)

8 36 54 27

a a a

a a a

+ + +

= + + +

42.

3 2 2 3

3 2

(3 ) 3(3 ) (2) 3(3 )(2) (2)

27 54 36 8

y y y

y y y

+

= +

43.

3 2 2 3

(2 ) 3(2 ) (3) 3(2 )(3) 3 x x x +

3 2

8 36 54 27 x x x = +

44.

3 2 2 3

3 (2 ) 3 (2 ) (2 ) x x y x y y + + +

3 2 2 3

6 12 8 x x y xy y = + + +

45.

2

18

18

z z

z

z z

=

46.

3

2

2 7 4 4

2 7

x x

x

x x x x

+ = +

47.

5 3

3

2 2 2 2

6 4 1 1

3 2

2 2 2 2

x x

x x

x x x x

+ = +

48.

3 4 9 5

3

6 9

3

6 9

3 3

3

2

y y

y

y

y

y

y y

y

=

=

=

49.

2

2

5 5 3

5

3

x

x x x

x x

+ +

+

Answer:

3

5

x

x

+

+

50.

2

2

1

4 5 4

4

4

4

0

x

x x x

x x

x

x

+

+

Answer: x 1

51.

2

3 2

3 2

2

2

3 8 17

2 3 2 3

3 6

8

8 16

17 3

17 34

37

x x

x x x x

x x

x x

x x

x

x

+

+ +

+

+

+

Answer:

2

37

3 8 17

2

x x

x

+ +

+

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.5

9

52.

3 2

4 3 2

4 3

3 2

3 2

2

2

3 3

1 0 2 0 1

2

3 0

3 3

3 1

3 3

4

x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x

x

+ + +

+ + + +

+

+

Answer:

3 2

4

3 3

1

x x x

x

+ + + +

53.

2

3 2

3 2

2

2

2 4

2 0 0 0

2

2 0

2 4

4 0

4 8

8

x x

x x x x

x x

x

x x

x

x

+

+ + + +

+

+

+

+

Answer:

2

8

2 4

2

x x

x

+

+

54.

1

2

2

2

3

2

5

2

3

2 3 6 8 1

6 9

1

x

x x x

x x

x

x

+ + +

+

+

Answer:

5

2

1

3

2 2 3

x

x

+

+

55.

2

2

2

3 2 3 4 3

3 2

6 3

6 4

7

x

x x x

x x

x

x

+ +

+

+

Answer:

7

2

3 2

x

x

+

+

56.

2 3 2

3 2

2

2

2

1

2

2 2 2

2 2

z

z z z z z

z z z

z

z z

z

+

+ + +

+

+

Answer:

2

2 2

2

1

z

z

z z

+ +

+

Problems 0.5

1. 2(ax + b)

2. 2y(3y 2)

3. 5x(2y + z)

4.

2 2

3 (1 3 ) x y xy

5.

3 2 3 2

4 (2 3 ) bc a ab d b cd +

6.

2 2 4 2

6 ( 3 12 ) u v uv w v +

7.

2 2

7 ( 7)( 7) z z z = +

8. (x + 2)(x 3)

9. ( 3)( 1) p p + +

10. (s 4)(s 2)

11.

2 2

(4 ) 3 (4 3)(4 3) x x x = +

12. (x + 6)(x 4)

13. (a + 7)(a + 5)

14.

2 2

(2 ) (3 ) (2 3 )(2 3 ) t s t s t s = +

15.

2 2 2

2(3)( ) 3 ( 3) x x x + + = +

16. (y 10)(y 5)

17.

2

5( 5 6)

5( 3)( 2)

x x

x x

+ +

= + +

18.

2

3( 4 5)

3( 1)( 5)

t t

t t

+

= +

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

10

19.

2 2

3( 1 ) 3( 1)( 1) x x x = +

20. (3y 4)(3y 2)

21.

2

6 13 2 (6 1)( 2) y y y y + + = + +

22. (4x + 3)(x 1)

23.

2

2 (6 5 4) 2 (3 4)(2 1) s s s s s s + = +

24.

2 2 2

(3 ) 2(3 )(5) 5 (3 5) z z z + + = +

25.

3/5 2 2 3/5

( 4 ) ( 2 )( 2 ) u v u v u v u v u v = +

26.

2/7 2 2 2/ 7 2/7

(3 ) 1 (3 1)(3 1) x x x = +

27.

2

2 ( 6) 2 ( 3)( 2) x x x x x x + = +

28.

2 2 2

( ) 2( )(2) 2 ( 2) xy xy xy + =

29.

2 2 2

[2(2 1)] 2 (2 1) x x + = +

2

4(2 1) x = +

30.

2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

4 2

2 [2 (1 2 )]

2 (2 ) (1 2 )

2 (4 )(1 2 )

8 (1 2 )

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x

=

=

=

31.

2 2 2 2

( 14 49) [( ) 2( )(7) 7 ] x x y xy x xy xy + = +

2

( 7) x xy =

32. x(5x + 2) + 2(5x + 2) = (5x + 2)(x + 2)

33.

2 2

( 4) 2(4 ) x x x +

2 2

( 4) 2( 4) x x x =

2

( 4)( 2) x x =

= (x + 2)(x 2)(x 2)

2

( 2)( 2) x x = +

34. (x + 1)(x 1) + (x 2)(x + 1)

= (x + 1)[(x 1) + (x 2)]

= (x + 1)(2x 3)

35.

2 2 2

( 8 16) ( 8 16) y y y y y + + + +

2 2

( 8 16)( 1) y y y = + +

2

( 4) ( 1)( 1) y y y = + +

36.

2 2 2 2 2

( 4) ( 4) ( 4)( ) xy x z x x xy z + = +

2

( 2)( 2)( ) x x xy z = + +

37.

3 3 2 2

2

4 ( 4)( 4( ) 4 )

( 4)( 4 16)

b b b b

b b b

+ = + +

= + +

38.

3 3 2 2

1 ( 1)[ 1( ) 1 ] x x x x = + +

2

( 1)( 1) x x x = + +

39.

3 2 2 3 3

( ) 1 ( 1)( 1) x x x = +

2 2

( 1)( 1)( 1)( 1) x x x x x x = + + + +

40.

3 3 2 2

3 (2 ) (3 2 )[3 3(2 ) (2 ) ] x x x x + = + +

2

(3 2 )(9 6 4 ) x x x = + +

41.

2

( 3) ( 1)[( 3) ( 1)] x x x x + + +

2

( 3) ( 1)[2 2] x x x = + +

2

( 3) ( 1)[2( 1)] x x x = + +

2

2( 3) ( 1)( 1) x x x = + +

42.

2 2

2 2

2 2

( 5) ( 1) [( 5) ( 1)]

( 5) ( 1) (2 6)

2( 5) ( 1) ( 3)

a a a a

a a a

a a a

+ + + + +

= + + +

= + + +

43. [P(1 + r)] + [P(1 + r)]r = [P(1 + r)](1 + r)

2

(1 ) P r = +

44. (3 5 )[( 3 ) ( 2 )] (3 5 )( 5 )

5 (3 5 )

X I X I X I X I I

I X I

+ + = +

= +

45.

2 2 2 2 2

( ) 4 ( 4)( 4) x x x = +

2

( 4)( 2)( 2) x x x = + +

46.

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

(9 ) ( ) (9 )(9 ) x y x y x y = +

2 2

(9 )(3 )(3 ) x y x y x y = + +

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.6

11

47.

4 2 2 4 4

( ) 1 ( 1)( 1) y y y = +

4 2 2

( 1)( 1)( 1) y y y = + +

4 2

( 1)( 1)( 1)( 1) y y y y = + + +

48.

2 2 2 2 2

( ) 2 ( 2)( 2) t t t = +

( )

2

2 2

( 2) 2 t t

= +

( )( )

2

( 2) 2 2 t t t = + +

49.

2 2 2

( 5)( 1) ( 5)( 1)( 1) X X X X X + = + +

50.

2 2

( 9)( 1) ( 3)( 3)( 1)( 1) x x x x x x = + +

51.

4 2 2 2 2

( 2 1) ( 1) [( 1)( 1)] y x x y x y x x + = = +

2 2

( 1) ( 1) y x x = +

52.

2

2 (2 3 2) 2 (2 1)( 2) x x x x x x = +

Problems 0.6

1.

2

2

9 ( 3)( 3) 3

( 3)

3

a a a a

a a a

a a

+ +

= =

2.

2

2

3 10 ( 2)( 5) 5

( 2)( 2) 2

4

x x x x x

x x x

x

+

= =

+

3.

2

2

9 20 ( 5)( 4) 5

( 5)( 4) 5

20

x x x x x

x x x

x x

+

= =

+ +

+

4.

2

3 2

3 27 24 3( 8)( 1)

2 ( 7)( 1)

2 16 14

x x x x

x x x

x x x

+

=

+

3( 8)

2 ( 7)

x

x x

5.

2

2

6 2 (3 2)(2 1) 3 2

( 2)(2 1) 2

2 3 2

x x x x x

x x x

x x

+ + +

= =

+ +

+

6.

2

2

12 19 4 (4 1)(3 4)

(2 3)(3 4)

6 17 12

x x x x

x x

x x

+

=

+

4 1

2 3

x

x

7.

2 2

(1)

( 3)( 2) ( 3)( 2)

y y

y y y y

=

+ +

8.

2

2

( 3)( 3)

3

( 3)( 3)

t t t t

t

t t t

+

=

+

9.

( )( ) ( )( 1)( )

( )( ) ( )( )

( )( 1)

ax b c x ax b x c

x c ax b x c ax b

ax b

ax b

b ax

ax b

=

+ +

=

+

=

+

10.

2 2

( )( )( ) ( )( )

( )( ) (1)( )

x y x y x y x y x y

x y y x x y

+ + +

=

+

2

( ) x y = +

11.

2( 1) ( 4)( 1)

( 4)( 2) ( 1)( 1)

x x x

x x x x

+ +

+ +

2( 1)( 4)( 1)

( 4)( 2)( 1)( 1)

x x x

x x x x

+ +

=

+ +

2( 4)

( 4)( 2)

x

x x

+

=

+

12.

2

( 2) ( 2)

3( 4)( 2) ( 3)( 2)

x x x

x x x x

+

+

2

( 2)( 2)

3( 4)( 2)( 3)( 2)

x x x

x x x x

+

=

+

( 2)

3( 4)( 3)

x x

x x

=

13.

2 2

4 4

8 8 2

X X X

X X

= =

14.

2

3 14 3 14 3(14)

6

7 7 7

x x x

x x x x

= = =

15.

3 3

2 2

2 2

6 3

6

m n mn n

m

n mn

= =

16.

2 2 ( ) 2( )

( )

c d c c c d c d

c c d c c d c d

+ + +

= =

17.

4 4 1 4 2

2

3 3 2 6 3

x x x

x

x x

= = =

18.

2

4 2 4 (2 ) 8

1 3 3 3

x x x x x

= =

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

12

19.

3 3

2

9 3 27

27

1

x x

x

x x

= =

20.

4 3 3

3

12 12 1 12

4 3

1 4 4

Y Y Y

Y

Y

= = =

21.

3 4 3 1 3

1

1 ( 3)( 4) 1 3 3

x x x x

x x x x

= = =

22.

2 2

2

( 3) ( 3) 1

( 3)

3

( 3) 3

( 3)

x x

x

x x x

x x

x x x

+ +

+ =

+

+ +

= =

+

23.

3 3 2

10 1 10 ( 1) 2

( 1)( 1) 5 5 ( 1)( 1) 1

x x x x x

x x x x x x x

+ +

= =

+ +

24.

( 3)( 2) ( 3)( 1)

( 3)( 3) ( 2)( 2)

2 ( 3)( 1)

3 ( 2)( 2)

( 2)( 3)( 1)

( 3)( 2)( 2)

1

2

x x x x

x x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x

x

+ +

+ +

+ +

=

+ +

+ +

=

+ +

25.

( 2)( 5) ( 4)( 1)

( 5)( 1) ( 4)( 2)

2 1

1 2

( 2)( 1)

( 1)( 2)

1

x x x x

x x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

+ + +

+ + +

+ +

=

+ +

+ +

=

+ +

=

26.

2

2

( 3) (3 4 )(3 4 )

4 3 7( 3)

( 3) (3 4 )(3 4 )

7(4 3)( 3)

( 3)(3 4 )( 1)(4 3)

7(4 3)

( 3)(3 4 )

7

x x x

x x

x x x

x x

x x x

x

x x

+ +

+

+ +

=

+

+ +

=

+ +

=

27.

(2 3)(2 3) (1 )(1 )

( 4)( 1) 2 3

x x x x

x x x

+ +

+

(2 3)(2 3)(1 )(1 )

( 4)( 1)(2 3)

x x x x

x x x

+ +

=

+

(2 3)(1 )(1)( 1)

( 4)( 1)

x x x

x x

+ +

=

+

(2 3)(1 )

4

x x

x

+ +

=

+

28.

2

2

(6 7 3) ( 1) 4( 1)

( 1) 5( 1)

( 4)

y x x x y y

x y y

x y x

+ +

+

+

2

(3 1)(2 3)( 1)( 4)

( 1)( 5) ( 4)

y x x y x

y x x y x

+ +

=

+ +

2

(3 1)(2 3)

( 5)

x x

x x

+

=

+

29.

2

5 6

3

x x

x

+ +

+

( 3)( 2)

2

3

x x

x

x

+ +

= = +

+

30.

2 2

1

2 2

x x

x x

+ +

= =

+ +

31. LCD = 3t

2 1 6 1 6 1 7

3 3 3 3 3 t t t t t t

+

+ = + = =

32.

3

LCD X =

3 2 3 3 3

9 1 9 9 X X

X X X X X

= =

33.

3

LCD 1 x =

3 3 3

3 3 3

3 3

3

3

3

1

1

1 1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

x x x

x x x

x x

x

x

x

=

=

34. LCD = s + 4

4 4 ( 4) 4 ( 4)

4 4 4 4

s s s s

s

s s s s

+ + +

+ = + =

+ + + +

2 2

4 4 ( 2)

4 4

s s s

s s

+ + +

= =

+ +

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.6

13

35. LCD = (2x 1)(x + 3)

4 4( 3) (2 1)

2 1 3 (2 1)( 3) ( 3)(2 1)

x x x x

x x x x x x

+

+ = +

+ + +

2

4( 3) (2 1) 2 3 12

(2 1)( 3) (2 1)( 3)

x x x x x

x x x x

+ + + +

= =

+ +

36. LCD = (x 1)(x + 1)

1 1 ( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)

1 1 ( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

+ + +

=

+ + +

2 2

( 1) ( 1)

( 1)( 1)

x x

x x

+

=

+

2 2

2 1 ( 2 1) 4

( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)

x x x x x

x x x x

+ + +

= =

+ +

37. LCD ( 3)( 1)( 3) x x x = + +

1 1

( 3)( 1) ( 3)( 3)

3 1

( 3)( 1)( 3) ( 3)( 1)( 3)

( 3) ( 1)

( 3)( 1)( 3)

2 4

( 3)( 1)( 3)

2( 2)

( 3)( 1)( 3)

x x x x

x x

x x x x x x

x x

x x x

x

x x x

x

x x x

+

+ +

+ +

= +

+ + + +

+ + +

=

+ +

+

=

+ +

+

=

+ +

38. LCD = (x 4)(2x + 1)(2x 1)

2

4

( 4)(2 1) ( 4)(2 1)

4(2 1) (2 1)

( 4)(2 1)(2 1) ( 4)(2 1)(2 1)

4(2 1) (2 1)

( 4)(2 1)(2 1)

2 7 4

( 4)(2 1)(2 1)

x

x x x x

x x x

x x x x x x

x x x

x x x

x x

x x x

+

+

=

+ +

+

=

+

+

=

+

39. LCD = (x 1)(x + 5)

2

4 3

3

1 ( 1)( 5)

x

x x x

+

+

2

4( 5) 3( 1)( 5) 3

( 1)( 5) ( 1)( 5) ( 1)( 5)

x x x x

x x x x x x

+ +

= +

+ + +

2 2

4 20 3( 4 5) 3

( 1)( 5)

x x x x

x x

+ + +

=

+

35 8

( 1)( 5)

x

x x

=

+

40. LCD = (2x 1)(x + 6)(3x 2)

2 3 3 1 1

(2 1)( 6) (3 2)( 6) 3 2

x x

x x x x x

+

+

+ +

(2 3)(3 2) (3 1)(2 1) (2 1)( 6)

(2 1)( 6)(3 2)

x x x x x x

x x x

+ + +

=

+

2 2 2

6 13 6 (6 1) 2 11 6

(2 1)( 6)(3 2)

x x x x x x

x x x

+ + +

=

+

2

2 1

(2 1)( 6)(3 2)

x x

x x x

+

=

+

41.

2 2 2

1 1 1

1

x x

x x x x

+

+ = + =

2

2

2 1 x x

x

+ +

=

42.

2 2 2

1 1 y x y x

x y xy xy xy

+

+ = + =

2 2

2 2

2 y xy x

x y

+ +

=

43.

1 1 1

1 1 1

`

1

xy xy x

y

x x x x xy

= = =

44.

2 2 2

2 2

2

1 1 1

2 1

ab ab

a

b b b b

a b ab

b

+

+ = + =

+ +

=

45. Multiplying the numerator and denominator of

the given fraction by x gives

7 1

.

5

x

x

+

46. Multiplying numerator and denominator by x

gives

2

3 3 1

.

( 3)( 3) 3

9

x x

x x x

x

+ +

= =

+

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

14

47. Multiplying numerator and denominator by

2x(x + 2) gives

2

3(2 )( 2) 1( 2) ( 2)[3(2 ) 1]

(2 )( 2) (2 )

2 [( 2) 1]

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

+ + +

=

+ +

+ +

2

( 2)(6 1)

.

2 ( 3)

x x

x x

+

=

+

48. Multiplying numerator and denominator by

3(x + 3)(x + 2) gives

3( 1) 1(3)( 3)

3(3)( 3)( 2) ( 7)( 3)( 2)

x x

x x x x x

+

+ + + + +

2

12 12

.

( 3)( 2)[9 ( 7)]

( 3)( 2)

x x x

x x

= =

+ + +

+ +

49.

3 3

LCD x h x = +

( )

3 3

3 3 3 3 3 3

3 3

3 3

3 3 3 3

3

x x h

x h x x h x x h x

x x h

x h x

+

=

+ + +

+

=

+

50. LCD 5 a a = +

( ) ( )

2

1 5

1

5 5 5

5

5

a a a a

a a

a a a a a a

a a

a a

+

+ = +

+ + +

+ +

=

+

51.

1 2 3 2 3

2 3

4 3 2 3 2 3

= =

+

52.

1 1 2 1 2 1 2

1 2

1 2 1 1 2 1 2

+ + +

= = =

+

53.

2 3 6

3 6 3 6

+

+

( )

2 3 6

6 12 6 2 3

3 6 3 3

+

+ +

= = =

54.

( )

5 6 7

5 6 7

6 7 6 7 6 7

=

+

( )

( )

5 6 7

5 7 6

1

= =

55.

( )

2 2 2 3

2 2 2 3

2 3 2 3 2 3

+

+

=

+

4 2 6

4 2 6

1

+

= =

56.

( )

( )

2 5 3 7

3 7 3 7

2 5 3 7

3 7

2 15 35

4

15 35

2

+

+

+

=

+

=

+

=

57.

2

3 7 3 3 7

7 7 7

t t

t t t

=

+

58.

( )

( 1) 1

( 3) 4 1 1

1 1 1 1

x x

x x x

x x x x

+ +

+ + +

= =

+

59.

( )

( )( )

( )

( )( )

5 2 3 4 1 2

2 3 2 3 1 2 1 2

+

+ +

( ) ( )

5 2 3 4 1 2

4 3 1 2

+

=

( ) ( )

5 2 3 4 1 2

1 1

+

=

( ) ( )

5 2 3 4 1 2 4 2 5 3 14 = + + = +

60.

( )

( )

( )( )

( )

2 2

2

4 2 4 2

4

3( 4)

3 2 3 2 2

x x x x

x

x

x x x

= =

+ +

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.7

15

Problems 0.7

1.

2

9 0 x x =

Set x = 1:

2

9(1) (1) 0

9 1 0

8 0

Set x = 0:

2

9(0) (0) 0

0 0 0

0 = 0

Thus, 0 satisfies the equation, but 1 does not.

2.

2

12 7 ; x x = 4, 3

Set x = 4:

2

12 7(4) (4)

12 28 16

16 16

=

Set x = 3:

2

12 7(3) (3)

12 21 9

9 9

=

Thus, 4 and 3 satisfy the equation.

3.

17

3( 4) 5; , 4

4

z z + =

Set

17

:

4

z =

17 17

3 4 5

4 4

17 51

12 5

4 4

5 5

+

+

=

Set z = 4:

4 3(4 4) 5

4 0 5

4 5

+

+

Thus,

17

4

satisfies the equation, but 4 does not.

4.

2

2 8 0 x x + =

Set x = 2:

2

2 2 2 8 0 +

4 + 4 8 0

0 = 0

Set x = 4:

2

2(4) (4) 8 0 +

8 + 16 8 0

0 = 0

Thus, 2 and 4 satisfy the equation.

5. x(6 + x) 2(x + 1) 5x = 4

Set x = 2:

(2)(6 2) 2(2 + 1) 5(2) 4

2(4) 2(1) + 10 4

8 + 2 + 10 4

4 = 4

Set x = 0:

0(6) 2(1) 5(0) 4

2 4

Thus, 2 satisfies the equation, but 0 does not.

6.

2

( 1) ( 2) 0 x x x + + =

Set x = 0:

2

0(1) (2) 0

0 = 0

Set x = 1:

2

(1)(0) (1) 0

0 = 0

Set x = 2:

2

2(3) (4) 0

72 0

Thus, 0 and 1 satisfy the equation, but 2 does

not.

7. Adding 5 to both sides; equivalence guaranteed

8. Dividing both sides by 8; equivalence

guaranteed

9. Raising both sides to the third power;

equivalence not guaranteed.

10. Dividing both sides by 2; equivalence

guaranteed

11. Dividing both sides by x; equivalence not

guaranteed

12. Multiplying both sides by x 2; equivalence not

guaranteed

13. Multiplying both sides by x 1; equivalence not

guaranteed

14. Dividing both sides by (x + 3); equivalence not

guaranteed.

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

16

15. Multiplying both sides by

2 3

;

2

x

x

equivalence

not guaranteed

16. Adding 9 x to both sides and then dividing

both sides by 2; equivalence guaranteed

17. 4x = 10

10 5

4 2

x = =

18. 0.2x = 7

7

35

0.2

x = =

19. 3y = 0

0

0

3

y = =

20. 2x 4x = 5

2x = 5

5 5

2 2

x = =

21. 8 12 20

8 8

x

x

=

=

8

1

8

x

= =

22. 4 7 3

7 1

1 1

7 7

x

x

x

=

=

= =

23. 5x 3 = 9

5x = 12

12

5

x =

24. 2 3 8 x + =

2 5 x =

5 5 2

or

2 2

x

=

25. 7x + 7 = 2(x + 1)

7x + 7 = 2x + 2

5x + 7 = 2

5x = 5

5

1

5

x = =

26. 4 3 1 41

7 1 41

7 42

42

6

7

s s

s

s

s

+ =

=

=

= =

27. 5( 7) 2(3 4) 3

5 35 6 8 3

27 3

27 4

27

4

p p p

p p p

p p

p

p

=

+ =

=

=

=

28. t = 2 2[2t 3(1 t)]

t = 2 2[2t 3 + 3t]

t = 2 2[5t 3]

t = 2 10t + 6

11t = 8

8

11

t =

29. 2 6

5

x

x =

x = 5(2x 6)

x = 10x 30

30 = 9x

30 10

9 3

x = =

30.

5 6

2 4

7 7

y

y =

5y 6 = 14 28y

33y = 20

20

33

y =

31.

4

7

9 2

x x

+ =

Multiplying both sides by 9 2 gives

9 2 7 + 2(4x) = 9(x)

126 + 8x = 9x

x = 126

32. 4

3 5

x x

=

5x 60 = 3x

2x = 60

x = 30

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.7

17

33.

4

5

3

r r =

Multiplying both sides by 3 gives

3 4 15

15

15

r r

r

r

=

=

=

34.

3 5

9

5 3

9 25 135

34 135

135

34

x x

x x

x

x

+ =

+ =

=

=

35.

1

3 5 5

5 5

x

x x + = +

Multiplying both sides by 5 gives

15x + x 25 = 1 + 25x

16x 25 = 1 + 25x

9x = 26

26

9

x =

36.

2 3 4 5

y y y y

y + =

60y 30y + 20y 15y = 12y

35y = 12y

23y = 0

y = 0

37.

2 3 6 7

4 3

y y +

=

Multiplying both sides by 12 gives

3(2y 3) = 4(6y + 7)

6y 9 = 24y + 28

18y = 37

37

18

y =

38.

5 7

( 1)

4 3 2

t

t t + =

Multiplying both sides by 12 gives

3 20 42( 1)

23 42 42

42 19

42

19

t t t

t t

t

t

+ =

=

=

=

39. 120

2 6 24

w w w

w + =

Multiplying both sides by 24 gives

24 12 4 2880

15 2880

2880

192

15

w w w w

w

w

+ =

=

= =

40.

7 2( 1) 6

3 5

x x + +

=

35 + 10(x + 1) = 18x

35 + 10x + 10 = 18x

45 = 8x

45

8

x =

41.

2 2

2

3 6

x x

x

+

=

Multiplying both sides by 6 gives

2(x + 2) (2 x) = 6(x 2)

2x + 4 2 + x = 6x 12

3x + 2 = 6x 12

2 = 3x 12

14 = 3x

14

3

x =

42.

2( 4)

7

5 10

x x

+ =

2x + 2(x 4) = 70

2x + 2x 8 = 70

4x = 78

78 39

4 2

x = =

43.

9 3

(3 ) ( 3)

5 4

x x =

Multiplying both sides by 20 gives

36(3 x) = 15(x 3)

108 36x = 15x 45

153 = 51x

x = 3

44.

2 7 8 9 3 5

3 14 21

y y y

+ =

14(2y 7) + 3(8y 9) = 2(3y 5)

28y 98 + 24y 27 = 6y 10

46y = 115

115 5

46 2

y = =

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

18

45.

4

(5 2) 7[ (5 2)]

3

4(5 2) 21( 5 2)

20 8 84 42

104 50

50 25

104 52

x x x

x x x

x x

x

x

=

= +

= +

=

= =

46.

2 2 2

2 2 2

2 2

(2 5) (3 3) 13 5 7

4 20 25 9 18 9 13 5 7

13 38 34 13 5 7

33 27

27 9

33 11

x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x

x

x

+ = +

+ + + = +

+ = +

=

= =

47.

5

25

x

=

Multiplying both sides by x gives

5 = 25x

5

25

x =

1

5

x =

48.

4

2

1 x

=

4 = 2(x 1)

4 = 2x 2

6 = 2x

x = 3

49. Multiplying both sides by 3 x gives 7 = 0,

which is false. Thus there is no solution, so the

solution set is .

50.

3 5

0

3

3 5 0

3 5

5

3

x

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

51.

3 7

5 2 2

3(2) 7(5 2 )

6 35 14

14 29

29

14

x

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

=

=

52.

3 2

5

x

x

+

=

5(x + 3) = 2x

5x + 15 = 2x

3x = 15

x = 5

53.

1

5 4 3

q

q

=

3q = 5q 4

2q = 4

q = 2

54.

4

1

7

p

p

=

4p = 7 p

5p = 7

7

5

p =

55.

1 2

1 2 p p

=

p 2 = 2(p 1)

p 2 = 2p 2

p = 0

56.

2 3

6

4 5

x

x

2x 3 = 24x 30

27 = 22x

27

22

x =

57.

1 1 3

7 7

1 3 1

7 7

1 2

7

7

2

x

x

x

x

+ =

=

=

=

58.

2 3

1 2

2( 2) 3( 1)

2 4 3 3

1

1

x x

x x

x x

x

x

=

=

=

=

=

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.7

19

59.

3 2 3 1

2 3 2 1

x x

x x

=

+ +

(3x 2)(2x + 1) = (3x 1)(2x + 3)

2 2

6 2 6 7 3 x x x x = +

1 = 8x

1

8

x =

60.

2 1

0

1 3

x x

x x

+ +

+ =

(x + 2)(3 x) + (x + 1)(x 1) = 0

2 2

3 6 2 1 0 x x x x + + =

x + 5 = 0

x = 5

61.

6 6 6

6

y y

y y y

+

=

Multiplying both sides by y(y 6) gives

2

( 6) 6( 6) ( 6) y y y y = +

2 2

12 36 6 36 6 y y y y y + + = +

2 2

18 72 6 y y y y + = +

72 = 24y

y = 3

62.

2 2

2 3

y y

y y

=

+ +

(y 2)(y + 3) = (y 2)(y + 2)

2 2

6 4 y y y + =

y = 2

63.

5 7 11

2 3 3 2 3 5 x x x

= +

+

Multiplying both sides by (2x 3)(3x + 5) gives

5(3 5) 7(3 5) 11(2 3)

15 25 21 35 22 33

15 25 68

16 43

43

16

x x x

x x x

x x

x

x

+ = + +

= +

=

=

=

64.

1 3 4

3 2 1 2 x x x

=

(x 2)(1 2x) 3(x 3)(1 2x)

= 4(x 3)(x 2)

2 2 2

2 5 2 3(2 7 3) 4( 5 6) x x x x x x + + = +

2 2

4 16 7 4 20 24 x x x x + = +

4x = 17

17

4

x =

65.

9 3

3 3

x

x x

=

9 = 3x

x = 3

But the given equation is not defined for x = 3,

so there is no solution. The solution set is .

66.

2

3 4

3 3

9

x x x

x x

x

=

+

x(x 3) x(x + 3) = 3x 4

2 2

3 3 3 4 x x x x x =

6x = 3x 4

9x = 4

4

9

x =

67. 5 4 x + =

( )

2

2

5 4 x + =

x + 5 = 16

x = 11

68. 2 3 z =

( )

2

2

2 3 z =

z 2 = 9

z = 11

69.

( )

2

2

3 4 8 0

3 4 8

3 4 (8)

3 4 64

3 68

68

3

x

x

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

=

=

=

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

20

70.

( )

2

2

4 3 1 0

4 3 1

4 3 1

16 3 1

15 3

5

x

x

x

x

x

x

+ =

= +

= +

= +

=

=

71.

2

1

2 3

x

+ =

2

2

2

1

2 3

x

+ =

4

1

2 9

x

+ =

5

2 9

x

=

5 10

2

9 9

x

= =

72.

1/ 2

( 6) 7 x + =

1/ 2 2 2

[( 6) ] 7 x + =

x + 6 = 49

x = 43

73. 4 6 x x =

( ) ( )

2 2

4 6 x x =

4x 6 = x

3x = 6

x = 2

74.

( ) ( )

2 2

4 3 2 5

4 3 2 5

4 3 2 5

1

x x

x x

x x

x

+ = +

+ = +

+ = +

=

75.

3/ 4

3/ 4 4/3 4/3

( 5) 27

[( 5) ] 27

5 81

86

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

=

76.

2

9 9 y y =

2

2 2

9 (9 ) y y

=

2 2

9 81 18 y y y = +

18y = 90

90

5

18

y = =

77. 2 3 y y + + =

2 3 y y + =

( ) ( )

2 2

2 3 y y + =

2 9 6 y y y + = +

6 7 y =

( )

2

2

6 7 y =

36y = 49

49

36

y =

78. 1 1 x x + =

1 1 x x = + +

( ) ( )

2 2

1 1 x x = + +

1 2 1 1 x x x = + + + +

2 2 1 x = +

1 1 x = + , which is impossible because

0 a for all a. Thus there is no solution.

The solution set is .

79.

2

2 3 z z z + = +

2

2 2

2 (3 ) z z z

+ = +

2 2

2 9 6 z z z z + = + +

9 = 4z

9

4

z =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.7

21

80.

1 2

0

5 2 w w

=

1 2

5 2 w w

=

2 2

1 2

5 2 w w

=

1 2

5 2 w w

=

5w 2 = 2w

3w = 2

2

3

w =

81. I = Prt

I

r

Pt

=

82.

100

1 0

100

1

100

1

p

p

P R

p

P R

R

P

+ =

+ =

=

+

83. p = 8q 1

p + 1 = 8q

1

8

p

q

+

=

84. p = 3q + 6

p 6 = 3q

6 6

3 3

p p

q

= =

85. S = P(1 + rt)

S = P + Prt

S P = r(Pt)

S P

r

Pt

=

86.

2

( 1)

mI

r

B n

=

+

[ ( 1)]

2

( 1)

2

r B n

I

m

rB n

I

m

+

=

+

=

87.

[1 (1 ) ]

n

R i

A

i

+

=

1 (1 )

n

Ai

R

i

=

+

88.

[(1 ) 1]

n

R i

S

i

+

=

[(1 ) 1]

n

Si R i = +

(1 ) 1

n

Si

R

i

=

+

89.

1

d

r

dt

=

r(1 dt) = d

r rdt = d

rdt = r + d

d r r d

t

rd rd

= =

90.

x a x b

b x a x

=

Multiplying both sides by (b x)(a x) gives

(x a)(a x) = (x b)(b x)

(x a)(a x)(1) = (x b)(b x)(1)

(x a)(x a) = (x b)(x b)

2 2 2 2

2 2 x ax a x bx b + = +

2 2

2 2 a b ax bx =

(a + b)(a b) = 2x(a b)

a + b = 2x (for a b)

2

a b

x

+

=

91.

2

( 1)

mI

r

B n

=

+

2

( 1)

mI

r n

B

+ =

2

1

mI

n

rB

+ =

2

1

mI

n

rB

=

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

22

92.

1 1 1

p q f

+ =

1 1 1

q f p

=

1 p f

q pf

=

pf

q

p f

=

93. 2 2

660 2 2(160)

660 2 320

340 2

340

170

2

P l w

l

l

l

l

= +

= +

= +

=

= =

The length of the rectangle is 170 m.

94.

2

2

355 (2)

355 4

355

4

V r h

h

h

h

=

=

=

=

The height of the can is

355

28.25

4

centimeters.

95. c = x + 0.0825x = 1.0825x

96. Revenue equals cost when 450x = 380x + 3500.

450x = 380x + 3500

70x = 3500

x = 50

50 toddlers need to be enrolled.

97. 1

n

V C

N

=

2000 3200 1

8

n

=

2000 = 3200 400n

400n = 1200

n = 3

The furniture will have a value of $2000

after 3 years.

98.

334.8

(2500)

495

334.8

165,726 2500

165,726

66.2904

2500

vf

F

v

v

v

=

=

=

= =

Since the car is traveling at 66.2904 mi/h on a

65 mi/h highway, the officer can claim that you

were speeding.

99. Bronwyns weekly salary for working h hours is

27h + 18. Steves weekly salary for working

h hours is 35h.

1

(27 18 35 ) 550

5

62 18 2750

62 2732

2732

44.1

62

h h

h

h

h

+ + =

+ =

=

=

They must each work 44 hours each week.

100. y = a(1 by)x

y = ax(1 by)

y = ax abxy

y + abxy = ax

y(1 + abx) = ax

1

ax

y

abx

=

+

101.

1.4

1 0.09

x

y

x

=

+

With y = 10 the equation is

1.4

10

1 0.09

x

x

=

+

10(1 + 0.09x) = 1.4x

10 + 0.9x = 1.4x

10 = 0.5x

x = 20

The prey density should be 20.

102. Let x = the maximum number of customers.

8 10

92 46 x x

=

8(x 46) = 10(x 92)

8x 368 = 10x 920

552 = 2x

x = 276

The maximum number of customers is 276.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.8

23

103.

d

t

r c

=

t(r c) = d

tr tc = d

tr d = tc

tr d d

c r

t t

= =

104. Let x = the horizontal distance from the base of

the tower to the house. By the Pythagorean

theorem,

2 2 2

100 ( 1) . x x + = +

2 2

10,000 2 1

10,000 2 1

9999 2

9999

4999.5

2

x x x

x

x

x

+ = + +

= +

=

= =

The distance from the top of the tower to the

house is x + 1 = 4999.5 + 1 = 5000.5 meters.

105. 30 s fd =

Set s = 45 and (for dry concrete) f = 0.8.

( )

2

2

45 30(0.8)

45 24

(45) 24

2025 24

2025 675 3

84 84 ft

24 8 8

d

d

d

d

d

=

=

=

=

= = =

106. Let P be the amount in the account one year ago.

Then the interest earned is 0.073P and

P + 0.073P = 1257.

1.073 1257

1257

1171.48

1.073

P

P

=

=

The amount in the account one year ago was

$1171.48, and the interest earned is

$1171.48(0.073) = $85.52.

107. Let e be Toms expenses in Nova Scotia before

the HST tax. Then the HST tax is 0.15e and the

total receipts are e + 0.15e = 1.15e. The

percentage of the total that is HST is

0.15 0.15 15 3

1.15 1.15 115 23

e

e

= = = or approximately

13%.

108.

1 1

and

8 14

are roots.

109.

1

2

is a root.

110.

14

61

is a root.

111. 0 is a root.

Problems 0.8

1.

2

4 4 0 x x + =

2

( 2) 0 x =

x 2 = 0

x = 2

2. (t + 1)(t + 2) = 0

t + 1 = 0 or t + 2 = 0

t = 1 or t = 2

3.

2

8 15 0

( 3)( 5) 0

t t

t t

+ =

=

t 3 = 0 or t 5 = 0

t = 3 or t = 5

4. (x 2)(x + 5) = 0

x 2 = 0 or x + 5 = 0

x = 2 or x = 5

5.

2

2 3 0 x x =

(x 3)(x + 1) = 0

x 3 = 0 or x + 1 = 0

x = 3 or x = 1

6. (x 4)(x + 4) = 0

x 4 = 0 or x + 4 = 0

x = 4 or x = 4

7.

2

13 36 u u =

2

13 36 0 u u + =

( 4)( 9) 0 u u =

u 4 = 0 or u 9 = 0

u = 4 or u = 9

8.

2

3( 4 4) 0 w w + =

2

3( 2) 0 w =

w 2 = 0

w = 2

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

24

9.

2

4 0 x =

(x 2)(x + 2) = 0

x 2 = 0 or x + 2 = 0

x = 2 or x = 2

10. 3 ( 2) 0 u u =

u = 0 or u 2 = 0

u = 0 or u = 2

11.

2

5 0

( 5) 0

t t

t t

=

=

t = 0 or t 5 = 0

t = 0 or t = 5

12.

2

9 14 0 x x + + =

(x + 7)(x + 2) = 0

x + 7 = 0 or x + 2 = 0

x = 7 or x = 2

13.

2

4 1 4 x x + =

2

4 4 1 0 x x + =

2

(2 1) 0 x =

2x 1 = 0

1

2

x =

14.

2

2 9 5 0 z z + =

(2z 1)(z + 5) = 0

2z 1 = 0 or z + 5 = 0

1

2

z = or z = 5

15.

2

2

(3 5) 2

3 5 2

3 5 2 0

(3 2)( 1) 0

v v

v v

v v

v v

=

=

+ =

=

3v 2 = 0 or v 1 = 0

2

3

v = or v = 1

16.

2

2

6 2 0

6 2 0

(2 1)(3 2) 0

x x

x x

x x

+ + =

=

+ =

2 1 0 or 3 2 0

1 2

or

2 3

x x

x x

+ = =

= =

17.

2

3 10 0 x x + + =

2

3 10 0 x x =

(x 5)(x + 2) = 0

x 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0

x = 5 or x = 2

18.

2

1 3

0

7 7

y y =

1

( 3) 0

7

y y =

y = 0 or y 3 = 0

y = 0 or y = 3

19.

2

2 3 p p =

2

2 3 0 p p =

p(2p 3) = 0

p = 0 or 2p 3 = 0

p = 0 or

3

2

p =

20.

2

12 0 r r + =

(r 3)(r + 4) = 0

r 3 = 0 or r + 4 = 0

r = 3 or r = 4

21. x(x + 4)(x 1) = 0

x = 0 or x + 4 = 0 or x 1 = 0

x = 0 or x = 4 or x = 1

22.

2 2

( 3) ( 1) 0 w w + =

w 3 = 0 or w + 1 = 0

w = 3 or w = 1

23.

3

2

49 0

( 49) 0

( 7)( 7) 0

t t

t t

t t t

=

=

+ =

0 or 7 0 or 7 0

0 or 7 or 7

t t t

t t t

= + = =

= = =

24.

2

( 4 5) 0 x x x =

x(x 5)(x + 1) = 0

x = 0 or x 5 = 0 or x + 1 = 0

x = 0 or x = 5 or x = 1

25.

3 2

6 5 4 0 x x x + =

2

(6 5 4) 0 x x x + =

x(2x 1)(3x + 4) = 0

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.8

25

x = 0 or 2x 1 = 0 or 3x + 4 = 0

x = 0 or

1

2

x = or

4

3

x =

26.

2

2 1 5 1 0 x x x + + + =

2

3 2 0 x x + =

(x 1)(x 2) = 0

x 1 = 0 or x 2 = 0

x = 1 or x = 2

27.

2

( 3)( 4) 0

( 3)( 2)( 2) 0

x x

x x x

=

+ =

x 3 = 0 or x 2 = 0 or x + 2 = 0

x = 3 or x = 2 or x = 2

28. 5(x + 4)(x 3)(x 8) = 0

4 0 or 3 0 or 8 0

4 or 3 or 8

x x x

x x x

+ = = =

= = =

29.

2 3

( 3) 4( 3) 0 p p p =

2

( 3) [ 4( 3)] 0 p p p =

2

( 3) (12 3 ) 0 p p =

2

3( 3) (4 ) 0 p p =

p 3 = 0 or 4 p = 0

p = 3 or p = 4

30.

2 2

( 1)( 2) 0 x x =

( )( )

( 1)( 1) 2 2 0 x x x x + + =

x + 1 = 0 or x 1 = 0

or 2 0 x + = or 2 0 x =

x = 1 or x = 1

or 2 x = or 2 x =

31.

2

2 24 0 x x + =

a = 1, b = 2, c = 24

2

4

2

b b ac

x

a

=

2 4 4(1)(24)

2(1)

=

2 100

2

=

2 10

2

=

2 10

4

2

x

+

= = or

2 10

6

2

x

= =

32.

2

2 15 0 x x =

a = 1, b = 2, c = 15

2

4

2

b b ac

x

a

=

(2) 4 4(1)(15)

2(1)

=

2 64

2

=

2 8

2

=

2 8

5

2

x

+

= = or

2 8

3

2

x

= =

33.

2

4 12 9 0 x x + =

a = 4, b = 12, c = 9

2

4

2

b b ac

x

a

=

( 12) 144 4(4)(9)

2(4)

=

12 0

8

=

12 0

8

=

3

2

=

34.

2

5 0 q q =

a = 1, b = 5, c = 0

2

4

2

5 25 4(1)(0)

2(1)

5 25

2

5 5

2

b b ac

q

a

=

=

=

5 5

5

2

q

+

= = or

5 5

0

2

q

= =

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

26

35.

2

2 7 0 p p =

a = 1, b = 2, c = 7

2

2

4

2

( 2) ( 2) 4(1)( 7)

2(1)

2 32

2

1 2 2

b b ac

p

a

=

=

=

=

1 2 2 p = + or 1 2 2 p =

36.

2

2 2 0 x x + =

2

2 2 0 x x + =

a = 1, b = 2, c = 2

(2) 4 4(1)(2)

2(1)

x

=

2 4

2

=

no real roots

37.

2

4 2 0 n n + =

2

2 4 0 n n + =

a = 1, b = 2, c = 4

2

4

2

b b ac

n

a

=

( 2) 4 4(1)(4)

2(1)

=

2 12

2

=

no real roots

38.

2

2 5 x x + =

2

2 5 0 x x + =

a = 2, b = 1, c = 5

2

4

2

b b ac

x

a

=

1 1 4(2)(5)

2(2)

=

1 41

4

=

1 41

4

x

+

= or

1 41

4

x

=

39.

2

4 5 2 0 x x + =

a = 4, b = 5, c = 2

2

4

2

5 25 4(4)( 2)

2(4)

5 57

8

b b ac

x

a

=

=

=

5 57

8

x

+

= or

5 57

8

x

=

40.

2

2 1 0 w w + =

a = 1, b = 2, c = 1

2

2

4

2

( 2) ( 2) 4(1)(1)

2(1)

2 0

2

1

b b ac

w

a

=

=

=

=

41.

2

0.02 0.3 20 w w =

2

0.02 0.3 20 0 w w =

a = 0.02, b = 0.3, c = 20

2

4

2

b b ac

w

a

=

(0.3) 0.09 4(0.02)(20)

2(0.02)

=

0.3 1.69

0.04

=

0.3 1.3

0.04

=

0.3 1.3 1.6

40

0.04 0.04

w

+

= = = or

0.3 1.3 1.0

25

0.04 0.04

w

= = =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.8

27

42.

2

0.01 0.2 0.6 0 x x + =

a = 0.01, b = 0.2, c = 0.6

2

4

2

b b ac

x

a

=

0.2 0.04 4(0.01)(0.6)

2(0.01)

=

0.2 0.064

0.02

=

0.2 (0.0064)(10)

0.02

=

0.2 0.08 10

0.02

=

10 4 10 =

10 4 10 x = + or 10 4 10 x =

43.

2

2 4 5 x x + =

2

2 4 5 0 x x + =

a = 2, b = 4, c = 5

2

4

2

b b ac

x

a

=

4 16 4(2)(5)

2(2)

=

4 56

4

=

4 2 14

4

=

2 14

2

=

2 14

2

x

+

= or

2 14

2

x

=

44.

2

2 6 5 0 x x + =

a = 2, b = 6, c = 5

2

4

2

b b ac

x

a

=

(6) 36 4(2)(5)

2( 2)

=

6 76

4

6 2 19

4

3 19

2

=

3 19

2

x

+

= or

3 19

2

x

=

45.

2 2 2

( ) 5( ) 6 0 x x + =

Let

2

. w x = Then

2

5 6 0 w w + =

(w 3)(w 2) = 0

w = 3, 2

Thus

2

3 x = or

2

2, x = so 3, 2 x = .

46.

2 2 2

( ) 3( ) 10 0 X X =

Let

2

. w X = Then

2

3 10 0

( 5)( 2) 0

w w

w w

=

+ =

w = 5, 2

Thus

2

5 X = or

2

2, X = so the real solutions

are 5. X =

47.

2

1 1

3 7 2 0

x x

+ =

Let

1

. w

x

= Then

2

3 7 2 0

(3 1)( 2) 0

1

, 2

3

w w

w w

w

+ =

=

=

Thus,

1

3, .

2

x =

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

28

48.

1 2 1

( ) 12 0 x x

+ =

Let

1

. w x = Then

2

12 0 w w + =

(w + 4)(w 3) = 0

w = 4, 3

Thus,

1 1

, .

4 3

x =

49.

2 2 2

( ) 9( ) 20 0 x x + =

Let

2

. w x = Then

2

9 20 0 w w + =

(w 5)(w 4) = 0

w = 5, 4

Thus,

2

1

5

x

= or

2

1

4,

x

= so

2

1

5

x = or

2

1

.

4

x =

5 1

, .

5 2

x =

50.

2

2 2

1 1

9 8 0

x x

+ =

Let

2

1

. w

x

= Then

2

9 8 0 w w + =

(w 8)(w 1) = 0

w = 8, 1

Thus,

2

1

8

x

= or

2

1

1,

x

= so

2

1

8

x = or

2

1. x =

2

, 1.

4

x =

51.

2

( 5) 7( 5) 10 0 X X + + =

Let w = X 5. Then

2

7 10 0

( 2)( 5) 0

w w

w w

+ + =

+ + =

w = 2, 5

Thus, X 5 = 2 or X 5 = 5, so X = 3, 0.

52.

2

(3 2) 5(3 2) 0 x x + + =

Let w = 3x + 2. Then

2

5 0

( 5) 0

0, 5

w w

w w

w

=

=

=

Thus 3x + 2 = 0 or 3x + 2 = 5, so

2

, 1.

3

x =

53.

2

1 1

12 35 0

2 2 x x

+ =

Let

1

,

2

w

x

=

then

2

12 35 0 w w + =

(w 7)(w 5) = 0

w = 7, 5

Thus,

1

7

2 x

=

or

1

5.

2 x

=

15 11

, .

7 5

x =

54.

2

1 1

2 7 3 0

4 4 x x

+ + =

+ +

Let

1

4

w

x

=

+

. Then

2

2 7 3 0 w w + + =

(2w + 1)(w + 3) = 0

1

, 3

2

w =

Thus,

1 1

4 2 x

=

+

or

1

3

4 x

=

+

.

13

6,

3

x =

55.

2

3

2

x

x

+

=

2

2 3 x x = +

2

2 3 0 x x =

(2x 3)(x + 1) = 0

Thus,

3

, 1.

2

x =

56.

7 5

2 2

x

x

=

Multiplying both sides by the LCD, 2x, gives

2

14 5 x x =

2

5 14 0 x x + =

(x 2)(x + 7) = 0

Thus, x = 2, 7.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.8

29

57.

3 3

2

4

x

x x

+ =

Multiplying both sides by the LCD, x(x 4),

gives

3x + (x 3)(x 4) = 2x(x 4)

2 2

3 7 12 2 8 x x x x x + + =

2 2

4 12 2 8 x x x x + =

2

0 4 12 x x =

0 = (x 6)(x + 2)

Thus, x = 6, 2.

58.

2 6

5

2 1 1 x x

=

+

Multiplying both sides by the LCD,

(2x + 1)(x 1), gives

2

2

2( 1) 6(2 1) 5(2 1)( 1)

10 8 10 5 5

0 10 5 3

x x x x

x x x

x x

+ = +

=

= + +

a = 10, b = 5, c = 3

2

4 25 4(10)(3) 95 0, b ac = = < thus there

are no real roots.

59.

3 2 2 1

1

1 2

x x

x x

+ +

=

+

Multiplying both sides by the LCD, 2x(x + 1),

gives

2 2 2

2 2

2

2 (3 2) (2 1)( 1) 2 ( 1)

6 4 (2 3 1) 2 2

4 1 2 2

2 1 0

(2 1)( 1) 0

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x

x x

x x

+ + + = +

+ + + = +

+ = +

=

+ =

Thus,

1

, 1.

2

x =

60.

6( 1)

3

2 1

w w

w w

+

+ =

Multiplying both sides by the LCD,

(2 w)(w 1), gives

6(w + 1)(w 1) + w(2 w) = 3(2 w)(w 1)

2 2 2

6( 1) 2 3( 3 2) w w w w w + = +

2 2

5 2 6 3 9 6 w w w w + = +

2

8 7 0 w w =

w(8w 7) = 0

Thus, w = 0,

7

.

8

61.

2 1

0

2 4

r

r r

+

=

+

Multiplying both sides by the LCD,

(r 2)(r + 4), gives

2(r + 4) (r 2)(r + 1) = 0

2

2 8 ( 2) 0 r r r + =

2

3 10 0 r r + + =

2

3 10 0 r r =

(r 5)(r + 2) = 0

Thus, r = 5, 2.

62.

2 3 2

1

2 5 3 1

x x

x x

+ =

+ +

Multiplying both sides by the LCD,

(2x + 5)(3x + 1), gives

(2x 3)(3x + 1) + 2x(2x + 5) = (2x + 5)(3x + 1)

2 2 2

6 7 3 4 10 6 17 5 x x x x x x + + = + +

2 2

10 3 3 6 17 5 x x x x + = + +

2

4 14 8 0 x x =

2

2 7 4 0 x x =

(2x + 1)(x 4) = 0

Thus,

1

, 4.

2

x =

63.

2

1 3 5

2 4

6 8

t t t

t t

t t

+ + +

+ =

+ +

+ +

Multiplying both sides by the LCD,

(t + 2)(t + 4), gives

2 2

2

2

( 1)( 4) ( 3)( 2) 5

5 4 5 6 5

2 10 10 5

2 9 5 0

t t t t t

t t t t t

t t t

t t

+ + + + + = +

+ + + + + = +

+ + = +

+ + =

a = 2, b = 9, c = 5

2

4

2

9 81 4(2)(5)

2(2)

9 41

4

b b ac

t

a

=

=

=

Thus

9 41 9 41

, .

4 4

t

+

=

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

30

64.

2 3 4

1 2 x x x

+ =

+ +

Multiplying both sides by the LCD,

x(x + 1)(x + 2), gives

2 2 2

2 2

2

2 ( 2) 3( 1)( 2) 4 ( 1)

2 4 3 9 6 4 4

5 13 6 4 4

9 6 0

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x

x x

+ + + + = +

+ + + + = +

+ + = +

+ + =

a = 1, b = 9, c = 6

2

2

4

2

9 9 4(1)(6)

2(1)

9 57

2

b b ac

x

a

=

=

=

Thus,

9 57 9 57

, .

2 2

x

+

=

65.

2 2

2 1 2

( 1)

1

x x

x x

=

Multiplying both sides by the LCD,

2

( 1)( 1), x x x + gives

2

2 ( 1) 2( 1)( 1) x x x x x + = +

2 2 2

2 2 2 x x x x =

2 2

2 2 x x x =

2

0 2 x x = +

0 = (x + 2)(x 1)

x = 2 or x = 1

But x = 1 does not check. The solution is 2.

66. If x 3, the equation is

3 1

5 .

x

x x

=

Multiplying both sides by x gives

5x 3 = 1 x

6x = 4

2

3

x =

67.

( )

2

2

2 3 ( 3) x x =

2

2 3 6 9 x x x = +

2

0 8 12 x x = +

0 = (x 6)(x 2)

x = 6 or x = 2

Only x = 6 checks.

68.

( )

2

2

3 4 ( 6) x x + =

2

9 36 12 36 x x x + = +

2

0 21 x x =

0 = x(x 21)

x = 0 or x = 21

Only x = 21 checks.

69.

( )

2

2

( 2) 2 4 7 q q + =

2

4 4 16 28 q q q + + =

2

12 32 0 q q + =

(q 4)(q 8) = 0

Thus, q = 4, 8.

70.

( ) ( )

2

2 5 0 x x + =

Let , w x = then

2

2 5 0 w w + =

a = 1, b = 2, c = 5

2

4

2

b b ac

w

a

=

2 4 4(1)( 5)

2(1)

2 24

2

2 2 6

2

1 6

w

=

=

=

=

Since w x = and 1 6 0, < 1 6 w =

does not check. Thus 1 6, w = + so

( )

2

1 6 7 2 6. x = + =

71.

( ) ( )

( )

2 2

2

2

2

2

3 3 1

3 3 1

3 3 2 3 1

2 2 2 3

1 3

( 1) 3

2 1 3

5 1 0

z z

z z

z z z

z z

z z

z z

z z z

z z

+ = +

+ = +

+ = + +

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

a = 1, b = 5, c = 1

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 0.8

31

2

2

4

2

( 5) ( 5) 4(1)(1)

2(1)

5 21

2

b b ac

z

a

=

=

=

Only

5 21

2

z

= checks.

72. 2 2 8 x x =

( ) ( )

2 2

2 2 8 x x =

4 4 2 8 x x x + =

4 12 x x =

( )

2

2

4 ( 12) x x =

2

16 24 144 x x x = +

2

0 40 144 x x = +

0 = (x 4)(x 36)

x = 4 or x = 36

Only x = 4 checks.

73. 1 2 1 x x + = +

( ) ( )

2 2

1 2 1 x x + = +

2 1 2 1 x x x + + = +

2 x x =

( )

2

2

2 x x =

2

4x x =

2

0 4 x x =

0 = x(x 4)

Thus, x = 0, 4.

74.

( ) ( )

2 2

2 2 2 3 y y + = +

2 4 2 4 2 3 y y y + + = +

4 2 1 y y = +

( )

2

2

4 2 ( 1) y y = +

2

16 32 2 1 y y y = + +

2

0 14 33 y y = +

0 = (y 11)(y 3)

Thus, y = 11, 3.

75.

( ) ( )

( )

2 2

2

2

2

2

3 1 3

3 2 3 1 9

2 3 8 4

3 4 2

3 (4 2)

3 16 16 4

0 16 17 1

0 (16 1)( 1)

x x

x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x x

x x

x x

+ + =

+ + + + =

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ = +

= +

=

1

16

x = or x = 1

Only x = 1 checks.

76.

( )

( )

( )

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 3 1

2 3 1

3 1

(3 1)

9 6 1

0 9 7 1

t t

t t

t t

t t

t t t

t t

+ = +

+ = +

=

=

= +

= +

a = 9, b = 7, c = 1

2

2

4

2

( 7) ( 7) 4(9)(1)

2(9)

7 13

18

b b ac

t

a

=

=

=

Only

7 13

18

+

checks.

77.

2

( 2.7) ( 2.7) 4(0.04)(8.6)

2(0.04)

x

=

64.15 or 3.35

78.

2

0.2 (0.2) 4(0.01)(0.6)

2(0.01)

x

=

2.65 or 22.65

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

32

79. Let l be the length of the picture, then its width is

l 2.

l(l 2) = 48

2

2 48 0 l l =

(l 8)(l + 6) = 0

l 8 = 0 or l + 6 = 0

l = 8 or l = 6

Since length cannot be negative, l = 8. The width

of the picture is l 2 = 8 2 = 6 inches.

The dimensions of the picture are 6 inches by

8 inches.

80. The amount that the temperature has risen over

the X days is

(X degrees per day)(X days) =

2

X degrees.

2

15 51 X + =

2

36 X =

36 X =

X = 6 or X = 6

The temperature has been rising 6 degrees per

day for 6 days.

81.

( 10)

44

Q Q

M

+

=

2

44 10 M Q Q = +

2

0 10 44 Q Q M = +

From the quadratic formula with a = 1, b = 10,

44 , c M =

10 100 4(1)(44 )

2(1)

M

Q

=

10 2 25 44

2

M + +

=

5 25 44M = +

Thus, 5 25 44M + + is a root.

82.

2

200 200 20 g P P = + +

Set g = 60.

2

2

2

60 200 200 20

200 200 40 0

5 5 1 0

P P

P P

P P

= + +

+ =

+ =

From the quadratic formula with a = 5, b = 5,

c = 1,

5 25 4(5)(1) 5 5

2(5) 10

P

= =

P 0.28 or P 0.72

28% and 72% of yeast gave an average weight

gain of 60 grams.

83.

1

.

12 24

A A

d d

A

+

=

+

Dividing both sides by d and then multiplying

both sides by 24(A + 12) gives

24A = (A + 12)(A + 1)

2

24 13 12 A A A = + +

2

0 11 12 A A = +

From the quadratic formula,

11 121 48 11 73

.

2 2

A

= =

11 73

10

2

A

+

= or

11 73

1.

2

A =

The doses are the same at 1 year and 10 years.

c = d in Cowlings rule when

1

1,

24

A+

= which

occurs when A = 23. Thus, adulthood is achieved

at age 23 according to Cowlings rule.

c = d in Youngs rule when 1,

12

A

A

=

+

which is

never true. Thus, adulthood is never reached

according to Youngs rule.

0

0 25

1

Youngs rule prescribes less than Cowlings for

ages less than one year and greater than 10 years.

Cowlings rule prescribes less for ages between

1 and 10.

84. a.

2

(2 1) 2 1 0 n v nv + =

From the quadratic formula with a = 2n 1,

b = 2n, c = 1,

2

(2 ) 4 4(2 1)(1)

2(2 1)

n n n

v

n

=

2

2 4 8 4

2(2 1)

n n n

v

n

+

=

2 2

( 1) 2 2 2 1

2(2 1) 2 1

n n n n n

v

n n

+

= =

Because of the condition that n 1, it

follows that n 1 is nonnegative. Thus,

2

( 1) 1 n n = and we have

( 1)

.

2 1

n n

v

n

=

v = 1 or

1

.

2 1

v

n

=

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 0

33

b.

2

(2 1) 1 0 nv n v + + =

From the quadratic formula with a = n,

b = (2n + 1), and c = 1,

2

[ (2 1)] [ (2 1)] 4( )(1)

2

n n n

v

n

+ +

=

2

2 1 4 1

2

n n

v

n

+ +

=

Because

2

4 1 n + is greater than 2n,

choosing the plus sign gives a numerator

greater than 2n + 1 + 2n, or 4n + 1, so v is

greater than

4 1 1

2 .

2 2

n

n n

+

= + Thus v is

greater than 2. This contradicts the

restriction on v. On the other hand, because

2

4 1 n + is greater than 1, choosing the

minus sign gives a numerator less than 2n,

so v is less than

2

1.

2

n

n

= This meets the

condition on v. Thus we choose

2

2 1 4 1

.

2

n n

v

n

+ +

=

85. a. When the object strikes the ground, h must

be 0, so

2

0 39.2 4.9 4.9 (8 ) t t t t = =

t = 0 or t = 8

The object will strike the ground 8 s after

being thrown.

b. Setting h = 68.2 gives

2

2

68.2 39.2 4.9

4.9 39.2 68.2 0

t t

t t

=

+ =

2

39.2 ( 39.2) 4(4.9)(68.2)

2(4.9)

39.2 14.1

9.8

t

=

t 5.4 s or t 2.6 s.

86. By a program, roots are 4.5 and 3.

Algebraically:

2

2 3 27 0 x x =

(2x 9)(x + 3) = 0

Thus, 2x 9 = 0 or x + 3 = 0

So

9

4.5

2

x = = or x = 3.

87. By a program, roots are 1.5 and 0.75.

Algebraically:

2

8 18 9 0 x x + =

(2x 3)(4x 3) = 0

Thus, 2x 3 = 0 or 4x 3 = 0.

So

3

1.5

2

x = = or

3

0.75.

4

x = =

88. By a program, roots are 0.762 and 0.262.

89. By a program, there are no real roots.

90.

2

9

6.3 (1.1 7 )

2 3

z

z z =

2 2

9 1.1 7

6.3

2 3 3

z z z =

2

9 7 1.1

6.3 0

2 3 3

z z

+ =

Roots: 0.987, 0.934

91.

2

( 4) 4.1 3 t t =

2 2

8 16 4.1 3 t t t + =

2 2

(8 4.1) 19 0 t t + + =

Roots: 1.999, 0.963

Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 0

1.

2. The procedure works because multiplying a list

by a number is the same as multiplying each

element in the list by the number, adding a

number to a list has the effect of adding the

number to each element of the list, and

subtracting one list from another is the same as

subtracting corresponding elements. The plots

match.

3.

The results agree.

Chapter 0: Review of Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

34

4. The smaller quadratic residuals indicate a better

fit. The fairly random pattern suggests that the

model cannot be improved any further. The

slight deviations from the quadratic model are

presumably due to random measurement errors.

35

Chapter 1

Problems 1.1

1. Let w be the width and 2w be the length of the

plot.

w w

2w

2w

Then area = 800.

(2w)w = 800

2

2 800 w =

2

400 w =

w = 20 ft

Thus the length is 40 ft, so the amount of fencing

needed is 2(40) + 2(20) = 120 ft.

2. Let w be the width and 2w be the length.

w w

2w

2w

The perimeter P = 2w + 2l = 2w + 2(2w) = 6w.

Thus 6w = 300.

300

50 ft

6

w = =

Thus the length is 2(50) = 100 ft.

The dimensions are 50 ft by 100 ft.

3. Let n = number of ounces in each part. Then we

have

4n + 5n = 145

9n = 145

n =

1

16

9

Thus there should be

1 4

4 16 64

9 9

=

ounces of

A and

1 5

5 16 80

9 9

=

ounces of B.

4. Let n = number of cubic feet in each part.

Then we have

1n + 3n + 5n = 765

9n = 765

n = 85

Thus he needs 1n = 1(85) = 85 ft

3

of portland

cement, 3n = 3(85) = 255 ft

3

of sand, and

5n = 5(85) = 425 ft

3

of crushed stone.

5. Let n = number of ounces in each part. Then we

have

2n + 1n = 16

3n = 16

16

3

n =

Thus the turpentine needed is

16 1

(1) 5

3 3

n = = ounces.

6. Let w = width (in miles) of strip to be cut. Then

the remaining forest has dimensions 2 2w by

1 2w.

w

w

w w

1

2 2w

2

1 2w

Considering the area of the remaining forest, we

have

3

(2 2 )(1 2 )

4

w w =

2

3

2 6 4

4

w w + =

2

8 24 16 3 w w + =

2

16 24 5 0 w w + =

(4w 1)(4w 5) = 0

Hence

1 5

, .

4 4

w = But

5

4

w = is impossible since

one dimension of original forest is 1 mi. Thus

the width of the strip should be

1

4

mi.

7. Let w = width (in meters) of pavement. The

remaining plot for flowers has dimensions

8 2w by 4 2w.

w

w

w w

4

8 2w

8

4 2w

Thus

(8 2w)(4 2w) = 12

2

32 24 4 12 w w + =

2

4 24 20 0 w w + =

2

6 5 0 w w + =

(w 1)(w 5) = 0

Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

36

Hence w = 1, 5. But w = 5 is impossible since

one dimension of the original plot is 4 m. Thus

the width of the pavement should be 1 m.

8. Since diameter of circular end is 140 mm, the

radius is 70 mm. Area of circular end is

2 2

(radius) (70) . = Area of square end is

2

. x

Equating areas, we have

2 2

(70) . x =

Thus

2

(70) 70 . x = = Since x must be

positive, 70 124 x = mm.

9. Let q = number of tons for $560,000 profit.

Profit = Total Revenue Total Cost

560,000 134 (82 120,000)

560,000 52 120,000

680,000 52

680,000

52

13,076.9 13,077 tons.

q q

q

q

q

q

= +

=

=

=

10. Let q = required number of units.

Profit = Total Revenue Total Cost

150,000 50 (25 500,000)

150,000 25 500,000

650,000 25 , from which

26,000

q q

q

q

q

= +

=

=

=

11. Let x = amount at 6% and

20,000 x = amount at

1

7 %.

2

x(0.06) + (20,000 x)(0.075) = 1440

0.015x + 1500 = 1440

0.015x = 60

x = 4000, so 20,000 x = 16,000. Thus the

investment should be $4000 at 6% and $16,000

at

1

7 %.

2

12. Let x = amount at 6% and

20,000 x = amount at 7%.

x(0.06) + (20,000 x)(0.07) = 20,000(0.0675)

0.01x + 1400 = 1350

0.01x = 50, so x = 5000

The investment consisted of $5000 at 6% and

$15,000 at 7%.

13. Let p = selling price. Then profit = 0.2p.

selling price = cost + profit

p = 3.40 + 0.2p

0.8p = 3.40

3.40

$4.25

0.8

p = =

14. Following the procedure in Example 6 we obtain

the total value at the end of the second year to be

2

1,000,000(1 ) . r +

So at the end of the third year, the accumulated

amount will be

2

1,000,000(1 ) r + plus the

interest on this, which is

2

1,000,000(1 ) . r r +

Thus the total value at the end of the third year

will be

2 2

3

1,000,000(1 ) 1,000,000(1 )

1,000,000(1 ) .

r r r

r

+ + +

= +

This must equal $1,125,800.

3

3

1,000,000(1 ) 1,125,800

1,125,800

(1 ) 1.1258

1,000,000

1 1.04029

0.04029

r

r

r

r

+ =

+ = =

+

Thus r 0.04029 4%.

15. Following the procedure in Example 6 we obtain

2

2

3,000,000(1 ) 3,245,000

649

(1 )

600

649

1

600

649

1

600

2.04 or 0.04

r

r

r

r

r

+ =

+ =

+ =

=

We choose 0.04 4%. r =

16. Total revenue = variable cost + fixed cost

100 2 1200 q q = +

50 600 q q = +

2

2500 1200 360,000 q q q = + +

2

0 1300 360,000 q q = +

0 = (q 400)(q 900)

q = 400 or q = 900

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 1.1

37

17. Let n = number of room applications sent out.

0.95n = 76

76

80

0.95

n = =

18. Let n = number of people polled.

0.20p = 700

700

3500

0.20

p = =

19. Let s = monthly salary of deputy sheriff.

0.30s = 200

200

0.30

s =

200

Yearly salary 12 12 $8000

0.30

s

= = =

20. Yearly salary before strike = (7.50)(8)(260)

= $15,600

Lost wages = (7.50)(8)(46) = $2760

Let P be the required percentage increase (as a

decimal).

P(15,600) = 2760

2760

0.177 17.7%

15,600

P = =

21. Let q = number of cartridges sold to break even.

total revenue = total cost

21.95 14.92 8500

7.03 8500

1209.10

q q

q

q

= +

=

1209 cartridges must be sold to approximately

break even.

22. Let n = number of shares of stock to be bought.

total investment = 4000 + 15n

total yield (goal) 6% of total investment

0.06(4000 15 ) n

=

= +

total yield bond yield stock yield

0.07(4000) 0.60n

= +

= +

Thus,

0.06(4000 15 ) 0.07(4000) 0.60

240 0.9 280 0.6

0.3 40

1

133

3

n n

n n

n

n

+ = +

+ = +

=

=

23. Let v = total annual vision-care expenses (in

dollars) covered by program. Then

35 + 0.80(v 35) = 100

0.80v + 7 = 100

0.80v = 93

v = $116.25

24. a. 0.031c

b. c 0.031c = 600,000,000

0.969c = 600,000,000

619,195,046 c

Approximately 619,195,046 bars will have

to be made.

25. Revenue = (number of units sold)(price per unit)

Thus

80

400

4

q

q

=

2

1600 80q q =

2

80 1600 0 q q + =

2

( 40) 0 q =

q = 40 units

26. If I = interest, P = principal, r = rate, and

t = time, then I = Prt. To triple an investment of

P at the end of t years, the interest earned during

that time must equal 2P. Thus

2P = P(0.045)t

2 = 0.045t

2

44.4 years

0.045

t =

27. Let q = required number of units. We equate

incomes under both proposals.

2000 + 0.50q = 25,000

0.50q = 23,000

q = 46,000 units

28. Let w = width of strip. The original area is

80(120) and the new area is (120 + w)(80 + w).

w

w

120

80

80 + w

120 + w

Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

38

Thus

(120 + w)(80 + w) = 2(80)(120)

2

9600 200 19,200 w w + + =

2

200 9600 0 w w + =

(w + 240)(w 40) = 0

w = 240 or w = 40

We choose w = 40 ft.

29. Let n = number of $20 increases. Then at the

rental charge of 400 + 20n dollars per unit, the

number of units that can be rented is 50 2n.

The total of all monthly rents is

(400 + 20n)(50 2n), which must equal 20,240.

20,240 = (400 + 20n)(50 2n)

2

20,240 20,000 200 40 n n = +

2

40 200 240 0 n n + =

2

5 6 0 n n + =

(n 2)(n 3) = 0

n = 2, 3

Thus the rent should be either

$400 + 2($20) = $440 or $400 + 3($20) = $460.

30. Let x = original value of the blue-chip

investment, then 3,100,000 x is the original

value of the glamour stocks. Then the current

value of the blue-chip stock is

1

,

10

x x + or

11

.

10

x

For the glamour stocks the current value is

1

(3,100,000 ) (3,100,000 ),

10

x x which

simplifies to

9

(3,100,000 ).

10

x

Thus for the current value of the portfolio,

11 9

(3,100,000 ) 3,240,000

10 10

x x + =

11x + 27,900,000 9x = 32,400,000

2x = 4,500,000

x = 2,250,000

Thus the current value of the blue chip

investment is

11

(2,250,000)

10

or $2,475,000.

31.

2

10,000 800 7 p p =

2

7 800 10,000 0 p p + =

800 640,000 280,000

14

p

=

800 360,000 800 600

14 14

= =

For p > 50 we choose

800 600

$100.

14

p

+

= =

32. Let p be the percentage increase in market value.

Then

(1 )

1.1

(1.2)

P p P

E E

+

=

1

1.1

1.2

p +

=

1.32 = 1 + p

p = 0.32 = 32%

33. To have supply = demand,

2 10 200 3

5 210

42

p p

p

p

=

=

=

34.

2 2

2

2 3 20

3 3 20 0

p p p

p p

=

=

a = 3, b = 3, c = 20

2

2

4

2

( 3) ( 3) 4(3)( 20)

2(3)

3 249

6

b b ac

p

a

=

=

=

p 3.130 or p 2.130

The equilibrium price is p 3.13.

35. Let w = width (in ft) of enclosed area. Then

length of enclosed area is

300 w w = 300 2w.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 1.1

39

w w

150

PLANT

AREA

300 2w

Thus

w(300 2w) = 11,200

2w(150 w) = 11,200

w(150 w) = 5600

2

0 150 5600 w w = +

0 = (w 80)(w 70)

Hence w = 80, 70. If w = 70, then length is

300 2w = 300 2(70) = 160. Since the

building has length of only 150 ft, we reject w =

70. If

w = 80, then length is

300 2w = 300 2(80) = 140. Thus the

dimensions are 80 ft by 140 ft.

36. Let s = length in inches of side of original

square.

s s 6

s 6

s

3 3

3

3 3

3 3

3

Considering the volume of the box, we have

(length)(width)(height) = volume

(s 4)(s 4)(2) = 50

2

( 4) 25 s =

4 25 5 s = =

s = 4 5

Hence s = 1, 9. We reject s = 1 and choose

s = 9. The dimensions are 9 in. by 9 in.

37. Original volume = (10)(5)(2) = 100 cm

3

Volume cut from bar = 0.28(100) = 28 cm

3

Volume of new bar = 100 28 = 72 cm

3

Let x = number of centimeters that the length

and width are each reduced. Then

(10 x)(5 x)2 = 72

(10 x)(5 x) = 36

2

15 50 36 x x + =

2

15 14 0 x x + =

(x 1)(x 14) = 0

x = 1 or 14

Because of the length and width of the original

bar, we reject x = 14 and choose x = 1. The new

bar has length 10 x = 10 1 = 9 cm and width

is 5 x = 5 1 = 4 cm.

38. Volume of old style candy

2 2

3

(7.1) (2.1) (2) (2.1)

97.461 mm

=

=

Let r = inner radius (in millimeters) of new style

candy. Considering the volume of the new style

candy, we have

2 2

2

2

(7.1) (2.1) (2.1) 0.78(97.461 )

29.84142 2.1

14.2102

3.7696

r

r

r

r

=

=

=

Since r is a radius, we choose r = 3.77 mm.

39. Let x = amount of loan. Then the amount

actually received is x 0.16x. Hence,

0.16 195,000

0.84 195,000

232,142.86

x x

x

x

=

=

To the nearest thousand, the loan amount is

$232,000. In the general case, the amount

received from a loan of L with a compensating

balance of p% is .

100

p

L L

100

100

100

100

100

p

L L E

p

L E

E

L

p

=

=

=

40. Let n = number of machines sold over 600. Then

the commission on each of 600 + n machines is

40 + 0.04n. Equating total commissions to

30,800 we obtain

(600 + n)(40 + 0.04n) = 30,800

2

24,000 24 40 0.04 30,800 n n n + + + =

2

0.02 32 3400 0 n n + =

32 1024 272 32 36

0.04 0.04

n

+

= =

Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

40

We choose

32 36

100.

0.04

n

+

= = Thus the

number of machines that must be sold is

600 + 100 = 700.

41. Let n = number of acres sold. Then n + 20 acres

were originally purchased at a cost of

7200

20 n +

each. The price of each acre sold was

7200

30 .

20 n

+

+

Since the revenue from selling n

acres is $7200 (the original cost of the parcel),

we have

7200

30 7200

20

n

n

+ =

+

30 600 7200

7200

20

n

n

n

+ +

=

+

n(30n + 600 + 7200) = 7200(n + 20)

2

30 7800 7200 144,000 n n n + = +

2

30 600 144,000 0 n n + =

2

20 4800 0 n n + =

(n + 80)(n 60) = 0

n = 60 acres (since n > 0), so 60 acres were sold.

42. Let q = number of units of product sold last year

and q + 2000 = the number sold this year. Then

the revenue last year was 3q and this year it is

3.5(q + 2000). By the definition of margin of

profit, it follows that

7140 4500

0.02

3.5( 2000) 3 q q

= +

+

2040 1500

0.02

2000 q q

= +

+

2040q = 1500(q + 2000) + 0.02q(q + 2000)

2

2040 1500 3,000,000 0.02 40 q q q q = + + +

2

0 0.02 500 3,000,000 q q = +

500 250,000 240,000

0.04

q

=

500 10,000

0.04

=

500 100

0.04

=

= 10,000 or 15,000

So that the margin of profit this year is not

greater than 0.15, we choose q = 15,000. Thus

15,000 units were sold last year and 17,000 this

year.

43. Let q = number of units of B and

q + 25 = number of units of A produced.

Each unit of B costs

1000

,

q

and each unit of A

costs

1500

.

25 q +

Therefore,

1500 1000

2

25 q q

= +

+

1500q = 1000(q + 25) + 2(q)(q + 25)

2

0 2 450 25,000 q q = +

2

0 225 12,500 q q = +

0 = (q 100)(q 125)

q = 100 or q = 125

If q = 100, then q + 25 = 125; if q = 125,

q + 25 = 150. Thus the company produces either

125 units of A and 100 units of B, or 150 units of

A and 125 units of B.

Principles in Practice 1.2

1. 200 + 0.8S 4500

0.8S 4300

S 5375

He must sell at least 5375 products per month.

2. Since

1 2 3

0, 0, 0, x x x and

4

0, x we

have the inequalities

4

150 0 x

4

3 210 0 x

4

60 0 x +

4

0 x

Problems 1.2

1. 3x > 12

12

3

x >

x > 4

(4, )

4

2. 4x < 2

2

4

x <

1

2

x <

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 1.2

41

1

,

2

1

2

3. 5 11 9

5 20

4

x

x

x

(, 4]

4

4. 5 0

0

5

0

x

x

x

(, 0]

0

5. 4x 2

2

4

x

1

2

x

1

,

2

1

2

6. 2y + 1 > 0

2y > 1

1

2

y >

1

,

2

1

2

7. 5 7s > 3

7s > 2

2

7

s <

2

,

7

2

7

8. 4s 1 < 5

4s < 4

s < 1

(, 1)

1

9. 3 < 2y + 3

0 < 2y

0 < y

y > 0

(0, )

0

10. 4 3 2

1 2

1

2

1

2

y

y

y

y

1

,

2

1

2

11. 5 3 2

2

2

x x

x

x

+ +

[2, )

2

12. 3 8(2 x)

3 16 8x

8x 19

19

8

x

19

,

8

19

8

13. 3(2 3x) > 4(1 4x)

6 9x > 4 16x

7x > 2

2

7

x >

2

,

7

2

7

Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

42

14. 8(x + 1) + 1 < 3(2x) + 1

8x + 9 < 6x + 1

2x < 8

x < 4

(, 4)

4

15. 2(4 2) 4(2 1)

8 4 8 4

4 4, which is false for all .

x x

x x

x

> +

> +

>

Thus the solution set is .

16. 4 ( 3) 3(3 )

1 9 3

2 8

4

x x

x x

x

x

+

(, 4]

4

17. 2 3 x x + <

2 3 2 x <

3 2

2

x

<

3 2

,

2

3 2

2

18. 2( 2) 8(3 ) x x + >

2( 2) 2 2(3 ) x x + >

x + 2 > 2(3 x)

x + 2 > 6 2x

3x > 4

4

3

x >

4

,

3

4

3

19.

5

40

6

x <

5x < 240

x < 48

(, 48)

48

20.

2

6

3

x >

x > 9

x < 9

(, 9)

9

21.

9 1

2 1

4

y

y

+

9y + 1 8y 4

y 5

(, 5]

5

22.

3 2 1

3 4

12 8 3

12 11

11

12

y

y

y

y

11

,

12

11

12

23. 3 1 3( 2) 1

3 1 3 7

x x

x x

+ +

+ +

1 7, which is true for all x. The solution is

< x < .

(, )

24. 0x 0

0 0, which is true for all x. The solution is

< x < .

(, )

25.

1 3 7

2 3

3(1 ) 2(3 7)

3 3 6 14

9 17

17

9

t t

t t

t t

t

t

<

<

<

<

>

17

,

9

17

9

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 1.2

43

26.

3(2 2) 6 3

2 5 10

t t t

> +

15(2t 2) > 2(6t 3) + t

30t 30 > 13t 6

17t > 24

24

7

t >

24

,

7

24

17

27.

1

2 13 7

3

6 39 21

5 60

12

x x

x x

x

x

+

+

(12, )

12

28.

1 5

3

3 2

18 2 15

3 2

2

3

x x

x x

x

x

2

,

3

2

3

29.

2 5

3 6

r r <

4r < 5r

0 < r

r > 0

(0, )

0

30.

7 8

4 3

t t >

21t > 32t

53t > 0

t > 0

(0, )

0

31.

2 3 5

y y y

y + > +

15y + 10y > 30y + 6y

25y > 36y

0 > 11y

0 > y

y < 0

(, 0)

0

32.

2 0.01

9 0.1

0.2

x

x

1.8 0.02x 2 0.01x

0.01x 0.2

x 20

[20, )

20

33. 0.1(0.03x + 4) 0.02x + 0.434

0.003x + 0.4 0.02x + 0.434

0.017x 0.034

x 2

(, 2]

2

34.

3 1 5( 1)

3 3

3 1 5 5

6 2

3

3

y y

y y

y

y

y

+

<

> +

>

>

<

(, 3)

3

35. 12(50) < S < 12(150)

600 < S < 1800

36.

1

2 4

2

x

37. The measures of the acute angles of a right

triangle sum to 90. If x is the measure of one

acute angle, the other angle has measure 90 x.

x < 3(90 x) + 10

x < 270 3x + 10

4x < 280

x < 70

The measure of the angle is less than 70.

Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

44

38. Let d be the number of disks. The stereo plus

d disks will cost 219 + 18.95d.

219 + 18.95d 360

18.95d 141

141

7.44

18.95

d

The student can buy at most 7 disks.

Problems 1.3

1. Let q = number of units sold.

Profit > 0

Total revenue Total cost > 0

20q (15q + 600,000) > 0

5q 600,000 > 0

5q > 600,000

q > 120,000

Thus at least 120,001 units must be sold.

2. Let q = number of units sold.

Total revenue Total cost = Profit

We want Profit > 0.

7.40q [(2.50 + 4)q + 5000] > 0

0.9q 5000 > 0

0.9q > 5000

5000 5

5555

0.9 9

q > =

Thus at least 5556 units must be sold.

3. Let x = number of miles driven per year.

If the auto is leased, the annual cost is

12(420) + 0.06x.

If the auto is purchased, the annual cost is

4700 + 0.08x. We want Rental cost Purchase cost.

12(420) + 0.06x 4700 + 0.08x

5040 + 0.06x 4700 + 0.08x

340 0.02x

17,000 x

The number of miles driven per year must be at least 17,000.

4. Let N = required number of shirts. Then

Total revenue = 3.5N and

Total cost = 1.3N + 0.4N + 6500.

Profit 0

3.5 (1.3 0.4 6500) 0

1.8 6500 0

1.8 6500

3611.1

N N N

N

N

N

>

+ + >

>

>

>

At least 3612 shirts must be sold.

5. Let q be the number of magazines printed. Then the cost of publication is 0.55q. The number of magazines sold is

0.90q. The revenue from dealers is (0.60)(0.90q). If fewer than 30,000 magazines are sold, the only revenue is

from the sales to dealers, while if more than 30,000 are sold, there are advertising revenues of

0.10(0.60)(0.90q 30,000). Thus,

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 1.3

45

0.6(0.9) if 0.9 30,000

Revenue

0.6(0.9) 0.1(0.6)(0.9 30,000) if 0.9 30,000

0.54 33,333

0.594 1800 33,333

q q

q q q

q q

q q

=

+ >

=

>

Profit Revenue Cost

0.54 0.55 33,333

0.594 1800 0.55 33,333

0.01 33,333

0.044 1800 33,333

q q q

q q q

q q

q q

=

=

>

=

>

Clearly, the profit is negative if fewer than 33,334 magazines are sold.

0.044 1800 0

0.044 1800

40,910

q

q

q

Thus, at least 40,910 magazines must be printed in order to avoid a loss.

6. Let q = number of clocks produced during regular work week, so 11,000 q = number produced in overtime.

Then

2q + 3(11,000 q) 25,000

q + 33,000 25,000

8000 q

At least 8000 clocks must be produced during the regular workweek.

7. Let x = amount at

3

6 %

4

and 30,000 x = amount at 5%. Then

interest at

3

6 %

4

+ interest at 5% interest at

1

6 %

2

x(0.0675) + (30,000 x)(0.05) (0.065)(30,000)

0.0175x + 1500 1950

0.0175x 450

x 25,714.29

Thus at least $25,714.29 must be invested at

3

6 %.

4

8. Let L be current liabilities. Then

current assets

Current ratio

current liabilities

=

570,000

3.8

L

=

3.8L = 570,000

L = $150,000

Let x = amount of money they can borrow, where x 0.

570,000

2.6

150,000

x

x

+

+

570,000 + x 390,000 + 2.6x

180,000 1.6x

112,500 x

Thus current liabilities are $150,000 and the maximum amount they can borrow is $112,500.

Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

46

9. Let q be the number of units sold this month at

$4.00 each. Then 2500 q will be sold at $4.50

each. Then

Total revenue 10,750

4q + 4.5(2500 q) 10,750

0.5q + 11,250 10,750

500 0.5q

1000 q

The maximum number of units that can be sold

this month is 1000.

10. Revenue = (no. of units)(price per unit)

100

1 5000 q

q

+ >

100 + q > 5000

q > 4900

At least 4901 units must be sold.

11. For t < 40, we want

income on hourly basis

> income on per-job basis

9 320 3(40 )

9 440 3

12 440

36.7 hr

t t

t t

t

t

> +

>

>

>

12. Let s = yearly sales. With the first method, the

salary is 35,000 + 0.03s, and with the second

method it is 0.05s.

35,000 0.03 0.05

35,000 0.02

1,750,000

s s

s

s

+ >

>

>

The first method is better for yearly sales less

than $1,750,000.

13. Let x = accounts receivable. Then

Acid test ratio =

450,000

398,000

x +

1.3

450,000

398,000

x +

517,400 450,000 + x

67,400 x

The company must have at least $67,400 in

accounts receivable.

Principles in Practice 1.4

1. 22 0.3 w

Problems 1.4

1. 13 13 =

2.

1

1 1

2

2 2

= =

3. 8 2 6 6 = =

4.

4 6 10

5 5

2 2

= = =

5.

7

2 7 7

2

= =

6. |3 5| |5 3| = |2| |2| = 2 2 = 0

7. 4 x < , 4 < x < 4

8. 10, x < 10 < x < 10

9. Because 2 5 0 < ,

( )

2 5 2 5 5 2 = = .

10. Because 5 2 0, > 5 2 5 2. =

11. a. 7 3 x <

b. 2 3 x <

c. 7 5 x

d. 7 4 x =

e. 4 2 x + <

f. 3 x <

g. 6 x >

h. 105 3 x <

i. 850 100 x <

12. |f(x) L| <

13.

1 2

9 p p

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 1.4

47

14. 2 x

2 x 2

2 x + 2

15. 7 x =

x = 7

16. 2 x =

x = 2 or 2

x = 2

17. 7

5

7

5

35

x

x

x

=

=

=

18.

5

12

5

12

5

12

x

x

x

=

=

=

19. 5 8 x =

x 5 = 8

x = 5 8

x = 13 or x = 3

20. 4 3 6 x + =

4 + 3x = 6

3x = 4 6

3x = 10 or 2

x =

10

3

or x =

2

3

21. 5 2 0 x =

5x 2 = 0

2

5

x =

22. 7 3 x x + =

Here we must have x 0.

7x + 3 = x or (7x + 3) = x

6x = 3 7x 3 = x

1

0

2

x = <

3

0

8

x = <

There is no solution.

23. 7 4 5 x =

7 4x = 5

4x = 7 5

4x = 2 or 12

1

2

x = or x = 3

24. 5 3 2

5 3 2

3 5 2

3 3 or 7

7

1 or

3

x

x

x

x

x x

=

=

=

=

= =

25. x M <

M < x < M

(M, M)

Note that M > 0 is required.

26. 3 x <

3 x <

3 < x < 3

(3, 3)

27. 2

4

x

>

2

4

x

< or 2

4

x

>

x < 8 or x > 8, so the solution is

(, 8) (8, ).

28.

1

3 2

x

>

1

3 2

x

< or

1

3 2

x

>

3

2

x < or

3

2

x > , so the solution is

3 3

, , .

2 2

29. 9 5

5 9 5

14 4

x

x

x

+ <

< + <

< <

(14, 4)

30. |2x 17| < 4

Because 4 < 0, the solution set is .

Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

48

31.

1 1

2 2

x >

1 1

2 2

x < or

1 1

2 2

x >

x < 0 or x > 1

(, 0) (1, )

32. 1 3 2 x >

1 3x > 2 or 1 3x < 2

3x > 1 or 3x < 3

1

3

x < or x > 1

The solution is

1

, (1, ).

3

33. 5 8 1 x

1 5 8x 1

6 8x 4

3

4

x

1

2

, which may be rewritten as

1

2

x

3

4

.

The solution is

1 3

, .

2 4

34. 4 1 0 x is true for all x because 0 a for all

a. Thus < x < , or (,).

35.

3 8

4

2

x

3 8

4

2

x

or

3 8

4

2

x

3x 8 8 or 3x 8 8

3x 0 or 3x 16

x 0 or

16

3

x

The solution is

16

( , 0] ,

3

.

36.

7

5

3

7

5 5

3

15 7 15

8 22

x

x

x

x

[8, 22]

37. |d 35.2 m| 20 cm or |d 35.2| 0.20

38. Let

1

T and

2

T be the temperatures of the two

chemicals.

1 2

5 10 T T

39. x h >

Either x < h, or x > h. Thus either

x < h or x > + h, so the solution is

(, h) ( + h, ).

40. 0.01 0.005 x

Problems 1.5

1. The bounds of summation are 12 and 17; the

index of summation is t.

2. The bounds of summation are 3 and 450; the

index of summation is m.

3.

7

1

6

6(1) 6(2) 6(3) 6(4) 6(5) 6(6) 6(7)

6 12 18 24 30 36 42

168

i

i

=

= + + + + + +

= + + + + + +

=

4.

4

0

10 10(0) 10(1) 10(2) 10(3) 10(4)

0 10 20 30 40

100

p

p

=

= + + + +

= + + + +

=

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 1.5

49

5.

9

3

(10 16) [10(3) 16] [10(4) 16] [10(5) 16] [10(6) 16] [10(7) 16] [10(8) 16] [10(9) 16]

46 56 66 76 86 96 106

532

k

k

=

+ = + + + + + + + + + + + + +

= + + + + + +

=

6.

11

7

(2 3) [2(7) 3] [2(8) 3] [2(9) 3] [2(10) 3] [2(11) 3]

11 13 15 17 19

75

n

n

=

= + + + +

= + + + +

=

7.

60

36

36 37 38 39 60

i

i

=

+ + + + + =

8.

5

2

1

1 4 9 16 25

k

k

=

+ + + + =

9.

8

3 4 5 6 7 8

3

5 5 5 5 5 5 5

i

i=

+ + + + + =

10.

16

1

11 15 19 23 71 (7 4)

i

i

=

+ + + + + = +

11. 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64 + 128 + 256 =

8

1

2

i

i=

12. 10 + 100 + 1000 +

8

1

100,000,000 10

j

j=

+ =

13.

43 43

1 1

10 10 1 10(43) 430

k k = =

= = =

14.

135 135 101

35 35 1

2 2 1 2 1 2(101) 202

k k i = = =

= = = =

15.

1 1

1 1 1

5 5 1 5 ( ) 5

n n

k k

n

n n n

= =

= = =

16.

200 200 200

1 1 1

( 100) 100 1

k k k

k k

= = =

=

200(201)

100(200) 20,100 20,000

2

= = = 100

Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

50

17.

100 50

51 1

50 50

1 1

10 10 ( 50)

10 (10)(50) 1

k i

i i

k i

i

= =

= =

= +

= +

50(51)

10 500(50) 12,750 25,000

2

= + = +

= 37,750

18.

2 2

1 1

2

1 1

( 1)(2 1)

1 6

(2 1)

6

n n

k k

n n

k k

n n

n n n n

n

n n

= =

=

+ +

+ +

=

+

+

=

19.

20 20 20

2 2

1 1 1

(5 3 ) 5 3

k k k

k k k k

= = =

+ = +

20(21)(41) 20(21)

5 3

6 2

= +

= 5(2870) + 3(210) = 14,980

20.

2 100 100 100

2

1 1 1

3 200 3 200

101 101 101

k k k

k k

k k

= = =

=

3 100(101)(201) 200 100 101

101 6 101 2

=

= 10,050 10,000 = 50

21.

100 50 50

2 2 2

51 1 1

( 50) ( 100 2500)

k i i

k i i i

= = =

= + = + +

50 50 50

2

1 1 1

100 2500 1

i i i

i i

= = =

= + +

50(51)(101) 50(51)

100 2500(50)

6 2

= + +

= 42,925 + 127,500 + 125,000 = 295,425

22.

50 50

2 2

1 1

( 50) ( 100 2500)

k k

k k k

= =

+ = + +

50 50 50

2

1 1 1

100 2500 1

k k k

k k

= = =

= + +

50(51)(101) 50(51)

100 2500(50)

6 2

= + +

= 42,925 + 127,500 + 125,000 = 295,425

23.

2

10 10

2

1 1

2 2 1 1

4 4

10 10 5 25

k k

k

k

= =

=

10 10

2

1 1

1 1 1

(4) 1

5 5 25

k k

k

= =

=

4 1 10(11)(21) 1

(10) 8 385

5 125 6 125

= =

77 123 23

8 4

25 25 25

= = =

24.

2

100

1

2 2

4

100 100

k

k

=

100

2

1

1 1

4

50 2500

k

k

=

=

100 100

2

1 1

1 1 1

(4) 1

50 50 2500

k k

k

= =

=

2 1 100(101)(201)

(100)

25 125,000 6

=

1 6767

8 338,350 8

125,000 2500

= =

13,233 733

5

2500 2500

= =

25.

2

1

2

2

1

2

2

1 1

3

2

3 3

5

3 9

5

3 3 9

(5) 1

15 27 ( 1)(2 1)

( )

6

9( 1)(2 1)

15

2

n

k

n

k

n n

k k

k

n n

k

n

n

k

n n

n

n n n

n

n

n

n n

n

=

=

= =

=

=

+ +

=

+ +

=

26.

2

2

1 1

1

( 1)(2 1) ( 1)(2 1)

n n

k k

k

k

n n n n

= =

=

+ + + +

1 ( 1)(2 1)

( 1)(2 1) 6 6

n n n n

n n

+ +

= =

+ +

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 1 Review

51

Chapter 1 Review Problems

1. 5 2 2( 7)

5 2 2 14

3 12

4

x x

x x

x

x

[4, )

2. 2x (7 + x) x

2x 7 x x

7 0, which is true for all x, so < x < , or

(, ).

3. (5x + 2) < (2x + 4)

5x 2 < 2x 4

3x < 2

2

3

x >

2

,

3

4. 2(x + 6) > x + 4

2x 12 > x + 4

3x > 16

16

3

x <

16

,

3

5.

2

3 (1 ) 3(2 ) 3 p p p p > +

2 2

3 3 6 3 3 p p p p > +

0 > 6, which is false for all x. The solution set is

.

6.

7

3 5 9

3

15 7 9

7 6

6

7

q

q

q

q

<

<

<

>

6

,

7

7.

5 1

2

3 2

x +

2(x + 5) 3(1) 6(2)

2x + 10 3 12

2x 5

5

2

x

5

,

2

8.

3 4 5

20 15 12

5 12

0 7

0

x x x

x x x

x x

x

x

>

>

>

>

>

(, 0)

9.

1 1

3 (3 2 )

4 8

s s +

2s 24 3 + 2s

0 27, which is true for all s. Thus

< s < , or (,).

10.

1 1

( 2)

3 4

t +

4(t + 2) 3t + 48

4t + 8 3t + 48

t 40

[40, )

11. 3 2 7 x =

3 2x = 7 or 3 2x = 7

2x = 4 or 2x = 10

x = 2 or x = 5

12.

5 6

0

13

x

=

5 6

0

13

x

=

5x 6 = 0

6

5

x =

13. |2z 3| < 5

5 < 2z 3 < 5

2 < 2z < 8

1 < z < 4

(1, 4)

Chapter 1: Applications and More Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

52

14.

2

4 5

3

x < +

2

5 4

3

x + < or

2

5 4

3

x + >

2

9

3

x < or

2

1

3

x >

27

2

x < or

3

2

x >

The solution is

27 3

, , .

2 2

15. 3 2 4 x

3 2x 4 or 3 2x 4

2x 1 or 2x 7

1

2

x or

7

2

x

The solution is

1 7

, , .

2 2

16.

5 5

3 3 2

1 1

5 5 5 5

3 2

1 1 1 1

2 2

( 2) ( 6 12 8)

6 12 8 1

5 (6) 5(6)(11) 5(6)

6 12 8(5)

4 6 2

225 330 180 40

775

i i

i i i i

i i i i

i i i

= =

= = = =

+ = + + +

= + + +

= + + +

= + + +

=

17.

7 7 2

3 3 3

3 1 1

2 2 2 2

7 (8) 2 (3)

4 4

784 9

775

i i i

i i i

= = =

=

=

=

=

This uses Equation (1.9). By Equation (1.8),

7 5

3 3

3 1

( 2) .

i i

i i

= =

= +

18. Let p = selling price, c = cost. Then

p 0.40p = c

0.6p = c

5 2

0.6 3 3

c c

p c c

= = = +

Thus the profit is

2

,

3

or

2

66 %,

3

of the cost.

19. Let x be the number of issues with a decline, and

x + 48 be the number of issues with an increase.

Then

x + (x + 48) = 1132

2x = 1084

x = 542

20. Let x = purchase amount excluding tax.

0.065 3039.29

1.065 3039.29

2853.79

x x

x

x

+ =

=

=

Thus tax is 3039.29 2853.79 = $185.50.

21. Let q units be produced at A and 10,000 q at

B.

Cost at A + Cost at B 117,000

[5q + 30,000] + [5.50(10,000 q) + 35,000]

117,000

0.5q + 120,000 117,000

0.5q 3000

q 6000

Thus at least 6000 units must be produced at

plant A.

22. Total volume of old tanks

2 2

3

(10) (25) (20) (25)

2500 10,000

12,500 ft

= +

= +

=

Let r be the radius (in feet) of the new tank.

Then

3

3

3

4

12,500

3

9375

9375 21.0858

r

r

r

=

=

=

The radius is approximately 21.0858 feet.

23. Let c = operating costs

0.90

236,460

c

<

c < $212,814

Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 1

1. Here m = 120 and

1

2 (60) 150.

2

M = = For LP,

r = 2, so the first t minutes take up

2

t

of the 120

available minutes. For SP, r = 1, so the

remaining 150 t minutes take up

150

1

t

of the

120 available.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 1

53

150

120

2 1

300 2 240

60

60

t t

t t

t

t

+ =

+ =

=

=

Switch after 1 hour.

2. Here m = 120 and

1

2 (60) 150.

2

M = = For EP,

r = 3, so the first t minutes will take up

3

t

of the

120 available minutes. For SP, r = 1, so the

remaining 150 t minutes take up

150

1

t

of the

120 available.

150

120

3 1

450 3 360

2 90

45

t t

t t

t

t

+ =

+ =

=

=

Switch after 45 minutes.

3. Use the reasoning in Exercise 1, with M

unknown and m = 120.

120

2 1

2 2 240

240 2

2 240

t M t

t M t

t M

t M

+ =

+ =

=

=

The switch should be made after

2M 240 minutes.

4. Use the reasoning in Exercise 2, with M

unknown and m = 120.

120

3 1

3 3 360

2 360 3

1

(3 360)

2

t M t

t M t

t M

t M

+ =

+ =

=

=

The switch should be made after

1

(3 360)

2

M minutes.

5.

x =600

x =310

6. Both equations represent audio being written

onto 74-minute CDs. In the first equation, 18

hours (1080 minutes) are being written to a CD

using a combination of 12-to-1 and 20-to-1

compression ratios. Here, x gives the maximum

amount of audio (600 minutes or 10 hours) that

can be written using the 12-to-1 compression

ratio. In the second equation, 26.5 hours (1590

minutes) is being written using 15-to-1 and 24-

to-1 compression ratios. A maximum of 310

minutes can be written at 15-to-1.

7. The first t minutes use

t

R

of the m available

minutes, the remaining M t minutes use

M t

r

of the m available.

1 1

( )

t M t

m

R r

t M t

m

R r r

M

t m

R r r

r R mr M

t

rR r

R mr M

t

r R

+ =

+ =

=

=

54

Chapter 2

Principles in Practice 2.1

1. a. The formula for the area of a circle is

2

, r

where r is the radius.

2

( ) a r r =

b. The domain of a(r) is all real numbers.

c. Since a radius cannot be negative or zero,

the domain for the function, in context, is

r > 0.

2. a. The formula relating distance, time, and

speed is d = rt where d is the distance, r is

the speed, and t is the time. This can also be

written as .

d

t

r

= When d = 300, we have

300

( ) t r

r

= .

b. The domain of t(r) is all real numbers

except 0.

c. Since speed is not negative, the domain for

the function, in context, is r > 0.

d. Replacing r by x:

300

( ) . t x

x

=

Replacing r by :

2

x

2

300 600

.

2

x

x

t

x

= =

Replacing r by :

4

x

4

300 1200

.

4

x

x

t

x

= =

e. When the speed is reduced (divided) by a

constant, the time is scaled (multiplied) by

the same constant;

300

.

r c

t

c r

=

3. a. If the price is $18.50 per large pizza,

p = 18.5.

18.5 26

40

q

=

7.5

40

q

=

300 = q

At a price of $18.50 per large pizza, 300

pizzas are sold each week.

b. If 200 large pizzas are being sold each

week, q = 200.

200

26

40

p =

p = 26 5

p = 21

The price is $21 per pizza if 200 large

pizzas are being sold each week.

c. To double the number of large pizzas sold,

use q = 400.

400

26

40

p =

p = 26 10

p = 16

To sell 400 large pizzas each week, the price

should be $16 per pizza.

Problems 2.1

1. The functions are not equal because f(x) 0 for

all values of x, while g(x) can be less than 0. For

example,

2

( 2) ( 2) 4 2 f = = = and

g(2) = 2, thus f(2) g(2).

2. The functions are different because they have

different domains. The domain of G(x) is [1, )

(all real numbers 1) because you can only

take the square root of a non-negative number,

while the domain of H(x) is all real numbers.

3. The functions are not equal because they have

different domains. h(x) is defined for all non-

zero real numbers, while k(x) is defined for all

real numbers.

4. The functions are equal. For x = 3 we have

f(3) = 2 and g(3) = 3 1 = 2, hence f(3) = g(3).

For x 3, we have

2

4 3 ( 3)( 1)

( ) 1.

3 3

x x x x

f x x

x x

+

= = =

Note that we can cancel the x 3 because we are

assuming x 3 and so x 3 0. Thus for

x 3 f(x) = x 1 = g(x).

f(x) = g(x) for all real numbers and they have the

same domains, thus the functions are equal.

5. The denominator is zero when x = 0. Any other

real number can be used for x.

Answer: all real numbers except 0

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.1

55

6. Any real number can be used for x.

Answer: all real numbers

7. For 3 x to be real, x 3 0, so x 3.

Answer: all real numbers 3

8. For 1 z to be real, z 1 0, so z 1. We

exclude values of z for which 1 0, z = so

z 1 = 0, thus z = 1.

Answer: all real numbers > 1

9. Any real number can be used for z.

Answer: all real numbers

10. We exclude values of x for which

x + 8 = 0

x = 8

Answer: all real numbers except 8

11. We exclude values of x where

2x + 7 = 0

2x = 7

7

2

x =

Answer: all real numbers except

7

2

12. For 4 3 x + to be real,

4x + 3 0

4x 3

3

4

x

Answer: all real numbers

3

4

13. We exclude values of y for which

2

4 4 0. y y + =

2 2

4 4 ( 2) , y y y + = so we

exclude values of y for which y 2 = 0, thus

y = 2.

Answer: all real numbers except 2.

14. We exclude values of x for which

2

6 0

( 3)( 2) 0

3, 2

x x

x x

x

+ =

+ =

=

Answer: all real numbers except 3 and 2

15. We exclude all values of s for which

2

2 7 4 0 s s =

(s 4)(2s + 1) = 0

1

4,

2

s =

Answer: all real numbers except 4 and

1

2

16.

2

1 r + is never 0.

Answer: all real numbers

17. f(x) = 2x + 1

f(0) = 2(0) + 1 = 1

f(3) = 2(3) + 1 = 7

f(4) = 2(4) + 1 = 7

18.

2

( ) 5 3 H s s =

2

(4) 5(4) 3 80 3 77 H = = =

( ) ( )

2

2 5 2 3 10 3 7 H = = =

2

2 2 20 7

5 3 3

3 3 9 9

H

= = =

19.

2

( ) 2 G x x =

2

(8) 2 ( 8) 2 64 62 G = = =

2

( ) 2 G u u =

2 2 2 4

( ) 2 ( ) 2 G u u u = =

20. F(x) = 5x

F(s) = 5s

F(t + 1) = 5(t + 1) = 5t 5

F(x + 3) = 5(x + 3) = 5x 15

21.

2

( ) 2 u u u =

2

( 2) 2( 2) ( 2) 8 2 10 = = + =

2 2

(2 ) 2(2 ) (2 ) 8 2 v v v v v = =

2

2 2

( ) 2( ) ( )

2 4 2

x a x a x a

x ax a x a

+ = + +

= + +

22.

1

( ) h v

v

=

1 1

(16)

4 16

h = =

1

1

2

4

1 1 1

2

4

h

= = =

1

(1 )

1

h x

x

=

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

56

23.

2

( ) 2 1 f x x x = + +

2

(1) 1 2(1) 1 1 2 1 4 f = + + = + + =

2

(1) (1) 2(1) 1 1 2 1 0 f = + + = + =

2

2 2

( ) ( ) 2( ) 1

2 2 2 1

f x h x h x h

x xh h x h

+ = + + + +

= + + + + +

24.

2

( ) ( 4) H x x = +

2

(0) (0 4) 16 H = + =

2 2

(2) (2 4) 6 36 H = + = =

2 2

( 4) [( 4) 4] H t t t = + =

25.

2

7

( )

2

x

k x

x

=

+

2

5 7 2

(5)

27

5 2

k

= =

+

2 2

3 7 3 7

(3 )

(3 ) 2 9 2

x x

k x

x x

= =

+ +

2 2 2

( ) 7 7

( )

( ) 2 2 2

x h x h

k x h

x h x xh h

+ +

+ = =

+ + + + +

26. ( ) 3 k x x =

(4) 4 3 1 1 k = = =

(3) 3 3 0 0 k = = =

( 1) ( ) ( 1) 3 3

2 3

k x k x x x

x x

+ = +

=

27.

4/3

( ) f x x =

4/3

(0) 0 0 f = =

( )

4

4/3 4 3

(64) 64 64 (4) 256 f = = = =

4

4/3 4

3

1 1 1 1 1

8 8 8 2 16

f

= = = =

28.

2/5

( ) g x x =

( )

2

2/5 2 5

(32) 32 32 (2) 4 g = = = =

( )

2

2/5 5

( 64) ( 64) 64 g = =

( ) ( )

2 2

5 5 5 5

32 2 2 2 4 4 = = =

10 10 2/5 4

( ) ( ) g t t t = =

29. f(x) = 4x 5

a. f(x + h) = 4(x + h) 5 = 4x + 4h 5

b.

( ) ( ) f x h f x

h

+

(4 4 5) (4 5) x h x

h

+

=

4

4

h

h

= =

30. ( )

2

x

f x =

a. ( )

2

x h

f x h

+

+ =

b.

2 2 2

( ) ( ) 1

2

x h x h

f x h f x

h h h

+

+

= = =

31.

2

( ) 2 f x x x = +

a.

2

( ) ( ) 2( ) f x h x h x h + = + + +

2 2

2 2 2 x xh h x h = + + + +

b.

( ) ( ) f x h f x

h

+

2 2 2

( 2 2 2 ) ( 2 ) x xh h x h x x

h

+ + + + +

=

2

2 2

2 2

xh h h

x h

h

+ +

= = + +

32.

2

( ) 3 2 1 f x x x =

a.

2

2 2

2 2

( ) 3( ) 2( ) 1

3( 2 ) 2 2 1

3 6 3 2 2 1

f x h x h x h

x xh h x h

x xh h x h

+ = + +

= + +

= + +

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.1

57

b.

2 2 2

2

( ) ( ) (3 6 3 2 2 1) (3 2 1)

6 3 2

6 3 2

f x h f x x xh h x h x x

h h

xh h h

h

x h

+ + +

=

+

=

= +

33.

2

( ) 3 2 4 f x x x = +

a.

2

2 2

( ) 3 2( ) 4( )

3 2 2 4( 2 )

f x h x h x h

x h x xh h

+ = + + +

= + + +

b.

2 2 2

2

( ) ( ) 3 2 2 4 8 4 (3 2 4 )

2 8 4

2 8 4

f x h f x x h x xh h x x

h h

h xh h

h

x h

+ + + + +

=

+ +

=

= + +

34.

3

( ) f x x =

a.

3 3 2 2 3

( ) ( ) 3 3 f x h x h x x h xh h + = + = + + +

b.

( ) ( ) f x h f x

h

+

3 2 2 3 3

( 3 3 ) x x h xh h x

h

+ + +

=

2 2 3

3 3 x h xh h

h

+ +

=

2 2

3 3 x xh h = + +

35.

1

( ) f x

x

=

a.

1

( ) f x h

x h

+ =

+

b.

( )

1 1

( ) ( ) ( ) 1

( ) ( )

x x h

x x h

x h x

f x h f x h

h h h x x h h x x h

+

+

+

+

= = = =

+ +

36.

8

( )

x

f x

x

+

=

a.

( ) 8 8

( )

x h x h

f x h

x h x h

+ + + +

+ = =

+ +

b.

8 8

( ) ( )

x h x

x h x

f x h f x

h h

+ + +

+

+

=

( )

8 8

( )

( )

x h x

x h x

x x h

x x h h

+ + +

+

+

=

+

( 8) ( )( 8)

( )

x x h x h x

x x h h

+ + + +

=

+

2 2

8 8 8

( )

x xh x x hx x h

x x h h

+ +

=

+

8 8

( ) ( )

h

x x h h x x h

= =

+ +

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

58

37.

(3 ) (3) [5(3 ) 3] [5(3) 3]

[15 5 3] [15 3]

18 5 18

5

5

f h f h

h h

h

h

h

h

h

h

+ + + +

=

+ + +

=

+

=

=

=

38.

2

2

2

( ) (2) 2 1 (8 2 1)

2 2

2 1 7

2

2 6

2

2 3

f x f x x

x x

x x

x

x x

x

x

+ +

=

+

=

= +

39. 9y 3x 4 = 0

The equivalent form y =

3 4

9

x +

shows that for

each input x there is exactly one output,

3 4

9

x +

.

Thus y is a function of x. Solving for x gives

9 4

.

3

y

x

= This shows that for each input y

there is exactly one output,

9 4

.

3

y

Thus x is a

function of y.

40.

2

0 x y + =

The form

2

y x = shows that for each input x

there is exactly one output,

2

. x Thus y is a

function of x. Solving for x gives . x y = If,

for example, y = 1, then x = 1, so x is not a

function of y.

41.

2

7 y x =

For each input x, there is exactly one output

2

7 . x Thus y is a function of x. Solving for x

gives .

7

y

x = If, for example, y = 7, then

x = 1, so x is not a function of y.

42.

2 2

1 x y + =

Solving for y we have

2

1 . y x = If x = 0,

then y = 1, so y is not a function of x. Solving

for x gives

2

1 . x y = If y = 0, then x = 1,

so x is not a function of y.

43. Yes, because corresponding to each input r there

is exactly one output,

2

. r

44. a.

2 3 3 2 5 5 5

( ) 2 f a a a a a a a a = + = + =

b.

2 3 3 2

2 3 3 3 2 2

5 3 5 2

5 2

( ) ( ) ( )

( 1)

f ab a ab a ab

a a b a a b

a b a b

a b b

= +

= +

= +

= +

45. Weekly excess of income over expenses is

6500 4800 = 1700.

After t weeks the excess accumulates to 1700t.

Thus the value of V of the business at the end of

t weeks is given by V = f(t) = 25,000 + 1700t.

46. Depreciation at the end of t years is

0.02t(30,000), so value V of machine is

V = f(t) = 30,000 0.02t(30,000), or

V = f(t) = 30,000(1 0.02t).

47. Yes; for each input q there corresponds exactly

one output, 1.25q, so P is a function of q. The

dependent variable is P and the independent

variable is q.

48. Charging $600,000 per film corresponds to

p = 600,000.

600,000 =

1,200,000

q

q = 2

The actor will star in 2 films per year. To star in

4 films per year the actor should charge

1,200,000

$300,000

4

p = = per film.

49. The function can be written as q = 48p.

At $8.39 per pound, the coffee house will supply

q = 48(8.39) = 402.72 pounds per week.

At $19.49 per pound, the coffee house will

supply q = 48(19.49) = 935.52 pounds per week.

The amount the coffee house supplies increases

as the price increases.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.2

59

50. a. f(0) = 1 1 = 0

b.

3 3

300 3 27

(100) 1 1 1

400 4 64

f

= = =

37

64

=

c.

3

3

300

(900) 1

1200

1

1

4

1

1

64

63

64

f

=

=

=

=

d. We solve

3

3

3

3 3

3

3

300

0.500 1

300

300

0.5

300

300

0.5

300

300 300 0.5 0.5

300 300 0.5

77.98

0.5

t

t

t

t

t

=

+

=

+

=

+

= +

=

78 days

51. a.

( )

4

3

4 1000

10 10,000

(1000) 4

2500 2500 2500

f = = = =

b.

( )

4 4

3

3

10 2 1000(2)

(2000)

2500 2500

f

= =

3 4

3 3 3

10,000 2

4 2 2 8 2

2500

= = =

c.

4/3 4/3 4/3

0 0

0

(2 ) 2

(2 )

2500 2500

I I

f I = =

4/3

3 3 0

0

2 2 2 2 ( )

2500

I

f I

= =

Thus

3

0 0

(2 ) 2 2 ( ) f I f I = , which means

that doubling the intensity increases the

response by a factor of

3

2 2.

52.

0

1 1 1

(1) 1 (1 0.344) 1 (1)

2 2 2

P = = =

1

1 1

(2) 1 (1 0.344) 1 (0.656)

2 2

P = = = 0.672

53. a. Domain: 3000, 2900, 2300, 2000

f(2900) = 12, f(3000) = 10

b. Domain: 10, 12, 17, 20

g(10) = 3000, g(17) = 2300

54. a. 18.97

b. 581.77

c. 18.51

55. a. 5.13

b. 2.64

c. 17.43

56. a. 1,997,723.57

b. 1,287,532.35

c. 2,964,247.40

57. a. 7.89

b. 63.85

c. 1.21

Principles in Practice 2.2

1. a. Let n = the number of visits and p(n) be the

premium amount.

p(n) = 125

b. The premiums do not change regardless of

the number of doctor visits.

c. This is a constant function.

2. a.

2

( ) 3 d t t = is a quadratic function.

b. The degree of

2

( ) 3 d t t = is 2.

c. The leading coefficient of

2

( ) 3 d t t = is 3.

3. The price for n pairs of socks is given by

3.5 0 5

( ) 3 5 10

2.75 10

n n

c n n n

n n

= <

<

.

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

60

4. Think of the bookshelf having 7 slots, from left

to right. You have a choice of 7 books for the

first slot. Once a book has been put in the first

slot, you have 6 choices for which book to put in

the second slot, etc. The number of arrangements

is 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 = 7! = 5040.

Problems 2.2

1. yes

2.

3

3

7 3 1 7

( ) 1,

3 3 3

x x

f x x x

+

= = + which is a

polynomial function.

3. no

4. yes

5. yes

6. yes

7. no

8.

4

4

4

( ) 4 g x x

x

= = , which is a rational function.

9. all real numbers

10. all real numbers

11. all real numbers

12. all x such that 1 x 3

13. a. 3

b. 7

14. a. 1

b. 7

15. a. 7

b. 1

16. a. 0

b. 9

17. f(x) = 8

f(2) = 8

f(t + 8) = 8

( )

17 8 f =

18. ( ) 3 g x x =

(10) 10 3 7 7 g = = =

(3) 3 3 0 0 g = = =

(3) 3 3 6 6 g = = =

19. F(10) = 1

( )

3 1 F =

F(0) = 0

18

1

5

F

=

20. f(3) = 4

f(4) = 3

f(0) = 4

21. G(8) = 8 1 = 7

G(3) = 3 1 = 2

2

( 1) 3 ( 1) 2 G = =

2

(1) 3 (1) 2 G = =

22.

2

(3) 3 3(3) 1 1 F = + =

F(3) = 2(3) 5 = 11

F(2) is not defined.

23. 6! = 6 5 4 3 2 1 = 720

24. 0! = 1

25. (4 2)! = 2! = 2 1 = 2

26. 6! 2! (6 5 4 3 2 1)(2 1)

(720)(2)

1440

=

=

=

27.

! ( 1)!

( 1)! ( 1)!

n n n

n

n n

= =

28.

8! 8!

5!(8 5)! 5! 3!

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

(5 4 3 2 1)(3 2 1)

8 7 6

3 2 1

8 7

56

=

=

=

=

=

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.3

61

29. Let i = the passengers income and

c(i) = the cost for the ticket.

c(i) = 4.5

This is a constant function.

30. Let w = the width of the prism, then

w + 3 = the length of the prism, and

2w 1 = the height of the prism. The formula for

the volume of a rectangular prism is

V = length width height.

3 2

( ) ( 3)( )(2 1) 2 5 3 V w w w w w w w = + = +

This is a cubic function.

31. a. C = 850 + 3q

b. 1600 850 3

750 3

250

q

q

q

= +

=

=

32. The interest is Prt, so principal and interest

amount to f(t) = P + Prt, or f(t) = P(1 + rt). Since

f(t) = at + b where a (= Pr) and b (= P) are

constants, f is a linear function of t.

33. The cost for buying n tickets is

9.5 0 12

( )

8.75 12

n n

c n

n n

<

=

34. For a committee of four, there are 4 choices for

who will be member A. For each choice of

member A, there are 3 choices for member G.

Once members A and G have been chosen, there

are two choices for member M, then one choice

for member S once members A, G, and M have

been chosen. Thus, there are

4 3 2 1 = 4! = 24 ways to label the members.

Similarly, a committee of five can label itself

with five labels in

5 4 3 2 1 = 5! = 120 ways.

35.

( ) ( ) ( )( )

1 2

3 3 1 1

4 4 16 4

3! 6

9

(2)

2!(1!) 2(1) 64

P = = =

36.

( ) ( ) ( )

0 5

3 1 1

4 4 1024

5! 5! (1)

1

(5)

5!(0!) 5!(1) 1024

P = = =

37. a. all T such that 30 T 39

b.

1 11 5 11 16

(30) (30) 4

24 4 4 4 4

f = + = + = =

1 11 6 11 17

(36) (36)

24 4 4 4 4

f = + = + =

4 175 175 33

(39) (39) 52

3 4 4 4

f = = =

38. a. 742.50

b. 20.28

c. 1218.60

39. a. 1182.74

b. 4985.27

c. 252.15

40. a. 19.12

b. 62.94

c. 57.69

41. a. 2.21

b. 9.98

c. 14.52

Principles in Practice 2.3

1. The customers price is

( )( ) ( ( )) ( 3) 2( 3) c s x c s x c x x = = + = +

= 2x + 6

2.

2

( ) ( 3) g x x = + can be written as

( ) ( ( )) ( )( ) g x a l x a l x = = where

2

( ) a x x = and

l(x) = x + 3. Then l(x) represents the length of

the sides of the square, while a(x) is the area of a

square with side of length x.

Problems 2.3

1. f(x) = x + 3, g(x) = x + 5

a. ( )( ) ( ) ( )

( 3) ( 5)

2 8

f g x f x g x

x x

x

+ = +

= + + +

= +

b. (f + g)(0) = 2(0) + 8 = 8

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

62

c. ( )( ) ( ) ( )

( 3) ( 5)

2

f g x f x g x

x x

=

= + +

=

d.

2

( )( ) ( ) ( )

( 3)( 5)

8 15

fg x f x g x

x x

x x

=

= + +

= + +

e.

2

( )(2) ( 2) 8( 2) 15 3 fg = + + =

f.

( ) 3

( )

( ) 5

f f x x

x

g g x x

+

= =

+

g. ( )( ) ( ( ))

( 5)

( 5) 3

8

f g x f g x

f x

x

x

=

= +

= + +

= +

h. ( )(3) 3 8 11 f g = + =

i. ( )( ) ( ( ))

( 3)

( 3) 5

8

g f x g f x

g x

x

x

=

= +

= + +

= +

j. ( )(3) 3 8 11 g f = + =

2. f(x) = 2x, g(x) = 6 + x

a. ( )( ) ( ) ( )

(2 ) (6 )

3 6

f g x f x g x

x x

x

+ = +

= + +

= +

b. ( )( ) ( ) ( )

(2 ) (6 )

6

f g x f x g x

x x

x

=

= +

=

c. (f g)(4) = (4) 6 = 2

d.

2

( )( ) ( ) ( ) 2 (6 ) 12 2 fg x f x g x x x x x = = + = +

e.

( ) 2

( )

( ) 6

f f x x

x

g g x x

= =

+

f.

2(2) 4 1

(2)

6 2 8 2

f

g

= = =

+

g. ( )( ) ( ( ))

(6 )

2(6 )

12 2

f g x f g x

f x

x

x

=

= +

= +

= +

h. ( )( ) ( ( )) (2 ) 6 2 g f x g f x g x x = = = +

i. ( )(2) 6 2(2) 6 4 10 g f = + = + =

3.

2

( ) 1, f x x = +

2

( ) g x x x =

a.

2 2

2

( )( ) ( ) ( )

( 1) ( )

2 1

f g x f x g x

x x x

x x

+ = +

= + +

= +

b.

2 2

( )( ) ( ) ( )

( 1) ( )

1

f g x f x g x

x x x

x

=

= +

= +

c.

1 1 1

( ) 1

2 2 2

f g

= + =

d.

2 2

4 3 2

( )( ) ( ) ( )

( 1)( )

fg x f x g x

x x x

x x x x

=

= +

= +

e.

2

2

( ) 1

( )

( )

f f x x

x

g g x

x x

+

= =

f.

( )

( ) ( )

2

1

2

2

1 1

2 2

1

1 5

2 3

f

g

+

= =

g.

2

2 2

4 3 2

( )( ) ( ( ))

( )

( ) 1

2 1

f g x f g x

f x x

x x

x x x

=

=

= +

= + +

h.

2

2 2 2

4 2

( )( ) ( ( ))

( 1)

( 1) ( 1)

g f x g f x

g x

x x

x x

=

= +

= + +

= +

i.

4 2

( )( 3) ( 3) ( 3) 90 g f = + =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.3

63

4.

2

( ) 1, ( ) 5 f x x g x = + =

a.

2

2

( )( ) ( ) ( )

( 1) 5

6

f g x f x g x

x

x

+ = +

= + +

= +

b.

2

2 2 58

( ) 6

3 3 9

f g

+ = + =

c.

2

2

( )( ) ( ) ( )

( 1) 5

4

f g x f x g x

x

x

=

= +

=

d.

2

2

( )( ) ( ) ( )

( 1)(5)

5 5

fg x f x g x

x

x

=

= +

= +

e.

2

( )(7) 5(7 ) 5 245 5 250 fg = + = + =

f.

2

( ) 1

( )

( ) 5

f f x x

x

g g x

+

= =

g.

2

( )( ) ( ( )) (5) 5 1 26 f g x f g x f = = = + =

h. ( )(12,003) 26 f g =

i.

2

( )( ) ( ( )) ( 1) 5 g f x g f x g x = = + =

5. f(g(2)) = f(4 4) = f(0) = 0 + 6 = 6

g(f(2)) = g(12 + 6) = g(18) = 4 36 = 32

6.

2

3

( )( ) ( ( ))

2

3

4

12

2

p

f g p f g p

p

f

p

=

=

=

=

4

2

4 4 2

( )( ) ( ( ))

3 3

p p

g f p g f p g

p p

= = = =

7.

2

2

( )( ) ( ( ))

2

1

2 2

7 1

1 1

4 14

1

1

( 1)

F G t F G t

F

t

t t

t

t

=

=

= + +

= + +

2

2

2

( )( ) ( ( ))

( 7 1)

2

( 7 1) 1

2

7

G F t G F t

G t t

t t

t t

=

= + +

=

+ +

=

+

8.

2

2

( )( ) ( ( ))

(3 4 2)

3 4 2

F G t F G t

F t t

t t

=

= + +

= + +

( )

( ) ( )

2

( )( ) ( ( ))

3 4 2

3 4 2

G F t G F t

G t

t t

t t

=

=

= + +

= + +

9.

( )

( )

2

( )( ) ( ( ))

2

1

2 1

1

2 1

1

3

f g v f g v

f v

v

v

v

=

= +

=

+ +

=

+ +

=

+

2

2

2

2

2

2

( )( ) ( ( ))

1

1

1

2

1

1 2( 1)

1

2 3

1

g f v g f v

g

v

v

v

v

v

v

=

=

+

= +

+

+ +

=

+

+

=

+

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

64

10.

2

2 2 2

4 3 2

( )( ) ( ( ))

( 2 1)

( 2 1) 2( 2 1) 1

4 4 2

f f x f f x

f x x

x x x x

x x x

=

= +

= + + +

= + +

11. Let g(x) = 11x and f(x) = x 7. Then

h(x) = g(x) 7 = f(g(x))

12. Let g(x) =

2

2 and ( ) x f x x = . Then

2

( ) 2 ( ) ( ( )) h x x g x f g x = = =

13. Let

2

1

( ) 2 and ( ) . g x x f x

x

= = Then

2

1 1

( ) ( ( ))

( )

2

h x f g x

g x

x

= = =

14. Let

3 3 2

( ) 9 5 and ( ) 11. g x x x f x x x = = +

Then

3 2

( ) [ ( )] [ ( )] 11 ( ( )) h x g x g x f g x = + =

15. Let

2

1

( )

3

x

g x

x

=

+

and

4

( ) . f x x =

Then

4

( ) ( ) ( ( )). h x g x f g x = =

16. Let g(x) = 3x 5 and

2

2

( ) .

2

x

f x

x

=

+

Then

2

2 (3 5)

( ) ( ( )).

(3 5) 2

x

h x f g x

x

= =

+

17. a. The revenue is $9.75 per pound of coffee

sold, so r(x) = 9.75x.

b. The expenses are e(x) = 4500 + 4.25x.

c. Profit = revenue expenses.

(r e)(x) = 9.75x (4500 + 4.25x)

= 5.5x 4500.

18.

3

( ) (4 2) v x x = can be written as

( ) ( ( )) ( )( ) v x f l x f l x = = where

3

( ) f x x = and

l(x) = 4x 2. Then l(x) represents the length of

the sides of the cube, while f(x) is the volume of

a cube with sides of length x.

19.

2

2

2

2

( )( ) ( ( ))

40

4

40

40

4

10(40 )

400 10

g f m g f m

m m

g

m m

m m

m m

=

=

=

=

=

This represents the total revenue received when

the total output of m employees is sold.

20.

3.68

3.68 0.53

3.68 0.53

( )( ) ( ( ))

(7202 0.29 )

0.45(7202 0.29 1000)

0.45(6202 0.29 )

f g E f g E

f E

E

E

=

= +

= +

= +

This represents status based on years of

education.

21. a. 14.05

b. 1169.64

22. a. 0.13

b. 18.85

23. a. 194.47

b. 0.29

24. a. 0.45

b. 1.61

Problems 2.4

1.

1

7

( )

3 3

x

f x

=

2.

1

1

( )

2 2

x

g x

=

3.

1

( ) 2 14 F x x

= +

4.

1

5

( )

4 4

x

f x

= +

5. ( )

A

r A =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.5

65

6.

3

3

( )

4

V

r V =

7. f(x) = 5x + 12 is one-to-one, for if

1 2

( ) ( ) f x f x = then

1 2

5 12 5 12, x x + = + so

1 2

5 5 x x = and thus

1 2

. x x =

8.

2

( ) (5 12) g x x = + is not one-to-one, because

1 2

( ) ( ) g x g x = does not imply

1 2

. x x = For

example,

11 13

1.

5 5

g g

= =

9.

2

( ) (5 12) , h x x = + for

5

,

12

x is one-to-one.

If

1 2

( ) ( ) h x h x = then

2 2

1 2

(5 12) (5 12) . x x + = +

Since

5

12

x we have 5x + 12 0, and thus

2 2

1 2

(5 12) (5 12) x x + = + only if

1 2

5 12 5 12, x x + = + and hence

1 2

. x x =

10. ( ) 9 F x x = is not one-to-one, because

1 2

( ) ( ) F x F x = does not imply

1 2

. x x = For

example, F(8) = F(10) = 1.

11. The inverse of

2

( ) (4 5) f x x = for

5

4

x is

1

5

( ) ,

4 4

x

f x

find

1

(23). f

1

23 5

(23)

4 4

f

= +

The solution is

23 5

.

4 4

x = +

12. The inverse of

3

4

( )

3

V r r = is

3

3

( ) ,

4

V

r V =

so

the solution is

3

3(100)

(100) .

4

r =

13. From

1,200,000

, p

q

= we get

1,200,000

. q

p

=

Since q > 0, p is also greater than 0, so q as a

function of p is

1,200,000

( ) , q q p

p

= = p > 0.

1,200,000

1,200,000

( ( ))

1,200,000

1,200,000

1,200,000

p

p q p p

p

p

p

=

=

=

=

Similarly, q(p(q)) = q, so the functions are

inverses.

14. From ,

48

q

p = we get q = 48p. Since q > 0, p is

also greater than 0, so q as a function of p is

q = q(p) = 48p, p > 0.

( ( )) 48

48 48

q q

q p q q q

= = =

48

( ( )) (48 )

48

p

p q p p p p = = =

Thus, p(q) and q(p) are inverses.

Principles in Practice 2.5

1. Let y = the amount of money in the account.

Then, after one month,

y = 7250 (1 600) = $6650, and after two

months y = 7250 (2 600) = $6050. Thus, in

general, if we let x = the number of months

during which Rachel spends from this account,

y = 7250 600x. To identify the x-intercept, we

set y = 0 and solve for x.

y = 7250 600x

0 = 7250 600x

600x = 7250

1

12

12

x =

The x-intercept is

1

12 ,0

12

.

Therefore, after 12 months and approximately

2.5 days Rachel will deplete her savings. To

identify the y-intercept, we set x = 0 and solve

for y.

y = 7250 600x

y = 7250 600(0)

y = 7250

The y-intercept is (0, 7250).

Therefore, before any months have gone by,

Rachel has $7250 in her account.

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

66

2. Let y = the cost to the customer and let

x = the number of rides he or she takes. Since the

cost does not change, regardless of the number

of rides taken, the equation y = 24.95 represents

this situation. The graph of y = 24.95 is a

horizontal line whose y-intercept is (0, 24.95).

Since the line is parallel to the x-axis, there is no

x-intercept.

3. The formula relating distance, time, and speed is

d = rt, where d is the distance, r is the speed, and

t is the time. Let x = the time spent biking (in

hours). Then, 12x = the distance traveled. Brett

bikes 12 2.5 = 30 miles and then turns around

and bikes the same distance back to the rental

shop. Therefore, we can represent the distance

from the turn-around point at any time x as

3012x . Similarly, the distance from the rental

shop at any time x can be represented by the

function 30 3012 y x = .

x 0 1 2 2.5 3 4 5

y 0 12 24 30 24 12 0

x

hours

y

4 3 2 1 5

12

24

36

M

i

l

e

s

(0, 0)

(5, 0)

(2.5, 30)

4. The monthly cost of x therms of gas is

0.53 , if 0 70

0.53(70) 0.74( 70), if >70

x x

y

x x

=

+

or

0.53 , if 0 70

0.74 14.7, if 70

x x

y

x x

=

>

x 0 10 30 50 70 80 90 100

x 0 5.3 15.9 26.5 37.1 44.5 51.9 59.3

x

therms

y

80 60 40 20 100

20

40

60

C

o

s

t

(

d

o

l

l

a

r

s

)

(0, 0)

(70, 37.1)

(100, 59.3)

Problems 2.5

1.

y

10

x

10

(2, 7)

(0, 0)

(8, 3)

Q. I

Q. IV Q. III

1

2

( (

, 2

2.

y

10

x

10

(1, 1)

(4, 5)

(3, 0)

(0, 6)

Q. I Q. II

3. a. f(0) = 1, f(2) = 2, f(4) = 3, f(2) = 0

b. Domain: all real numbers

c. Range: all real numbers

d. f(x) = 0 for x = 2. So a real zero is 2.

4. a. f(0) = 2, f(2) = 0

b. Domain: all x 0

c. Range: all y 2

d. f(x) = 0 for x = 2. So a real zero is 2.

5. a. f(0) = 0, f(1) = 1, f(1) = 1

b. Domain: all real numbers

c. Range: all nonnegative real numbers

d. f(x) = 0 for x = 0. So a real zero is 0.

6. a. f(0) = 0, f(2) = 1, f(3) = 3, f(4) = 2

b. Domain: all x such that 0 x 4

c. Range: all y such that 0 y 3

d. f(x) = 0 for x = 0. So a real zero is 0.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.5

67

7. y = 2x

If y = 0, then x = 0. If x = 0, then y = 0.

Intercept: (0, 0)

y is a function of x. One-to-one.

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers

y

5

x

5

8. y = x + 1

If y = 0, then x = 1.

If x = 0, then y = 1.

Intercepts: (1, 0), (0, 1)

y is a function of x. One-to-one.

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers

y

5

1

x

5 1

9. y = 3x 5

If y = 0, then 0 = 3x 5,

5

3

x = .

If x = 0, then y = 5. Intercepts:

5

, 0

3

, (0, 5)

y is a function of x. One-to-one.

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers

y

10

x

10

5

5

3

10. y = 3 2x

If y = 0, then 0 = 3 2x,

3

2

x = .

If x = 0, then, y = 3. Intercepts:

3

, 0

2

, (0, 3)

y is a function of x. One-to-one.

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers

y

3

x

5

3

2

11.

4

y x =

If y = 0, then

4

0 , x = x = 0. If x = 0, then y = 0.

Intercept: (0, 0)

y is a function of x. Not one-to-one.

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers 0

y

5

x

5

12.

2

2

y

x

=

If y = 0, then

2

2

0 ,

x

= which has no solution.

Thus there is no x-intercept. Because 0 x ,

Not one-to-one.

Domain: all real numbers except 0

Range: all real numbers > 0

y

5

x

5

(1, 2) (1, 2)

(2, )

1

2

(2, )

1

2

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

68

13. x = 0

If y = 0, then x = 0. If x = 0, then y can be any

real number. Intercepts: every point on y-axis

y is not a function of x.

y

5

x

5

14.

2

4 16 y x =

If y = 0, then

2 2

0 4 16 4( 4) x x = = ,

0 4( 2)( 2) x x = + , x = 2.

If x = 0, then y = 16.

Intercepts: (2, 0), (0, 16)

y is a function of x. Not one-to-one.

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers 16

y

x

5 2

2

20

16

15.

3

y x =

If y = 0, then

3

0 x = , x = 0. If x = 0, then y = 0.

Intercept: (0, 0). y is a function of x. One-to-one.

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers

y

5

x

5

16. x = 9

If y = 0 then x = 9. Because x cannot be 0, there

is no y-intercept. Intercept: (9, 0).

y is not a function of x.

y

10

x

10 10

17. x = |y|

If y = 0, then x = 0. If x = 0, then 0 = |y|, y = 0.

Intercept: (0, 0)

y is not a function of x.

y

5

x

5

18.

2 2

x y =

If y = 0, then

2

0, 0 x x = = . If x = 0, then

2

0 , 0 y y = = . Intercept: (0, 0)

y is not a function of x.

y

5

x

5

19. 2x + y 2 = 0

If y = 0, then 2x 2 = 0, x = 1. If x = 0, then

y 2 = 0, y = 2. Intercepts: (1, 0), (0, 2)

Note that y = 2 2x. y is a function of x.

One-to-one.

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.5

69

y

5

2

x

5 1

20. x + y = 1

If y = 0, then x = 1. If x = 0, then y = 1.

Intercepts: (1, 0), (0, 1)

Note that y = 1 x.

y is a function of x. One-to-one.

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers

y

5

1

x

5 1

21.

2

( ) 4 s f t t = =

If s = 0, then

2

0 4 t =

0 = (2 + t)(2 t)

t = 2. If t = 0, then s = 4.

Intercepts: (2, 0), (2, 0), (0, 4)

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers 4

s

5

4

t

5 2 2

22.

2

( ) 5 2 f x x = . If f(x) = 0, then

2

0 5 2x =

2

2 5 x =

2

5

2

x =

5 10

2 2

x = = .

If x = 0, then f(x) = 5.

Intercepts:

10

, 0 , (0,5)

2

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers 5

f(x)

5

x

5

10

2

10

2

23. y = h(x) = 3

Because y cannot be 0, there is no x-intercept. If

x = 0, then y = 3. Intercept: (0, 3)

Domain: all real numbers

Range: 3

y

5

x

5

3

24. g(s) = 17

Because g(s) cannot be 0, there is no s-intercept.

If s = 0, then g(s) = 17.

Intercept: (0, 17)

Domain: all real numbers

Range: 17

y

20

x

20

20

20

25.

2

( ) 4 1 y h x x x = = +

If y = 0, then

2

0 4 1 x x = + , and by the

quadratic formula,

4 12

2 3

2

x

= = . If

x = 0, then y = 1. Intercepts: (2 3,0),(0,1)

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers 3

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

70

x

y

2 +

(2, 3)

3

2 3

1

26.

2

( ) 2 8 y f x x x = = +

If y = 0, then

2

0 2 8 x x = +

0 = (x + 4)(x 2), so x = 4, 2.

If x = 0, then y = 8.

Intercepts: (4, 0), (2, 0), (0, 8).

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers 9

y

10

x

10 4

8

(1, 9)

27.

3

( ) f t t =

If f(t) = 0, then

3

0 t = , 0 t = .

If t = 0, then f(t) = 0. Intercept: (0, 0)

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real number

f(t)

5

t

5

28.

2

( ) 1 2 p h q q q = = + +

If p = 0, then

2

1 2 0, q q + + =

2

(1 ) 0, q + = so

q = 1. If q = 0 then p = 1.

Intercepts: (1, 0), (0, 1)

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers 0

p

5

q

5

1

1

29.

2

( ) 9 s f t t = =

Note that for

2

9 t to be a real number,

2

9 0, t so

2

9, t and |t| 3. If s = 0, then

2

0 9, t =

2

0 9, t = or t = 3. Because

|t| 3, we know t 0, so no s-intercept exists.

Intercepts: (3, 0), (3, 0)

Domain: all real numbers t 3 and 3

Range: all real numbers 0

y

10

x

3 10 3

30.

1

( ) F r

r

=

If F(r) = 0, then

1

0

r

= , which has no solution.

Because r 0, there is no vertical-axis

intercept. Intercept: none.

Domain: all real numbers 0

Range: all real numbers 0

F(r)

5

r

5

31. ( ) 2 1 f x x =

If f(x) = 0, then 0 2 1, x = 2 1 0, x = so

1

.

2

x =

If x = 0, then ( ) 1 1 f x = = .

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.5

71

Intercepts:

1

,0 , (0,1)

2

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers 0

f(x)

5

1

x

5

1

2

32. ( ) 3 v H u u = =

If v = 0, then 0 3, u = 3 0, u = so u = 3.

If u = 0, then 3 3 v = = .

Intercepts: (3, 0), (0, 3).

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers 0

v

10

u

10 3

3

33.

2

16

( ) F t

t

=

If F(t) = 0, then

2

16

0

t

= , which has no solution.

Because t 0, there is no vertical-axis intercept.

No intercepts

Domain: all nonzero real numbers

Range: all positive real numbers

F(t)

10

t

10

34.

2

( )

4

y f x

x

= =

Note that the denominator is 0 when x = 4. Thus

x 4. If y = 0, then

2

0

4 x

= , which has no

solution. If x = 0, then

1

2

y = .

Intercept:

1

0,

2

Domain: all real numbers except 4

Range: all real numbers except 0

y

10

x

10 4

1

2

35. Domain: all real numbers 0

Range: all real numbers 1 c < 8

c

10

p

10 6

8

36. Domain: all real numbers 1

Range: all real numbers 11

14

x

10

(x)

37. Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers 0

g(x)

10

9

x

5 3

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

72

38. Domain: all positive real numbers

Range: all real numbers > 1

f(x)

10

4

1

x

10 3 5

39. From the vertical-line test, the graphs that

represent functions of x are (a), (b), and (d).

40. From the horizontal line test, the graphs which

represent one-to-one functions of x are (c) and

(d).

41. Let y = the amount that is owed and let

x = the number of monthly payments made.

Then, the amount Tara owes is represented by

the equation y = 2400 275x.

To determine the x-intercept, we set y = 0 and

solve for x.

2400 275

0 2400 275

275 2400

8

8

11

y x

x

x

x

=

=

=

=

The x-intercept is

8

8 ,0

11

. Therefore, Tara will

have paid off her debt after 9 months.

To determine the y-intercept, we set x = 0 and

solve for y.

y = 2400 275x

y = 2400 275(0)

y = 2400

The y-intercept is (0, 2400). Therefore, before

any payments are made, Tara owes $2400.

42. The cost of an item as a function of the time of

day, x is

A.M. P.M.

P.M. P.M.

P.M. P.M.

P.M. P.M.

P.M. P.M.

9, if 10:30 2:30

8, if 2:30 4:30

13, if 4:30 6: 00

18, if 6:00 8: 00

13, if 8:00 10:00

x

x

y x

x

x

<

<

= <

<

x

y

20

16

12

8

4

10

P.M.

8 6 4 2 12 10

A.M.

C

o

s

t

(

d

o

l

l

a

r

s

)

43. As price increases, quantity supplied increases; p

is a function of q.

p

50

10

q

210 30

44. As price decreases, quantity increases; p is a

function of q.

p

25

5

q

25 5

45.

y

1000

300

x

21 14 7

46.

y

4

x

12 4 5

47. 0.39

48. 0.50, 0.57

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.5

73

49. 0.61, 0.04

50. 0.62, 1.73, 4.65

51. 1.12

52. No real zeros

53. 1.70, 0

54. 0.49, 0.52, 1.25

55.

1 4

15

25

a. maximum value of f(x): 19.60

b. minimum value of f(x): 10.86

56.

1 1

2

4

a. maximum value of f(x): 3.94

b. minimum value of f(x): 1.94

57.

3 5

3

6

a. maximum value of f(x): 5

b. minimum value of f(x): 4

58.

5

5 5

10

a. range: ( , )

b. intercepts: (1.73, 0), (0, 4)

59.

35

5 5

5

a. maximum value of f(x): 28

b. range: (, 28]

c. real zeros: 4.02, 0.60

60.

5

5 5

5

a. range: (, )

b. intercepts: (0, 0.29), (1.03, 0)

c. real zero: 1.03

61.

2

5

15

35

a. maximum value of f(x): 34.21

b. minimum value of f(x): 18.68

c. range: [18.68, 34.21]

d. no intercept

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

74

Problems 2.6

1. y = 5x

Intercepts: If y = 0, then 5x = 0, or x = 0; if x = 0,

then y = 5 0 = 0.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis: y = 5x

y = 5x

y-axis: y = 5(x) = 5x

origin: y = 5(x)

y = 5x

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then b = 5a, and

1

5

5

a b b = for all b, so (b, a) is not

on the graph.

Answer: (0, 0); symmetry about origin

2.

2

( ) 4 y f x x = =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

2

0 4 ( 2)( 2) x x x = = + , or x = 2; if x = 0,

then

2

0 4 4 y = = .

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2

4 y x =

2

4 y x = +

y-axis:

2 2

( ) 4 4 y x x = =

origin:

2

( ) 4 y x =

2

4 y x = +

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2

4, b a = and

2

4 4 a b b = + for all b, so

(b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (2, 0), (0, 4); symmetry about y-axis

3.

2 2 4

2 8 x y x y + =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

2

2 8, x =

2

4, x = or 2; x =

if x = 0, then 0 = 8 y, so y = 8.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2 2 4

2 ( ) 8 ( ) x y x y + =

2 2 4

2 8 x y x y + = +

y-axis:

2 2 4

2( ) ( ) 8 x y x y + =

2 2 4

2 8 x y x y + =

origin:

2 2 4

2( ) ( ) ( ) 8 ( ) x y x y + =

2 2 4

2 8 x y x y + = +

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2 2 4

2 8 , a b a b + = but

2 2 4

2 8 b a b a + = will not

necessarily be true, so (b, a) is not on

the graph.

Answer: (2, 0), (0, 8); symmetry about y-axis

4.

3

x y =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then x = 0; if x = 0, then

3

0 y = , so y = 0.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

3 3

( ) x y y = =

y-axis:

3

x y =

3

x y =

origin:

3

( ) x y =

3

x y =

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

3

, a b = and

3 3

b a a = for all a, so (b, a) is not

on the graph.

Answer: (0, 0); symmetry about origin

5.

2 2

16 9 25 x y =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

2

16 25, x =

2

25

,

16

x =

so

5

;

4

x =

if x = 0, then

2 2

25

9 25, ,

9

y y = = which has

no real root.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2 2

2 2

16 9( ) 25

16 9 25

x y

x y

=

=

y-axis:

2 2

2 2

16( ) 9 25

16 9 25

x y

x y

=

=

origin: Since the graph has symmetry about

x- and y-axes, there is also symmetry

about the origin.

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2 2

16 9 25, a b = and

2 2

1

(9 25).

16

a b = + (b, a) on graph,

then

2 2

16 9 25 b a = and

2 2 2

1 1

(16 25) (9 25)

9 16

a b b = +

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.6

75

for all b, so (b, a) and (a, b) are not

always both on the graph.

Answer:

5

, 0 ;

4

symmetry about x-axis,

y-axis, and origin.

6. y = 57

Intercepts: Because y 0, there is no

x-intercept; if x = 0, then y = 57.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis: (y) = 57

y = 57

y-axis: y = 57

origin: (y) = 57

y = 57

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then b = 57, but a can

be any value, so (b, a) = (57, a) is not

necessarily on the graph.

Answer: (0, 57); symmetry about yaxis

7. x = 2

Intercepts: If y = 0, then x = 2; because x 0,

there is no y-intercept.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis: x = 2

y-axis: x = 2

x = 2

origin: x = 2

x = 2

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then a = 2, but b can

be any value, so (b, a) = (b, 2) is not

necessarily on the graph.

Answer: (2, 0); symmetry about x-axis

8. 2 2 y x =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then 2 2, x = 2 2, x =

1, x = so x = 1; if x = 0, then y = 2.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis: 2 2 y x =

2 2 y x = +

y-axis: 2( ) 2 y x =

2 2 y x =

origin: 2( ) 2 y x =

2 2 y x = +

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then 2 2 b a = and

2

2 2

2

b

a b

+

= for all b, so

(b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (1, 0), (0, 2); symmetry about y-axis

9.

4

x y =

Intercepts: Because y 0, there is no

x-intercept; if x = 0, then

4

1

0

y

= , which has

no solution.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

4

( ) x y =

4

x y =

y-axis:

4

x y =

4

x y =

origin:

4

( ) x y =

4

x y =

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

4

a b

= and

1/ 4 4

( ) b a a

= for all a, so

(b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: no intercepts; symmetry about x-axis

10.

2

25 y x =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

2

25 0, x =

2

25 0, x =

2

25, x = so 5; x =

if x = 0, then 25 y = , which has no real root.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2

25 y x =

2

25 y x =

y-axis:

2

( ) 25 y x =

2

25 y x =

origin:

2

( ) 25 y x =

2

25 y x = .

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2

25 b a = or

2 2

25 b a = and

2 2 2

25 25 a b b = + for all b, so

(b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (5, 0); symmetry about y-axis

11.

2

4 21 0 x y y + =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then x + 21 = 0, so x = 21;

if x = 0, then

2

4 21 0, y y + =

2

4 21 0, y y + = (y + 7)(y 3) = 0, so y = 7 or

y = 3.

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

76

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2

4( ) ( ) 21 0 x y y + =

2

4 21 0 x y y + + =

y-axis:

2

( ) 4 21 0 x y y + =

2

4 21 0 x y y + =

origin:

2

( ) 4( ) ( ) 21 0 x y y + =

2

4 21 0 x y y + + =

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2

4 21 0 a b b + = and

2

4 21, a b b = + but

2

4 21 b a a = + will not necessarily

be true, so (b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (21, 0), (0, 7), (0, 3); no symmetry

12.

2 3

0 x xy y + + =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

2

0, so 0; x x = =

if x = 0, then

3

0, so 0. y y = =

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2 3

2 3

( ) ( ) 0

0

x x y y

x xy y

+ + =

=

y-axis:

2 3

2 3

( ) ( ) 0

0

x x y y

x xy y

+ + =

+ =

origin:

2 3

2 3

( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0

0

x x y y

x xy y

+ + =

+ =

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2 3

0, a ab b + + = but

2 3

0 b ab a + + = will not necessarily

be true, so (b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (0, 0); no symmetry.

13.

3 2

2

2

( )

1

x x x

y f x

x

+

= =

+

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

3 2 2

2 2

2 ( 1)

0, so

1 1

x x x x x

x x

+

= =

+ +

x = 0, 1;

if x = 0, then y = 0.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis: Because f is not the zero function,

there is no x-axis symmetry

y-axis:

3 2

2

3 2

2

( ) 2( ) ( )

( ) 1

2

1

x x x

y

x

x x x

y

x

+

=

+

=

+

origin:

3 2

2

3 2

2

( ) 2( ) ( )

( ) 1

2

1

x x x

y

x

x x x

y

x

+

=

+

+ +

=

+

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

3 2

2

2

,

1

a a a

b

a

+

=

+

but

3 2

2

2

1

b b b

a

b

+

=

+

is not necessarily

true, so (b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (1, 0), (0, 0); no symmetry of the given

types

14.

2 2

0 x xy y + + =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

2

0, x = so x = 0;

if x = 0, then

2

0, y = so y = 0.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2 2

( ) ( ) 0 x x y y + + =

2 2

0 x xy y + =

y-axis:

2 2

( ) ( ) 0 x x y y + + =

2 2

0 x xy y + =

origin:

2 2

( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0 x x y y + + =

2 2

0 x xy y + + =

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2 2

0 a ab b + + =

and

2 2

0, b ba a + + = so (b, a) is on

the graph.

Answer: (0, 0); symmetry about origin,

symmetry about y = x

15.

3

3

8

y

x

=

+

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

3

3

0

8 x

=

+

, which has

no solution; if x = 0, then y =

3

8

.

Testing for symmetry gives:

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.6

77

x-axis:

3

3

8

y

x

=

+

3

3

8

y

x

=

+

y-axis:

3

3

( ) 8

y

x

=

+

3

3

8

y

x

=

+

origin:

3

3

( ) 8

y

x

=

+

3

3

8

y

x

=

+

3

3

8

y

x

=

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

3

3

8

b

a

=

+

and

3

3

3 3

8

8

a

b

b

=

+

for all b, so

(b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer:

3

0,

8

; no symmetry of the given types

16.

4

x

y

x y

=

+

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

4

0

x

x

= , which has no

solution; if x = 0, then

0

y

y

= , which has no

solution.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

4

( )

x

y

x y

=

+

4

x

y

x y

=

+

y-axis:

4

( )

( )

x

y

x y

=

+

4

x

y

x y

=

+

origin:

4

( )

( ) ( )

x

y

x y

=

+

4

x

y

x y

=

+

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

4

,

a

b

a b

=

+

and

4

,

a

a b

b

+ = but

4

b

a b

a

+ = will not

necessarily be true, so (b, a) is not on

the graph.

Answer: no intercepts; symmetry about origin

17.

2

3 9 x y + =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then 3x = 9, so x = 3;

if x = 0, then

2

9, y = so y = 3.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2

2

3 ( ) 9

3 9

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

y-axis:

2

2

3( ) 9

3 9

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

origin:

2

2

3( ) ( ) 9

3 9

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2

3 9 a b + = and

2

1

(9 ),

3

a b = but

2

1

(9 )

3

b a = will

not necessarily be true, so (b, a) is not

on the graph.

Answer: (3, 0), (0, 3); symmetry about x-axis

y

5

x

5 3

3

3

18.

4 2

1 x y y = +

or

4 2

1 x y y = + +

Intercepts: If y = 0, then x = 1; if x = 0, then

4 2

1, y y + = so no y-intercept

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

4 2

1 ( ) ( ) x y y = +

4 2

1 x y y = +

y-axis:

4 2

4 2

1

1

x y y

x y y

= + +

=

origin:

4 2

4 2

( ) ( ) 1

1

x y y

x y y

= + +

=

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

78

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

4 2

1 a b b = + +

and

4 2

1 b a a + + for all a so (b, a)

is not on the graph.

Answer: (1, 0); symmetry about x-axis.

y

5

x

5

19.

3

( ) 4 y f x x x = =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

3

4 0, x x =

x(x + 2)(x 2) = 0, so x = 0 or x = 2; if x = 0,

then y = 0.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis: Because f is not the zero function,

there is no x-axis symmetry.

y-axis:

3

( ) 4( ) y x x =

3

4 y x x = +

origin:

3

( ) 4( ) y x x =

3

4 y x x =

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

3

4 , b a a = but

3

4 a b b = will not necessarily be

true, so (b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (0, 0), (2, 0); symmetry about origin.

y

5

x

5

2 2

20.

3

3 5 y x x =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

3

5 0, x x =

x

( )( )

5 5 0, x x + = so x = 0 or x = 5; if

x = 0, then y = 0.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

3

3( ) 5 y x x =

3

3 5 y x x = +

y-axis:

3

3 5( ) ( ) y x x =

3

3 5 y x x = +

origin:

3

3( ) 5( ) ( ) y x x =

3

3 5 y x x = .

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

3

3 5 , b a a =

but

3

3 5 a b b = will not necessarily

be true so (b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (0, 0),

( )

5,0 ; symmetry about

origin

x

y

5 5

5

5

21. 0 x y =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then 0, x = so x = 0; if

x = 0, then 0, y = so y = 0.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis: 0 x y =

0 x y =

y-axis: 0 x y =

0 x y =

origin: Since there is symmetry about the

x- and y-axes, symmetry about origin

exists.

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then 0, a b = thus

, a b = and 0, b a = so (b, a) is

on the graph.

Answer: (0, 0); symmetry about x-axis, y-axis,

origin, line y = x.

y

5

x

5

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.6

79

22.

2 2

16 x y + =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

2

16, x = so 4; x =

if x = 0, then

4

16, y = so y = 4.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2 2

( ) 16 x y + =

2 2

16 x y + =

y-axis:

2 2

( ) 16 x y + =

2 2

16 x y + =

origin: Since there is symmetry about

x- and y-axes, symmetry about origin

exists.

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2 2

16 a b + =

and

2 2

16, b a + = so (b, a) is on the

graph.

Answer: (4, 0), (0, 4); symmetry about x-axis,

y-axis, origin, line y = x.

y

5

x

5

23.

2 2

9 4 25 x y + =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

2

9 25, x =

2

25

,

9

x = so

5

;

3

x = if x = 0, then

2

4 25, so y =

5

.

2

y =

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2 2

2 2

9 4( ) 25

9 4 25

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

y-axis:

2 2

2 2

9( ) 4 25

9 4 25

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

origin: Since there is symmetry about

x- and y-axes, symmetry about origin

exists.

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2 2

9 4 25 a b + =

and

2 2

1

(25 9 ).

4

b a = (b, a) on

graph, then

2 2

9 4 25 b a + = and

2 2

1

(25 4 ),

9

b a = so (a, b) and

(b, a) are not always both on the

graph.

Answer:

5 5

, 0 , 0, ;

3 2

symmetry about

x-axis, y-axis, origin

x

y

5

5

24.

2 2

4 x y =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

2

4, x = so 2; x =

if x = 0, then

2

4, y =

2

4, y = which has no

real roots.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2 2

2 2

( ) 4

4

x y

x y

=

=

y-axis:

2 2

2 2

( ) 4

4

x y

x y

=

=

origin: Since there is symmetry about x-and

y-axes, symmetry about origin exists.

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2 2

4 a b = and

2 2 2

4 4 a b b = + for all b, so

(b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (2, 0); symmetry about x-axis, y-axis,

origin.

y

5

x

5

2 2

25.

6

6

6

6

2 4

( ) 5 1.96 y f x x x = = . Replacing x by x

gives

2 4

5 1.96( ) ( ) y x x = or

2 4

5 1.96 , y x x = which is equivalent to

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

80

original equation. Thus the graph is symmetric

about the y-axis.

a. Intercepts: (0.99, 0), (0, 5)

b. Maximum value of f(x): 5

c. Range: (, 5]

26.

4 4

3

8

4 2

( ) 2 7 5 y f x x x = = + . Replacing x by x

gives

4 2

2( ) 7( ) 5 y x x = + or

4 2

2 7 5 y x x = + , which is equivalent to

original equation. Thus the graph is symmetric

about y-axis.

Real zeros of f: 1, 1.58

27.

y

5

x

5

Problems 2.7

1.

y

5

x

5

f (x) =x

3

y =x

3

1

2.

y

5

x

5

f(x) = x

2

y = x

2

3.

y

10

x

10

1

x

1

x 2

f(x) =

y =

4.

y

10

x

10

y = x + 2

f(x) = x

5.

x

y

1

1

1

2

1

2

y =

2

3x

f(x) =

1

x

6.

y

10

x

10

f(x) = |x|

y = |x| 2

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 2.7

81

7.

y

10

x

10

f(x) = |x|

y = |x + 1| 2

8.

y

5

x 5

f (x) = x

y = x

1

3

9.

y

10

x

10

f(x) = x

2

y = 1 (x 1)

2

10.

y

x

10

f(x) = x

2

y = (x 1)

2

+ 1

11.

y

10

x

10

y = x f(x) = x

12.

y

10

x

10

1

x

1

2 x

f(x) =

y =

13. Translate 3 units to the left, stretch vertically

away from the x-axis by a factor of 2, reflect

about the x-axis, and move 2 units upward.

14. Translate 3 units to the left and 4 units

downward.

15. Reflect about the y-axis and translate 5 units

downward.

16. Shrink horizontally toward the y-axis by a factor

of 3.

17.

5

5

5

5

Compared to the graph for k = 0, the graphs for

k = 1, 2, and 3 are vertical shifts upward of 1, 2,

and 3 units, respectively. The graphs for

k = 1, 2, and 3 are vertical shifts downward

of 1, 2, and 3 units, respectively.

18.

5

3

3

5

Compared to the graph for k = 0, the graphs for

k = 1, 2, and 3 are horizontal shifts to the left of

1, 2, and 3 units, respectively. The graphs for

k = 1, 2, and 3 are horizontal shifts to the

right of 1, 2, and 3 units, respectively.

19.

5

5

5 5

Compared to the graph for k = 1, the graphs for

k = 2 and 3 are vertical stretches away from the

x-axis by factors of 2 and 3, respectively. The

graph for

1

2

k = is a vertical shrinking toward

the x-axis.

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

82

Chapter 2 Review Problems

1. Denominator is 0 when

2

6 5 0

( 1)( 5) 0

1, 5

x x

x x

x

+ =

=

=

Domain: all real numbers except 1 and 5.

2. all real numbers

3. all real numbers

4. all real numbers

5. For x to be real, x must be nonnegative. For

the denominator x 1 to be different from 0, x

cannot be 1. Both conditions are satisfied by all

nonnegative numbers except 1.

Domain: all nonnegative real numbers except 1.

6. s 5 0

s 5

Domain: all real numbers s such that s 5.

7.

2

( ) 3 4 7 f x x x = +

2

(0) 3(0) 4(0) 7 7 f = + =

2

(3) 3(3) 4(3) 7 27 12 7 46 f = + = + + =

2

(5) 3(5) 4(5) 7 75 20 7 62 f = + = + =

2

( ) 3 4 7 f t t t = +

8. h(x) = 7; all function values are 7.

Answer: 7, 7, 7, 7

9.

4

( ) 3 G x x =

4 4

(3) 3 3 0 0 G = = =

4 4

(19) 19 3 16 2 G = = =

4

4

( 1) ( 1) 3 2 G t t t + = + =

4 3 3

( ) 3 G x x =

10.

3

( )

4

x

F x

x

=

+

1 3 4

(1)

1 4 3

F = =

+

0 3 3

(0)

0 4 4

F

= =

+

5 3 2

(5)

5 4 9

F = =

+

( 3) 3

( 3)

( 3) 4 7

x x

F x

x x

+

+ = =

+ + +

11.

4

( )

u

h u

u

+

=

5 4 9 3

(5)

5 5 5

h

+

= = =

4 4 0

(4) 0

4 4

h

+

= = =

4

( )

x

h x

x

+

=

( 4) 4

( 4)

4 4

u u

h u

u u

+

= =

12.

2

( 4)

( )

3

s

H s =

2

(2 4) 36

( 2) 12

3 3

H = = =

2

(7 4) 9

(7) 3

3 3

H = = =

( ) ( )

2

2

1 7

49

2 2

4

4

1 49

2 3 3 3 12

H

= = = =

( )

2 2 4 2

2

( 4) 8 16

3 3

x x x

H x

+

= =

13. f(4) = 4 + 16 = 20

f(2) = 3

f(0) = 3

f(1) is not defined.

14.

1 1 1 3

1 1

2 2 2 2

f

= + = + =

2

(0) 0 1 1 f = + =

2

1 1 1 5

1 1

2 2 4 4

f

= + = + =

3

(5) 5 99 125 99 26 f = = =

3

(6) 6 99 216 99 117 f = = =

15. a. f(x + h) = 3 7(x + h) = 3 7x 7h

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 2 Review

83

b.

( ) ( ) f x h f x

h

+ (3 7 7 ) (3 7 ) x h x

h

=

7

7

h

h

= =

16. a.

2

2 2

( ) 11( ) 4

11 22 11 4

f x h x h

x xh h

+ = + +

= + + +

b.

( ) ( ) f x h f x

h

+

2 2 2

(11 22 11 4) (11 4) x xh h x

h

+ + + +

=

2

22 11

22 11

xh h

x h

h

+

= = +

17. a.

2

( ) 4( ) 2( ) 5 f x h x h x h + = + + +

2 2

4 8 4 2 2 5 x xh h x h = + + + +

b.

( ) ( ) f x h f x

h

+

2 2 2

2

(4 8 4 2 2 5) (4 2 5)

8 4 2

8 4 2

x xh h x h x x

h

xh h h

h

x h

+ + + + +

=

+ +

=

= + +

18. a.

7 7

( )

( ) 1 1

f x h

x h x h

+ = =

+ + + +

b.

7( 1)7( 1)

7 7

( 1)( 1)

1 1

( ) ( ) 7 7

( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)

x x h

x h x

x h x

f x h f x h

h h h x h x h x h x

+ + +

+ + +

+ + +

+

= = = =

+ + + + + +

19. f(x) = 3x 1, g(x) = 2x + 3

a. (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) = (3x 1) + (2x + 3) = 5x + 2

b. (f + g)(4) = 5(4) + 2 = 22

c. (f g)(x) = f(x) g(x) = (3x 1) (2x + 3) = x 4

d. ( )( ) ( ) ( ) (3 1)(2 3) fg x f x g x x x = = +

2

6 7 3 x x = +

e.

2

( )(1) 6(1) 7(1) 3 10 fg = + =

f.

( ) 3 1

( )

( ) 2 3

f f x x

x

g g x x

= =

+

g. ( )( ) ( ( )) (2 3) f g x f g x f x = = + 3(2 3) 1 6 8 x x = + = +

h. ( )(5) 6(5) 8 38 f g = + =

i. ( )( ) ( ( )) (3 1) g f x g f x g x = = 2(3 1) 3 6 1 x x = + = +

20.

2

( ) , f x x = g(x) = 3x 2

a.

2

( )( ) ( ) ( ) 3 2 f g x f x g x x x + = + = +

b.

2 2

( )( ) ( ) ( ) (3 2) 3 2 f g x f x g x x x x x = = = +

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

84

c.

2

( )( 3) ( 3) 3( 3) 2 2 f g = + =

d.

2

3 2

( )( ) ( ) ( )

( )(3 2)

3 2

fg x f x g x

x x

x x

=

=

= +

e.

2

( )

( )

( ) 3 2

f f x x

x

g g x x

= =

f.

2

(2)

(2) 1

3(2) 2

f

g

= =

g.

2

2

( )( ) ( ( ))

(3 2)

(3 2)

9 12 4

f g x f g x

f x

x

x x

=

=

=

= +

h.

2

2

2

( )( ) ( ( ))

( )

3( ) 2

3 2

g f x g f x

g x

x

x

=

=

=

=

i.

2

( )( 4) 3( 4) 2 48 2 50 g f = = =

21.

2

1

( ) , f x

x

= g(x) = x + 1

2

1

( )( ) ( ( )) ( 1)

( 1)

f g x f g x f x

x

= = + =

+

2

2 2 2

1 1 1

( )( ) ( ( )) 1

x

g f x g f x g

x x x

+

= = = + =

22.

1

( ) ,

4

x

f x

+

= ( ) g x x =

( )

1

( )( ) ( ( ))

4

x

f g x f g x f x

+

= = =

1 1

( )( ) ( ( ))

4 4

x x

g f x g f x g

+ +

= = =

1

2

x +

=

23. f(x) = 2, x +

3

( ) g x x =

3 3

( )( ) ( ( )) ( ) 2 f g x f g x f x x = = = +

( ) ( )

3

( )( ) ( ( )) 2 2 g f x g f x g x x = = + = +

3/ 2

( 2) x = +

24. f(x) = 2, g(x) = 3

( )( ) ( ( )) (3) 2 f g x f g x f = = =

( )( ) ( ( )) (2) 3 g f x g f x g = = =

25.

3

3 y x x =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

3

0 3 , x x =

2

(3 ) 0, x x = 0, 3. x =

If x = 0, then y = 0.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

3

3 y x x =

3

3 , y x x = + which is not the

original equation.

y-axis:

3

3

3( ) ( )

3

y x x

y x x

=

= +

origin:

3

3( ) ( ) y x x =

3

3 , y x x = which is the original

equation.

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

3

3 , b a a = but

3

3 a b b = is not necessarily true, so

(b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (0, 0),

( )

3, 0 ; symmetry about

origin

26.

2 2

2 2

4

1

x y

x y

=

+ +

Intercepts: If y = 0, then 0 = 4, which is

impossible; if x = 0, then 0 = 4, which is

impossible.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2 2

2 2

( )

4

( ) 1

x y

x y

=

+ +

2 2

2 2

4

1

x y

x y

=

+ +

, which is the original

equation.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 2 Review

85

y-axis:

2 2

2 2

( )

4

( ) 1

x y

x y

=

+ +

2 2

2 2

4

1

x y

x y

=

+ +

, which is the

original equation.

origin:

2 2

2 2

( ) ( )

4

( ) ( ) 1

x y

x y

=

+ +

2 2

2 2

4,

1

x y

x y

=

+ +

which is the

original equation.

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2 2

2 2

4

1

a b

a b

=

+ +

and

2

2

2

4( 1)

.

4

a

b

a

+

=

(b, a) on graph,

then

2 2

2 2

4

1

b a

b a

=

+ +

and

2

2

2

4( 1)

,

4

a

b

a

+

=

are both on the graph.

Answer: no intercepts; symmetry about x-axis,

y-axis, origin, and y = x.

27.

2

9 y x =

Intercepts: If y = 0, then

2

0 9 (3 )(3 ) x x x = = + , or x = 3

If x = 0, then y = 9.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis:

2

9 y x =

2

9 y x = + , which is not the original

equation.

y-axis:

2

9 ( ) y x =

2

9 y x = , which is the original

equation.

origin:

2

2

9 ( )

9 , which is not the

y x

y x

=

= +

original equation.

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then

2

9 b a = and

2

9 9 a b b = for all b, so

(b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (0, 9), (3, 0); symmetry about y-axis.

y

10

x

10

28. y = 3x 7

Intercepts: If y = 0, then 0 = 3x 7, or x =

7

3

.

If x = 0, then y = 7.

Testing for symmetry gives:

x-axis: y = 3x 7

y = 3x + 7, which is not the original

equation.

y-axis: y = 3(x) 7

y = 3x 7, which is not the original

equation.

origin: y = 3(x) 7

y = 3x + 7, which is not the original

equation.

line y = x: (a, b) on graph, then b = 3a 7 and

1

( 7) 3 7

3

a b b = + for all b, so

(b, a) is not on the graph.

Answer: (0, 7),

7

, 0

3

; no symmetry of the

given types

y

10

x

10

7

3

29. ( ) 4 G u u = +

If G(u) = 0, then 0 4 u = + .

0 = u + 4,

u = 4

If u = 0, then G(u) = 4 2 = .

Intercepts: (0, 2), (4, 0)

Domain: all real numbers u such that u 4

Range: all real numbers 0

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

86

G(u)

10

u

10

30. ( ) 1 f x x = +

If f(x) = 0, then 0 1. x = +

1 x = , which has no solution.

If x = 0, then f(x) = 1.

Intercept: (0, 1)

Domain: all real numbers

Range: all real numbers 1

f(x)

10

x

10

31.

2

( )

4

y g t

t

= =

If y = 0, then

2

0

4 t

= , which has no solution.

If t = 0, then y =

2 1

4 2

= .

Intercept:

1

0,

2

Domain: all real numbers t such that t 4

Range: all real numbers > 0

g(t)

10

t

10

32. ( ) 5 h u u =

If h(u) = 0, then 0 5 , u =

u = 0.

If u = 0, h(u) = 0.

Intercept: (0, 0)

Domain: all reals 0

Range: all reals 0

h(u)

8

u

8

33. Domain: all real numbers.

Range: all real numbers 2

y

5

x

5

34.

y

8

x

8

y = x 2 1

f(x) = x

35.

y

10

x

10

1

2

f(x) =x

2

y = x

2

+2

36. For 2006, t = 5. Hence

S = 150,000 + 3000(5) = $165,000.

S is a function of t.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 2

87

37. From the vertical-line test, the graphs that

represent functions of x are (a) and (c).

38.

a. 729

b. 359.43

39.

2 2

8

8

0.67; 0.34, 1.73

40.

3 6

30

90

1.38, 4.68

41.

2 2

5

5

1.50, 0.88, 0.11, 1.09, 1.40

42.

8 8

20

20

(,)

43.

8 8

20

20

a. (,)

b. (1.92, 0), (0, 7)

44.

8

20

8

20

a. 9.03

b. all real numbers 9.03

c. 5, 2.

45. k = 0, 2, 4

3

2

2

3

k = 1, 3

3

2

3

2

a. 0, 2, 4

b. none

Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 2

1. (23,000) 1510 0.15(23,000 15,100)

2695

f = +

=

The tax on $23,000 is $2695.

2. (85,000) 8440 0.25(85,000 61,300)

14,365

f = +

=

The tax on $85,000 is $14,365.

3. (290,000) 42,170 0.33(290,000 188,450)

75,681.5

f = +

=

The tax on $290,000 is $75,681.50.

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

88

4. (462,000) 91,043 0.35(462,000 336,550)

134,950.5

f = +

=

The tax on $462,000 is $134,950.50.

5. Answers may vary.

6. There should be no jump in tax as one moves from one tax bracket to the next, since it would be unfair for two

couples whose incomes differ by only $0.01 to pay substantially different taxes.

7.

( ) ( )

0.10 if 0 15,100

[1510 0.15( 15,100)] if 15,100 61,300

[8440 0.25( 61,300)] if 61,300 123,700

[24,040 0.28( 123,700)] if 123,700 188,450

[42,170 0.33( 188,450)] if 188,450 336,5

g x x f x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

=

+ <

+ <

=

+ <

+ < 50

[91,043 0.35( 336,550)] if 336,550

0.90 if 0 15,100

0.85 755 if 15,100 61,300

0.75 6885 if 61,300 123,700

0.72 10,596 if 123,700 188,450

0.67 20,018.50 if 188,450 336,550

0.65 26,749.50

x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x

+ >

+ <

+ <

=

+ <

+ <

+ if 336,550 x

>

8.

400,000

200,000

0

x

400,000 200,000

g(x)

89

Chapter 3

Principles in Practice 3.1

1. Let x = the time (in years) and let y = the selling

price. Then,

In 1991:

1

1991 x = and

1

32,000 y =

In 1994:

2

1994 x = and

2

26,000 y =

The slope is

2 1

2 1

y y

m

x x

26,000 32,000

1994 1991

6000

3

=

= 2000

The car depreciated $2000 per year.

x (time)

y (price)

40

30

20

10

1991 1990 1992 1993 1994

P

r

i

c

e

(

i

n

t

h

o

u

s

a

n

d

s

o

f

d

o

l

l

a

r

s

)

Year

2. An equation relating the growth in enrollment to

the number of years can be found by using the

point-slope form of an equation of a line. If

S = the number of students enrolled, and

T = the number of years, then the point-slope

form can be written as

( )

1 1

S S m T T =

Let m = 14,

1

50 S = , and

1

3 T = .

S 50 = 14(T 3)

S 50 = 14T 42

S = 14T + 8

3. A linear function relating Fahrenheit temperature

to Celsius temperature can be found by using the

point-slope form of an equation of a line.

2 1

2 1

F F

m

C C

77 41

25 5

36

20

=

9

5

=

( )

1 1

F F m C C =

9

41 ( 5)

5

F C =

9

41 9

5

F C =

9

32

5

F C = +

4. To find the slope and y-intercept, let a = 1000,

then write the equation in slope-intercept form.

1

( 1)

24

y t a = +

1

( 1)1000

24

y t = +

1000 1000

24 24

y t = +

125 125

3 3

y t = +

Thus the slope, m, is

125

3

and the y-intercept, b,

is

125

3

.

5.

9

32

5

9

5( ) 5 32

5

5 9 160

0 9 5 160

F C

F C

F C

C F

= +

= +

= +

= +

Thus, 9C 5F + 160 = 0 is a general linear form

of

9

32

5

F C = + .

6.

C

F

100 100

100

100

To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit, locate the

Celsius temperature on the horizontal axis, move

vertically to the line, then move horizontally to

read the Fahrenheit temperature of the vertical

axis.

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

90

7. Right angles are formed by perpendicular lines.

The slopes of the sides of the triangle are:

0 0 0

0

6 0 6

AB m

= = =

7 0 7

7

7 6 1

BC m

= = =

7 0 7

1

7 0 7

AC m

= = =

Since none of the slopes are negative reciprocals

of each other, there are no perpendicular lines.

Therefore, the points do not define a right

triangle.

Problems 3.1

1.

10 1 9

3

7 4 3

m

= = =

2.

10 3 7

1

2 5 7

m

= = =

3.

3 ( 2) 1 1

8 6 2 2

m

= = =

4.

4 ( 4) 0

0

3 2 1

m

= = =

5. The difference in the x-coordinates is 5 5 = 0,

so the slope is undefined.

6.

0 ( 6) 6

2

3 0 3

m

= = =

7.

2 ( 2) 0

0

4 5 1

m

= = =

8.

0 ( 7) 7

9 1 8

m

= =

9. 7 5[ ( 1)]

7 5( 1)

7 5 5

5 2 0

y x

y x

y x

x y

=

= +

=

+ =

x

y

10

5

10. 0 75( 0)

75

75 0

y x

y x

x y

=

=

=

x

y

100

10

11.

1

5 [ ( 2)]

4

4( 5) ( 2)

4 20 2

4 18 0

y x

y x

y x

x y

=

= +

=

+ =

y

10

x

10

9

2

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.1

91

12.

1 5

5

3 2

5

6( 5) 2

2

6 30 2 5

2 6 35 0

y x

y x

y x

x y

=

= +

= +

+ =

y

10

x

10

35

6

13.

4 1 3

1 ( 6) 7

m

= =

3

4 ( 1)

7

7( 4) 3( 1)

7 28 3 3

3 7 25 0

y x

y x

y x

x y

=

=

=

+ =

y

10

x

10

14.

2 ( 4) 6

6

5 6 1

m

= = =

2 6( 5)

2 6 30

6 32 0

y x

y x

x y

=

= +

+ =

y

50

x

10

15.

8 ( 4) 4

4

2 ( 3) 1

m

= = =

( 4) 4[ ( 3)]

4 4 12

4 16 0

y x

y x

x y

=

+ =

+ + =

x

y

20

20

16.

3 0 3

2 0 2

m

= =

3

0 ( 0)

2

3

2

2 3

3 2 0

y x

y x

y x

x y

=

=

=

=

y

10

x

10

17. y = 2x + 4

2x y + 4 = 0

y

10

4

x

10 2

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

92

18. y = 5x 7

5x y 7 = 0

y

10

x

10 7

5

7

19.

1

3

2

1

2 2 3

2

2 6

2 6 0

y x

y x

y x

x y

=

=

=

+ + =

x

y

5

3

3 6

20.

1

0

2

1

2

2 1

2 1 0

y x

y

y

y

=

=

=

+ =

x

y

5

5

1

2

21. A horizontal line has the form y = b. Thus

y = 3, or y + 3 = 0.

x

y

5

5

22. A vertical line has the form x = a. Thus x = 1,

or x + 1 = 0.

x

y

5

5

(1, 1)

23. A vertical line has the form x = a. Thus x = 2, or

x 2 = 0.

x

y

5

5

(2, 3)

24. A horizontal line has the form y = b. Thus y = 0.

x

y

5

5

(0, 0)

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.1

93

25. y = 4x 6 has the form y = mx + b, where m = 4

and b = 6.

x

y

10

10

26. x 2 = 6 or x = 8, is a vertical line. Thus the

slope is undefined. There is no y-intercept.

x

y

5

8

27. 3 5 9 0

5 3 9

3 9

5 5

x y

y x

y x

+ =

= +

= +

3 9

,

5 5

m b = =

x

y

5

9

5

5

28. 4 7

3

0 3

y

y

y x

+ =

=

= +

m = 0, b = 3

x

y

5

5

3

29. x = 5 is a vertical line. Thus the slope is

undefined. There is no y-intercept.

x

y

5

5 5

30. 9 5 3

5 12

1 12

5 5

x y

y x

y x

= +

=

=

m =

1

5

, b =

12

5

x

y

5

20

12

5

31. y = 3x

y = 3x + 0

m = 3, b = 0

x

y

5

5

32. 7 3( 4)

7 3 12

3 5

y x

y x

y x

=

=

=

m = 3, b = 5

x

y

3

5

5

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

94

33. 3

0 3

y

y x

=

= +

m = 0, b = 3

x

y

5

3

5

34. 6 24 0

4

0 4

y

y

y x

=

=

= +

m = 0, b = 4

x

y

5

5

35. 2x = 5 3y, or 2x + 3y 5 = 0 (general form)

3y = 2x + 5, or

2 5

3 3

y x = + (slope-intercept

form)

36. 3x + 2y = 6, or 3x + 2y 6 = 0 (general form)

2y = 3x + 6, or

3

3

2

y x = + (slope-intercept

form)

37. 4x + 9y 5 = 0 is a general form.

9y = 4x + 5, or

4 5

9 9

y x = + (slope-intercept

form)

38. 3( 4) 7( 1) 2

3 12 7 7 2

3 7 21 0 (general form)

x y

x y

x y

+ =

=

=

7y = 3x + 21, or

3

3

7

y x = (slope-intercept

form)

39.

2 3

4

2 3 4

2 19

12 12

2 3 4

6 8 57

6 8 57 0 (general form)

8 6 57

3 57

(slope-intercept form)

4 8

x y

x y

x y

x y

y x

y x

+ =

+ =

+ =

=

= +

=

40.

1

8

300

y x = + is in slope-intercept form.

1

300 300 8

300

300 2400

300 2400 0 (general form)

y x

y x

x y

= +

= +

+ =

41. The lines y = 7x + 2 and y = 7x 3 have the

same slope, 7. Thus they are parallel.

42. The lines y = 4x + 3 and y = 5 + 4x (or

y = 4x + 5) have the same slope, 4. Thus they are

parallel.

43. The lines y = 5x + 2 and 5x + y 3 = 0 (or

y = 5x + 3) have the same slope, 5. Thus they are

parallel.

44. The line y = x has slope

1

1 m = and the line

y = x has slope

2

1 m = .

1

2

1

m

m

= so the

lines are perpendicular.

45. The line x + 3y + 5 = 0

1 5

or

3 3

y x

=

has

slope

1

1

3

m = and the line y = 3x has slope

2

3. m = Since

1 2

m m and

1

2

1

, m

m

the

lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular.

46. The line x + 3y = 0

1

or

3

y x

=

has slope

1

1

3

m = and the line x + 6y 4 = 0 (or

1 2

6 3

y x

= +

has slope

2

1

.

6

m = Since

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.1

95

1 2

m m and

1

2

1

m

m

, the lines are neither

parallel nor perpendicular.

47. The line y = 3 is horizontal and the line

1

3

x =

is vertical, so the lines are perpendicular.

48. Both lines are vertical and thus parallel.

49. The line 3x + y = 4 (or y = 3x + 4) has slope

m

1

= 3, and the line x 3y + 1 = 0

1 1

or

3 3

y x

= +

has slope

2

1

3

m = . Since

2

1

1

m

m

= , the lines are perpendicular.

50. The line x 2 = 3 (or x = 5) is vertical and the

line y = 2 is horizontal, so the lines are

perpendicular.

51. The slope of 2

4

x

y = is

1

,

4

so the slope of

a line parallel to it must also be

1

.

4

An

equation of the desired line is

1

1 ( 1)

4

y x =

or

1 5

.

4 4

y x = +

52. x = 4 is a vertical line. A line parallel to x = 4

has the form x = a. Since the line must pass

through (2, 8), its equation is x = 2.

53. y = 2 is a horizontal line. A line parallel to it has

the form y = b. Since the line must pass through

(2, 1) its equation is y = 1.

54. The slope of y = 3 + 2x is 2, so the slope of a line

parallel to it must also be 2. An equation of the

desired line is y (4) = 2(x 3), or y = 2x 10.

55. The slope of y = 3x 5 is 3, so the slope of a line

perpendicular to it must have slope

1

.

3

An

equation of the desired line is

1

4 ( 3),

3

y x =

or

1

5.

3

y x = +

56. y = 4 is a horizontal line. The perpendicular line

must be vertical and has an equation of the form

x = a. Since that line passes through (1, 1), its

equation is x = 1.

57. y = 3 is a horizontal line, so the perpendicular

line must be vertical with equation of the form

x = a. Since that line passes through (5, 2), its

equation is x = 5.

58. The line

2

3 3

5

x

y = +

2

or 1

15

x

y

= +

has

slope

2

,

15

so the slope of a line perpendicular

to it must have slope

15

.

2

An equation of the

desired line is

15

( 5) ( 4)

2

y x = or

15

35.

2

y x =

59. The line 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 has slope

2

,

3

so the

slope of a line parallel to it must also be

2

.

3

An

equation of the desired line is

2

( 5) [ ( 7)],

3

y x = or

2 29

.

3 3

y x =

60. The y-axis is vertical. A parallel line is also

vertical and has an equation of the form x = a.

Since it passes through (4, 10), its equation is

x = 4.

61. (1, 2), (3, 8)

8 2 6 3

3 1 4 2

m

= = =

Point-slope form:

3

2 ( 1)

2

y x = . When the

x-coordinate is 5,

3

2 (5 1)

2

3

2 (4)

2

2 6

4

y

y

y

y

=

=

=

=

Thus the point is (5, 4).

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

96

62. m = 3, b = 1

Slope-intercept form: y = 3x + 1. The point

(1, 2) lies on the line if its coordinates satisfy

the equation. If x = 1 and y = 2, then

2 = 3(1) + 1 or 2 = 2, which is true. Thus

(1, 2) lies on the line.

63. Let x = the time (in years) and

y = the price per share. Then,

In 1988:

1

1988 x = and

1

37 y =

In 1998:

2

1998 x = and

2

8 y =

The slope is

8 37

1998 1988

m

=

29

2.9

10

= =

The stock price dropped an average of $2.90 per

year.

x (time)

y (price)

20

0

10

1988 1993 1998

Year

P

r

i

c

e

p

e

r

s

h

a

r

e

(

d

o

l

l

a

r

s

)

30

40

64. The number of home runs hit increased as a

function of time (in months). The given points

are ( )

1 1

, (3, 14) x y = and ( )

2 2

, (5, 20) x y = .

2 1

2 1

y y

m

x x

20 14

5 3

6

2

= = 3

Using the point-slope form with m = 3 and

( )

1 1

, (3, 14) x y = gives

( )

1 1

14 3( 3)

14 3 9

3 5

y y m x x

y x

y x

y x

=

=

=

= +

65. The owners profits increased as a function of

time. Let x = the time (in years) and let

y = the profit (in dollars). The given points are

( )

1 1

, (0, 100,000) x y = and

( )

2 2

, (5, 40,000) x y = .

2 1

2 1

y y

m

x x

40,000 ( 100,000)

5 0

=

140,000

5

=

= 28,000

Using the point-slope form with m = 28,000 and

( )

1 1

, (0, 100,000) x y = gives

( )

1 1

( 100,000) 28,000( 0)

100,000 28,000

28,000 100,000

y y m x x

y x

y x

y x

=

=

+ =

=

66. Solve the equation for t.

L = 1.53t 6.7

L + 6.7 = 1.53t

( 6.7)

1.53

L

t

+

=

0.65L + 4.38 = t

The slope is approximately 0.65 and the

y-intercept is approximately 4.38.

67. A general linear form of d = 184 + t is

t + d 184 = 0.

68. a. Using the points (3.5, 1.5) and (0.5, 0.5)

gives a slope of

1.5 0.5 2

.

3.5 0.5 3

m

= =

An equation is

2

0.5 ( 0.5)

3

y x = or

2 5

.

3 6

y x = +

b. Using the points (0.5, 0.5) and (1, 2.5)

gives a slope of

2.5 0.5 3

2.

1 0.5 1.5

m

= = =

An equation is y 0.5 = 2(x 0.5) or

1

2 .

2

y x =

These two paths are not perpendicular to each

other because the slopes are not negative

reciprocals of each other.

69. The slopes of the sides of the figure are:

4 0 4

0 0 0

AB m

= = =

undefined (vertical)

7 3 4

2 2 0

CD m

= = =

undefined (vertical)

3 0 3

2 0 2

AC m

= =

7 4 3

2 0 2

BD m

= =

Since AB is parallel to CD and AC is parallel

to , BC ABCD is a parallelogram.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.2

97

70. Let x = the distance traveled and let

y = the altitude. The path of descent is a straight

line with a slope of 1 and y-intercept of 3600.

Therefore, using the slope-intercept form with

m = 1 and b = 3600 gives

y = mx + b

y = (1)x + 3600

y = x + 3600

500 4000

1000

4000

If the airport is located 3800 feet from where the

plane begins its landing approach, the plane will

crash 200 feet short of the airport.

71. The line has slope 59.82 and passes through

(6, 1128.50). Thus C 1128.50 = 59.82(T 6)

or

C = 59.82T + 769.58.

72. The line has slope 50,000 and passes through

(5, 330,000). Thus R 330,000 = 50,000(T 5)

or R = 50,000T + 80,000.

73.

10

10

10

10

The graph of the equation y = 0.9x 7.3 shows

that when x = 0, y = 7.3. Thus, the y-intercept is

7.3.

74.

10

10

10

10

The lines are parallel, which is expected because

they have the same slope, 1.5.

75. The slope is 7.1.

76.

10

10

10 10

10

15

10

15

The slope of the first line is

1

0.1875

0.625

0.3

m = = , and the slope of the

second line is

2

0.32

1.6

0.2

m = = . Since

1

2

1

m

m

= , the lines are perpendicular.

Principles in Practice 3.2

1. Let x = the number of skis that are produced and

let y = the number of boots that are produced.

Then, the equation 8x + 14y = 1000 describes all

possible production levels of the two products.

2. The quantity and price are linearly related such

that p = 575 when q = 1200, and p = 725 when

q = 800. Thus ( )

1 1

, (1200, 575) q p = and

( )

2 2

, (800, 725) q p = . The slope is

725 575 3

800 1200 8

m

= =

.

An equation of the line is

( )

1 1

p p m q q =

3

575 ( 1200)

8

p q =

3

575 450

8

p q = +

3

1025

8

p q = +

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

98

3. Answers may vary, but two possible points are

(0, 60) and (2, 140).

f(x) = 40x + 60

x f(x)

0 60

2 140

x

f(x)

1000

20

0

500

4. If t = the age of the child, then f(t) = the height

of the child at any age t. The height and age are

linearly related such that f(8) = 50.6. Since f(t) is

a linear function it has the form f(t) = at + b.

Since the height changes by 2.3 inches per year,

a = 2.3. Then,

f(t) = at + b

f(8) = 2.3(8) + b

50.6 = 18.4 + b

32.2 = b

Thus, f(t) = 2.3t + 32.2 is a function that

describes the height of the child at age t.

5. Let y = f(x) = a linear function that describes the

value of the necklace after x years. The problem

states that f(3) = 360 and f(7) = 640. Thus,

( ) ( )

1 1 2 2

, (3, 360) and , (7, 640) x y x y = = . The

slope is

2 1

2 1

640 360 280

70

7 3 4

y y

m

x x

= = = =

Using the point-slope form with m = 70 and

( )

1 1

, (3, 360) x y = gives

( )

1 1

y y m x x =

y 360 = 70(x 3)

y = f(x) = 70x + 150

Problems 3.2

1. y = f(x) = 4x = 4x + 0 has the form

f(x) = ax + b where a = 4 (the slope) and b = 0

(the vertical-axis intercept).

x

y

5

5

2. y = f(x) = x + 1 has the form f(x) = ax + b where

a = 1 (the slope) and b = 1 (the vertical-axis

intercept).

x

y

5

1

5

3. h(t) = 5t 7 has the form h(t) = at

+ b with a = 5

(the slope) and b = 7 (the vertical-axis intercept).

t

h(t)

10

10

4. f(s) = 3(5 2s) = 15 6s has the form

f(s) = as + b where a = 6 (slope) and b = 15 (the

vertical-axis intercept).

s

f(s)

16

5

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.2

99

5.

2 2 1

( )

7 7 7

q

h q q

h(q) = aq + b where

1

7

a = (the slope) and

2

7

b = (the vertical-axis intercept).

q

h(q)

5

2

7

5

6. h(q) = 0.5q + 0.25 has the form h(q) = aq + b

with a = 0.5 (the slope) and b = 0.25 (the

vertical-axis intercept).

q

h(q)

1

1 0.5

0.25

7. f(x) = ax + b = 4x + b. Since f(2) = 8, 8 = 4(2) + b,

8 = 8 + b, b = 0 f(x) = 4x.

8. Let y = f(x). The points (0, 3) and (4, 5) lie on

the graph of f.

5 3

2

4 0

m

= =

. Thus

y 3 = 2(x 0), so

y = 2x + 3 ( ) f x = 2x + 3.

9. Let y = f(x). The points (1, 2) and (2, 8) lie on

the graph of f.

8 2

2

2 1

m

= =

. Thus

y 2 = 2(x 1), so

y = 2x + 4 ( ) f x = 2x + 4.

10. f(x) = ax + b = 2x + b.

Since

2

7,

5

f

=

we have

2

7 2

5

4 31

7

5 5

b

b

= +

= + =

so

31

( ) 2 .

5

f x x =

11.

2

( )

3

f x ax b x b = + = + . Since

2 2

,

3 3

f

=

we have

2 2 2

3 3 3

b

= +

2 4 10

3 9 9

b = = ,

so

2 10

( )

3 9

f x x = .

12. Let y = f(x). The points (1, 1) and (2, 2) lie on

the graph of f.

2 1

1

2 1

m

= =

.

Thus y 1 = 1(x 1) y = x, so f(x) = x.

13. Let y = f(x). The points (2, 1) and (4, 3) lie

on the graph of f.

3 1

1

4 2

m

+

= =

+

. Thus

y + 1 = 1(x + 2), so y = x + 1 f(x) = x + 1.

14. f(x) = ax + b = 0.01x + b. Since f(0.1) = 0.01, we

have 0.01 = (0.01)(0.1) + b b = 0.009

f(x) = 0.01x + 0.009.

15. The points (40, 12.75) and (25, 18.75) lie on the

graph of the equation, which is a line.

18.75 12.75 2

.

25 40 5

m

= =

Hence an equation of

the line is

2

12.75 ( 40)

5

p q = , which can be

written

2

28.75.

5

p q = + When q = 37, then

2

(37) 28.75 $13.95.

5

p = + =

16. The line passes through (26,000, 12) and

(10,000, 18), so

18 12

0.000375.

10,000 26,000

m

= =

Then

p 18 = 0.000375(q 10,000) or

p = 0.000375q + 21.75.

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

100

17. The line passes through (3000, 940) and

(2200, 740), so

740 940

0.25.

2200 3000

m

= =

Then

p 740 = 0.25(q 2200) or p = 0.25q + 190.

18. The points (50, 35) and (35, 30) lie on the graph

of the equation, which is a line.

30 35 5 1

35 50 15 3

m

= = =

. Hence an equation of

the line is

1

35 ( 50)

3

p q =

1 55

3 3

p q = +

19. The line passing through (10, 40) and (20, 70)

has slope

70 40

3

20 10

line is

c 40 = 3(q 10)

c = 3q + 10

If q = 35, then c = 3(35) + 10 = 105 + 10 = $115.

20. The line passing through (100, 79) and (400, 88)

has slope

88 79

0.03,

400 100

so an equation for

the line is

c 79 = 0.03(x 100)

c = 0.03x + 76

21. If x = the number of kilowatt hours used in a

month, then ( ) f x = the total monthly charges

for x kilowatt hours of electricity. If ( ) f x is a

linear function it has the form ( ) f x = ax + b.

The problem states that f(380) = 51.65. Since

12.5 cents are charged per kilowatt hour used,

a = 0.125.

f(x) = ax + b

51.65 = 0.125(380) + b

51.65 = 47.5 + b

4.15 = b

Hence, ( ) f x = 0.125x + 4.15 is a linear function

that describes the total monthly charges for any

number of kilowatt hours x.

22. The number of curative units from d cubic

centimeters of the drug is 210d, and the number

of curative units from r minutes of radiation is

305r. Thus

210d + 305r = 2410

42d + 61r = 482

d

r

20

20

0

23. Each year the value decreases by 0.10(1800).

After t years the total decrease is 0.10(1800)t.

Thus

v = 1800 0.10(1800)t

v = 180t + 1800

The slope is 180.

t

v

1800

10

0

24. The line has slope 120 and passes through

(4, 340). Thus y 340 = 120(x 4) or

y = f(x) = 120x + 820.

25. The line has slope 45,000 and passes through

(5, 960,000). Thus

y 960,000 = 45,000(x 5) or

y = f(x) = 45,000x + 735,000.

26. The line has slope

245,000 49,000

15 3

= and

y-intercept 245,000. So

49,000

( ) 245,000.

3

y f x x = = +

27. If x = the number of hours of service, then

f(x) = the price of x hours of service. Let y = f(x).

f(1) = 159 and f(3) = 287, so (1, 159) and

(3, 287) lie on the graph of f which has slope

287 159

64.

3 1

a

= =

y 159 = 64(x 1) or y = 64x + 95, so

f(x) = 64x + 95.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.2

101

28. a. Suppose r = respiratory rate,

l = wool length, and (l, r) lies on the graph,

which is a line. The points (2, 160) and

(4, 125) are on the line, so its slope is

125 160 35

4 2 2

. Thus

35

160 ( 2)

2

r l =

35

195

2

r l = +

b. If l = 1, then

35

(1) 195 177.5

2

r = + =

29. At $200/ton, x tons cost 200x, and at $2000/acre,

y acres cost 2000y. Hence the required equation

is 200x + 2000y = 20,000, which can be written

as x + 10y = 100.

30. P = 4x + 6y where x, y 0.

a. 240 = 4x + 6y

x

y

100

40

100 60

0

b. Since the equation can be written

2

40

3

y x = + , slope

2

3

= .

c. 600 = 4x + 6y. Since the equation can be

written

2

100,

3

y x = +

slope

2

3

= .

d. Solving P = 4x + 6y for y gives

2

3 6

P

y x = + . Thus any isoprofit line has

slope

2

3

, and lines with the same slope are

parallel. Hence isoprofit lines are parallel.

31. a.

100 65 35

100 56 44

m

= =

35

100 ( 100)

44

y x =

35 3500

100

44 44

y x = +

35 225

44 11

y x = +

b.

35 225

62

44 11

35 225

62

44 11

1828

52.2

35

x

x

x

= +

=

=

52.2 is the lowest passing score on original

scale.

32. R = 38N + 397 is a linear equation. Slope = 38.

N

R

587

549

511

473

435

5

0

33. p = f(t) = at + b, f(5) = 0.32, a = slope = 0.059.

a. p = f(t) = 0.059t + b. Since f(5) = 0.32,

0.32 = 0.059(5) + b, 0.32 = 0.295 + b, so

b = 0.025. Thus p = 0.059t + 0.025.

b. When t = 9, then

p = 0.059(9) + 0.025 = 0.556.

34. w = f(d) = ad + b, f(0) = 21,

a = slope

6.3

0.63.

10

= = Thus

w = f(d) = 0.63d + b. Since f(0) = 21, we have

20 = 0.63(0) + b, so b = 21. Hence

w = 0.63d + 21.

When d = 55, then

w = 0.63(55) + 21 = 34.65 + 21 = 55.65 kg.

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

102

35. a.

2 1

2 1

80 68 12 1

172 124 48 4

t t

m

c c

= = = =

.

1

68 ( 124)

4

t c = ,

1

68 31

4

t c = , or

1

37

4

t c = + .

b. Since c is the number of chirps per minute,

then

1

4

c is the number of chirps in

1

4

minute or 15 seconds. Thus from part (a), to

estimate temperature add 37 to the number

of chirps in 15 seconds.

Principles in Practice 3.3

1. In the quadratic function

2

( ) 2 399 y P x x x = = + + , a = 1, b = 2,

c = 399. Since a < 0, the parabola opens

downward. The x-coordinate of the vertex is

2

1

2 2( 1)

b

a

= =

.

The y-coordinate of the vertex is

( )

2

(1) 1 2(1) 399 400 P = + + = . Thus, the vertex

is (1, 400). Since c = 399, the y-intercept is

(0, 399). To find the x-intercepts we set

y = p(x) = 0.

2

0 2 399 x x = + +

( )

2

0 2 399 x x =

0 = (x + 19)(x 21)

Thus, the x-intercepts are (19, 0) and (21, 0).

x

y

25 25

100

400

If the model is correct, this is not a good

business, since it will lose money if more than

21 minivans are sold.

2. In the quadratic function

2

( ) 16 32 8 h t t t = + + ,

a = 16, b = 32, and c = 8. Since a < 0, the

parabola opens downward. The x -coordinate of

the vertex is

32

1

2 2( 16)

b

a

= =

. The

y-coordinate of the vertex is

( )

2

(1) 16 1 32(1) 8 24 h = + + = . Thus, the vertex

is (1, 24). Since c = 8, the y-intercept is (0, 8).

To find the x-intercepts we set y = h(t) = 0.

2

0 16 32 8 t t = + +

2

4

2

b b ac

t

a

=

2

32 32 4( 16)(8)

2( 16)

=

32 1536

32

=

32 16 6

32

=

6

1

2

=

Thus, the x-intercepts are

6

1 , 0

2

+

and

6

1 , 0

2

.

30

5

20

5

3. If we express the revenue r as a function of the

quantity produced q, we obtain

r = pq

r = (6 0.003q)q

2

6 0.003 r q q =

We note that this is a quadratic function with

a = 0.003, b = 6, and c = 0. Since a < 0, the

graph of the function is a parabola that opens

downward, and r is maximum at the vertex

(q, r).

6

1000

2 2( 0.003)

b

q

a

= = =

2

6(1000) 0.003(1000) 3000 r = =

Thus, the maximum revenue that the

manufacturer can receive is $3000, which occurs

at a production level of 1000 units.

Problems 3.3

1.

2

( ) 5 f x x = has the form

2

( ) f x ax bx c = + +

where a = 5, b = 0, and c = 0 quadratic.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.3

103

2.

2

1

( )

2 4

g x

x

=

2

( ) g x ax bx c = + + where

a 0 not quadratic.

3. g(x) = 7 6x cannot be put in the form

2

( ) g x ax bx c = + + where

a 0 not quadratic.

4.

2 2 4 2

( ) 3 ( 2) 3 6 k v v v v v = + = + cannot be put in

the form

2

( ) k v av bv c = + + where

a 0 not quadratic.

5.

2 2

( ) (3 ) 9 6 h q q q q = = + has form

2

( ) h q aq bq c = + + where a = 1, b = 6, and

c = 9 quadratic.

6.

2

( ) 2 (3 ) 4 2 10 f t t t t t t = + = + has the form

2

( ) f t at bt c = + + where a = 2, b = 10, and

c = 0 quadratic.

7.

2

2

9 1 9

( )

2 2 2

s

f s s

2

( ) f s as bs c = + + where

1

2

a = , b = 0, and

c =

9

2

quadratic.

8.

( )

2

2 4 2

( ) 1 2 1 g t t t t = = + cannot be put in

the form

2

( ) g t at bt c = + + where

a 0 not quadratic.

9.

2

( ) 4 8 7 y f x x x = = + +

a = 4, b = 8, c = 7

a. Vertex occurs when

8

1

2 2( 4)

b

x

a

= = =

.

When x = 1, then

2

(1) 4(1) 8(1) 7 11 y f = = + + = .

Vertex: (1, 11)

b. a = 4 < 0, so the vertex corresponds to the

highest point.

10.

2

( ) 8 4 1 y f x x x = = +

a = 8, b = 4, c = 1

a.

4 1

2 2 8 4

b

a

= =

2

1 1 1 3

8 4 1

4 4 4 2

f

= + =

Vertex:

1 3

,

4 2

b. a = 8 > 0, so the vertex corresponds to the

lowest point.

11.

2

6 y x x = +

a = 1, b = 1, c = 6

a. c = 6. Thus the y-intercept is 6.

b.

2

6 ( 2)( 3) 0, x x x x + = + = so x = 2, 3.

x-intercepts: 2, 3

c.

1

2 2

b

a

=

2

1 1 1 25

6

2 2 2 4

f

= =

Vertex:

1 25

,

2 4

12.

2

( ) 5 3 y f x x x = =

a = 3, b = 1, c = 5

a. c = 5. Thus the y-intercept is 5.

b.

2

2

4

2

( 1) ( 1) 4( 3)(5)

2( 3)

1 61

6

1 61

6

b b ac

x

a

=

=

=

x-intercepts:

1 61 1 61

,

6 6

+

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

104

c.

1 1

2 2( 3) 6

b

a

= =

2

1 1 1 61

5 3

6 6 6 12

f

= =

Vertex:

1 61

,

6 12

13.

2

( ) 6 5 y f x x x = = +

a = 1, b = 6, c = 5

Vertex:

6

3

2 2 1

b

a

= =

2

(3) 3 6(3) 5 4 f = + =

Vertex = (3, 4)

y-intercept: c = 5

x-intercepts:

2

6 5 x x + = (x 1)(x 5) = 0, so

x = 1, 5.

Range: all y 4

x

y

5

5 1

(3, 4)

14.

2

( ) 4 y f x x = =

a = 4, b = 0, c = 0

Vertex:

0

0

2 2( 4)

b

a

= =

2

(0) 4(0) 0 f = =

Vertex = (0, 0)

y-intercept: c = 0

x-intercepts:

2

4 0 x = , so x = 0.

Range: all y 0

x

y

5

5

15.

2

( ) 2 6 y g x x x = =

a = 2, b = 6, c = 0

Vertex:

6 6 3

2 2( 2) 4 2

b

a

= = =

2

3 3 3

2 6

2 2 2

f

=

9 9

9

2 2

= + =

Vertex:

3 9

,

2 2

y-intercept: c = 0

x-intercepts:

2

2 6 2 ( 3) 0 x x x x = + = , so

x = 0, 3.

Range: all

9

2

y

x

y

9

2

3

2

3

16.

2

( ) 4 y f x x = =

a = 1, b = 0, c = 4

Vertex:

0

0

2 2 1

b

a

= =

2

(0) 0 4 4 f = =

Vertex = (0, 4)

y-intercept: c = 4

x-intercepts:

2

4 ( 2)( 2) 0 x x x = + = , so

x = 2, 2.

Range: all y 4

x

y

5

4

2 2 5

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.3

105

17.

2

( ) 6 9 s h t t t = = + +

a = 1, b = 6, c = 9

Vertex:

6

3

2 2 1

b

a

= =

2

( 3) ( 3) 6( 3) 9 0 h = + + =

Vertex = (3, 0)

s-intercept: c = 9

t-intercepts:

2 2

6 9 ( 3) 0 t t t + + = + = , so t = 3.

Range: all s 0

t

s

10

3 3

18.

2

( ) 2 3 2 s h t t t = = +

a = 2, b = 3, c = 2

Vertex:

3 3

2 2 2 4

b

a

= =

2

3 3 3

2 3 2

4 4 4

h

= +

9 9 25

2

8 4 8

= =

Vertex

3 25

,

4 8

=

s-intercept: c = 2

t-intercepts:

2

2 3 2 (2 1)( 2) 0 t t t t + = + = , so

1

,

2

t = 2.

Range: all

25

8

s

x

y

5

5

2

2

1

2

3

4

( )

25

8

,

19.

2

( ) 9 8 2 y f x x x = = +

a = 2, b = 8, c = 9

Vertex:

8

2

2 2( 2)

b

a

= =

2

(2) 9 8(2) 2(2) 1 f = + =

Vertex = (2, 1)

y-intercept: c = 9

x-intercepts: Because the parabola opens

downward (a < 0) and the vertex is below the

x-axis, there is no x-intercept.

Range: y 1

x

y

2

9

(2, 1)

20.

2

( ) 1 y H x x x = =

a = 1, b = 1, c = 1

Vertex:

1 1

2 2( 1) 2

b

a

= =

2

1 1 1 5

1

2 2 2 4

f

= =

Vertex

1 5

,

2 4

=

y-intercept: c = 1

x-intercepts: Solving

2

1 0 x x = by the

quadratic formula gives

2

( 1) ( 1) 4( 1)(1) 1 5

2( 1) 2

x

= =

1 5

2

=

Range: all

5

4

y

x

y

5

5

+ 1 5

2

1 5

2

1

2

( )

5

4

,

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

106

21.

2

( ) 8 14 t f s s s = = +

a = 1, b = 8, c = 14

Vertex:

8

4

2 2 1

b

a

= =

2

(4) 4 8(4) 14 2 f = + =

Vertex = (4, 2)

t-intercept: c = 14

s-intercepts: Solving

2

8 14 0 s s + = by the

quadratic formula:

2

( 8) ( 8) 4(1)(14)

2(1)

s

=

8 8 8 2 2

4 2

2 2

= = =

Range: all t 2

s

t

(4, 2)

14

4 2 4 + 2

22.

2

( ) 6 11 t f s s s = = + +

a = 1, b = 6, c = 11

Vertex:

6

3

2 2 1

b

a

= =

2

( 3) ( 3) 6( 3) 11 2 f = + + =

Vertex: (3, 2)

t-intercept: c = 11

s-intercepts: Because the parabola opens upward

(a > 0) and the vertex is above the s-axis, there is

no s-intercept.

Range: all t 2

s

t

16

11

10

(3, 2)

23.

2

( ) 49 10 17 f x x x = +

Since a = 49 > 0, the parabola opens upward and

f(x) has a minimum value that occurs when

10 5

.

2 2 49 49

b

x

a

= = =

2

5 5 5 808

49 10 17 .

49 49 49 49

f

= + =

24.

2

( ) 3 18 7 f x x x = +

Since a = 3 < 0, the parabola opens downward

and f(x) has a maximum value that occurs when

18

3

2 2( 3)

b

x

a

= = =

The maximum value is

2

( 3) 3( 3) 18( 3) 7 34. f = + =

25.

2

( ) 4 50 0.1 f x x x =

Since a = 0.1 < 0, the parabola opens

downward and f(x) has a maximum value that

occurs when

4

20

2 2( 0.1)

b

x

a

= = =

. The

maximum value is

2

(20) 4(20) 50 0.1(20) 10 f = = .

26.

2

( ) ( 3) 12 3 12 f x x x x x = + = +

Because a = 1 > 0, the parabola opens upward

and f(x) has a minimum value that occurs when

3 3

2 2 1 2

b

x

a

= = =

2

3 3 3 57

3 12

2 2 2 4

f

= + =

27.

2

( ) 2 4 f x x x = +

a = 1, b = 2, c = 4

2

1

2 2(1)

b

v

a

= = =

The restricted function is

2

( ) 2 4, g x x x = +

x 1. From the quadratic formula applied to

2

2 4 0, x x y + = we get

2 4 4(1)(4 )

1 1 (4 )

2(1)

y

x y

= =

So the inverse of g(x) is

1

( ) 1 3, g x x

= +

x 3.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.3

107

y

8

x

8

g(x)

g

1

(x)

28.

2

( ) 4 3 f x x x = +

a = 1, b = 4, c = 3

4

2

2 2( 1)

b

v

a

= = =

The restricted function is

2

( ) 4 3, g x x x = +

x 2. From the quadratic formula applied to

2

4 3 0, x x y + = we get

4 16 4( 1)( 3 )

2( 1)

2 ( 1) 4 ( 3 )

y

x

y

=

= +

So the inverse of g(x) is

1

( ) 2 1 , g x x

= +

x 1.

y

5

x

5

g(x)

g

1

(x)

29. If we express the revenue r as a function of the

quantity produced q, we obtain

r = pq

r = (200 5q)q

2

200 5 r q q =

This is a quadratic function with a = 5,

b = 200, and c = 0. Since a < 0, the graph of the

function is a parabola that opens downward, and

r is maximum at the vertex (q, r).

200

20

2 2( 5)

b

q

a

= = =

2

200(20) 5(20) 2000 r = =

Thus, the maximum revenue that the

manufacturer can receive is $2000, which occurs

at a production level of 20 units.

30. If we express the revenue r as a function of the

quantity produced q, we obtain

r = pq

r = (0.85 0.00045q)q

2

0.85 0.00045 r q q =

This is a quadratic function with a = 0.00045,

b = 0.85, and c = 0. Since a < 0, the graph of the

function is a parabola that opens downward, and

r is a maximum at the vertex (q, r).

0.85 8500

944

2 2( 0.00045) 9

b

q

a

= = =

2

0.85(944) 0.00045(944) 401.39 r = =

Thus, the maximum revenue that the

manufacturer can receive is $401.39, which

occurs at a production level of 944 units.

31. If we express the revenue r as a function of the

quantity produced q, we obtain

r = pq

r = (2400 6q)q

2

2400 6 r q q =

This is a quadratic function with a = 6,

b = 2400, and c = 0. Since a < 0, the graph of the

function is a parabola that opens downward, and

r is maximum at the vertex (q, r).

2400

200

2 2( 6)

b

q

a

= = =

2

2400(200) 6(200) 240,000 r = =

Thus, the maximum revenue that the

manufacturer can receive is $240,000, which

occurs at a production level of 200 units.

32.

2

10 40 10

( ) (12 )

9 3 9

f n n n n n = = , where

0 n 12. Since

10

0

9

a = < , f(n) has a

maximum value that occurs at the vertex.

( )

40

3

10

9

6

2

2

b

a

= =

The maximum value of f(n) is

2

40 10

(6) (6) (6) 80 40 40

3 9

f = = = , which

corresponds to 40,000 households.

33. In the quadratic function

2

( ) 18 144, P x x x = + +

a = 1, b = 18, and c = 144. Since a < 0, the

graph of the function is a parabola that opens

downward. The x-coordinate of the vertex

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

108

is

18

9

2 2( 1)

b

a

= =

vertex is

( )

2

(9) 9 18(9) 144 225 P = + + = .

Thus, the vertex is (9, 225). Since c = 144, the

y-intercept is (0, 144). To find the x-intercepts,

let y = P(x) = 0.

2

0 18 144 x x = + +

( )

2

0 18 144 x x =

0 = (x 24)(x + 6)

Thus, the x-intercepts are (24, 0) and (6, 0).

P(x)

400

x

30 20

34. If k = 2, then

2

y kx =

2

2 y x =

This is a quadratic equation with a = 2, b = 0 and

c = 0. Since a > 0, the graph of the function is a

parabola that opens upward. The x-coordinate of

the vertex is

0

0

2 2(2)

b

a

= = .

The y-coordinate is

2

2(0) 0 y = =

Thus, the vertex is (0, 0).

x

y

8

5

35.

2

1

( ) 2 20

50

f P P P = + + , where 0 P 100.

Because

1

0

50

a = < , f(P) has a maximum

value that occurs at the vertex.

( )

1

50

2

50

2

2

b

a

= =

f(P) is

2

1

(50) (50) 2(50) 20 70

50

f

= + + = grams.

36.

2

4.9 62.3 1.8 s t t = + +

Since a = 4.9 < 0, s has a maximum value that

occurs at the vertex where

62.3 62.3 89

6.36

2 2( 4.9) 9.8 14

b

t

a

= = = =

sec.

When

89

,

14

t = then

2

89 89

4.9 62.3 1.8

14 14

199.825 meters.

s

= + +

=

37.

2

( ) 16 85 22 h t t t = + +

Since a = 16 < 0, h(t) has a maximum value

that occurs at the vertex where

85

2.7 sec.

2 2( 16)

b

t

a

= =

When t = 2.7,

then

2

( ) 16(2.7) 85(2.7) 22 134.86 feet. h t = + + =

38.

2

( ) 16 16 4 h t t t = + +

Since a = 16 < 0, h(t) has a maximum value

that occurs at the vertex where

16 1

sec.

2 2( 16) 2

b

t

a

= = =

When

1

,

2

t =

then,

2

1 1

( ) 16 16 4 8 feet.

2 2

h t

= + + =

39. In the quadratic function

2

( ) 16 80 16 h t t t = + + ,

a = 16, b = 80, and c = 16. Since a < 0, the

graph of the function is a parabola that opens

downward. The x-coordinate of the vertex is

80 5

2 2( 16) 2

b

a

= =

.

The y-coordinate of the vertex is

2

5 5 5

16 80 16 116

2 2 2

h

= + + =

Thus, the vertex is

5

, 116

2

. Since c = 16, the

y-intercept is (0, 16). To find the x-intercepts, we

let y = h(t) = 0.

2

0 16 80 16 t t = + +

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.4

109

2

2

4

2

80 80 4( 16)(16)

2( 16)

80 7424 5 29

32 2

b b ac

t

a

=

=

= =

Thus, the x-intercepts are

5 29

, 0

2

+

and

5 29

, 0

2

.

x

h(t)

10 10

160

40.

2

(11 ) 11 A x x x x = = , so A is a quadratic

function of x where a = 1 < 0. A has maximum

value at the vertex where

11 11

2 2( 1) 2

b

x

a

= = =

.

41. Since the total length of fencing is 500, the side

opposite the highway has length 500 2x. The

area A is given by

2

(500 2 ) 500 2 , A x x x x = =

which is quadratic with a = 2 < 0. Thus A is

maximum when

500

125.

2( 2)

x = =

Then the

side opposite the highway is

500 2x = 500 2(125) = 250. Thus the

dimensions are 125 ft by 250 ft.

Highway

x x

500 2x

42. Let x, y be two numbers whose sum is 78. Thus

x + y = 78 and y = 78 x. Their product is then

2

( ) (78 ) 78 . p x x x x x = = Since a = 1 < 0,

p(x) has a maximum value that occurs at the

vertex where

78

39

2 2( 1)

b

x

a

= = =

and

y = 78 x = 78 39 = 39. Thus, two numbers

whose sum is 78 and whose product is a

maximum are 39 and 39.

43. (1.11, 2.88)

44. 1.61, 3.73

45. a. none

b. one

c. two

46. 14.18

47. 4.89

Principles in Practice 3.4

1. Let x = the number invested at 9% and let

y = the amount invested at 8%. Then, the

problem states

200,000,

0.09 0.08 17,200.

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

We eliminate x by multiplying the first equation

by 0.09 and then adding

0.09 0.09 18,000,

0.09 0.08 17,200.

x y

x y

=

+ =

0.01 800,

80,000.

y

y

=

=

Therefore,

120,000,

80,000.

x

y

=

Thus, $120,000 is invested at 9% and $80,000 is

invested at 8%.

2. Let A = the number of deer of species A, and let

B = the number of deer of species B. Then, the

number of pounds of food pellets that will be

consumed is 4A + 2B = 4000. The number of

pounds of hay that will be consumed is

5A + 7B = 9500. Then, we have

4 2 4000,

5 7 9500.

A B

A B

+ =

+ =

If we solve the first equation for B, we obtain

2000 2

5 7 9500.

B A

A B

=

+ =

Substituting 2000 2A for B in the second

equation gives

5A + 7(2000 2A) = 9500

A = 500

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

110

Thus

2000 2 ,

500.

B A

A

=

and

1000,

500.

B

A

=

The food will support 500 of species A and 1000

of species B.

3. Let A = the number of fish of species A, and let

B = the number of fish of species B. Then, the

number of milligrams of the first supplement

that will be consumed is 15A + 20B = 100,000.

The number of milligrams of the second

supplement that will be consumed is 30A + 40B

= 200,000.

15 20 100,000,

30 40 200,000.

A B

A B

+ =

+ =

We multiply the second equation by

1

2

and

then add.

15 20 100,000,

15 20 100,000,

0 0

A B

A B

+ =

=

Thus, there are infinitely many solutions of the

form

20,000 4

3 3

A r = , B = r, where

0 r 5000.

4. Let A = the amount of type A used, let

B = the amount of type B used, and let

C = the amount of type C used. If the final blend

will sell for $8.50 per pound, then

12A + 9B + 7C = 8.50, and A + B + C = 1.

Furthermore, since the amount of type B is to be

twice the amount of type A, B = 2A. Thus, the

system of equations is

12 9 7 8.50,

1,

2 .

A B C

A B C

B A

+ + =

+ + =

Simplifying gives

30 7 8.50,

3 1,

2 .

A C

A C

B A

+ =

+ =

1

,

6

1

,

2

1

.

3

A

C

B

Thus, the final mixture will consist of

1

6

lb of

A,

1

3

lb of B, and

1

2

lb of C.

Problems 3.4

1.

4 3, (1)

3 2 5. (2)

x y

x y

+ =

From Eq. (1), x = 3 4y. Substituting in Eq. (2)

gives

3(3 4y) 2y = 5

9 12y 2y = 5

14y = 14,

or y = 1 x = 3 4y = 3 4(1) = 1.

Thus x = 1, y = 1.

2.

4 2 9, (1)

5 4 5. (2)

x y

y x

+ =

Rewriting the system gives

4 2 9,

4 5 5.

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Adding the equations gives

7y = 14

y = 2

From Eq. (1) we have

4x + 2(2) = 9

4x = 5

5

4

x =

Thus

5

4

x = , y = 2.

3.

3 4 13, (1)

2 3 3. (2)

x y

x y

=

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (1) by 3 and Eq. (2) by 4 gives

9 12 39,

8 12 12.

x y

x y

=

+ =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.4

111

Adding gives

17x = 51

x = 3

From Eq. (2) we have

2(3) + 3y = 3

3y = 3

y = 1

Thus x = 3, y = 1.

4.

2 1, (1)

2 7. (2)

x y

x y

=

+ =

From Eq. (1), y = 2x 1. Substituting in Eq. (2)

gives

x + 2(2x 1) = 7

3x = 9

x = 3 y = 2x 1 = 2(3) 1 = 5.

Thus x = 3, y = 5.

5.

5

7

u v

u v

+ =

From the first equation, v = 5 u. Substituting in

the second equation gives

(5 ) 7

2 5 7

2 12

u u

u

u

=

=

=

or u = 6 so v = 5 u = 5 6 = 1.

Thus, u = 6, v = 1.

6.

2 16, (1)

3 3 33. (2)

p q

p q

+ =

+ =

From Eq. (1), q = 16 2p. Substituting in Eq.

(2) gives

3 3(16 2 ) 33

3 15

p p

p

+ =

=

p = 5 q = 16 2p = 16 10 = 6.

Thus, p = 5, q = 6.

7.

2 7, (1)

5 3 9. (2)

x y

x y

=

+ =

From Eq. (1), x = 2y 7. Substituting in Eq. (2)

gives

5(2y 7) + 3y = 9

13y = 26

y = 2 x = 2y 7 = 2(2) 7 = 3.

Thus x = 3, y = 2.

8.

3 5 7, (1)

5 9 7. (2)

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (1) by 5 and Eq. (2) by 3 gives

15 25 35,

15 27 21.

x y

x y

+ =

Adding gives 2y = 14, or y = 7. From Eq. (2)

we have

5x + 9(7) = 7

5x = 70

x = 14

Thus x = 14, y = 7.

9.

4 3 2 3 7 ,

5 2 4.

x y x y

x y y

=

+ = +

Simplifying, we have

4 2,

4 6.

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Subtracting the second equation from the first

gives 0 = 4, which is never true. Thus there is

no solution.

10.

5 7 2 9 4 6,

21 4 11 3 2 5

.

2 3 4 2 3 4

x y y x

x y x y

+ + = +

= + +

By simplifying, we have

9 2 4,

9 2 4.

x y

x y

=

Both equations represent the same line, so we

have infinitely many solutions. Let y = r. Then

2 4

9 2 4

9 9

x r x r = = + . Thus a parametric

solution is

2 4

9 9

x r = + , y = r, where r is any real

number.

11.

2 1

2,

3 2

3 5 11

.

8 6 2

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Clearing fractions gives the system

4 3 12,

9 20 132.

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Multiplying the first equation by 9 and the

second equation by 4 gives

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

112

36 27 108,

36 80 528.

x y

x y

+ =

Adding gives

53y = 636

y = 12

From 4x + 3y = 12, we have

4x + 3(12) = 12

4x = 48 x = 12. Thus x = 12, y = 12.

12.

1 1 1

2 4 6

1 1 1

2 4 6

z w

z w

+ =

Multiplying both equations by 12 gives

6 3 2

6 3 2

z w

z w

=

+ =

Adding gives 12z = 4 and so

1

.

3

z =

From the first equation we have

1

6 3 2,

3

w

=

from which w = 0. Thus

1

, 0.

3

z w = =

13.

5 11 7, (1)

10 22 33. (2)

p q

p q

+ =

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (1) by 2 gives

10 22 14,

10 22 33.

p q

p q

=

+ =

Adding gives 0 = 19, which is never true, so the

system has no solution.

14.

5 3 2, (1)

10 6 4. (2)

x y

x y

=

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (1) by 2 gives

10 6 4,

10 6 4.

x y

x y

=

+ =

Adding gives 0 = 8, which is never true, so the

system has no solution.

15.

2 6 3, (1)

4 1, (2)

3 2 2 2. (3)

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ + =

+ =

+ =

Adding Eq. (1) and (2), and adding 2 times Eq.

(2) to Eq. (3) gives

3 10 4,

5 6 4.

x z

x z

+ =

+ =

Multiplying the first equation by 5 and the

second equation by 3 gives

15 50 20,

15 18 12.

x z

x z

+ =

Adding gives 32z = 8, or

1

4

z = . From

3x + 10z = 4, we have

1

3 10 4

4

x

+ =

3

3

2

x =

1

2

x =

From 2x + y + 6z = 3, we have

1 1

2 6 3

2 4

y

+ + =

1

2

y =

Therefore

1

2

x = ,

1

2

y = ,

1

4

z = .

16.

1, (1)

3 1, (2)

4 2 2 0. (3)

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ + =

+ + =

+ =

Subtracting Eq. (2) from Eq. (1) gives 2x = 2,

or x = 1. Substituting x = 1 in Eqs. (2) and (3)

and simplifying gives

2,

2 2 4.

y z

y z

+ =

+ =

Multiplying the first equation by 2 gives

2 2 4,

2 2 4.

y z

y z

+ =

+ =

By adding, we have

4z = 8

z = 2

From y + z = 2, we have

y + (2) = 2

y = 0

Thus x = 1, y = 0, z = 2.

17.

4 3 10

4 2 2 2

3 11

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ + =

+ =

+ =

From the third equation, y = 3x + z 11.

Substituting in the first two equations gives

4(3 11) 3 10

4 2(3 11) 2 2

x x z z

x x z z

+ + + =

+ + =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.4

113

or

13 7 54

10 20

x z

x

+ =

From the last equation we have x = 2.

Thus 13(2) + 7z = 54, and 7z = 28, hence z = 4.

Substitute these two values to solve for y:

y = 3(2) + 4 11 = 1

Therefore, x = 2, y = 1, z = 4.

18.

18 (1)

12 (2)

3 4 4 (3)

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ + =

+ + =

Adding Eq. (2) to both Eq. (1) and Eq. (3) gives

2 30

4 3 16

x

x z

=

+ =

From the first equation, x = 15. Substituting in

the second equation gives

4(15) 3 16

3 44

44

3

z

z

z

+ =

=

=

From x + y + z = 18

44

15 18

3

53

3

y

y

+ =

=

Thus, x = 15,

53

,

3

y =

44

.

3

z =

19.

2 1, (1)

3. (2)

x z

y z

=

+ =

From Eq. (1), x = 1 + 2z; from Eq. (2), y = 3 z.

Setting z = r gives the parametric solution

x = 1 + 2r, y = 3 r, z = r, where r is any real

number.

20.

2 3 1, (1)

3 4 0. (2)

y z

x z

+ =

From Eq. (1),

1 3

2 2

y z = ; from Eq. (2),

4

3

x z = . Setting z = r gives the parametric

solution

4

3

x r = ,

1 3

2 2

y r = , z = r, where r is

any real number.

21.

2 0, (1)

2 0 (2)

2 3 0 (3)

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ =

+ =

+ =

Adding Eq. (1) to Eq. (3) gives

2 0,

2 0

2 0

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ =

+ =

+ =

We can ignore the third equation because the

second equation can be used to reduce it to

0 = 0. We have

2 0,

2 0.

x y z

x y z

+ =

+ =

Adding the first equation to the second gives

3x + z = 0

1

3

x z =

Substituting in the first equation we have

1

2 0

3

z y z + =

5

3

y z =

Letting z = r gives the parametric solution

1

3

x r = ,

5

3

y r = , z = r, where r is any real

number.

22.

2 0, (1)

2 4 2 0 (2)

2 0 (3)

x y z

x y z

x y z

=

+ + =

Adding Eq. (1) to Eq. (3) gives

2 0,

2 4 2 0

0 0

x y z

x y z

=

We can ignore the third equation, so we have

2 0,

2 4 2 0.

x y z

x y z

=

Multiplying the first equation by 2 gives

2 4 2 0,

2 4 2 0.

x y z

x y z

+ + =

Adding the first equation to the second, we have

2 4 2 0,

0 0.

x y z + + =

From the first equation, x = 2y + z. Setting y = r

and z = s gives the parametric solution x = 2r + s,

y = r, z = s, where r and s are any real numbers.

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

114

23.

2 2 3, (1)

4 4 2 6. (2)

x y z

x y z

+ =

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (2) by

1

2

gives

2 2 3,

2 2 3.

x y z

x y z

+ =

+ =

Adding the first equation to the second equation

gives

2 2 3,

0 0.

x y z + =

Solving the first equation for x, we have

3 1

2 2

x y z = + . Letting y = r and z = s gives the

parametric solution

3 1

2 2

x r s = + , y = r, z = s,

where r and s are any real numbers.

24.

5 17

4 14

x y z

x y z

+ + =

+ + =

Subtracting the second equation from the first

gives x = 3.

From the first equation we have

y + z = 17 5x = 17 5(3) = 2

Letting z = r we have the parametric solution

x = 3, y = 2 r, z = r, where r is any real

number.

25. Let x = number of gallons of 20% solution and

y = number of gallons of 35% solution. Then

800, (1)

0.20 0.35 0.25(800). (2)

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

From Eq. (1), y = 800 x. Substituting in Eq. (2)

gives

0.20x + 0.35(800 x) = 0.25(800)

0.15x + 280 = 200

0.15x = 80

1600

533.3

3

x =

1600 800

800 800 266.7.

3 3

y x = = = Thus

533.3 gal of 20% solution and 266.7 gal of 35%

solution must be mixed.

26. Let x = the number of pounds of 3% nitrogen

fertilizer, and let y = the number of pounds of

11% nitrogen fertilizer. Then

0.03 0.11 0.09(20),

20.

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

0.03 0.11 1.8,

20 .

x y

y x

+ =

By substituting 20 x for y in the first equation,

and then simplifying, we obtain

5,

15.

x

y

=

Thus, the final mixture should contain 5 lb of

3% nitrogen fertilizer, and 15 lb of 11% nitrogen

fertilizer.

27. Let C = the number of pounds of cotton, let

P = the number of pounds of polyester, and let

N = the number of pounds of nylon. If the final

blend will cost $3.25 per pound to make, then

4C + 3P + 2N = 3.25. Furthermore, if we use the

same amount of nylon as polyester to prepare,

say, 1 pound of fabric, then N = P and

C + P + N = 1. Thus, the system of equations is

4 3 2 3.25,

1,

.

C P N

C P N

N P

+ + =

+ + =

Simplifying gives

4 5 3.25,

2 1,

.

C N

C N

N P

+ =

+ =

0.25,

0.5,

0.25.

N

C

P

=

Thus, each pound of the final fabric will contain

0.25 lb each of nylon and polyester, and 0.5 lb of

cotton.

28. Let F = federal tax and S = state tax. Now solve

the system

0.25(312,000 ),

0.10(312,000 ),

F S

S F

=

which is equivalent to

4 312,000

10 312,000,

F S

F S

+ =

+ =

and has solution

72,000,

24,000.

F

S

=

Federal tax is $72,000 and state tax is $24,000.

29. Let p = speed of airplane in still air and w = wind

speed. Now convert the time into minutes and

solve the system

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.4

115

900

175

900

,

206

p w

p w

+ =

Thus

900 900 36 450

2

175 206 7 103

p = + = +

3429

721

p = miles per minute

279

721

w = miles per minute

Multiplying by 60 to get miles per hour we have

p 285 and w 23.2

Plane speed in still air is about 285 mph and

wind speed is about 23.2 mph.

30. Let r = speed of raft in still water and c = speed

of current. Then rate of raft downstream is r + c,

and rate upstream is r c. Since

(rate)(time) = distance, we have

1

( ) 10,

2

3

( ) 10,

4

r c

r c

+ =

or, more simply,

20,

40

.

3

r c

r c

+ =

Adding the equations gives

100

2

3

50

3

r

r

=

=

Since r + c = 20, we have

10

.

3

c = Thus the

speed of the raft in still water is

2

16 mi/h;

3

speed of the current is

1

3 mi/h.

3

31. Let x = number of early American units and

y = number of Contemporary units. The fact that

20% more of early American styles are sold than

Contemporary styles means that

x = y + 0.20y

x = 1.20y

An analysis of profit gives

250x + 350y = 130,000. Thus we have the

system

1.20 , (1)

250 350 130,000. (2)

x y

x y

=

+ =

Substituting 1.20y for x in Eq. (2) gives

250(1.20y) + 350y = 130,000

300y + 350y = 130,000

650y = 130,000

y = 200

Thus x = 1.20y = 1.20(200) = 240. Therefore

240 units of early American and 200 units of

Contemporary must be sold.

32. Let x = number of favorable comments,

y = number of unfavorable comments, and

z = number of no comments. Then

250, (1)

1.625 , (2)

0.16(250). (3)

x y z

x y

z

+ + =

From Eq. (3), z = 40. Substituting for x and z in

Eq. (1), we obtain

(1.625y) + y + (40) = 250

2.625y = 210

y = 80

Thus x = 1.625y = 1.625(80) = 130. Therefore

130 liked, 80 disliked, and 40 had no comment.

33. Let x = number of calculators produced at Exton,

and y = number of calculators produced at

Whyton. The total cost of Exton is 7.50x + 7000,

and the total cost at Whyton is 6.00y + 8800.

Thus 7.50x + 7000 = 6.00y + 8800. Also,

x + y = 1500. This gives the system

1500, (1)

7.50 7000 6.00 8800. (2)

x y

x y

+ =

+ = +

From Eq. (1), y = 1500 x. Substituting in Eq.

(2) gives

7.50x + 7000 = 6.00(1500 x) + 8800

7.50x + 7000 = 9000 6x + 8800

13.5x = 10,800

x = 800

Thus y = 1500 x = 1500 800 = 700.

Therefore 800 calculators must be made at the

Exton plant and 700 calculators at the Whyton

plant.

34. Let x, y, and z be the amounts of 2.20, 2.30, and

2.60 dollars/lb coffee, respectively. Then

100, (1)

2.20 2.30 2.60 2.40(100), (2)

. (3)

x y z

x y z

y z

+ + =

+ + =

From Eq. (3), y = z. Substituting for y in Eqs. (1)

and (2) gives

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

116

100,

2.20 2.30 2.60 240.

x z z

x z z

+ + =

+ + =

or, by simplifying,

2 100,

2.20 4.90 240.

x z

x z

+ =

+ =

From the first equation, x = 100 2z.

Substituting in the second equation gives

2.20(100 2z) + 4.90z = 240

0.50z = 20

z = 40

From x = 100 2z, x = 100 2(40) = 20. From

y = z, y = 40. Thus, 20, 40, and 40 lb of $2.20,

$2.30, and $2.60 per lb coffee must be used,

respectively.

35. Let x = rate on first $100,000 and

y = rate on sales over $100,000. Then

100,000 75,000 8500, (1)

100,000 180,000 14,800. (2)

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Subtracting Eq. (1) from Eq. (2) gives

105,000y = 6300

y = 0.06

Substituting in Eq. (1) gives

100,000x + 75,000(0.06) = 8500

100,000x + 4500 = 8500, 100,000x = 4000, or

x = 0.04. Thus the rate is 4% on the first

$100,000 and 6% on the remainder.

36. A system that describes the situation is

25,000,000

0.30

T L

T L L

= +

= +

We can rewrite this as

25,000,000

1.30

T L

T L

= +

Thus T = 1.3L and we can substitute this in the

first equation:

1.3 25,000,000. Solving for

0.3 25,000,000

83,333,333

L L L

L

L

= +

=

=

T = 1.3L = 1.3(83,333,333) = 108,333,333 thus

T = $108,333,333 and L = $83,333,333.

37. Let x = number of loose-filled boxes and

y = number of boxes of clam-shells that will be

filled. Then 8y clam-shells will be used. This

will take 20x + 2.2(8y) pounds of peaches.

(1)

20 17.6 3600 (2)

x y

x y

=

+ =

Substitute x = y in Eq. (2).

20 17.6 3600

37.6 3600

95.74

x x

x

x

+ =

=

y = x 95.74

Thus, 95 boxes will be loose-filled and

8(95) = 760 clam-shells will be used, for a total

of 190 boxes.

38. Let

1

p and

2

p be the amounts of the two

investments, respectively. Then the total amount

invested was

1 2

p p + , and from the statement of

the problem we can write

( )

1 2 1

3

600

10

p p p + + = . The return on the

second investment was 1120 384 = 736. Since

the percentage return on each was the same, and

since

interest

rate

amt. invested

= , we can write

1 2

384 736

p p

= . This can also be written as

1 2

384 736

p p

= . Hence we have the system

( )

1 2 1

1 2

3

600 ,

10

.

384 736

p p p

p p

+ + =

Simplifying, we have

1 2

1 2

7 3

600,

10 10

12

.

23

p p

p p

+ =

Substituting

1 2

12

23

p p = in first equation gives

2 2

7 12 3

600

10 23 10

p p

+ =

2

3

600

46

p =

2

9200 p =

Thus

1 2

12 12

(9200) 4800

23 23

p p = = = . The total

amount invested was

1 2

4800 9200 $14,000 p p + = + = .

39. Let c = number of chairs company makes,

r = number of rockers, and l = number of chaise

lounges.

Wood used: (1)c + (1)r + (1)l = 400

Plastic used: (1)c + (1)r + (2)l = 600

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.4

117

Aluminum used: (2)c + (3)r + (5)l = 1500

Thus we have the system

400, (1)

2 600, (2)

2 3 5 1500. (3)

c r l

c r l

c r l

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

Subtracting Eq. (1) from Eq. (2) gives l = 200.

Adding 2 times Eq. (1) to Eq. (3) gives

r + 3l = 700, from which

r + 3(200) = 700,

r = 100

From Eq. (1) we have c + 100 + 200 = 400, or

c = 100. Thus 100 chairs, 100 rockers and

200 chaise lounges should be made.

40. Let x, y, and z, be the amounts originally

invested at 7%, 8%, and 9%, respectively. Then

35,000, (1)

0.07 0.08 0.09 2830, (2)

0.07 0.08 0.10 2960. (3)

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

Subtracting Eq. (2) from Eq. (3) gives

0.01z = 130

z = 13,000

Subtracting 0.07 times Eq. (1) from Eq. (2)

gives

0.01y + 0.02z = 380. Letting z = 13,000, we

have 0.01y + 0.02(13,000) = 380

0.01y = 120

y = 12,000

From Eq. (1),

x + 12,000 + 13,000 = 35,000

x = 10,000

The investments are $10,000 at 7%, $12,000 at

8%, $13,000 at 9% (later 10%).

41. Let x = number of skilled workers employed,

y = number of semiskilled workers employed,

z = number of shipping clerks employed.

Then we have the system

number of workers: 70, (1)

wages: 16 9.5 10 725 (2)

semiskilled: 2 (3)

x y z

x y z

y x

+ + =

+ + =

the first two equations:

2 70

16 9.5(2 ) 10 725

x x z

x x z

+ + =

+ + =

or

3 70

35 10 725

x z

x z

+ =

+ =

Adding 10 times the first equation to the

second gives:

5 25

5

x

x

=

=

So y = 2x = 10

z = 70 3x = 70 15 = 55

The company should hire 5 skilled workers, 10

semiskilled workers, and 55 shipping clerks.

42. Method 1. Let a = number of minutes that pump

for tank A operates, and b = number of minutes

that pump for tank B operates. Then b = a + 5.

25a gallons are pumped from tank A and 35b

from tank B.

5, (1)

25 35 10,000. (2)

b a

a b

= +

+ =

Since b = a + 5, substituting in Eq. (2) gives

25a + 35(a + 5) = 10,000

60a = 9825

a = 163.75

b = a + 5, b = 163.75 + 5 = 168.75. Thus

25(163.75) = 4093.75 gallons are pumped from

A, and 35(168.75) = 5906.25 gallons are pumped

from B.

Method 2. Let a = number of gallons from A,

and let b = number of gallons from B. Then

a + b = 10,000. The number of minutes the

pump on A operates is

25

a

. For the pump on B,

it is

35

b

. Thus

5 (1)

25 35

10,000. (2)

a b

a b

+ =

+ =

From Eq. (2), a = 10,000 b. Substituting in

Eq. (1) gives

10,000

5

25 35

400 5

25 35

12

405

175

5906.25

b b

b b

b

b

+ =

+ =

=

=

Thus

a = 10,000 b = 10,000 5906.25 = 4093.75.

45. x = 3, y = 2

46. x = 1.33, y = 0.67

47. x = 8.3, y = 14.0

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

118

Problems 3.5

In the following solutions, any reference to Eq. (1) or

Eq. (2) refers to the first or second equation,

respectively, in the given system.

1. From Eq. (2), y = 3 2x. Substituting in Eq. (1)

gives

2

2

3 2 9

0 2 12

x x

x x

=

= +

2

2

4

2

2 2 4(1)( 12)

2(1)

2 52

2

1 13

b b ac

x

a

=

=

=

=

From y = 3 2x, if 1 13, x = + then

5 2 13; y = if 1 13, x = then

5 2 13. y = +

There are two solutions:

1 13, 5 2 13; x y = + =

1 13, x = 5 2 13. y = +

2. From Eq. (2), y = x. Substituting in Eq. (1) gives

3

x x =

3

0 x x =

( )

2

1 0 x x =

x(1 + x)(1 x) = 0. Thus x = 0, 1. From y = x, if

x = 0, then y = 0; if x = 1, then y = 1; if x = 1,

then y = 1. There are three solutions: x = 0,

y = 0; x = 1, y = 1; x = 1, y = 1.

3. From Eq. (2), q = p 1. Substituting in Eq. (1)

gives

5 ( 1) p p

2

=

2

6 0 p p + =

(p + 3)(p 2) = 0

Thus p = 3, 2. From q = p 1, if p = 3, we

have q = 3 1 = 4; if p = 2, then q = 2 1 = 1.

There are two solutions: p = 3, q = 4;

p = 2, q = 1.

4. From Eq. (2), y = x 14. Substituting in Eq. (1)

gives

2 2

( 14) 28 x x =

28x + 196 = 28

28x = 168

x = 6

If x = 6, then y = x 14 = 6 14 = 8. The only

solution is x = 6, y = 8.

5. Substituting

2

y x = into

2

x y = gives

4

x x = ,

4

0 x x =

( )

3

1 0 x x =

Thus x = 0, 1. From

2

y x = , if x = 0, then

2

0 0 y = = ; x = 1, then

2

1 1 y = = . There are

two solutions: x = 0, y = 0; x = 1, y = 1.

6.

2

1 0

5 3 2 0

p q

q p

+ =

From the first equation

2

1. q p = + Substituting

into the second equation gives

2

2

2

2

5( 1) 3 2 0

5 3 3 0

4

2

3 ( 3) 4(5)(3)

2(5)

3 51

10

p p

p p

b b ac

p

a

+ =

+ =

=

=

=

Since 51 is not a real number, there are no

real solutions.

7. Substituting

2

2 y x x = in Eq. (1) gives

2 2

2 4 8 x x x x = +

2

2 6 8 0 x x =

2

3 4 0 x x =

(x 4)(x + 1) = 0

Thus x = 4, 1. From

2

2 y x x = , if x = 4, then

we have

2

4 2(4) 8 y = = ; if x = 1, then

2

( 1) 2( 1) 3 y = = . There are two solutions:

x = 4, y = 8; x = 1, y = 3.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.5

119

8. From Eq. (1),

2

4 4. y x x = + + Substituting in

Eq. (2) gives

2 2

4 4 4 3 0

7 0

x x x x + + + =

=

Since this is never true, the system has no

solution.

9. Substituting p q = in Eq. (2) gives

2

q q = .

Squaring both sides gives

4

q q =

4

0 q q =

( )

3

1 0 q q =

Thus q = 0, 1. From p q = , if q = 0, then

0 0 p = = ; if q = 1, then 1 1 p = = . There are

two solutions: p = 0, q = 0; p = 1, q = 1.

10. Substituting

4

z

w

= in Eq. (2) gives

4

3 2 2 w

w

= +

2

12 2 2 w w = +

2

6 0 w w + =

(w + 3)(w 2) = 0

Thus w = 3, 2. From

4

z

w

= , if w = 3, then

4

3

z = ; if w = 2, then

4

2

2

z = = . There are two

solutions: w = 3,

4

3

z = ; w = 2, z = 2.

11. Replacing

2

x by

2

13 y + in Eq. (2) gives

( )

2

13 15 y y = +

2

2 0 y y =

(y 2)(y + 1) = 0

Thus y = 2, 1. If y = 2, then

2 2 2

13 2 13 17 x y = + = + = , so 17 x = .

If y = 1, then

2 2 2

13 ( 1) 13 14 x y = + = + = ,

so 14 x = . The system has four solutions:

17 x = , y = 2; 17 x = , y = 2; 14 x = ,

y = 1; 14 x = , y = 1.

12. From Eq. (2), y = 3x 5. Substituting in Eq. (1)

gives

2 2

(3 5) 2 (3 5) 1 x x x x + =

2

4 20 24 0 x x + =

2

5 6 0 x x + =

(x 3)(x 2) = 0

Thus x = 3, 2. From y = 3x 5, if x = 3, then

y = 3(3) 5 = 4; if x = 2, then y = 3(2) 5 = 1.

Thus there are two solutions: x = 3, y = 4; x = 2,

y = 1.

13. From Eq. (1), y = x 1. Substituting in Eq. (2)

gives

2

2

2

1 2 2

( 1) 4( 2)

2 1 4 8

6 7 0

( 1)( 7) 0

x x

x x

x x x

x x

x x

= +

= +

+ = +

=

+ =

Thus x = 1 or 7.

From y = x 1, if x = 1, then y = 2; if

x = 7, then y = 6. However, from Eq. (2), y 0.

The only solution is x = 7, y = 6.

14. Substituting

1

1

y

x

=

2

1

1

1 1

x

x x

= +

2

1 ( 1) x x = +

2

2 0 x x + =

(x + 2)(x 1) = 0

Thus x = 2, 1. But x cannot equal 1 in either of

the original equations (division by zero). From

1

1

y

x

=

, if x = 2, then

1 1

2 1 3

y = =

. The

solution is x = 2,

1

3

y = .

15. We can write the following system of equations.

2

0.01 0.01 7,

0.01 8.0.

y x x

y x

= + +

= +

By substituting 0.01x + 8.0 for y in the first

equation and simplifying, we obtain

2

0.01 8.0 0.01 0.01 7 x x x + = + +

2

0 0.01 1 x =

0 = (0.1x + 1)(0.1x 1)

10 or 10 x x = =

If x = 10 then y = 7.9, and if x = 10 then y = 8.1.

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

120

The rope touches the streamer twice,

10 feet away from center on each side at

(10, 7.9) and (10, 8.1).

16. We can write the following system of equations.

2

0.06 0.012 8,

0.912 5.

y x x

y x

= + +

= +

By substituting 0.912x + 5 for y in the first

equation and then simplifying, we obtain

2

0.912 5 0.06 0.012 8 x x x + = + +

2

0 0.06 0.9 3 x x = +

( )

2

0 0.06 15 50 x x = +

0 = 0.06(x 10)(x 5)

10 or 5 x x = =

If x = 10 then y = 14.12, and if x = 5 then

y = 9.56. The two holes are located at (10, 14.12)

and (5, 9.56).

17. The system has 3 solutions.

18. x = 2, y = 4

19. x = 1.3, y = 5.1

20. x = 1.9, y = 3.6; x = 0.3, y = 1.2;

x = 2.1, y = 8.3

21. x = 1.76

22. x = 2.81

23. x = 1.46

Problems 3.6

1. Equating p-values gives

4 6

3 13

100 100

10

10

100

100

q

q

q

+ = +

=

=

4

(100) 3 7

100

p = + =

Thus, the equilibrium point is (100, 7).

q

p

20

200

0

(100, 7)

2. Equating p-values gives

1 1

4 9

1500 2000

7

5

6000

30,000 5

4285 4285.71

7 7

q q

q

q

+ = +

=

= =

When

5

4285 ,

7

q = then

1 1 5 6

4 4285 4 6 6.86

1500 1500 7 7

p q

= + = + =

The equilibrium point is

5 6

4285 , 6 .

7 7

q

p

5

10,000 5000

10

4285

6

7

6

6

7

,

3.

35 2 250 0, (1)

65 537.5 0. (2)

q p

q p

+ =

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (2) by 2 and adding equations

gives

165q 825 = 0

q = 5

From Eq. (2),

65(5) + p 537.5 = 0

p = 212.50

Thus the equilibrium point is (5, 212.50).

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.6

121

4.

246 3.25 2460 0, (1)

410 3 14,452.5 0. (2)

p q

p q

=

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (1) by 3 and Eq. (2) by 3.25

gives

738 9.75 7380 0,

1332.5 9.75 46,970.625 0.

p q

p q

=

+ =

Adding gives

2070.5p 54,350.625 = 0

54,350.625

26.25

2070.5

p = =

From Eq. (2) in original system,

14,452.5 410 14,452.5 410(26.25)

3 3

p

q

= =

=

14,452.5 10,762.5 3690

1230

3 3

= =

The equilibrium point is (1230, 26.25).

5. Equating p-values:

2

2 20 200 2 q q + =

2

2 2 180 0 q q + =

2

90 0 q q + =

(q + 10)(q 9) = 0

Thus q = 10, 9. Since q 0, choose q = 9.

Then p = 2q + 20 = 2(9) + 20 = 38. The

equilibrium point is (9, 38).

6. Equating p-values gives

2 2

( 10) 388 16 q q q + =

2

2 36 288 0 q q + =

2

18 144 0 q q + =

(q + 24) (q 6) = 0

Thus q = 24, 6. Since q 0, choose q = 6. Then

2 2 2

( 10) (6 10) 16 256 p q = + = + = = . The

equilibrium point is (6, 256).

7. Equating p-values gives 20 10 q q = + .

Squaring both sides gives

2

400 40 10 q q q + = +

2

41 390 0 q q + =

(q 26)(q 15) = 0

Thus q = 26, 15. If q = 26, then

p = 20 q = 20 26 = 6. But p cannot be

negative. If q = 15, then p = 20 q = 20 15 = 5.

The equilibrium point is (15, 5).

8. Equating p-values gives

2

2

2240

6

4 2

( 24)( 2) 2240(4)

26 48 8960

26 8912 0

q

q

q q

q q

q q

+ =

+

+ + =

+ + =

+ =

2

2

4

2

26 (26) 4(1)( 8912)

2(1)

b b ac

q

a

=

=

q 82.29 or 108.29

q 0 so choose q 82.29.

Then

82.29

6 26.57.

4

p +

The equilibrium point is (82.29, 26.57).

9. Letting

TR TC

y y = gives 4q = 2q + 5000, or

q = 2500 units.

q

p

5000

15,000

(2500, 10,000)

TR

TC

10. Letting

TR TC

y y = gives

40

14 1200

3

q q = +

2

1200

3

q =

q = 1800 units

q

y

30,000

2000 1000

0

(1800, 25,200)

1800 units

TC

TR

11. Letting

TR TC

y y = gives

0.05q = 0.85q + 600

0.80q = 600

q = 750, which is negative. Thus one cannot

break even at any level of production.

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

122

12. Letting

TR TC

y y = gives

0.25q = 0.16q + 360

0.09q = 360

q = 4000 units

13. Letting

TR TC

y y = gives

900

90 1.1 37.3

3

q

q

= +

+

2

2

90( 3) 900 (1.1 37.3)( 3)

90 270 900 1.1 40.6 111.9

1.1 49.4 741.9 0

q q q

q q q

q q

+ = + +

+ = + +

+ =

2

2

4

2

49.4 ( 49.4) 4(1.1)(741.9)

2(1.1)

49.4 824

2.2

b b ac

q

a

=

=

=

There are no real solutions, therefore one cannot

break even at any level of production.

14. Letting

TR TC

y y = gives

2

2

2

0.1 9 3 400

0.1 6 400 0

60 4000 0

( 100)( 40) 0

q q q

q q

q q

q q

+ = +

+ =

+ =

+ =

Thus q = 100, 40. Since q 0, choose

q = 40 units.

15.

3 200 1800 0, (1)

3 100 1800 0. (2)

q p

q p

+ =

+ =

a. Subtracting Eq. (2) from Eq. (1) gives

300p + 3600 = 0

p = $12

q

p

20

10

1000 500

0

S

D

b. Before the tax, the supply equation is

3q 200p + 1800 = 0

200p = 3q 1800

3

9

200

p q = +

After the tax, the supply equation is

3

9 0.27

200

p q = + +

3

9.27

200

p q = +

This equation can be written

3q + 200p 1854 = 0, and the new system

to solve is

3 200 1854 0,

3 100 1800 0.

q p

q p

+ =

+ =

Adding gives

3654

300 3654 0 $12.18

300

p p = = = .

16. a. Letting

TR TC

y y = gives 7q = 6q + 800, or

q = 800 units.

q

p

6000

(800, 5600)

3000

1000 500

0

TC

TR

b. The new total cost equation is

TC

1.05(6 800) y q = +

TC

6.3 840 y q = +

Letting

TR TC

y y = gives

7q = 6.3q + 840

0.7q = 840

q = 1200 units

17. Since profit = total revenue total cost, then

4600 = 8.35q (2116 + 7.20q). Solving gives

4600 = 1.15q 2116

1.15q = 6716

6716

5840

1.15

q = = units

For a loss (negative profit) of $1150, we solve

1150 = 8.35q (2116 + 7.20q). Thus

1150 = 1.15q 2116

1.15q = 966

q = 840 units

To break even, we have

TR TC

y y = , or

8.35q = 2116 + 7.20q

1.15q = 2116

q = 1840 units

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 3.6

123

18. For the supply equation we fit the points (0, 1)

and (13,500, 4.50) to a straight line. We have

7

2

4.50 1 3.5 7

13,500 0 13,500 13,500 27,000

m

= = = =

,

so the line is

7

1 ( 0)

27,000

p q =

27,000(p 1) = 7q

7q 27,000p + 27,000 = 0

For the demand equation, we fit the points

(0, 20) and (13,500, 4.50) to a straight line. We

have

31

2

4.50 20 15.5

13,500 0 13,500 13,500

m

= = =

31

27,000

= , so the line is

31

20 ( 0)

27,000

p q =

27,000(p 20) = 31q

31q + 27,000p 540,000 = 0

19. Let q = break-even quantity. Since total revenue

is 5q, we have 5q = 200,000, which yields

q = 40,000. Let c be the variable cost per unit.

Then at the break even point,

Tot. Rev. = Tot. Cost

= Variable Cost + Fixed Cost.

Thus

200,000 = 40,000c + 40,000

160,000 = 40,000c

c = $4.

20. Let q = number of pairs sold.

Total Revenue = 2.63q

Total Cost = 0.85q + 0.96q + 0.32q + 70,500

At the break-even point,

Total Revenue = Total cost, or

2.63q = 0.85q + 0.96q + 0.32q + 70,500

Solving for q gives

2.63q = 2.13q + 70,500 or 0.5q = 70,500

q = 141,000

21.

TC

3 1250 y q = + :

TR

60 y q = . Letting

TR TC

y y = gives

60 3 1250 q q = +

1250

20

3

q q = +

Squaring gives

2

2

2

2500 1250

400

3 3

1300 1,562,500

0

3 9

q q q

q q

= + +

+ + =

Using the quadratic formula,

2

1300 1300 1,562,500

4(1)

3 3 9

,

2

q

=

which is not real. Thus total cost always exceeds

total revenue; there is no break-even point.

22.

1000

p

q

=

a.

1000

4

q

= gives

1000

250

4

q = = units

b.

1000

2

q

= gives

1000

500

2

q = = units

c.

1000

0.50

q

= gives

1000

2000

0.50

q = = units

The revenue is

1000

1000 qp q

q

= =

, so

revenue of $1000 is received regardless of price.

23. After the subsidy the supply equation is

8

50 1.50

100

p q

= +

8

48.50

100

p q = +

The system to consider is

8

48.50,

100

7

65.

100

p q

p q

= +

= +

Equating p-values gives

8 7

48.50 65

100 100

q q + = +

15

16.5

100

q =

q = 110

When q = 110, then

8 8

48.50 (110) 48.50

100 100

p q = + = +

8.8 48.50 57.30 = + = .

Thus the original equilibrium price decreases by

$0.70.

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

124

24. a. Profit = Total Revenue Total Cost

= 280,000(2.00) [110,000 + 280,000(1.75)]

= 560,000 600,000 = 40,000.

There is a net loss of $40,000.

b. Let q = unit sales volume. Then

40,000 = 2.00q [110,000 + 1.75q]

150,000 = 0.25q

q = 600,000 units

25. Equating

A

-values q gives

A B A B

A B

7 3 4 2

10 5 3

p p p p

p p

+ = +

=

Equating

B

-values q gives

A B A B

A B

21 5 2 4

26 3 5

p p p p

p p

+ = +

= +

Now we solve

A B

A B

10 5 3

26 3 5

p p

p p

=

= +

Adding 3 times the first equation to 5 times the

second equation gives

B

B

160 16

10

p

p

=

=

From

A B

5 3 10, p p =

A

5 3(10) 10 p = or

A

8. p =

Thus

A

8 p = and

B

10. p =

26. $17.80; 2.6 thousand units

27. 2.4 and 11.3

Chapter 3 Review Problems

1. Solving

5

4

3 2

k

=

gives k 5 = 4, k = 9.

2. The equation

4 4

0

5 k

number k 5.

3. (2, 3) and (0, 1) lie on the line, so

1 3

2.

0 ( 2)

m

= =

Slope-intercept form:

y = mx + b y = 2x 1. A general form:

2x + y + 1 = 0.

4. Slope of y = 3x 4 is m = 3, so slope of parallel

line is also m = 3. Thus

y (1) = 3[x (1)]

y + 1 = 3x + 3,

Slope-intercept form: y = 3x + 2. General form:

3x y + 2 = 0.

5.

1

4 ( 10)

2

y x =

1

4 5

2

y x =

1

1

2

y x = , which is slope-intercept form.

Clearing fractions, we have

1

2 2 1

2

y x

=

2y = x 2

x 2y 2 = 0, which is a general form.

6. Slope of a vertical line is undefined, so slope-

intercept form does not exist. An equation of the

vertical line is x = 3. General form: x 3 = 0.

7. Slope of a horizontal line is 0. Thus

y 4 = 0[x (2)]

y 4 = 0,

so slope-intercept form is y = 4. A general form

is y 4 = 0.

8. 3y + 5x = 7

5 7

or

3 3

y x

=

has slope

5

3

.

Thus the line perpendicular to it has slope

3

5

and its equation is

3

2 ( 1)

5

y x = , or

3 13

5 5

y x = + . A general form is 3x + 5y 13 =

0.

9. The line 2y + 5x = 2

5

or 1

2

y x

= +

has slope

5

,

2

so the line perpendicular to it has slope

2

.

5

Since the y-intercept is 3, the equation is

2

3.

5

y x = A general form is 2x 5y 15 = 0.

10. The line has slope

8 2 6

3,

1 ( 1) 2

= =

so an

equation of the line is y 8 = 3(x 1). If x = 3,

then

y 8 = 3(3 1)

y 8 = 6

y = 14

Thus (3, 13) does not lie on the line.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 3 Review

125

In Problems 1116,

1

m = slope of first line, and

2

m = slope of second line.

11. x + 4y + 2 = 0

1 1

or

4 2

y x

=

has slope

1

1

4

m = and 8x 2y 2 = 0 (or y = 4x 1) has

slope

2

4 m = . Since

1

2

1

m

m

= , the lines are

perpendicular to each other.

12. y 2 = 2(x 1) (or y = 2x) has slope

1

2 m = , and

2x + 4y 3 = 0

1 3

or

2 4

y x

= +

has slope

2

1

2

m = . Since

1

2

1

m

m

= , the lines are

perpendicular.

13. x 3 = 2(y + 4)

1 11

or

2 2

y x

=

has slope

1

1

2

m = , and y = 4x + 2 has slope

2

4 m = . Since

1 2

m m and

1

2

1

m

m

, the lines are neither

parallel nor perpendicular to each other.

14. 2x + 7y 4 = 0

2 4

or

7 7

y x

= +

has slope

1

2

,

7

m = and 6x + 21y = 90

2 30

or

7 7

y x

= +

has slope

2

2

.

7

m = Since

1 2

, m m = the lines are parallel.

15. y = 3x + 5 has slope 3, and 6x 2y = 7

7

or 3

2

y x

=

has slope 3. Since

1 2

m m = , the

lines are parallel.

16. y = 7x has slope

1

7 m = , and y = 7 has slope

2

0 m = . Since

1 2

m m and

1

2

1

m

m

, the

lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular.

17. 3x 2y = 4

2y = 3x + 4

3

2

2

y x =

3

2

m =

x

y

5

2

5

4

3

18. x = 3y + 4

3y = x + 4

1 4

3 3

y x = +

1

3

m =

x

y

5

4

4

3

19. 4 3y = 0

3y = 4

4

3

y =

m = 0

x

y

5

5

4

3

20. y = 2x

m = 2

x

y

5

5

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

126

21. y = f(x) = 17 5x has the linear form

f(x) = ax + b, where a = 5 and b = 17.

Slope = 5; y-intercept (0, 17).

x

y

25

5

22.

2

( ) 5 3 s g t t t = = + has the quadratic form

2

( ) g t at bt c = + + , where a = 1, b = 3, c = 5.

Vertex:

3 3

2 2(1) 2

b

a

= =

2

3 3 3 11

5 3

2 2 2 4

g

= + =

3 11

Vertex ,

2 4

=

s-intercept: c = 5

t-intercepts: Because the parabola opens upward

(a > 0) and the vertex is above the t-axis, there is

no t-intercept.

s

8

t

6

23.

2

( ) 9 y f x x = = has the quadratic form

2

( ) f x ax bx c = + + , where a = 1, b = 0 and

c = 9.

Vertex:

0

0

2 2( 1)

b

a

= =

2

(0) 9 0 9 f = =

Vertex = (0, 9)

y-intercept: c = 9

x-intercepts:

2

9 (3 )(3 ) 0 x x x = + = , so

x = 3, 3.

x

y

10

5

3 3

(0, 9)

24. y = f(x) = 3x 7 has the linear form f(x) = ax + b,

where a = 3, b = 7.

Slope = 3; y-intercept (0, 7)

x

y

2

7

5

25.

2

( ) 4 5 y h t t t = = has the quadratic form

2

( ) h t at bt c = + + , where a = 1, b = 4, and

c = 5.

Vertex:

4

2

2 2 1

b

a

= =

2

(2) 2 4(2) 5 9 h = =

Vertex = (2, 9)

y-intercept: c = 5

t -intercepts:

2

4 5 ( 5)( 1) 0 t t t t = + =

t = 5, 1

t

y

2 5 1

9

5

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 3 Review

127

26. y = k(t) = 3 3t has the linear form

k(t) = at + b, where a = 3, b = 3.

Slope = 3, y-intercept (0, 3)

t

y

5

5

27. p = g(t) = 7t has the linear form g(t) = at + b,

where a = 7 and b = 0.

Slope = 7; p-intercept (0, 0)

t

p

10

5

28.

2 2

( ) (2 1) 4 4 1 y F x x x x = = = + has the

quadratic form

2

( ) F x ax bx c = + + , where

a = 4, b = 4, c = 1.

Vertex:

4 1

2 2 4 2

b

a

= =

2

1 1

2 1 0

2 2

F

= =

Vertex

1

, 0

2

=

y-intercept: c = 1

x-intercepts:

2

(2 1) 0 x = , so

1

2

x =

x

y

5

1

1

2

29.

( )

2

( ) 2 3 y F x x x = = + +

2

2 3 x x = has

the quadratic form

2

( ) F x ax bx c = + + , where

a = 1, b = 2, and c = 3

Vertex:

2

1

2 2( 1)

b

a

= =

2

( 1) ( 1) 2( 1) 3 2 F

= + + =

Vertex = (1, 2)

y-intercept: c = 3

x-intercepts: Because the parabola opens

downward (a < 0) and the vertex is below the

x-axis, there is no x-intercept.

x

y

5 1

3

2

2

30.

1

( ) 2 2

3 3

x

y f x x = = = has the linear form

f(x) = ax + b, where

1

3

a = , b = 2.

Slope

1

3

= ; y-intercept (0, 2)

x

y

5

2

8

31.

2 6, (1)

3 2 5. (2)

x y

x y

=

+ =

From Eq. (1), y = 2x 6. Substituting in Eq. (2)

gives

3x + 2(2x 6) = 5

7x 12 = 5, 7x = 17

17 17 8

2 6 2 6

7 7 7

x y x = = = = .

Thus

17

7

x = ,

8

7

y = .

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

128

32.

8 4 7, (1)

2 4. (2)

x y

y x

=

Replacing y by 2x 4 in Eq. (1) gives

8x 4(2x 4) = 7

16 = 7, which is never true.

There is no solution.

33.

7 5 5

6 5 3

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Subtracting the second equation from the first

equation gives x = 2. Then 7(2) + 5y = 5, or

5y = 9, so

9

.

5

y = Thus x = 2,

9

.

5

y =

34.

2 4 8 (1)

3 6 12 (2)

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (1) by 3 and Eq. (2) by 2 gives

6 12 24

6 12 24.

x y

x y

+ =

Adding gives 0 = 0. Thus, the equations are

equivalent. From EQ. (1), x = 2y + 4. Letting

y = r gives the parametric solution x = 2r + 4,

y = r, where r is any real number.

35.

1 3

4, (1)

4 2

3 1

8. (2)

4 2

x y

x y

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (2) by 3 gives

1 3

4,

4 2

9 3

24.

4 2

x y

x y

+ =

Adding the first equation to the second gives

5

20

2

x =

x = 8

From Eq. (1),

1 3

(8) 4

4 2

y =

3

6

2

y =

y = 4

Thus

x = 8, y = 4.

36.

1 1 1

, (1)

3 4 12

4 5

3 . (2)

3 3

x y

x y

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (1) by 4 gives

4 1

,

3 3

4 5

3 .

3 3

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Adding gives

4 1

4

3 3

y y = = . From Eq. (2),

4 1 5

3

3 3 3

x

+ =

4 2

3 3

x =

1

2

x =

Thus

1

2

x = ,

1

3

y = .

37.

3 2 2, (1)

2 1, (2)

3 3. (3)

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ =

+ + =

+ =

Subtracting Eq. (2) from Eq. (1) and adding Eq.

(2) to Eq. (3) gives

3 3,

3 4 4.

x y

x y

=

+ =

Multiplying the first equation by 3 gives

3 9 9,

3 4 4.

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Adding the first equation to the second gives

13y = 13

y = 1

From the equation x 3y = 3, we get

x 3(1) = 3

x = 0

From 3x 2y + z = 2, we get

3(0) 2(1) + z = 2

z = 0

Thus x = 0, y = 1, z = 0.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 3 Review

129

38.

3

3

5 2

4

2 9

7

y x

x y

x

y

+

+

+ =

+ =

simplifies to

7 3 27 (1)

5 6 28 (2)

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (1) by 2 gives

14 6 54

5 6 28

x y

x y

=

+ =

Adding the equations gives

9 26

26

9

x

x

=

=

Multiplying Eq. (1) by 5 and Eq. (2) by 7 gives

35 15 135

35 42 196

x y

x y

=

+ =

Adding the equations gives

27 61

61

27

y

y

=

=

Thus,

26 61

, .

9 27

x y = =

39.

2

2

5 2, (1)

3. (2)

x y x

x y

+ =

+ =

From Eq. (2),

2

3 y x = . Substituting in Eq. (1)

gives

2 2

2

(3 ) 5 2

2 5 5 0

x x x

x x

+ =

+ =

2

2

4

2

5 5 4(2)( 5)

2(2)

5 65

4

b b ac

x

a

=

=

=

Since

2

3 , y x = if

5 65

,

4

x

+

= then

21 5 65

;

8

y

+

= if

5 65

,

4

x

= then

21 5 65

.

8

y

=

Thus, the two solutions are

5 65 21 5 65

, ,

4 8

x y

+ +

= = and

5 65 21 5 65

, .

4 8

x y

= =

40.

18

, (1)

4

7 0. (2)

y

x

x y

+ =

From Eq. (2), y = x + 7. Substituting in Eq. (1)

we have

18

7

4

x

x

+ =

+

(x + 7)(x + 4) = 18

2

11 28 18 x x + + =

2

11 10 0 x x + + =

(x + 1)(x + 10) = 0

Thus x = 1, 10. From y = x + 7, if x = 1, then

y = 1 + 7 = 6; if x = 10, then y = 10 + 7 = 3.

Thus the two solutions are x = 1, y = 6, and

x = 10, y = 3.

41.

2 2, (1)

5. (2)

x z

x y z

+ =

+ + =

From Eq. (1) we have x = 2 2z. Substituting

in Eq. (2) gives 2 2z + y + z = 5, so y = 7 + z.

Letting z = r gives the parametric solution

x = 2 2r, y = 7 + r, z = r, where r is any real

number.

42.

0, (1)

0, (2)

0. (3)

x y z

x y z

x z

+ + =

+ =

+ =

Subtracting Eq. (3) from both Eqs. (1) and (2)

gives

0,

0,

0.

y

y

x z

=

+ =

The first two equations state that y = 0, and the

third implies that x = z. Letting z = r gives the

parametric solution x = r, y = 0, z = r, where r

is any real number.

Chapter 3: Lines, Parabolas, and Systems ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

130

43.

0, (1)

2 2 3 0. (2)

x y z

x y z

=

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (1) by 2 gives

2 2 2 0,

2 2 3 0.

x y z

x y z

+ + =

+ =

Adding the first equation to the second gives

2 2 2 0,

5 0.

x y z

z

+ + =

From the second equation, z = 0. Substituting in

Eq. (1) gives x y 0 = 0, so x = y. Letting y = r

gives the parametric solution x = r, y = r, z = 0,

where r is any real number.

44.

2 5 6 1, (1)

4 10 12 2. (2)

x y z

x y z

+ =

+ =

Multiplying Eq. (1) by 2 gives

4 10 12 2,

4 10 12 2.

x y z

x y z

+ =

+ =

Adding the first equation to the second gives

4 10 12 2,

0 0.

x y z + =

Solving the first equation for x, we have

1 5

3

2 2

x y z = + . Letting y = r and z = s gives

the parametric solution

1 5

3

2 2

x r s = + , y = r,

z = s, where r and s are any real numbers.

45. a = 1 when b = 2; a = 5 when b = 3, so

2 1

2 1

5 1 4

4.

3 2 1

a a

m

b b

= = = =

Thus an equation relating a and b is

1 4( 2)

1 4 8

4 7

a b

a b

a b

=

=

=

When b = 5, then a = 4b 7 = 4(5) 7 = 13.

46. a. r = 206 when T = 36; r = 122 when T = 30.

Thus

2 1

2 1

122 206 84

14

30 36 6

r r

m

T T

= = = =

206 14( 36)

14 298

r T

r T

=

=

b. If T = 27, then

r = 14T 298 = 14(27) 298 = 80.

47. Slope is

4 4

( )

3 3

f x ax b x b

= + = + . Since

f(1) = 5,

4

5 (1)

3

b = +

19

3

b =

Thus

4 19

( )

3 3

f x x = + .

48. The slope of f is

5 8 3

1

2 ( 1) 3

= =

. Thus

f(x) = ax + b = x + b. Since f(2) = 5,

5 = 2 + b

b = 7

Thus f(x) = x + 7.

49.

2

(200 2 ) 200 2 r pq q q q q = = = , which is a

quadratic function with a = 2, b = 200, c = 0.

Since a < 0, r has a maximum value when

200

50

2 4

b

q

a

= = =

r = [200 2(50)](50) = $5000.

50. Let

1

p and

2

p be the prices (in dollars) of the

two items, respectively, before the tax. At the

time the difference in prices is

1 2

3.5. p p =

After the tax, the prices are

1

1.05p and

2

1.05 , p

so their difference is

1 2

1.05 1.05 , p p or 4.1.

This gives the system

1 2

1 2

3.5

1.05 1.05 4.1

p p

p p

=

Adding 1.05 times the first equation to the

second equation gives 0 = 0.425, which indicates

that the system does not have a solution. Thus

this scenario is not possible.

51.

120 240 0,

100 1200 0.

p q

p q

=

+ =

Adding gives 220p 1440 = 0, or

1440

6.55.

220

p =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 3

131

52. a. R = aL + b. If L = 0, then R = 1310. Thus we

have 1310 = 0 L + b, or b = 1310. So

R = aL + 1310. Since R = 1460 when L = 2,

1460 = a(2) + 1310

150 = 2a

a = 75

Thus R = 75L + 1310.

b. If L = 1, then

R = 75(1) + 1310 = 1385 milliseconds.

c. Since R = 75L + 1310, the slope is 75. The

slope gives the change in R for each 1-unit

increase in L. Thus the time necessary to

travel from one level to the next level is 75

milliseconds.

53.

TR

16 y q = ;

TC

8 10,000 y q = + . Letting

TR TC

y y = gives

16q = 8q + 10,000

8q = 10,000

q = 1250

If q = 1250, then

TR

16(1250) 20,000 y = = .

Thus the break-even point is (1250, 20,000) or

1250 units, $20,000.

54. C = aF + b. The points (32, 0) and (212, 100) lie

on the graph of the function. Thus its slope is

100 0 100 5

212 32 180 9

= =

, so

5

9

C F b = + . Since

C = 0 when F = 32,

5

0 (32)

9

b = + , so

160

9

b = . Thus

5 160

9 9

C F = or

5

( 32)

9

C F = . When

F = 50, then

5 5

(50 32) (18) 10

9 9

C = = = .

55. Equating L-values gives

0.0042 0.0378

0.0183 0.0005

0.042

0.0178

0.0178 0.042

2.36

p p

p

p

p

= +

=

=

The equilibrium pollution level is about 2.36

tons per square kilometer.

56. x = 12, y = 4

57. x = 7.29, y = 0.78

58. x = 3.02, y = 0.14

59. x = 0.75, y = 1.43

60. x = 2.68

Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 3

1.

1

(6000) 39.99 0.45(6000 450)

2537.49

P = +

=

6

(6000) 199.99 P =

He loses $2537.49 $199.99 = $2337.50 by

using

1

. P

2. The graph shows that

2

P and

3

P intersect when

the second branch of

2

P crosses the first branch

of

3

. P Thus

59.99 0.40( 900) 79.99

950

t

t

+ =

=

2

P is best for usage between 494.44 and 950

minutes.

3. The graph shows that

3

P and

4

P intersect when

the second branch of

3

P crosses the first branch

of

4

P Thus

79.99 0.35( 1350) 99.99

1407.14

t

t

+ =

3

P is best for usage between 950 and

1407.14 minutes.

4. The graph shows that

4

P and

5

P intersect when

the second branch of

4

P crosses the first branch

of

5

P Thus

99.99 0.25( 2000) 149.99

2200

t

t

+ =

=

4

P is best for usage between 1407.14 and

2200 minutes.

5. The graph shows that

5

P and

6

P intersect when

the second branch of

5

P crosses the first branch

of

6

P Thus

149.99 0.25( 4000) 199.99

4200

t

t

+ =

=

5

P is best for usage between 2200 and 4200

minutes.

6.

6

P is best for usage of greater than

4200 minutes.

7. No; answers may vary.

132

Chapter 4

Principles in Practice 4.1

1. The shapes of the graphs are the same. The value

of A scales the value of any point by A.

2. If P = the amount of money invested and

r = the annual rate at which P increases, then

after 1 year, the investment has grown from P to

P + Pr = P(1 + r). Since r = 0.10, the factor by

which P increases for the first year is

1 + r = 1 + 0.1 = 1.1. Similarly, during the

second year the investment grows from P(1 + r)

to (1 ) [ (1 )] P r r P r + + +

2

(1 ) P r = + . Again, since

r = 0.10, the multiplicative increase for the

second year is

2 2

(1 0.10) (1.1) 1.21. + = = This

pattern will continue as shown in the table.

Year Multiplicative

Increase

Expression

0 1

0

1.1

1 1.1

1

1.1

2 1.21

2

1.1

3 1.33

3

1.1

4 1.46

4

1.1

Thus, the growth of the initial investment is

exponential with a base of 1 + r = 1 + 0.1 = 1.1.

If we graph the multiplicative increase as a

function of years we obtain the following.

x

years

y

4 3 2 1 5

1

2

3. If V = the value of the car and

r = the annual rate at which V depreciates, then

after 1 year the value of the car is

V rV = V(1 r). Since r = 0.15, the factor by

which V decreases for the first year is

1 r = 1 0.15 = 0.85. Similarly, after the

second year the value of the car is

2

(1 ) [ (1 )] (1 ) V r r V r V r = . Again, since

r = 0.15, the multiplicative decrease for the

second year is

2 2

(1 ) (1 0.15) 0.72 r = = . This

pattern will continue as shown in the table.

Year Multiplicative

Decrease

Expression

0 1

0

0.85

1 0.85

1

0.85

2 0.72

2

0.85

3 0.61

3

0.85

Thus, the depreciation is exponential with a

base of 1 r = 1 0.15 = 0.85. If we graph the

multiplicative decrease as a function of years, we

obtain the following.

x

years

y

4 3 2 1 5

1

2

4. Let t = the time at which Georges sister began

saving, then since George is 3 years behind,

t 3 = the time when George began saving.

Therefore, if 1.08

t

y = represents the

multiplicative increase in Georges sisters

account

3

1.08

t

y

= represents the multiplicative

increase in Georges account. A graph showing

the projected increase in Georges money will

have the same shape as the graph of the

projected increase in his sisters account, but will

be shifted 3 units to the right.

5. (1 )

n

S P r = +

5

2000(1 0.13) S = +

5

2000(1.13) = 3684.87

The value of the investment after 5 years will be

$3684.87. The interest earned over the first 5

years is 3684.87 2000 = $1684.87.

6. Let N(t) = the number of employees at time t,

where t is in years. Then,

4 4

(4) 5(1 1.2) 5(2.2) 117.128 N = + = =

Thus, there will be 117 employees at the end of

4 years.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.1

133

7.

0.06t

P e

=

0.06

1

t

e

=

Since

1

0 1

e

< < , the graph is that of an

exponential function falling from left to right.

x y

0 1

2 0.89

4 0.79

6 0.70

8 0.62

10 0.55

t

years

P

10 20

1

Problems 4.1

1.

y

8

x

5

2.

y

8

x

5

3.

y

8

x

5

4.

y

60

x

10

5.

x

y

8

5

6.

y

8

x

5

7.

y

9

x

5

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

134

8.

y

8

x

5

9.

y

8

x

5

10.

y

8

x

5

11.

y

8

x

5

12.

x

y

8

10

13. For the curves, the bases involved are 0.4, 2, and

5. For base 5, the curve rises from left to right,

and in the first quadrant it rises faster than the

curve for base 2. Thus the graph of 5

x

y = is B.

14. 0.4

x

y = has base b = 0.4 and 0 < b < 1, so its

graph falls from left to right. Thus the graph is

A.

15. For 2015 we have t = 20, so

20

20

1

125,000(1.11) 125,000(1.11) P = =

138,750 = .

16. a. For 1999, t = 1 and

1

1,527,000(1.015) 1,549,905 P = =

b. For 2000, t = 2 and

2

1,527,000(1.015) 1,573,154 P =

17. With

1

,

2

c =

1

1 1 1

1 1 .

2 2 2

n n

P

= =

n = 1:

1

1 1 1

1 1

2 2 2

P

= = =

n = 2:

2

1 1 3

1 1

2 4 4

P

= = =

n = 3:

3

1 1 7

1 1

2 8 8

P

= = =

18.

( )

3 3

2 2 8

x

x x

y = = = . Thus 8

x

y = .

19. a.

7

4000(1.06) $6014.52

b. 6014.52 4000 = $2014.52

20. a.

20

5000(1.05) $13,266.49

b. 13,266.49 5000 = $8266.49

21. a.

30

700(1.035) $1964.76

b. 1964.76 700 = $1264.76

22. a.

24

4000(1.0375) $9677.75

b. 9677.75 4000 = $5677.75

23. a.

64

0.0875

3000 1 11,983.37

4

+

b. 11,983.37 3000 = $8983.37

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.1

135

24. a.

48

0.07

2000 1 $4599.20

4

+

b. 4599.20 2000 = $2599.20

25. a.

30

5000(1.0075) $6256.36

b. 6256.36 5000 = $1256.36

26. a.

10

0.11

500 1 $854.07

2

+

b. 854.07 500 = $354.07

27. a.

3(365)

0.0625

8000 1 $9649.69

365

+

b. 9649.69 8000 = $1649.69

28. a.

10

900(1.0225) $1124.28

b.

5

900(1.045) $1121.56

29.

24

0.04

6500 1 $8253.28

4

+

30. a. 5000(1.03)

t

P =

b. When t = 3, then

3

5000(1.03) 5464. P =

31. a. 400(1.05)

t

N =

b. When t = 1, then

1

400(1.05) 420. N = =

c. When t = 4, then

4

400(1.05) 486. N =

32. If N = N(t) = the number of bacteria present at

any time t, where t is in hours, and if

r = the rate at which the bacteria are reduced,

then, after the first hour, the number of bacteria

remaining is

N rN = N(1 r) = 100,000(1 0.1)

= 100,000(0.9) = 90,000.

Similarly, after the second hour, the number of

bacteria remaining is

N(1 r) r[N(1 r)]

2

(1 ) N r =

2

100,000(1 0.1) =

2

100,000(0.9) 81,000 = =

This pattern will continue as shown in the table.

Hours Bacteria Expression

0 100,000

0

9

100,000

10

1 90,000

1

9

100,000

10

2 81,000

2

9

100,000

10

3 72,900

3

9

100,000

10

4 65,610

4

9

100,000

10

t

9

100,000

10

t

Thus, in general, the number of bacteria present

after t hours is given by

9

( ) 100,000

10

t

N t

=

.

33. Let P = the amount of plastic recycled and let

r = the rate at which P increases each year. Then

after the first year, the amount of plastic

recycled, increases from P to P + rP = P(1 + r),

since r = 0.3, the factor by which P increases for

the first year, is 1 + r = 1 + 0.3 = 1.3. Similarly,

during the second year, the amount of plastic

recycled increases from P(1 + r) to

P(1 + r) +

2

[ (1 )] (1 ) r P r P r + = + . Again, since

r = 0.3, the multiplicative increase for the second

year is

2 2 2

(1 ) (1 0.3) (1.3) 1.69 r + = + = = . This

pattern will continue as shown in the table.

Year Multiplicative

Increase

Expression

0 1

0

1.3

1 1.3

1

1.3

2 1.69

2

1.3

3 2.20

3

1.3

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

136

Thus, the increase in recycling is exponential

with a base = 1 + r = 1 + 0.3 = 1.3. If we graph

the multiplicative increase as function of years,

we obtaining the following.

x

years

y

4 3 2 1 5

1

2

3

From the graph it appears that recycling will

triple after about 4 years.

34. Population of city A after 5 years:

5

70,000(1.04) .

Population of city B after 5 years:

5

60,000(1.05) .

Difference in populations:

5 5

70,000(1.05) 60,000(1.05) 8589 .

35. 350,000(1 0.015) 350,000(0.985) ,

t t

P = =

where P is the population after t years.

When t = 3,

3

350,000(0.985) 334,485. P =

36. 14,000(1 0.03) 14,000(0.97) ,

t t

E = = where E

is the enrollment after t years. When t = 12,

12

14,000(0.97) 9714. E =

37. 4.4817

38. 29.9641

39. 0.4966

40. 0.5134

41.

x

y

2

5

42.

y

5

x

5

43. For x = 3,

3 3

3

0.2240

3!

e

P

=

44. f(0) 0.399; f(1) = f(1) 0.242

45.

( )

t

kt k t

e e b = = , where

k

b e =

46.

1 1

x

x

x

b

e

e

= =

, where

1

b

e

=

47. a. When t = 0,

0.031(0)

12 12 1 12. N e

= = =

b. When t = 10,

0.031(10) 0.31

12 12 8.8. N e e

= = =

c. When t = 44,

0.031(44) 1.364

12 12 3.1. N e e

= =

d. After 44 hours, approximately

1

4

of the

initial amount remains. Because

1 1 1

,

4 2 2

=

44 hours corresponds to 2

half-lives. Thus the half-life is

approximately 22 hours.

48.

0.045(10)

75 48 N e

=

49. After one half-life,

1

2

gram remains. After two

half-lives,

2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 4

= =

gram remains.

Continuing in this manner, after n half-lives,

1

2

n

gram remains. Because

4

1 1

16 2

=

, after

4 half-lives,

1

16

gram remains. This corresponds

to 4 8 = 32 years.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.2

137

50.

0.5

(0.5)

( )

!

x

e

f x

x

=

0.5 2

(0.5)

(2) 0.0758

2!

e

f

=

51.

4

4

( )

!

x

e

f x

x

=

4 2

4

(2) 0.1465

2!

e

f

=

52.

2 2

5

5

The intersection point is (0, 1).

53.

5 5

8

2

If ( ) 2 ,

x

f x = then

2 2 2 ( ).

a x x a

y f x a

+

= = = + Thus, the graph

of 2 2

a x

y = is the graph of 2

x

y = shifted

a units to the left.

54. 0.71

55. 3.17

56. The first integer t for which the graph of

1000(1.07)

t

P = lies on or above the horizontal

line P = 3000 is 17.

57.

4.1

4

300 976

3

4.2

4

300 1004

3

4.2 minutes

58. a. When p = 10, then

10

10,000(0.95123) 6065 q = .

b. Using a graphics calculator, 0.95123

x

e

=

when x 0.05. Thus,

0.05

0.95123 e

.

( )

0.05

10,000(0.95123) 10,000

p

p

q e

= .

0.05

10,000

p

e

=

c.

0.05(10)

10,000 6065 q e

= .

59. The first integer t for which the graph of

2500(1.043)

t

P = lies on or above the horizontal

line P = 5000 is 17.

Principles in Practice 4.2

1. If 16 2

t

= is the exponential form then

2

log 16 t = is the logarithmic form, where t

represents the number of times the bacteria have

doubled.

2. If

10

0

8.3 log

I

I

=

is the logarithmic form, then

8.3

0

10

I

I

= is the exponential form.

3. Let R = the amount of material recycled every

year. If the amount being recycled increases by

50% every year, then the amount recycled at the

end of y years is

(1 ) (1 0.5)

y y

R r R + = + (1.5)

y

R = Thus, the

multiplicative increase in recycling at the end of

y years is (1.5)

y

. If we let

x = the multiplicative increase, then (1.5)

y

x =

and, in logarithmic form,

1.5

log x y = .

x

y

5 10

6

3

multiplicative

increase

y = log

1.5

x

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

138

4. Let V = the value of the boat. If the value

depreciates by 20% every year, then at the end of

y years the value of the boat is

(1 ) (1.02)

y y

V r V = (0.8)

y

V = . Thus, the

multiplicative decrease in value at the end of y

years is (0.8)

y

. If we let

x = the multiplicative decrease, then (0.8)

y

x =

and, in logarithmic form,

0.8

log x y =

x

y

1

8

4

multiplicative

decrease

y = log

0.8

x

5. The equation

ln4

( ) t r

r

= can be rewritten as

ln4

( )

r

t r

= . When this equation is graphed we find

that the annual rate r needed to quadruple the

investment in 10 years is approximately 13.9%.

Alternatively, we can solve for r by setting

t(r) = 10.

ln(4)

( )

r

t r

=

ln(4)

10

r = 0.139 or 13.9%

6. Since

rt

m e = , then ln m = rt.

ln m = rt

lnm

r

t

=

Let m = 3 and t = 12.

ln3

12

r =

0.092 = r

Thus, to triple your investment in 12 years,

invest at an annual percentage rate of 9.2%.

Problems 4.2

1. log 10,000 = 4

2.

2

(12) 144 =

3.

6

2 64 =

4.

8

2

log 4

3

=

5. ln 20.0855 = 3

6. ln 1.4 = 0.33647

7.

1.09861

3 e =

8.

0.6990

10 5 =

9.

y

5

x

5

10.

x

y

5

5

11.

y

5

x

5

12.

x

y

5

5

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.2

139

13.

y

5

x

8

14.

y

5

x

5

15.

y

5

x

5

16.

y

5

x

5

17. Because

2

6 36 = ,

6

log 36 2 =

18. Because

6

2

2 64, log 64 6. = =

19. Because

3

3

3 27, log 27 3 = =

20. Because

1/ 2

16

1

16 4, log 4

2

= =

21. Because

1

7

7 7, log 7 1 = =

22. Because

4

10 10,000, log10,000 4 = =

23. Because

2

10 0.01, log0.01 2

= =

24. Because

1/3 3 3

2

1

2 2, log 2 .

3

= =

25. Because

0

5

5 1, log 1 0 = =

26. Because

2

5

1 1

5 , log 2

25 25

= =

27. Because

3

2

1 1

2 , log 3

8 8

= =

28. Because

1/5 5

4 4, =

5

4

1

log 4 .

5

=

29.

4

3

81

x

x

=

=

30.

8

2 x =

x = 256

31.

3

5 x =

x = 125

32.

0

4 x =

x = 1

33.

1

10 x

=

1

10

x =

34.

1

e x =

x = e

35.

3

e x

=

36.

2

25 x =

Since x > 0, we choose x = 5.

37.

3

8 x =

x = 2

38.

1/ 2

3 x =

x = 9

39.

1

1

6

x

=

x = 6

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

140

40.

1

y x =

x = y

41.

3

3

1

27

x

x

=

=

42.

1

2 3 x x =

x = 3

43.

2

6 x x =

2

6 0 x x + =

(x + 3)(x 2) = 0

The roots of this equation are 3 and 2. But since

x > 0, we choose x = 2.

44.

8

log 64 1 x =

1

8 64

x

=

x 1 = 2

x = 3

45.

2

2 log 4 3 1 x + =

2 + 2 = 3x 1

5 = 3x

5

3

x =

46.

2

3 2 x

= +

1

2

9

x = +

17

9

x =

47.

2

2 8 x x = +

2

2 8 0 x x =

(x 4)(x + 2) = 0

The roots of this equation are 4 and 2. But since

x > 0, we choose x = 4.

48.

2 2

6 4 x x x = +

2

2

2 4 6 0

2 3 0

( 3)( 1) 0

x x

x x

x x

=

=

+ =

The roots of the equation are 3 and 1. But since

x > 0, we choose x = 3.

49.

3

2

x

e =

3x = ln 2

ln2

3

x =

50.

0.1

0.1 0.5

x

e =

0.1

5

x

e =

0.1x = ln 5

x = 10 ln 5

51.

2 5

1 4

x

e

+ =

2 5

3

x

e

=

2x 5 = ln 3

5 ln3

2

x

+

=

52.

2

1

6 1

2

x

e =

2

3

6

2

x

e =

2

1

4

x

e =

1

2 ln

4

x =

1 1

ln

2 4

x =

53. 1.60944

54. 1.45161

55. 2.00013

56. 2.30058

57. If V = the value of the antique. If the value

appreciates by 10% every year, then at the end of

y years the value of the antique is

(1 ) (1 0.10)

y y

V r V + = + (1.10)

y

V = . Thus, the

multiplicative increase in value at the end of

y years is (1.10)

y

. If we let

x = the multiplicative increase, then (1.10)

y

x = ,

and, in logarithm form,

1.10

log x y = .

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.2

141

x

y

8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

2 1 0

Multiplicative increase

Y

e

a

r

s

58. c = 3(6) ln 6 + 12 44.25

59.

1980

log 10 log[10 990] log1000

2

p

= + = + =

= 3

60.

11

1.5 log

2.5 10

E

M

=

1.5

1

10

2.5 10

M

E

1

=

( )( )

11 1.5

2.5 10 10

M

E =

11 1.5

2.5 10

M

E

+

=

61. a. If t = k, then

( )

1

0 0

2 2 N N N = =

b. From part (a),

0

2 N N = when t = k. Thus k

is the time it takes for the population to

double.

c.

1 0

2

t

k

N N =

1

0

2

t

k

N

N

=

1

2

0

log

N t

k N

=

1

2

0

log

N

t k

N

=

62. ( )

2

2

0 1

ln

2

x

u A x = +

( )

2

2

0 1

ln

2

x

u A x =

( )

2

2

0

2

1

ln

x

u

x

A

=

( )

2

2

0

2

1

u x

A

x e

=

63.

ln2

36.1

0.01920

T = minutes

64.

ln2

21.7

0.03194

T = years

65. From log 3

y

x = ,

3

y x = ; from log 2

z

x = ,

2

z x = . Thus

2 3

z y = or

3

2

z y = .

66.

2

2

2

3 8 0

3 8

8

3

y

y

y

x e

e x

x

e

+ =

=

=

2

8

ln[ ] ln

3

8

2 ln

3

1 8

ln

2 3

y

x

e

x

y

x

y

=

=

=

67.

3

2

1 4

a. (0, 1)

b. [0.37, )

68.

4

1

1 4

(1, 0)

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

142

69. For

x

y e = , if y = 3, then 3

x

e = or x = ln 3.

10

10

10

10

From the graph of

x

y e = , when y = 3, then

x = ln 3 1.10.

70. For y = ln x, when y = 2, then 2 = ln x or

2

x e = .

5

5

0 10

From the graph of y = ln x, when y = 2, then

2

7.39 x e = .

71.

4

1

0 5

1.41, 3.06

Principles in Practice 4.3

1. The magnitude (Richter Scale) of an earthquake

is given by

0

log

I

R

I

=

where I is the intensity

of the earthquake and

0

I is the intensity of a

zero-level reference earthquake.

0

I

I

= how

many times greater the earthquake is than a zero-

level earthquake. Thus, when

0

900,000,

I

I

=

1

log(900,000) R =

When

0

9000

I

I

=

2

log(9000) R =

1 2

log(900,000) log9000 R R =

900,000

log

9000

= = log 100

2

log10 = = 2 log 10

= 2

Thus, the two earthquakes differ by 2 on the

Richter scale.

2. The magnitude (Richter Scale) of an earthquake

is given by

0

log

I

R

I

=

where I is the intensity

of the earthquake and

0

I is the intensity of a

zero-level reference earthquake.

0

I

I

= how

many times greater the earthquake is than a zero-

level earthquake. Thus, if

0

10,000

I

I

= , then

R = log 10,000

4

log10 = = 4 log 10 = 4

The earthquake measures 4 on the Richter scale.

Problems 4.3

1. log30 log(2 3 5)

log2 log3 log5

a b c

=

= + +

= + +

2.

4

log16 log2 4log2 4a = = =

3.

2

log log2 log3

3

a b = =

4.

5

log log5 log2

2

c a = =

5.

3

8

log log8 log3 log2 log3

3

= =

= 3 log 2 log 3 = 3a b

6.

2

6 2 3

log log

25

5

log2 log3 2log5

2 a b c

=

= +

= +

7.

2

log36 log(2 3) 2log(2 3) = =

2(log2 log3) = + = 2(a + b)

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.3

143

8.

5

5

log0.00003 log(3 10 )

log3 log10

log3 5log10

log3 5log(2 5)

log3 5(log2 log5)

5( )

5 5

b a c

a b c

=

= +

=

=

= +

= +

= +

9.

10

2

10

log 3 log3

log 3

log 2 log2

b

a

= = =

10.

10

3

10

log 5 log5

log 5

log 3 log3

c

b

= = =

11.

48

7

log 7 48 =

12.

( )

3 15

2 2

5

5

5 5 5

15

log 5 5 log 5 log 5

2

= = =

13.

7

log0.0000001 log10 7

= =

14.

10

log 3.4 log3.4

10 10 3.4 = =

15.

5.01 5.01

ln log 5.01

e

e e = =

16. ln log 1

e

e e = =

17.

2 2

2

1

ln ln log 2

e

e e

e

= = =

18.

4

3 3

log 81 log 3 4 = =

19.

3 3

10

1 1

log ln log log 1 3 2

10 10

e

e e + = + = + =

20.

log ln

e

e e

= =

21.

2 2

ln ( 1) ln ln( 1) x x x x

+ = + +

ln 2ln( 1) x x = + +

22.

1

2

1

ln ln ln( 1) ln ln( 1)

1 2

x

x x x x

x

= + = +

+

23.

2

2 3

3

ln ln ln( 1)

( 1)

x

x x

x

= +

+

2ln 3ln( 1) x x = +

24.

3

ln[ ( 1)] 3ln[ ( 1)] 3[ln ln( 1)] x x x x x x + = + = + +

25.

4

1 1

ln 4ln 4[ln( 1) ln( 2)]

2 2

x x

x x

x x

+ +

= = + +

+ +

26.

1/ 2

ln ( 1)( 2) ln[ ( 1)( 2)]

1

[ln ( 1)( 2)]

2

1

[ln ln( 1)ln( 2)]

2

x x x x x x

x x x

x x x

+ + = + +

= + +

= + + +

27. ln ln ln[( 1)( 2)]

( 1)( 2)

x

x x x

x x

= + +

+ +

ln [ln( 1) ln( 2)] x x x = + + +

ln ln( 1) ln( 2) x x x = + +

28.

2

2

( 1)

ln ln ( 1) ln( 2)

2

x x

x x x

x

+

= + +

+

2

ln ln( 1) ln( 2) x x x = + + +

2ln ln( 1) ln( 2) x x x = + + +

29.

1

2

2 3

2 3

ln ln ln ( 1) ( 2)

( 1) ( 2)

x

x x x

x x

= + +

+ +

2 3

1

ln ln( 1) ln( 2)

2

x x x

= + + +

1

ln [2ln( 1) 3ln( 2)]

2

x x x = + + +

1

ln 2ln( 1) 3ln( 2)

2

x x x = + +

30. ln ln [ln( 1) ln( 2)]

( 1)( 2)

ln ln( 1) ln( 2)

x

x x x

x x

x x x

= + + +

+ +

= + +

31.

1

5 2 2

5

1 1

ln ln

2 1 2 1

x x

x x x x

=

+ + + +

2

5

1

5

ln

( 2)( 1)

x

x x

=

+ +

2 1

5 5

ln ln ( 2)( 1) x x x

= + +

1

5

2

ln ln( 2) ln( 1)

5

x x x

= + + +

2 1

ln ln( 2) ln( 1)

5 5

x x x = + +

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

144

32.

{ }

3 2 3 2

3

3 3

3 2 3

3 2 3

( 2) 1 ( 2)

ln ln

3

( 1) ( 1)

1

ln[ ( 2) ] ln( 1)

3

1

[ln ln( 2) ln( 1) ]

3

1

[3ln 2ln( 2) 3ln( 1)]

3

2

ln ln( 2) ln( 1)

3

x x x x

x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

+ +

=

+ +

= + +

= + + +

= + + +

= + + +

33. log (6 4) = log 24

34.

3 3

10

log log 2

5

=

35.

2

2

log

1

x

x +

36.

2

2

log log 2 log

2

x

x x

x

=

37.

5 2

2 2 2 2

5 2

2

5log 10 2log 13 log 10 log 13

log (10 13 )

+ = +

=

38.

2 3 2

2 3

2

5

2 3

2

5(log log log )

5log

log

x y z

x y

z

x y

z

+

=

=

39.

10

log100 log(1.05) +

10

log 100(1.05)

=

40.

( )

( )

8

8 3

3

215 6

1 1

log215 log6 log169 log

2 2

169

+ =

8

3

215(6)

log

169

=

41.

4

3

4 3

3

4

4

ln

4ln3 3ln4 ln3 ln4

3

3 81

64

4

e e e

= = = =

42.

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

2

2

2

2

log ln 5 5 ln 5 5

log ln 5 5 5 5

log [ln(5 5)]

log [ln ]

log (2)

1

e e

e e

e

e

+ + + +

= + + +

= +

=

=

=

43.

6 6 6 6

54

log 54 log 9 log log 6 1

9

= = =

44.

3 4

3 2 5

1/ 2 1/3 1/ 4

3 2 5

log 3 log 2 log 5

log 3 log 2 log 5

1 1 1

2 3 4

7

12

+

= +

= +

=

45.

ln(2 )

5

x

e =

2x = 5

5

2

x =

46.

4 4

log ( ) log (2)

4 3

x +

=

4

log (2 )

4 3

x

=

2x = 3

3

2

x =

47.

2

log

10 4

x

=

2

4 x =

x = 2

48.

3ln

8

x

e =

3

ln

8

x

e =

3

8 x =

x = 2

49. From the change of base formula with b = 2,

m = 2x + 1, and a = e, we have

2

log (2 1) ln(2 1)

log (2 1)

log 2 ln2

e

e

x x

x

+ +

+ = =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.3

145

50. From the change of base formula with b = 3,

2

2 2 m x x = + + and a = e,

2

2

3

2

log ( 2 2)

log ( 2 2)

log 3

ln( 2 2)

ln3

e

e

x x

x x

x x

+ +

+ + =

+ +

=

51. From the change of base formula with b = 3,

2

1 m x = + , and a = e, we have

( )

( ) ( )

2 2

2

3

log 1 ln 1

log 1

log 3 ln3

e

e

x x

x

+ +

+ = = .

52. From the change of base formula with b = 5,

2

9 m x = , and a = e, we have

( )

( ) ( )

2 2

2

5

3

log 9 ln 9

log 9

log 5 ln5

e

x x

x

= =

53.

ln

7

z y

e e =

7

y

z e =

7

y

z

e =

ln

7

z

y =

54.

x

y ab = so

log log( )

log log

log log .

x

x

y ab

a b

a x b

=

= +

= +

This is a linear expression because it is in the

form Ax + B, where A = log b and B = log a.

55. C = B + E

1

E

C B

B

= +

ln ln 1

E

C B

B

= +

ln ln ln 1

E

C B

B

= + +

56. M = log(A) + 3

a. M = log(10) + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

b. Given ( )

1 1

log 3 M A = + , let

( )

1

log 10 3 M A = +

( )

1

log10 log 3 M A = + +

( )

1

1 log 3 M A = + +

1

1 M M = +

57.

6

ln

log

ln6

x

y x = =

0

2

10

2

58.

4

ln( 2)

log ( 2)

ln4

x

y x

+

= + =

4

10 3

4

59. By the change of base formula,

ln

log

ln10

x

x = .

Thus the graphs of y = log x and

ln

ln10

x

y = are

identical.

60.

4

1

0 5

y = ln(4x) = ln 4 + ln x. If f(x) = ln x, then

y = ln(4x) = f(x) + ln 4. Thus the graph of

y = ln(4x) is the graph of y = ln x shifted

ln 4 units upward.

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

146

61.

2

2

8

8

ln(6x) = ln(3 2x) = ln 3 + ln(2x).

If f(x) = ln(2x), then y = ln(6x) = f(x) + ln 3.

Thus, the graph of y = ln(6x) is the graph of

y = ln(2x) shifted ln 3 units upward.

Principles in Practice 4.4

1. Let x = the number and let

y = the unknown exponent. Then

(3 9)

32 4

y y

x x

=

(3 9)

32 4

y y

=

(3 9)

log32 log4

y y

=

y log 32 = (3y 9) log 4

y log 32 = 3y log 4 9 log 4

y(log 32 3 log 4) = 9 log 4

3

32 1

2

4

9log4 18log2 18log2

log2 log log

y

= = =

y = 18

Thus, Greg used 32 to the power of 18.

2. Let S = 450.

0.1

4

800

3

d

S

=

0.1

4

450 800

3

d

=

0.1

450 4

800 3

d

=

450 4

log 0.1 log

800 3

d

=

( )

450

800

4

3

log

0.1log

d =

20 = d

Thus, he should start the new campaign 20 days

after the last one ends.

3. The magnitude (Richter Scale) of an earthquake

is given by

0

log

I

R

I

=

where I is the intensity

of the earthquake and

0

I is the intensity of a

zero-level reference earthquake.

0

I

I

= how

many times greater the earthquake is than a zero-

level earthquake.

1

log(675,000) R =

2

0

log

I

R

I

=

Since

1 2

4 R R =

0

log(675,000) 4 log

I

I

=

( )

5

0

log 6.75 10 4 log

I

I

=

0

log6.75 5log10 4 log

I

I

+ =

0

1.829 log

I

I

=

1.829

0

10

I

I

=

0

67.5

I

I

=

Thus, the other earthquake is 67.5 times as

intense as a zero-level earthquake.

Problems 4.4

1. log(3 2) log(2 5)

3 2 2 5

3

x x

x x

x

+ = +

+ = +

=

2. log log5 log7

log log5 log7

log log35

35

x

x

x

x

=

= +

=

=

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.4

147

3. log 7 log(x 1) = log 4

7

log log4

1 x

=

7

4

1 x

=

7 = 4x 4

4x = 11

11

2.75

4

x = =

4.

3

2 2 2

2

log log 2 log x

x

+ =

2 2

2

log (8 ) log x

x

=

2

8x

x

=

2

8 2 x =

2

1

4

x =

1

0.5

2

x = = since x > 0

5.

( )

2

ln( ) ln 6 x x =

2

6 x x =

2

6 0 x x + =

(x + 3)(x 2) = 0

x = 3 or x = 2

However, x = 3 is the only value that satisfies

the original equation.

x = 3

6. ln(4 x) + ln 2 = 2 ln x

2

ln[(4 )2] ln x x =

2

(4 )2 x x =

2

2 8 0 x x + =

(x + 4)(x 2) = 0

x = 4 or x = 2

However, x = 2 is the only value that satisfies the

original equation.

x = 2

7.

2 5 14 x x

e e e =

7 14 x

e e =

7x = 14

x = 2

8.

3 2 3 3

3(3 2) 3

( )

3(3 2) 3

3 2 1

3 3

1

x

x

e e

e e

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

=

=

=

9.

4

4 4 2

16 2

(81) 9

(3 ) 3

3 3

16 2

2 1

0.125

16 8

x

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

=

= = =

10.

2 1 1

(27) 3

x+

=

( )

2 1

3 1

3 3

x+

=

6 3 1

3 3

x+

=

6x + 3 = 1

6x = 4

2

0.667

3

x =

11.

2

9

x

e =

2 2

( ) 3

x

e =

3

x

e =

ln3 1.099 x =

12.

4

3

4

x

e =

3

4 ln

4

x =

( )

3

4

ln

0.072

4

x =

13.

5 2

5 2

2 17

17

2

17

5 2 ln

2

17

5 ln 2

2

1 17

ln 2 0.028

5 2

x

x

e

e

x

x

x

+

+

=

=

+ =

=

=

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

148

14.

2 1

2 1

2 1

5 2 23

5 25

5

2 1 ln5

1 ln5

1.305

2

x

x

x

e

e

e

x

x

=

=

=

=

+

=

15.

4

10 6

x

=

4

log6

x

=

4

5.140

log6

x =

16.

0.2

4(10)

3

5

x

=

0.2

15

(10)

4

x

=

15

0.2 log

4

x =

( )

15

4

log

2.870

0.2

x =

17.

2

5

7

10

x

=

2

5

10

7

x

=

5

2 log

7

x =

( )

5

7

log

0.073

2

x =

18.

1

2(10) (10) 4

x x+

+ =

2(10) 10(10) 4

x x

+ =

12(10) 4

x

=

1

(10)

3

x

=

1

log 0.477

3

x =

19. 2 5

x

=

ln2 ln5

x

=

x ln 2 = ln 5

ln5

2.322

ln2

x =

20.

2 3

2 3

7 9

ln(7 ) ln9

(2 3)ln7 ln9

ln9

2 3

ln7

ln9

2 3

ln7

1 ln9

3 0.935

2 ln7

x

x

x

x

x

x

+

+

=

=

+ =

+ =

=

=

21.

3 2

3 2

ln5

ln7

7 5

ln7 ln5

(3 2)ln7 ln5

ln5

3 2

ln7

ln5

3 2

ln7

2

0.942

3

x

x

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

=

= +

+

=

22.

2

4 20

x

=

2

ln4 ln20

x

=

ln4 ln20

2

x

=

ln20

2 ln4

x

=

2ln20

4.322

ln4

x =

23.

2

3

4

2

5

x

=

2

3

4

ln2 ln

5

x

=

2 4

ln2 ln

3 5

x

=

( )

4

5

ln

2

3 ln2

x

=

( )

4

5

3ln

0.483

2ln2

x =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.4

149

24.

( )

5 3 6 10

x

=

3 6 2

x

=

3 8

x

=

ln3 ln8

x

=

x ln 3 = ln 8

ln8

1.893

ln3

x =

25.

3

(4)5 7 2

x

=

3

9

5

4

x

=

3

9

ln5 ln

4

x

=

9

(3 )ln5 ln

4

x =

( )

9

4

ln

3

ln5

x =

( )

9

4

ln

3 2.496

ln5

x =

26.

( )

7

13

7

13

3

7

3

13

7

ln ln(3 )

13

7

ln ln3

13

ln

0.563

ln3

x

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

=

=

27. log(x 3) = 3

3

10 3 x =

3

10 3 1003 x = + =

28.

2

log ( 1) 4 x + =

4

2 1 x = +

4

2 1 15 x = =

29.

4

log (9 4) 2 x =

2

4 9 4 x =

2

9 4 4 x = +

2

4 4 20

2.222

9 9

x

+

= =

30.

4 4

log (2 4) 3 log 3 x + =

4 4

log (2 4) log 3 3 x + =

4

2 4

log 3

3

x +

=

3

2 4

4

3

x +

=

3

2 4 3 4 x + =

3

3 4 4 188

94

2 2

x

= = =

31. log(3x 1) log(x 3) = 2

3 1

log 2

3

x

x

2

3 1

10

3

x

x

100(x 3) = 3x 1

97x = 299

299

3.082

97

x =

32.

2

2

log( 3) log( 5) 1

log[( 3)( 5)] 1

8 15 10

8 5 0

x x

x x

x x

x x

+ =

=

+ =

+ =

2

8 ( 8) 4(1)(5)

4 11

2(1)

x

= =

However, 4 11 7.317 x = + is the only value

that satisfies the original equation.

x 7.317

33.

2 2

2 2

4

2

2

log (5 1) 4 log (3 2)

log (5 1) log (3 2) 4

log[(5 1)(3 2)] 4

(5 1)(3 2) 2

15 7 2 16

15 7 18 0

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

+ =

+ + =

+ =

+ =

=

=

x 1.353 or x 0.887

However, x 1.353 is the only value that

satisfies the original equation.

x 1.353

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

150

34.

2

log( 2) 2 x + =

2 log(x + 2) = 2

log(x + 2) = 1

1

10 2 x = +

x = 8

35.

2 2

2

log 3 log x

x

= +

2 2

2

log log 3 x

x

=

2

2

log 3

x

x

=

2

2

2

log 3

x

=

3

2

2

2

x

=

2

1

4

x =

1

2

x =

However,

1

2

x = is the only value that satisfies the original equation.

1

0.5

2

x = =

36.

3

3

3 3

3 3

3

3

ln( 2) ln(2 1) 3

ln( 2) ln(2 1) 3

2

ln 3

2 1

2

2 1

(2 1) 2

2 2

(2 1) 2

2

0.462

2 1

x x

x x

x

x

x

e

x

e x x

e x e x

x e e

e

x

e

= +

=

=

=

=

= +

+

=

However, this value does not satisfy the original equation. The equation has no solution.

37. log S = log 12.4 + 0.26 log A

0.26

log log12.4 log S A = +

0.26

log log 12.4 S A

=

0.26

12.4 S A =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 4.4

151

38.

2

log 1.7 0.2068log 0.1334(log ) T P P = +

log T = log 50 + 0.2068 log P 0.1334(log P)(log P)

log T = log 50 + 0.2068 log P + [0.1334 log P] log P

0.2068 [ 0.1334log ]

log log50 log log

P

T P P

= + +

( )( )

0.2068 0.1334log

log log (50)

P

T P P

=

0.2068 (0.1334log )

50

P

T P

=

log 2

(log ) (log )(log ) log ( )

b

x

b b b b

x x x x = =

39. a. When t = 0,

0.035(0) 0

100 100 100 1 100 Q e e

= = = = .

b. If Q = 20, then

0.035

20 100

t

e

0.035

20

100

t

e

=

0.035

1

5

t

e

=

1

ln 0.035

5

t =

ln 5 = 0.035t

ln5

46

0.035

t =

40.

225

100 225

N

e

=

225

225 9

100 4

N

e = =

9

ln

225 4

N

=

9

225ln 182

4

N =

41. If P = 1,500,000, then 1,500,000 1,000,000(1.02)

t

= . Solving for t gives

1,500,000

(1.02)

1,000,000

t

=

1.5 (1.02)

t

=

ln1.5 ln(1.02)

t

=

ln 1.5 = t ln 1.02

ln1.5

20.5

ln1.02

t =

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

152

42. If F(0) = 0, then

( )

( )

0

1

C p q

C p q

q pe

q e

+

+

=

+

. Thus

( )

0

C p q

q pe

+

=

( ) C p q

pe q

+

=

( ) C p q

q

e

p

+

=

( ) ln

q

C p q

p

+ =

1

ln

q

C

p q p

=

+

.

43. 80 2

p

q =

2 80

p

q =

log2 log(80 )

p

q =

log2 log(80 ) p q =

log(80 )

log2

q

p

=

When q = 60, then

log20

4.32

log2

p = .

44. The investment doubles when A = 2P.

Thus 2 (1.105) ,

t

P P = or 2 (1.105) .

t

=

Solving for t gives

ln2 ln(1.105)

ln2 ln1.105

ln2

7

ln1.105

t

t

t

=

=

=

45.

0.8

1

1000

2

t

q

=

0.8

1

log log1000 log

2

t

q

= +

1

log 3 0.8 log

2

t

q = +

log 3 0.8 ( log2)

t

q = +

log( ) 3 0.8 ( log2)

t

q =

Thus

log( ) 3 3 log

0.8

log2 log2

t

q q

= =

3 log

log(0.8) log

log2

q

t

=

.

( )

3 log

log2

log

log(0.8)

q

t

=

( )

log log

log

log log log

log log log

log log log

log log

log

log log

log log

log

log log

log log

log

log

log

x

x

a

a

x

x

x

x

y A

b

y Ab

y A b

y A a b

y A a b

y A

a

b

y A

a

b

y A

x a

b

x

a

=

= +

= +

=

=

=

=

=

The previous solution was the special case y = q,

A = 1000,

1

,

2

b = a = 0.8, and x = t.

46.

( )

0.2

500 1

t

q e

=

a. If t = 1, then

( )

0.2

500 1 91 q e

= .

b. If t = 10, then

( )

2

500 1 432 q e

= .

c. We solve the equation

( )

0.2

400 500 1

t

e

=

0.2

4

1

5

t

e

=

0.2

1

5

t

e

=

1

0.2 ln ln5

5

t = =

ln5

8

0.2

t =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 4 Review

153

47.

2 2

log 5 log ( 4) x x = + is equivalent to

2 2

0 5 log ( 4) log x x = + , or

ln( 4) ln

0 5

ln2 ln2

x x +

= . Thus the solutions of the

original equation are the zeros of the function

ln( 4) ln

5

ln2 ln2

x x

y

+

= .

5

5

0 10

From the graph of this function, the only zero is

x = 4. Thus 4 is the only solution of the original

equation.

48.

0 2

0

20

1.20

49.

10

10

10

10

3.33

50.

( )

4 5

3

(3)2 4 5

(3)2 4 5

4 5

2

3

4 5

ln2 ln

3

4 5

ln2 ln

3

ln

ln2

y

y

y

y

x

x

x

x

x

x

y

y

+

=

= +

+

=

+

=

+

=

=

The graph of the original equation is the graph of

( )

4 5

3

ln

.

ln2

x

y

+

=

8

8 2

2

Chapter 4 Review Problems

1.

3

log 243 5 =

2.

4

5 625 =

3.

1

4

81 3 =

4. log 100,000 = 5

5. ln 54.598 = 4

6.

1

9 9 =

7. Because

3

5 125 = ,

5

log 125 3 =

8. Because

2

4 16 = ,

4

log 16 2 =

9. Because

4

3

1 1

3 , log 4

81 81

= =

10. Because

3

1 1

,

4 64

=

1

4

1

log 3.

64

=

11. Because

2

2

1

3 9

3

= =

,

1

3

log 9 2 =

12. Because

1

2

4 2 = ,

4

1

log 2

2

=

13. 5 625

x

=

x = 4

14.

4

4

4

1

log 4

81

1

81

1 1

81

81

3

x

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

=

=

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

154

15.

5

5

2

1 1

32

2

x

x

=

= =

16.

1

1

x

e e

e

= =

x = 1

17. ln(2 3) 0 x + =

0

2 3 e x = +

1 2 3 x = +

2 2 x =

1 x =

18. Because

ln( 4)

4

x

e x

+

= + ,

x + 4 = 7

x = 3

19.

3

log8000 log(2 10) 3log(2 10) = =

3(log2 log10) = + = 3(a + 1)

20.

1

2

1

2

2

2

9 3

log log log3 log2

2

2

= =

1 1

2log3 log2 2 2

2 2 2

a

b a b = = =

21.

3

3 2

2

7

3log7 2log5 log7 log5 log

5

= =

22.

5 2

5 2

5ln 2ln ln ln ln ln

ln( )

x y z x y z

x y z

+ + = + +

=

23.

2 3

2ln ln 3ln ln ln ln x y z x y z + = +

2

2 3

3

ln ln ln

x y

x y z

z

= =

24.

6 6 6

log 2 log 4 9log 3

9

6 6 6

log 2 log 4 log 3

= +

( )

9

6 6 6 6

9

2 1

log 2 log 4 3 log log

39,366

4 3

= = =

25.

2

2 2 2 2

1

log 2log 3log ( 1) 4log ( 2)

2

x x x x + + +

( )

1

2

2

2 3 4

2 2 2 2

log log log ( 1) log ( 2) x x x x

= + + + +

1

2

4 3 4

2 2

log log ( 1) ( 2) x x x x

= + +

9

2

2

3 4

log

( 1) ( 2)

x

x x

=

+ +

26. 4log 2log 3(log log ) x y z w + +

4 2

4 2 3

4 2 3 3

4 2

3 3

log log 3log

log log log( )

log log

log

x y zw

x y zw

x y z w

x y

z w

= +

= +

=

=

27.

3 2

3 2 5

5

3 2 5

ln ln ln

ln ln ln

3ln 2ln 5ln

x y

x y z

z

x y z

x y z

=

= +

= + +

28.

1

2

2

2

ln ln ln( ) ln 2ln( )

( )

x

x yz x yz

yz

= =

1

ln 2(ln ln )

2

x y z = +

29.

1

3 3

1

ln ln( ) ln( )

3

xyz xyz xyz = =

1

(ln ln ln )

3

x y z = + +

30.

( )

4

3 3

3 2

2 2

ln 4ln 4 ln ln

xy xy

xy z

z z

= =

( )

3 2

4 ln ln ln x y z = +

4(ln 3ln 2ln ) x y z = +

31.

( )

1

2

1/ 2

1

ln ln ln ln

y

z y y

x

x z x z

= =

1 1

ln ln (ln ln ) ln

2 2

y

x y z x

z

= =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 4 Review

155

32.

2

3

5

5 2 3

2 3

ln ln ln ln

x x x

x y z

y z

y z

= =

( )

5 2 3

ln ln ln 5ln 2ln 3ln x y z x y z = + =

33.

3

log ( 5) ln( 5)

log ( 5)

log 3 ln3

e

e

x x

x

+ +

+ = =

34.

3

3 10

2

10

3

log (7 5)

log (7 5)

log 2

log(7 5)

log2

x

x

x

+

+ =

+

=

35.

2

5

2

log 19 4.2479

log 19 1.8295

log 5 2.3219

= =

36.

4

ln5

log 5 1.1610

ln4

=

37.

( )

2

1

ln 16 3 ln4 ln 3 2ln4 ln3

2

= + = +

1

2

2

y x = +

38.

33

5 2

5 3 2 3

5 3 2 3

2

1

log

2

log 1 log 2

log log 1 log 2

1 1

3log log( 1) log( 2)

3 5

x x

x

x x x

x x x

x x x

+

+

= + +

= + + +

= + + +

39.

log

10 log10 log10 1 2 1

x x

x x x + + = + + = +

40.

( )

2 2 3

log10 log(1000) 5 log10 log 10 5 + = +

= 2 + 3 5 = 0

41. In exponential form,

2

2 x

y e

+

= .

42.

y

5

x

5

y

y x

x

=

=

3

3

log

43.

y

9

x

5

44.

y

5

x

5

45. log(5 1) log(4 6)

5 1 4 6

5

x x

x x

x

+ = +

+ = +

=

46.

2

log3 log3 2

log9 2

9 10

9 100

100

9

x

x

x

x

x

+ =

=

=

=

=

47.

4 1

3 9

x x+

=

( )

1

4 2

3 3

x

x

+

=

4 2( 1)

3 3

x x+

=

4x = 2(x + 1)

4x = 2x + 2

2x = 2

x = 1

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

156

48.

3

1

4

16

x

=

3 2

4 4

x

=

3 x = 2

x = 5

49. log x + log(10x) = 3

log x + log 10 + log x = 3

2 log(x) + 1 = 3

2 log(x) = 2

log x = 1

1

10 10 x = =

50.

2 2

2

3

log ( 4) log ( 2) 3

4

log 3

2

4

2 8

2

4 8( 2) 8 16

20 7

20

7

x x

x

x

x

x

x x x

x

x

+ = +

+

=

+

= =

+ = =

=

=

51.

2

2 2 2

2 2 2

2

2

2

1

ln(log 3) 2

log 3

3

( ) 3

3

3

1

3

x

x

e

e e e

e e e

e

e

e

x

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

52.

2 4

log log 3 x x + =

2

2

2

log

log 3

log 4

x

x + =

2

2

log

log 3

2

x

x + =

2

3

log 3

2

x =

2

log 2 x =

2

2 x =

x = 4

53.

3

14

x

e =

3x = ln 14

ln14

0.880

3

x =

54.

3

2

10 5

x

=

3

log5

2

x

=

2

log5 0.466

3

x =

55.

( )

4

3 10 3 9

x+

=

4

10 3 3

x+

=

4

10 6

x+

=

x + 4 = log 6

x = log(6) 4 3.222

56.

3 1

7 2 1

x

e

=

3 1

7 3

x

e

=

3 1

3

7

x

e

=

3

3 1 ln

7

x =

3

3 ln 1

7

x = +

3

7

ln 1

0.051

3

x

+

=

57.

3

4 7

x+

=

3

ln4 ln7

x+

=

(x + 3)ln 4 = ln 7

ln7

3

ln4

x + =

ln7

3 1.596

ln4

x =

58.

5/

3 2

5

ln3 ln2

5ln3

7.925

ln2

x

x

x

=

=

=

59. Quarterly rate

0.06

0.015

4

= =

1

6

2

yr = 26 quarters

a.

26

2600(1.015) $3829.04

b. 3829.04 2600 = $1229.04

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 4 Review

157

60. Monthly rate

0.11

12

=

5 yr = 60 mo.

60

0.11

4000 1 $6915.66

12

+

61.

1

12 1 % 14%

6

=

62. a. 600(1.05)

t

N =

b. When t = 1,

1

600(1.05) 630. N = =

c. When t = 5,

5

600(1.05) 766. N =

63. a. 6000[1 ( 0.005)]

t

P = + or

6000(0.995)

t

P =

b. When t = 10, then

10

6000(0.995) 5707. P =

64. If t = 2,

0.4

200,000 134,064 R e

=

If t = 3,

0.6

200,000 109,762 R e

=

65.

0.41

10

t

N e

=

a. When t = 0, then

0

10 10 1 10 N e = = = mg

b. When t = 2, then

0.82

10 4.4 N e

= mg

c. When t = 10, then

4.1

10 0.2 N e

= mg

d.

ln2

1.7

0.41

e. If N = 1, then

0.41

1 10

t

e

= . Solving for t

gives

0.41

1

10

t

e

=

1

0.41 ln ln10

10

t = =

ln10

5.6

0.41

t =

66. Because

3

1 1

8 2

=

, it will take 3 10 = 30 days

for

1

8

of the initial amount to be present.

67.

40

10

t

R e

=

a. If t = 20,

20 1

40 2

10 10 6 R e e

= = .

b.

40

5 10

t

e

= ,

40

1

2

t

e

= . Thus

1

ln ln2

40 2

t

= =

t = 40 ln 2 28.

68. Let d = depth in centimeters.

20

(0.9) 0.0017

d

=

20

ln(0.9) ln0.0017

d

=

ln0.9 ln0.0017

20

d

=

20ln0.0017

1210

ln0.9

d = cm

69. ( )

at

t e t e

o

T T T T e

=

( )

at t e

t e

o

T T

e

T T

( )

ln

t e

t e

o

T T

at

T T

( )

1

ln

t e

t e

o

T T

a

t T T

( )

1

ln

t e

o

t e

T T

a

t T T

Chapter 4: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

158

70. For double-declining balance depreciation, the

equation is

2

1 .

n

V C

N

=

( )

( )

7

18

23

24

2

700 1800 1

48

700 46

1800 48

7 23

18 24

7 23

ln ln

18 24

7 23

ln ln

8 24

ln

22

ln

n

n

n

n

n

n

=

=

=

=

=

=

The value drops below $700 at about 22 months.

71.

1

2

0 5

(, 0.37]

72.

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

(1.96, 3.17), (2.93, 1.60)

73.

10

10

10

10

2.53

74.

20

0

5 5

0.37

75.

( )

2

2

log 1 y x = +

( )

2

ln 1

ln2

x +

=

2 8

10

10

76. (6)5 2

y

x + =

2

5

6

y

x

=

2

ln5 ln

6

y

x

=

2

ln5 ln

6

x

y

=

2

6

ln

ln5

x

y

=

1

3

3

10

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 4

159

77.

8

2

5 5

2

2

3 3

3

9

3

x x

x

y

= = = .

If ( ) 3

x

f x = , then we have

2

3 ( 2)

x

y f x

= = .

Thus the graph of

3

9

x

y = is the graph of 3

x

y =

shifted 2 units to the right.

Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 4

1.

( )

1

1

dkI

kI

P e

T

e

a.

( ) ( )

1 1

kI dkI

T e P e

=

( )

1

1

kI

dkI

T e

P

e

or

( )

1

1

kI

dkI

T e

P

e

b.

( )

1

kI dkI

T e P Pe

=

( )

1

dkI kI

Pe P T e

=

( )

1

kI

dkI

P T e

e

P

=

( )

1

ln

kI

P T e

dkI

P

=

( )

1

1

ln

kI

P T e

d

kI P

=

( )

1

ln

1

kI

P

d

kI

P T e

=

2. From the text, the half-life H is given by

ln2

H

k

= or, equivalently,

ln2

k

H

= . If H = I,

then

ln2

k

I

= . Thus

( )

ln2

ln2

1

1

1

1

I

I

d I

dkI

kI

I

P e

P e

T

e

e

= =

ln2

ln2

1

1

d

P e

e

( )

1 2

2 1

d

P

( )

1

1 2 1

2

d

d

P P

= =

.

3. P = 100, I = 4, d = 3, H = 8,

ln2 ln2

8

k

H

= =

a.

( )

ln2

8

ln2

8

3 4

4

100 1

1

1

1

dkI

kI

e

P e

T

e

e

= =

3

3

2

2

1 1

2 2

ln2

ln2

100 1

100 1 2

156

2 1

1

e

e

= =

b.

( )

1

dkI

R P e

( )

3

2

1 100 1 2

dkI

P e

=

. Thus

3

2

100 1 2 65. R

=

4.

10

0

0

5

As d changes, some of the coefficients need to

change from P to Y1 or vice versa.

160

Chapter 5

Principles in Practice 5.1

1. Let P = 518 and let n = 3(365) = 1095.

(1 )

n

S P r = +

1095

518 1

365

r

S

= +

By graphing S as a function of the nominal rate

r, we find that when r = 0.049, S = 600. Thus, at

the nominal rate of 4.9% compounded daily, the

initial amount of $518 will grow to $600 after

3 years.

1000

400

0 0.2

2. Let P = 520 and let r = 0.052.

(1 )

n

S P r = +

0.052

520 1

365

n

S

= +

365.052

520

365

n

S

=

By graphing S as a function of n, we find that

when n = 2571, S = 750. Thus, it will take

2571

7.044

365

years, or 7 years and 16 days for

$520 to grow to $750 at the nominal rate of

5.2% compounded daily.

800

500

0 3000

3. Let n = 12.

1 1

n

e

r

r

n

= +

12

1 1

12

e

r

r

= +

By graphing

e

r as a function of r, we find that,

when the nominal rate r = 0.077208 or 7.7208%,

the effective rate 0.08

e

r = or 8%.

0.1

0

0 0.1

4. The respective effective rates of interest are

found using the formula 1 1

n

e

r

r

n

= +

.

Let n = 12 when r = 0.11:

12

0.11

1 1 0.1157

12

e

r

= +

. Hence, when the

nominal rate r = 11% is compounded monthly,

the effective rate is 11.57%

e

r = . When

r = 0.1125:

4

0.1125

1 1 0.1173

4

e

r

= +

.

Hence in the second case when the nominal rate

r = 11.25% is compounded quarterly, the

effective rate is 11.73%

e

r = . This is the better

effective rate of interest. To find the better

investment, compare the compound amounts, S

at the end of n years. With P = 10,000 and

0.1157

e

r = ,

1

(1 ) 10,000(1 0.1157)

n n

S P r = + = + , and, in the

second case, when P = 9700 and 0.1173

e

r =

2

(1 ) 9700(1 0.1173)

n n

S P r = + = + .

20

1

(20) 10,000(1.1157) 89,319.99 S =

20

2

(20) 9700(1.1173) 89,159.52 S =

The $10,000 investment is slightly better over

20 years.

Problems 5.1

1. a.

8

6000(1.08) $11,105.58

b. 11,105.58 6000 = $5105.58

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 5.1

161

2. a. 750(1.07) = $802.50

b. 802.5 750 = $52.50

3.

2

(1.015) 1 0.030225 or 3.023%

4.

4

4

0.05

1 1 (1.0125) 1 0.05095

4

+ =

or

5.095%

5.

365

0.04

1 1 0.04081

365

+

or 4.081%

6.

365

0.06

1 1 0.06183

365

+

or 6.183%

7. a. A nominal rate compounded yearly is the

same as the effective rate, so the effective

rate is 10%.

b.

2

0.10

1 1 0.1025

2

+ =

or 10.25%

c.

4

0.10

1 1 0.10381

4

+

or 10.381%

d.

12

0.10

1 1 0.10471

12

+

or 10.471%

e.

365

0.10

1 1 0.10516

365

+

or 10.516%

8. a. (i)

4(5)

0.07

1000 1 1000 $414.78

4

+

(ii)

4

0.07

1 1 0.07186

4

+

or 7.186%

b. (i)

12(5)

0.07

1000 1 1000 $417.63

12

+

(ii)

12

0.07

1 1 0.07229

12

+

or 7.229%

c. (i)

52(5)

0.07

1000 1 1000 $418.73

52

+

(ii)

52

0.07

1 1 0.07246

52

+

or 7.246%

d. (i)

365(5)

0.07

1000 1 1000 $419.02

365

+

(ii)

365

0.07

1 1 0.07250 or 7.250%

365

+

9. Let

e

r be the effective rate. Then

( )

5

2000 1 2950

e

r + =

( )

5 2950

1

2000

e

r + =

5

2950

1

2000

e

r + =

5

2950

1

2000

e

r =

0.0808

e

r or 8.08%.

10. Let r be the monthly rate. Then

84

84

84

84

(1 ) 1835

1835

(1 )

1000

1835

1

1000

1835

1

1000

0.0072529

r

r

r

r

r

+ =

+ =

+ =

=

=

This gives a nominal rate of approximately

12(0.0072529) = 0.0870 8.70% compounded

monthly.

11. From Example 6, the number of years, n, is

given by

ln2

8.0

ln(1.09)

n = years.

12. From Example 6, the number of years, n, is

given by

ln2

14.2

ln(1.05)

n = years.

13.

7

6000(1.08) $10,282.95

Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

162

14. 3 (1 )

n

P P r = +

3 (1 )

n

r = +

ln 3 = n ln(1 + r)

ln3

ln(1 )

n

r

=

+

15.

10

21,500(1.06) $38,503.23

16.

40

0.02

21,500 1 $26,247.08

4

+

17. a. (0.015)(12) = 0.18 or 18%

b.

12

(1.015) 1 0.1956 or 19.56%

18. 2 (1.01)

n

P P =

2 (1.01)

n

=

ln 2 = n ln(1.01)

ln2

70

ln(1.01)

n = months

19. The compound amount after the first four years

is

4

2000(1.06) . After the next four years the

compound amount is

4 8

2000(1.06) (1.03) $3198.54

.

20. 700 500(1.02)

n

=

1.4 (1.02)

n

=

ln(1.4) = n ln(1.02)

ln(1.4)

17

ln(1.02)

n = quarters or 4 years, 3 months

21. 7.8% compounded semiannually is equivalent to

an effective rate of

2

(1.039) 1 0.079521 = or

7.9521%. Thus 8% compounded annually,

which is the effective rate, is the better rate.

22. Let r be the required nominal rate.

12

12

12

12

12

1 1 0.045

12

1 1.045

12

1 1.045

12

1.045 1

12

12 1.045 1 0.0441

r

r

r

r

r

+ =

+ =

+ =

=

=

or 4.41%.

23. a.

365

0.0475

1 1 0.0493

360

+

or 4.93%

b.

365

0.0475

1 1 0.0486

365

+

or 4.86%

24. Let r be the nominal rate.

8

801.06 700 1

4

r

= +

8

801.06

1

4 700

r

+ =

8

801.06

4 1 0.0680

700

r

=

or 6.80%

25. Let

e

r = effective rate.

( )

10

300,000 100,000 1

e

r = +

( )

10

1 3

e

r + =

10

1 3

e

r + =

10

3 1 0.1161

e

r = or 11.61%.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 5.2

163

26. Let P = average price of such a good,

n = number of days.

0.0725

2 1

365

n

P P

= +

0.0725

2 1

365

n

= +

0.0725

ln2 ln 1

365

n

= +

ln2

3489.98

0.0725

ln 1

365

n =

+

days

or 9.56 years

27. Let r = the required nominal rate.

28

420 1 1000

2

r

+ =

28

1000 50

1

2 420 21

r

+ = =

28

50

1

2 21

r

+ =

28

50

2 1 0.0629

21

r

=

or 6.29%

28.

20 20

1000(1 0.01) 1000(0.99) $817.91 =

Problems 5.2

1.

20

6000(1.05) $2261.34

2.

8

3500(1.06) $2195.94

3.

24

4000(1.035) $1751.83

4.

24

1740(1.015) $1217.21

=

5.

22

0.08

9000 1 $5821.55

4

+

6.

13

0.10

6000 1 $3181.93

2

+

7.

60

0.10

8000 1 $4862.31

12

+

8.

12

0.0875

500 1 $385.65

4

+

9.

4(365)

0.095

10,000 1 $6838.95

365

+

10.

78

0.135

1250 1 $1021.13

52

+

11.

12

0.053

12,000 1 $11,381.89

12

+

12.

2

0.071

12,000 1 $11,191.31

2

+

13.

22

27,000(1.03) $14,091.10

14.

16 20

550(1.025) 550(1.025) $706.14

+

15. Let x be the payment 2 years from now. The

equation of value at year 2 is

2 4

600(1.04) 800(1.04) x

= +

x $1238.58

Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

164

16. Let x be the payment at the end of 5 years. The equation of value at year 5 is

60

60

0.08

3000 1 7000

12

0.08

7000 3000 1

12

$2530.46

x

x

x

+ + =

= +

17. Let x be the payment at the end of 6 years. The equation of value at year 6 is

4 2 4

2000(1.025) 4000(1.025) 5000(1.025) 5000(1.025) x

+ + = +

4 4 2

5000(1.025) 5000(1.025) 2000(1.025) 4000(1.025) x

= +

x $3244.63.

18. Let x be the amount of each of the equal payments. The equation of value at year 3 is

3 2 1 3

2 1 3 3

1 3 3

2

1500(1.07) (1.07) (1.07) 3500(1.07) 5000(1.07)

[(1.07) 1.07 1] 3500(1.07) 5000(1.07) 1500(1.07)

3500(1.07) 5000(1.07) 1500(1.07)

(1.07) 2.07

$1715.44

x x x

x

x

x

+ + + = +

+ + = +

+

=

+

19. a.

6 8 12

8000(1.025) 10,000(1.025) 14,000(1.025) 25,000 $515.62 NPV

= + +

b. Since NPV > 0, the investment is profitable.

20. a.

6 8 12

8000(1.03) 10,000(1.03) 14,000(1.03) 25,000 $586.72 NPV

= + +

b. Since NPV < 0, the investment is not profitable.

21. We consider the value of each investment at the end of eight years. The savings account has a value of

16

10,000(1.03) $16,047.06.

The business investment has a value of $16,000. Thus the better choice is the savings account.

22. The payments due B are

5

1000(1.07) at year 5 and

14

2000(1.04) at year 7. Let x be the payment at the end of 6

years. The equation of value at year 6 is

5 4 14 4

1000(1.07) (1.015) 2000(1.04) (1.015) x

= + x $4751.73

23.

80

0.075

1000 1 $226.25

4

+

24.

1460

0.058

6500 1 $5137.67

360

+

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 5.3

165

25. Let r be the nominal discount rate, compounded

quarterly. Then

32

4700 10,000 1

4

r

= +

( )

32

4

10,000

4700

1

r

=

+

32

10,000 100

1

4 4700 47

r

+ = =

32

100

1

4 47

r

+ =

32

100

4 1 0.0955

47

r

=

or 9.55%

Problems 5.3

1.

0.0625(6)

4000 $5819.97 S e =

5819.97 4000 = $1819.97

2.

0.09(6)

4000 $6864.03 S e =

6864.03 4000 = $2864.03

3.

0.0675(8)

2500 $1456.87 P e

=

4.

0.08(8)

2500 $1318.23 P e

=

5.

0.04

1 0.0408 e

Answer: 4.08%

6.

0.08

1 0.0833 e

Answer: 8.33%

7.

0.03

1 0.0305 e

Answer: 3.05%

8.

0.11

1 0.1163 e =

Answer: 11.63%

9.

0.045(2)

100 $109.42 S e =

10.

0.03(8)

1000 $1271.25 S e =

11.

0.05(5)

1,000,000 $778,800.78 P e

=

12.

0.06(30)

50,000 $8264.94 P e

=

13. a.

25

25,000(1 0.035) $59,081 + =

b.

(0.045)(25)

59,081 $19,181 P e

=

14. With option (a), after 18 months they have

6

50,000(1 0.0125) $53,869.16 +

with option (b), they have

(0.045)(1.5)

50,000 $53,491.51 e .

15. Effective rate 1

r

e = . Thus 0.05 1

r

e = ,

1.05

r

e = , r = ln 1.05 0.0488.

Answer: 4.88%

16. If r is the annual rate compounded continuously,

then at the end of 1 year the compound amount

of a principal of P dollars is

(1) r r

Pe Pe = . This

amount must equal the compound amount of P

dollars at a nominal rate of 6% compounded

semiannually, which is

2

(1.03) P . Thus

2

(1.03)

r

Pe P =

2

(1.03)

r

e =

2

ln(1.03) r =

r = 2 ln 1.03 0.0591

Answer: 5.91%

17.

0.07

3

t

P Pe =

0.07

3

t

e =

0.07t = ln 3

ln3

16

0.07

t =

Answer: 16 years

18.

(30)

30

4

4

30 ln4

ln4

0.046

30

r

r

P Pe

e

r

r

=

=

=

=

Answer: 5%

19. The accumulated amounts under each option are:

a.

(0.035)(2)

1000 $1072.51 e

b.

4

1020(1.0175) $1093.30

c.

(0.035)(2) 4

500 500(1.0175) e +

536.25 535.93 $1072.18 + =

Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

166

20. a. On Nov. 1, 2006 the accumulated amount is

(0.04)(10)

10,000 $14,918.25 e .

On Nov. 1, 2011 the accumulated amount is

5

14,918.25(1.05) $19,039.89 .

b.

15

10,000(1.045) $19,352.82 , which is

$312.93 more than the amount in part (a).

21. a.

4

9000(1.0125) $9458.51

b. After one year the accumulated amount of

the investment is

0.055

10,000 $10,565.41 e . The payoff

for the loan (including interest) is

1000 + 1000(0.08) = $1080. The net return

is 10,565.41 1080 = $9485.41.

Thus, this strategy is better by

9485.41 9458.51 = $26.90.

Principles in Practice 5.4

1. Let a = 64 and let

3

4

r = . Then, the next five

heights of the ball are

3

64

4

,

2

3

64

4

,

3

3

64

4

,

4

3

64

4

,

5

3

64

4

, or 48 ft, 36 ft,

27 ft,

1

20

4

ft, and

3

15

16

ft.

2. Let a = 500 and let r = 1.5. Then, the number of

bacteria at the end of each minute for the first six

minutes is 500(1.5),

2

500(1.5) ,

3

500(1.5) ,

4

500(1.5) ,

5

500(1.5) ,

6

500(1.5) , or 750, 1125,

1688, 2531, 3797, 5695.

3. The total vertical distance traveled in the air after

n bounces is equal to 2 times the sum of heights.

If a = 6 and

2

3

r = , then when the ball hits the

ground for the twelfth time, n = 12 and the

distance traveled in the air is

( )

( )

12

2

3

2

3

6 1

1

2 2 2

1 1

n

a r

s

r

= =

35.72 meters

4. The amount of profit earned in the first two

years is the sum of the monthly profits.

Let a = 2000,

r = 1.1, and n = 24.

( )

24

2000 1 (1.1)

176,994.65

1 1.1

s

Thus, the company earned $176,994.65 in the

first two years.

5. Let R = 500 and let n = 72. Then, the present

value A of the annuity is given by

72

1 (1 ) 1 (1 )

500

n

r r

A R

r r

+ +

= =

By graphing A as a function of r, we find that

when r 0.005167, A = 30,000. Thus, if the

present value of the annuity is $30,000, the

monthly interest rate is 0.5167%, and the

nominal rate is 12(0.005167) = 0.062 or 6.2%.

50,000

10,000

0 0.05

6. Since the man pays $2000 for 6 years and $3500

for 8 years, we can consider the payments to be

an annuity of $3500 for 14 years minus an

annuity of $1500 for 6 years so that the first 24

payments are $2000 each. Thus, the present

value is

56 0.015 24 0.015

3500 1500

3500(37.705879) 1500(20.030405)

101,924.97

a a

=

Thus, the present value of the payments is

$101,925. Since the man made an initial down

payment of $20,000, list price was

101,925 + 20,000 = $121,925.

7. Let

0.048

0.012,

4

r = = and n = 24.

1 (1 )

n

r

A R

r

+

=

24 24

1 (1 0.012) 1 (1.012)

0.012 0.012

A R R

+

= =

By Graphing A as a function of R, we find that

when R = 723.03, A = 15,000. Thus the monthly

payment is $723.03 if the present value of the

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 5.4

167

annuity is $15,000.

20,000

0

0 1000

8. Find the annuity due. The man makes an initial

payment of $1200 followed by an ordinary

annuity of $1200 for 11 months. Thus, let

R = 1200, n = 11, and

0.068

12

r = . The present

value of the annuity due is

0.068

11

12

1200 1 1200(1 10.635005) a

+ +

13,962.01

Thus, he should pay $13,962.01.

9. Let R = 2000 and let r = 0.057. Then, the value

of the IRA at the end of 15 years, when n = 15,

is given by

(1 ) 1

n

r

S R

r

+

=

15

(1 0.057) 1

2000 45,502.06

0.057

S

+

=

Thus, at the end of 15 years the IRA will be

worth $45,502.06.

10. Let R = 2000 and let r = 0.057. Since the

deposits are made at the beginning of each year,

the value of the IRA at the end of 15 years is

given by

1

(1 ) 1

n

r

S R R

r

+

+

=

.

Let n = 15.

16

(1 0.057) 1

2000 2000 48,095.67

0.057

S

+

=

Thus, the IRA is worth $48,095.67 at the end of

15 years.

Problems 5.4

1. 64

1

64 32

2

=

2

1

64 16

2

=

3

1

64 8

2

=

4

1

64 4

2

=

2. 2

2(3) = 6

2

2( 3) 18 =

3

2( 3) 54 =

3. 100

100(1.02) = 102

2

100(1.02) 104.04 =

4. 81

1

81 27

3

=

2

1

81 9

3

=

3

1

81 3

3

=

5.

( )

5

4 4

7 7

4

7

15,783

4

7 16,807

3

7

1

1

21,044

16,807

s

=

=

6.

( )

7

1

78,124

5

78,125

1 4

5 5

1 1

19,531

15,625 1

s

= = =

Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

168

7.

6

1 1 (0.1)

1.11111

1 0.1

s

= =

8. Observe that

1

1 10

(1.1)

1.1 11

= = . Thus

10

11

a =

and

10

11

r = .

( )

6

10 10

6

11 11

10

11

1

10

10 1 4.355

11 1

s

= =

9.

35 0.04

18.664613 a

10.

15 0.07

9.107914 a

11.

8 0.0075

8.213180 s

12.

11 0.0125

11.713937 s

13.

6 0.06

600 600(4.917324) $2950.39 a

14.

8 0.05

1000 1000(6.463213) 6463.21 a

15.

18 0.02

2000 2000(14.992031) $29,984.06 a

16.

15 0.0075

1500 1500(14.136995) $21,205.49 a

17.

11 0.035

800 800 800 800(9.001551) a + +

$8001.24

18.

0.07

59

12

150 150 150 150(49.796588)

$7619.49

a + +

19.

36 0.0125

2000 2000(45.115505)

$90,231.01

s

20.

16 0.02

600 600(18.639285) $11,183.57 s

21.

20 0.07

5000 5000(40.995492) $204,977.46 s

22.

20 0.03

2000 2000(26.870374) 53,740.75 s

23.

13 0.08

1200 1 1200(21.495297 1) s

$24,594.36

24.

31 0.025

600 1 600(46.000271 1)

$27,000.16

s

25.

0.04 0.04

32 8

12 12

175 25 a a

175(30.304595) 25(7.881321)

$5106.27

26.

5 0.0075

1500 1500 1500 1500(4.889440) a + +

$8834.16

27.

12 0.015

5000 5000

$458.40

10.907505

R

a

=

28.

12 0.04

3000 250 3000 250(9.385074) a + +

$5346.27

29. a.

24

48 0.005

50 (1.005) s

24

50(54.097832)(1.005)

$3048.85

b. 3048.85 48(50) = $648.85

30. Let R be the yearly payment.

9 0.035

275,000 R Ra = +

9 0.035

275,000 1 R a

= +

275,000 R(8.607687),

R $31,948.19

31.

10 0.07

48,000 48,000

$3474.12

13.816448

R

s

=

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 5.4

169

32. Let x be the purchase price. In the same manner

as in Example 12,

[ ]

10 0.06

50,000 0.08x s x =

10 0.06

50,000 0.08

x

x

s

=

10 0.06

50,000 0.08

x

x

s

= +

10 0.06

1

50,000 0.08 x

s

= +

10 0.06

1 1

13.180795

50,000 50,000

$320,800

0.08 0.08

s

x =

+ +

.

33. The original annual payment is

10 0.06

25,000

s

. After

six years the value of the fund is

6 0.06

10 0.06

25,000

s

s

.

This accumulates to

4

6 0.06

10 0.06

25,000

(1.07) s

s

.

Let x be the amount of the new payment.

4

4 0.07 6 0.06

10 0.06

25,000

25,000 (1.07) xs s

s

=

10 0.06

25,000 4

6 0.06

4 0.07

25,000 (1.07)

s

s

x

s

=

25,000 4

13.180795

25,000 (6.975319)(1.07)

4.439943

x

x $1725

34. Let x be the final payment.

6

5 0.08

5000 1000 (1.08) a x

= +

6

5 0.08

5000 1000 (1.08) a x

=

Thus

6

5 0.08

(1.08) 5000 1000 x a

=

6

(1.08) [5000 1000(3.992710)] $1598.44

35.

60

60 0.017

(1.017) 1

102.91305

0.017

s

=

36.

9

9 0.052

1 (1.052)

7.04494

0.052

a

=

37.

480

480 0.0135

1 (1.0135)

750 750

0.0135

a

=

55,466.57

38.

120

120 0.01

(1.01) 1

1000 1000

0.01

s

=

230,038.69

39.

20

20 0.01375

3000 3000(0.01375)

$131.34

(1.01375) 1

R

s

= =

40.

( )

( )

0.1

12

0.1

12

60

0.1

60

12

25,000

25,000

$531.18

1 1

R

a

= =

+

41.

19 0.10

200,000 200,000a +

19

1 (1.10)

200,000 200,000

0.10

= +

$1,872,984.02

42. a. $650(12)(15) = $117,000

b.

( )

180

0.055

12

0.055

0.055

180

12 12

1 1

650 650

$79,551.24

a

+

=

43. For the first situation, the compound amount is

30

11 0.07

2000 1 (1.07) s

11

30

1.07) 1

2000 1 (1.07)

0.07

(

=

$225,073,

so the net earnings are

225,073 20,000 = $205,073.

Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

170

For the second situation, the compound amount is

31

31 0.07

(1.07) 1

2000 1 2000 1

0.07

s

=

$202,146,

so the net earnings are 202,146 60,000 = $142,146.

44.

0.05(20)

1

100 $1264

0.05

e

45.

0.04(5)

1

40,000 $181,269.25

0.04

e

Problems 5.5

1.

0.14

12

36

8000 8000

$273.42

29.258904

R

a

=

2.

36 0.01

50 50(30.107505) $1505.38 A a =

3.

0.04

12

36

8000 8000

$236.19

33.870766

R

a

=

Finance charge = 36(236.19) 8000 = $502.84

4. a.

12 0.0125

500 500

$45.13

11.079312

R

a

=

b. 12(45.13) 500 = $41.56

5. a.

0.04

12

36

7500 7500

$221.43

33.870766

R

a

=

b. 7500

0.04

12

= $25

c. 221.43 25 = $196.43

6. a.

0.078

12

48

35,000 35,000

$851.17

41.119856

R

a

=

b.

0.078

35,000 $227.50

12

=

c. 851.17 227.50 = $623.67

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 5.5

171

7.

4 0.07

5000 5000

$1476.14

3.387211

R

a

=

The interest for the first period is (0.07)(5000) = $350, so the principal repaid at the end of that period is

1476.14 350 = $1126.14. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 2 is 5000 1126.14 = $3873.86.

The interest for period 2 is (0.07)(3873.86) = $271.17, so the principal repaid at the end of that period is

1476.14 271.17 = $1204.97. The principal outstanding at beginning of period 3 is

3873.86 1204.97 = $2668.89. Continuing in this manner, we construct the following amortization schedule.

Period Prin. Outs.

at Beginning

Int. for

Period

Pmt. at

End

Prin. Repaid

at End

1 5000.00 350.00 1476.14 1126.14

2 3873.86 271.17 1476.14 1204.97

3 2668.89 186.82 1476.14 1289.32

4 1379.57 96.57 1476.14 1379.57

Total 904.56 5904.56 5000.00

8.

8 0.0475

9000 9000

$1378.46

6.529036

R

a

=

The interest for the first period is (0.0475)(9000) = $427.50, so the principal repaid at the end of that period is

1378.46 427.50 = $950.96. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 2 is 9000 950.96 = $8049.04.

The interest for period 2 is (0.0475)(8049.04) = $382.33, so the principal repaid at the end of that period is

1378.46 382.33 = $996.13. The principal outstanding at beginning of period 3 is 8049.04 996.13 = $7052.91.

Continuing in this manner, we construct the following amortization schedule. Note the adjustment in the final

payment.

Period Prin. Outs.

at Beginning

Int. for

Period

Pmt. at

End

Prin. Repaid

at End

1 9000.00 427.50 1378.46 950.96

2 8049.04 382.33 1378.46 996.13

3 7052.91 335.01 1378.46 1043.45

4 6009.46 285.45 1378.46 1093.01

5 4916.45 233.53 1378.46 1144.93

6 3771.52 179.15 1378.46 1199.31

7 2572.21 122.18 1378.46 1256.28

8 1315.93 62.51 1378.44 1315.93

Total 2027.66 11,027.66 9000.00

Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

172

9.

5 0.025

900 900

$193.72

4.645828

R

a

=

The interest for period 1 is (0.025)(900) = $22.50, so the principal repaid at the end of that period is

193.72 22.50 = $171.22. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 2 is 900 171.22 = $728.78. The

interest for that period is (0.025)(728.78) = $18.22, so the principal repaid at the end of that period is

193.72 18.22 = $175.50. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 3 is 728.78 175.50 = $553.28.

Continuing in this manner, we obtain the following amortization schedule. Note the adjustment in the final

payment.

Period Prin. Outs.

at Beginning

Int. for

Period

Pmt. at

End

Prin. Repaid

at End

1 900.00 22.50 193.72 171.22

2 728.78 18.22 193.72 175.50

3 553.28 13.83 193.72 179.89

4 313.39 9.33 193.72 184.39

5 189.00 4.73 193.73 189.00

Total 68.61 968.61 900.00

10.

5 0.0075

10,000 10,000

$2045.22

4.889440

R

a

=

The interest for period 1 is (0.0075)(10,000) = $75, so the principal repaid at the end of that period is

2045.22 75 = $1970.22. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 2 is 10,000 1970.22 = $8029.78.

The interest for period 2 is (0.0075)(8029.78) = $60.22, so the principal repaid at the end of that period is

2045.22 60.22 = $1985. The principal outstanding at the beginning of period 3 is 8029.78 1985 = $6044.78.

Continuing in this manner, we construct the following amortization schedule. Note the adjustment in the final

payment.

Period Prin. Outs.

at Beginning

Int. for

Period

Pmt. at

End

Prin. Repaid

at End

1 10,000.00 75.00 2045.22 1970.22

2 8029.78 60.22 2045.22 1985.00

3 6044.78 45.34 2045.22 1999.88

4 4044.90 30.34 2045.22 2014.88

5 2030.02 15.23 2045.25 2030.02

Total 226.13 10,226.13 10,000.00

11. From Eq. (1),

100

100 1000(0.02)

ln

11.268

ln(1.02)

n

= .

Thus the number of full payments is 11.

12. a.

48 0.01

2000 2000

$52.67

37.973959 a

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 5.5

173

b.

13 0.01

52.67 52.67(12.133740) a

$639.08

c. (639.08)(0.01) $6.39

d. 52.67 6.39 = $46.28

e. 48(52.67) 2000 = $528.16

13. Each of the original payments is

15 0.035

18,000

a

.

After two years the value of the remaining

payments is

11 0.035

15 0.035

18,000

a

a

. Thus the new

semi-annual payment is

11 0.035

15 0.035 11 0.04

18,000

1

a

a a

18,000(9.001551) 1

11.517411 8.760477

$1606.

=

14.

60

60 0.014

2000 2000(0.014)

$49.49

1 (1.014)

R

a

= =

15. a. Monthly interest rate is

0.092

12

.

Monthly payment is

( )

0.092

12

0.092

12

300

0.092

300

12

245,000

245,000

1 1

a

=

+

$2089.69

b. 245,000

0.092

12

= $1878.33

c. 2089.69 1878.33 = $211.36

d. 300(2089.69) 245,000 = $381,907

16. a. Monthly interest rate is

0.132

0.011

12

= .

Monthly payment is

48

48 0.011

8500 0.011

8500

1 (1.011)

$228.88

a

=

b. 48(228.88) 8500 = $2486.24

17.

100

100 2000(0.015)

ln

23.956.

ln1.015

n

= Thus the

number of full payments is 23.

18.

60

60 0.0077

9500 0.0077

9500

1 (1.0077)

$198.31

R

a

= =

19. Present value of mortgage payments is

( )

0.076

12

360

0.076

12

360 0.076

12

1 1

600 600 a

+

=

$84,976.84

This amount is 75% of the purchase price x.

0.75x = 84,976.84

x = $113,302.45 $113,302

20. For the 15-year mortgage, the monthly payment

is

( )

180

180 0.005

240,000 0.005

240,000

1 1 0.005

a

=

+

$2025.26

The finance charge is

180(2025.26) 240,000 = $124,546.80

For the 25-year mortgage, the monthly payment

is

300

300 0.005

240,000 0.005

240,000

1 (1 0.005)

a

=

+

$1546.32

The finance charge is

300(1546.32) 240,000 = 223,896.00

Thus the savings is

223,896.00 124,546.80 = $99,349.20

21.

60 0.0125 60 0.01

25,000 25,000

a a

60 0.0125 60 0.01

1 1

25,000

a a

=

60 60

0.0125 0.01

25,000

1 (1.0125) 1 (1.01)

=

$38.64

Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

174

22. The governments payment is

0.0925

12

60

( ) y x a

0.0925

12

0.0925 0.04

12 12

60

60 60

5000 5000

a

a a

=

0.0925

12

0.04

12

60

60

5000 1

a

a

=

( )

( )

60

0.0925

12

0.0925

12

60

0.04

12

0.04

12

1 1

1 1

5000 1

+

+

=

( )

( )

60

0.0925

12

60

0.04

12

1 1

0.04

5000 1

0.0925

1 1

+

=

+

$589.89

Chapter 5 Review Problems

1.

( )

5

6

2

665

3

729

2 1

3 3

2 2

3 2 2 3

3 3

3 1

3

665

81 1

s

= + + + +

= = =

2.

12

0.05

1 1 0.0512

12

+

or 5.12%

3. 8.2% compounded semiannually corresponds to

an effective rate of

2

(1.041) 1 0.083681 = or

8.37%. Thus the better choice is 8.5%

compounded annually.

4. NPV

4 8

3400(1.035) 3500(1.035) 7000

= +

$1379.16

5. Let x be the payment at the end of 2 years. The

equation of value at the end of year 2 is

4 4 8

1000(1.04) 1200(1.04) 1000(1.04) x

+ = +

4 8 4

1200(1.04) 1000(1.04) 1000(1.04) x

= +

$586.60

6.

48 0.005

250 250(42.580318) $10,645.08 a

7. a.

13 0.04

200 200(9.985648) A a =

$1997.13

b.

13 0.04

200 200(16.626838) S s =

$3325.37

8.

14 0.04

150 150 150(18.291911) 150

2593.79

s =

9.

0.08

12

13

200 200 200(13.532926) 200

$2506.59

s

10.

20 0.025

250 250(15.589162) $3897.29 a

11.

5 0.06

5000 5000

$886.98

5.637093 s

12. a.

0.04

12

36

7000 7000

$206.67

33.870766 a

b. 36(206.67) 7000 = $440.12

13. Let x be the first payment. The equation of value

now is

3 3 8

2 (1.07) 500(1.05) 500(1.03) x x

+ = +

3 3 8

1 2(1.07) 500(1.05) 500(1.03) x

+ = +

3 8

3

500(1.05) 500(1.03)

1 2(1.07)

x

+

=

+

x $314.00

14.

3

3 0.01375

3500 0.01375

3500

1 (1.01375)

$1198.90

R

a

= =

The interest for the first period is

(0.01375)(3500) = $48.13, so the principal

repaid at the end of that period is

1198.90 48.13 = $1150.77. The principal

outstanding at the beginning of period 2 is

3500 1150.77 = $2349.23. The interest for that

period is (0.01375)(2349.23) = $32.30. The

principal repaid at the end of that period is

1198.90 32.30 = $1166.60. The principal

outstanding at the beginning of period 3 is

2349.23 1166.60 = $1182.63. Continuing, we

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 5 Review

175

obtain the following amortization schedule. Note the adjustment in the final payment.

Period Prin. Outs.

at Beginning

Int. for

Period

Pmt. at

End

Prin. Repaid

at End

1 3500.00 48.13 1198.90 1150.77

2 2349.23 32.30 1198.90 1166.60

3 1182.63 16.26 1198.89 1182.63

Total 96.69 3596.69 3500.00

15.

5 0.0075

15,000 15,000

$3067.84

4.889440

R

a

=

The interest for period 1 is (0.0075)(15,000) = $112.50, so the principal repaid at the end of that period is

3067.84 112.50 = $2955.34. The principal outstanding at beginning of period 2 is

15,000 2955.34 = $12,044.66. The interest for period 2 is 0.0075(12,044.66) = $90.33, so the principal repaid at

the end of that period is 3067.84 90.33 = $2977.51. Principal outstanding at the beginning of period 3 is

12,044.66 2977.51 = $9067.15. Continuing, we obtain the following amortization schedule. Note the

adjustment in the final payment.

Period Prin. Outs.

at Beginning

Int. for

Period

Pmt. at

End

Prin. Repaid

at End

1 15,000 112.50 3067.84 2955.34

2 12,044.66 90.33 3067.84 2977.51

3 9067.15 68.00 3067.84 2999.84

4 6067.31 45.50 3067.84 3022.34

5 3044.97 22.84 3067.81 3044.97

Total 339.17 15,339.17 15,000.00

16.

( )

0.10

12

84

0.10

12

84 0.10

12

1 1

540 540 $32,527.80 a

+

=

17. The monthly payment is

( )

0.055

12

0.055

12

48

0.055

48

12

11,000

11,000 $255.82

1 1

a

=

+

The finance charge is 48(255.82) 11,000 = $1279.36

Chapter 5: Mathematics of Finance ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

176

Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 5

1.

0.085

0.0425,

2

= thus R = 0.0425(25,000) = 1062.50.

25

25

1 (1.0825)

25,000(1.0825) 1062.50

1.0825 1

$26,102.13

P

= +

2.

0.065

0.0325

2

= , thus R = 0.0325(10,000) = 325.

On a graphics calculator, let Y

1

= 10,389 and Y

2

= 10,000(1 + x)^ 7 + 325(1 (1 + x)^ 7)/

( )

(1 ) 1 x + .

The curves intersect at 0.0590. The yield is 5.9%.

3. The normal yield curve assumes a stable economic climate. By contrast, if investors are expecting a drop in

interest rates, and with it a drop in yields from future investments, they will gladly give up liquidity for long-term

investment at current, more favorable, interest rates. T-bills, which force the investor to find a new investment in

a short time, are correspondingly less attractive, and so prices drop and yields rise.

177

Chapter 6

Principles in Practice 6.1

1. There are 3 rows, one for each source. There are two columns, one for each raw material. Thus, the size of the

matrix is 3 2. Alternatively, she could use a 2 3 matrix.

2. The first column consists of 1s each representing the 1 hour needed for each phase of project 1. The second

column consists of 2s for each phase of project 2 and so on. In general the nth column will consist of 2

n

s, each

representing the 2

n

hours needed for each phase of project n. The time-analysis matrix is as follows.

1 2 4 8 16

1 2 4 8 16

1 2 4 8 16

Problems 6.1

1. a. The size is the number of rows by the columns. Thus A is 2 3, B is 3 3, C is 3 2, D is 2 2, E is 4 4,

F is 1 2, G is 3 1, H is 3 3, and J is 1 1.

b. A square matrix has the same number of rows as columns. Thus the square matrices are B, D, E, H, and J.

c. An upper triangular matrix is a square matrix where all entries below the main diagonal are zeros. Thus H

and J are upper triangular. A lower triangular matrix is a square matrix where all entries above the main

diagonal are zeros. Thus D and J are lower triangular.

d. A row vector (or row matrix) has only one row. Thus F and J are row vectors.

e. A column vector (or column matrix) has only one column. Thus G and J are column vectors.

2. A has 4 rows and 4 columns. Thus the order of A is 4.

3.

21

a is the entry in the 2nd row and 1st column, namely 6.

4.

14

a is the entry in the 1st row and 4th column, namely 6.

5.

32

a is the entry in the 3rd row and 2nd column, namely 4.

6.

34

a is the entry in the 3rd row and 4th column, namely 0.

7.

44

a is the entry in the 4th row and 4th column, namely 0.

8.

55

a is the entry in the 5th row and 5th column. But A has only 4 rows and 4 columns. Thus

55

a does not exist.

9. The main diagonal entries are the entries on the diagonal extending from the upper left corner to the lower right

corner. Thus the main diagonal entries are 7, 2, 1, 0.

10.

2 3 4 5

0 4 5 6

0 0 6 7

0 0 0 8

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

178

11.

2 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 3 4 2 1 3 5 1 4 7 10 13

2 2 3 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 5 1 2 5 8 11

2 3 3 1 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 5 3 0 3 6 9

+ + + + +

+ + + + + =

+ + + + +

12.

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2

2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

( 1) 1 1 ( 1) 1 2

2 5

5 8

( 1) 2 1 ( 1) 2 2

+ +

+ +

+ +

=

+ +

13. 12 10 = 120, so A has 120 entries. For

33

, a i = 3 = j, so

33

1. a = Since 5 2,

52

0. a = For

10, 10

, a i = 10 = j,

so

10, 10

1. a = Since 12 10,

12, 10

0. a =

14. The main diagonal is the diagonal extending from the upper left corner to the lower right corner.

a. 1, 0, 5, 2

b. x, y, z

15. A zero matrix is a matrix in which all entries are zeros.

a.

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

b.

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

16. If A is 7 9, then

T

A is 9 7.

17.

T

T

6 3 6 2

2 4 3 4

= =

A

18. [ ]

T

T

2

4

2 4 6 8

6

8

= =

A

19.

T

T

1 3 4

1 3 7 3

3 2 5

3 2 2 0

7 2 0

4 5 0 1

3 0 1

= =

A

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.1

179

20.

T

T

2 1 0 2 1 0

1 5 1 1 5 1

0 1 3 0 1 3

= =

A

21. a. A and C are diagonal matrices.

b. All are them are triangular matrices.

22.

T

T

2 1 0 2 1 0

1 5 1 1 5 1

0 1 3 0 1 3

= =

A

Since

T

, = A A the matrix of Problem 20 is

symmetric.

23.

T

T

1 7

1 0 1

0 0

7 0 9

1 9

= =

A

T

T T

1 7

1 0 1

( ) 0 0

7 0 9

1 9

= = =

A A

24. Equating corresponding entries gives 2x = 4,

y = 6, z = 0, and 3w = 7. Thus x = 2, y = 6, z = 0,

7

3

w = .

25. Equating corresponding entries gives 6 = 6,

2 = 2, x = 6, 7 = 7, 3y = 2, and 2z = 7. Thus

x = 6,

2

3

y = ,

7

2

z = .

26. Equating entries in the 3rd row and 3rd column

gives 7 = 8, which is never true, so there is no

solution.

27. Equating corresponding entries gives 2x = y,

7 = 7, 7 = 7, and 2y = y. Now 2y = y yields y = 0.

Thus from 2x = y we get 2x = 0, so x = 0. The

solution is x = 0, y = 0.

28. [125 275 400]

0.95

1.03

1.25

29. a. From J, the entry in row 3 (super-duper)

and column 2 (white) is 7. Thus in January,

7 white super-duper models were sold.

b. From F, the entry in row 2 (deluxe) and

column 3 (blue) is 3. Thus in February,

3 blue deluxe models were sold.

c. The entries in row 1 (regular) and column

4 (purple) give the number of purple regular

models sold. For J the entry is 2 and for F

the entry is 4. Thus more purple regular

models were sold in February.

d. In both January and February, the deluxe

blue models (row 2, column 3) sold the

same number of units (3).

e. In January a total of 0 + 1 + 3 + 5 = 9

deluxe models were sold. In February a total

of

2 + 3 + 3 + 2 = 10 deluxe models were sold.

Thus more deluxe models were sold in

February.

f. In January a total of 2 + 0 + 2 = 4 red

widgets were sold, while in February a total

of 0 + 2 + 4 = 6 red widgets were sold. Thus

more red widgets were sold in February.

g. Adding all entries in matrix J yields that a

total of 38 widgets were sold in January.

30. The sums of the entries in the columns are 680,

710, 1510, and 6690. The sum of the entries in

the rows are 680, 710, 1510, and 6690. The

amount an industry consumes is equal to the

amount of its output. Industry B has to increase

output by (0.20)(90) = 18 units and industry C

has to increase output by (0.20)(120) = 24 units.

All other producers have to increase it by

(0.20)(420) = 84 units.

31. By equating entries we find that x must satisfy

2

2000 2001 x x + = and

2

x x = .

The second equation implies that x < 0. From the

first equation,

2

2000 2001 0 x x + = ,

(x + 2001)(x 1) = 0, so x = 2001.

32.

3 2

4 1

5 6

33.

3 1 1

1 7 4

4 3 1

2 6 2

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

180

Principles in Practice 6.2

1.

120 80 110 140

T J F

105 130 85 125

= + = +

120 110 80 140 230 220

105 85 130 125 190 255

+ +

= =

+ +

2.

1

2

3

40 248

0.8 30 2 319

60 532

x

x

x

=

1

2

3

0.8 40 496

0.8 30 638

0.8 60 1064

x

x

x

=

1

2

3

0.8 40 496

0.8 30 638

0.8 60 1064

x

x

x

=

Solve

1

0.8 40 496 x = to get

1

670 x = .

Solve

2

0.8 30 638 x = to get

2

835 x = .

Solve

3

0.8 60 1064 x = to get

3

1405 x = .

Problems 6.2

1.

2 0 3 2 3 4 2 2 0 ( 3) 3 4

1 4 0 1 6 5 1 ( 1) 4 6 0 5

1 6 5 9 11 2 1 9 6 11 5 ( 2)

+ + +

+ = + + +

+ + +

4 3 1

2 10 5

10 5 3

=

2.

2 7 7 4 2 7 2 7 2 7 ( 4) 7

6 4 2 1 7 2 6 ( 2) 7 4 1 2

+ + + +

+ + =

+ + + +

11 4

1 7

=

3.

1 4 6 1 1 6 4 ( 1) 5 5

2 7 7 2 2 7 7 2 9 5

6 9 1 0 6 1 9 0 5 9

= =

4.

1 1 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

2 2 2

4 ( 2) 6

4 2 6 2 1 3

1

2 10 12 2 10 ( 12) 1 5 6

2

0 0 8 0 0 4

0 0 8

= =

5. 2[2 1 3] + 4[2 0 1] 0[2 3 1]

= [4 2 6] + [8 0 4] [0 0 0]

= [4 8 0 2 + 0 0 6 + 4 0]

= [4 2 10]

6. [ ] 7 7 is a matrix and 66 is a number, so the sum is not defined.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.2

181

7.

1 2

3 4

has size 2 2, and

7

2

has size 2 1. Thus the sum is not defined.

8.

2 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 1

3

7 4 0 0 7 4 0 0 7 4

+ = + =

9.

2 6 7 1 6 2 6( 6) 6 7 6 1

6

7 1 6 2 6 7 6 1 6 6 6( 2)

=

12 36 42 6

42 6 36 12

=

10.

1 1 6 9 1 1 18 27 19 28

2 0 2 6 2 0 6 18 4 18

3

3 6 1 2 3 6 3 6 0 0

4 9 4 5 4 9 12 15 8 6

= =

11.

1 5 0 10 0 30 1 5 0 2 0 6 3 5 6

1

2 7 0 0 5 0 2 7 0 0 1 0 2 8 0

5

4 6 10 5 20 25 4 6 10 1 4 5 5 10 15

+ = + =

12.

1 0 0 1 2 0 4 2 2 3 0 0 3 4 2

3 0 1 0 3 0 2 1 3 21 9 0 3 0 3 3 23 10

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 1 1

3 0 0 9 12 6

0 3 0 9 69 30

0 0 3 0 3 3

12 12 6

9 72 30

0 3 0

=

=

=

13.

6 5 6 5 1( 6) 1( 5) 6 5

( 1)

2 3 2 3 1(2) 1( 3) 2 3

= = = =

B

14.

2 ( 6) 1 ( 5) 8 6 8 6

( )

3 2 3 ( 3) 1 0 1 0

= = =

A B

15.

0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0

2 2

0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0

= = = =

O O

16. A B + C

2 ( 6) ( 2) 1 ( 5) ( 1) 6 5

3 2 ( 3) 3 ( 3) 3 2 3

+ +

= =

+ +

17. 3(2A 3B)

2 1 6 5

3 2 3

3 3 2 3

=

4 2 18 15 22 17 66 51

3 3

6 6 6 9 0 3 0 9

= = =

18. 0(A + B)

4 4 0 0

0

5 6 0 0

= = =

O

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

182

19. 3(A C) is a 2 2 matrix and 6 is a number. Therefore 3(A C) + 6 is not defined.

20.

2 1 2 ( 6) 1 ( 5)

( )

3 3 3 2 3 ( 3)

+ +

+ + = +

+ +

A C B

2 ( 8) 1 ( 6) 6 5

3 ( 1) 3 0 2 3

+ +

= =

+ +

21.

6 5 2 1 2 1

2 3 2 2 3 2

2 3 3 3 3 3

+ = +

B A C

12 10 6 3 4 2

4 6 9 9 6 6

= +

18 13 4 2 22 15

5 3 6 6 11 9

= + =

22.

6 3 12 10 6 7

3 2

9 9 4 6 13 15

= =

C B

23.

2 1 6 5 2 1 1 1

2( 2 ) 2 2

3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2

+ = +

A B C

1

2

3 3

2 2

1

6 5 4 2

2

2 3 6 6

= +

1 1

2 2

3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1

10 7 20 14

2

4 3 8 6

= =

29

2

19 15

2 2

21

=

24.

61 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3 3 13 3

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 41

8 6 40 30 1

5( ) 5

1 0 5 0 2

+ = = + =

A B C

25.

4 4 12 12

3( ) 3

5 6 15 18

+ = =

A B

6 3 18 15 12 12

3 3

9 9 6 9 15 18

+ = + =

A B

Thus 3(A + B) = 3A + 3B.

26.

10 5

(2 3) 5

15 15

+ = =

A A

4 2 6 3 10 5

2 3

6 6 9 9 15 15

+ = + =

A A

Thus (2 + 3)A = 2A + 3A.

27. ( )

2 2 1 2 1 2

1 2 1

2 2 1 2 1 2

2 2

3 3 3 3

k k k k k k

k k k

k k k k k k

= =

A

( )

1 2 1 2

1 2

1 2 1 2

2

3 3

k k k k

k k

k k k k

=

A

Thus ( ) ( )

1 2 1 2

. k k k k = A A

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.2

183

28.

2 1 12 10 2 1 12 10 12 10

( 2 )

3 3 4 6 3 3 4 6 4 6

k k

k k k

k k

+ = + = =

A B C

2 12 10 2 12 10

2

3 3 4 6 3 3 4 6

k k k k k k k k

k k k

k k k k k k k k

+ = + =

A B C

Thus k(A 2B + C) = kA 2kB + kC.

29.

T

1 2 1 1 3 6 1 1 4 7

3 3 0 1 2 0 0 3 2 0 2 3

7 0 1 2 21 0 1 2 20 2

+ = + = + =

A D

30.

T

T

T

1 3 1 0 0 3 0 3

( )

4 1 1 2 3 3 3 3

= = =

B C

31.

T T

1 4 1 1

2 3 2 3

3 1 0 2

=

B C

2 8 3 3 1 5

6 2 0 6 6 8

= =

32.

T

1 3 1 4 2 6 1 4

2 2

4 1 3 1 8 2 3 1

+ = + = +

B B

3 10

11 3

=

33.

T

T

1 0 1 2 1

1 2 1 0 2

=

C D is impossible because

T

C and D are not of the same size.

34.

( )

T

T

T

1 2 1 1 0 7

2 2

1 0 2 2 1 0

=

D A

T

T

1 2 1 2 0 14 1 2 15

1 0 2 4 2 0 3 2 2

= =

1 3

2 2

15 2

=

35.

3 4 2

3

2 7 4

x y

=

3 4 6 3 4 6

2 7 12 2 7 12

x y x y

x y x y

+

= = =

Equating corresponding entries gives

3 4 6

2 7 12

x y

x y

+ =

Multiply the first equation by 2 and the second equation by 3 to get

6 8 12

6 21 36

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

Now add the two equations to get

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

184

29 24

24

29

y

y

=

=

Therefore

24 270

3 6 4

29 29

90

29

x

x

= =

=

The solution is

90

,

29

x =

24

.

29

y =

36.

2 4 16

5 7 3

x y

x y

=

+

2 4 16

5 7 3

x y

x y

+ =

2 4 16

5 7 3

x y

+ =

37.

2 6

3 3 4

4 2

x

y

=

3 6 24

3 12 8

x

y

+

=

3x + 6 = 24, 3x = 18, or x = 6.

3y 12 = 8, 3y = 4, or

4

3

y = .

Thus x = 6,

4

3

y = .

38.

7

3 4

2 2

x x

y y

=

3 28

6 4 2

x x

y y

=

+

3x 28 = x, 4x = 28, or x = 7.

6 + 4y = 2y, 2y = 6, or y = 3.

Thus x = 7, y = 3.

39.

2 10

4 2 24

6 4 14

x

y

z

+ =

2 2 10

4 2 24

6 8 14

x

y

z

+

+ =

+

2 + 2x = 10, 2x = 12, or x = 6.

4 + 2y = 24, 2y = 28, or y = 14.

6 + 8z = 14, 8z = 8, or z = 1.

Thus x = 6, y = 14, z = 1.

40.

2 1 0 10

0 2 0 2 6

2 6 5 2 12 5

x y

x y

+ + =

+

2 2 10

2 6

2 12 5 2 12 5

x

y

x y x y

=

+ +

2x 2 = 10, 2x = 12, or x = 6.

2y = 6 or y = 3.

2x + 12 5y = 2x + 12 5y, which is true for all

values of x and y. Thus x = 6, y = 3.

41.

30 50 15 25

800 720 960 800

25 30 10 5

+ = +

X Y

30 15 50 25

800 960 720 800

25 10 30 5

+ +

= + +

+ +

45 75

1760 1520

35 35

=

42.

380 330 220 400 350 150

2 2

460 320 750 450 280 850

=

B A

2 380 2 330 2 220 400 350 150

2 460 2 320 2 750 450 280 850

=

760 660 440 400 350 150

920 640 1500 450 280 850

=

360 310 290

470 360 650

=

43.

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 3

0.1 [ ] [0.1 0.1 0.1 ]

[1.1 1.1 1.1 ] 1.1

p p p p p p

p p p

+ = +

= =

P P

P

Thus P must be multiplied by 1.1.

44.

T T

( ) [ ( 1) ] = + A B A B [definition of subtraction]

T T

[( 1) ] = + A B [transpose of a sum]

T T

( 1) = + A B [transpose of a scalar multiple]

T T

= A B [definition of subtraction]

45.

15 4 26

4 7 30

46.

16 11 24

16 3 36

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.3

185

47.

10 22 12

24 36 44

Principles in Practice 6.3

1. Represent the value of each book by

[ ] 28 22 16 and the number of each book by

100

70

90

.

The total value is given by the following matrix

product.

[ ]

100

28 22 16 70 [2800 1540 1440]

90

[5780]

= + +

=

The total value is $5780.

2. The total cost is given by the matrix product PQ.

[ ]

250

26.25 34.75 28.50 325

175

=

PQ

[ ] 6562.5 11,293.75 4987.5 [22,843.75] = + + =

The total cost is $22,843.75.

3. First, write the equations with the variable terms

on the left-hand side.

8 8

5 5

1 5

3 3

y x

y x

+ =

+ =

Let

8

5

1

3

1

, ,

1

y

x

= =

A X and

8

5

5

3

.

=

B

Then the pair of lines is equivalent to the matrix

equation AX = B or

8 8

5 5

5 1

3 3

1

.

1

y

x

=

Problems 6.3

1.

11

1(0) 3( 2) ( 2)(3) 12 c = + + =

2.

23

2(3) 1( 2) ( 1)( 1) 7 c = + + =

3.

32

0( 2) 4(4) 3(1) 19 c = + + =

4.

33

0(3) 4( 2) 3( 1) 11 c = + + =

5.

31

0(0) 4( 2) 3(3) 1 c = + + =

6.

12

1( 2) 3(4) ( 2)(1) 8 c = + + =

7. A is 2 3 and E is 3 2, so AE is 2 2;

2 2 = 4 entries.

8. D is 4 3 and E is 3 2, so DE is 4 2;

4 2 = 8 entries.

9. E is 3 2 and C is 2 5, so EC is 3 5;

3 5 = 15 entries.

10. D is 4 3 and B is 3 1, so DB is 4 1;

4 1 = 4 entries.

11. F is 2 3 and B is 3 1, so FB is 2 1;

2 1 = 2 entries.

12. B is 3 1 and C is 2 5. Because the number of

columns of B does not equal the number of rows

of C, BC is not defined.

13. E is 3 2,

T

E is 2 3, and B is 3 1, so

T

EE B is 3 1; 3 1 = 3 entries.

14. A is 2 3 and E is 3 2, so AE is 2 2. Thus

E(AE) is 3 2; 3 2 = 6 entries.

15. E is 3 2. F is 2 3 and B is 3 1, so FB is

2 1. Thus E(FB) is 3 1; 3 1 = 3 entries.

16. Both F and A are 2 3, so F + A is 2 3.

Because B is 3 1, (F + A)B is 2 1; 2 1 = 2

entries.

17. An identity matrix is a square matrix (in this

case 4 4) with 1's on the main diagonal and all

other entries 0's.

4

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

=

I

18.

6

1 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 1

=

I

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

186

19.

2 4 4 0 2(4) ( 4)( 1) 2(0) ( 4)(3)

3 2 1 3 3(4) 2( 1) 3(0) 2(3)

+ +

=

+ +

12 12

10 6

=

20.

1 1 1(1) 1(3) 1( 2) 1(4) 2 6

1 2

0 4 0(1) 4(3) 0( 2) 4(4) 12 16

3 4

2 1 2(1) 1(3) 2( 2) 1(4) 5 0

+ +

= + + =

+ +

21.

1

2 0 3 2(1) 0(4) 3(7) 23

4

1 4 5 1(1) 4(4) 5(7) 50

7

+ +

= =

+ +

22. [ ]

0

1

1 0 6 2 [1(0) 0(1) 6(2) 2(3)] [18]

2

3

= + + + =

23.

1 4 1 2 1 0

0 0 2 0 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 2

1(2) 4(0) ( 1)1 1(1) 4( 1) ( 1)(1) 1(0) 4(1) ( 1)(2)

0(2) 0(0) 2(1) 0(1) 0( 1) 2(1) 0(0) 0(1) 2(2)

2(2) 1(0) 1(1) 2(1) 1( 1) 1(1) 2(0) 1(1) 1(2)

+ + + + + +

= + + + + + +

+ + + + + +

1 4 2

2 2 4

3 2 3

=

24.

4 2 2 3 1 1 0

3 10 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 2 0 1 0 1

4(3) 2(0) ( 2)(0) 4(1) 2(0) ( 2)(1) 4(1) 2(0) ( 2)(0) 4(0) 2(0) ( 2)(1)

3(3) 10(0) 0(0) 3(1) 10(0) 0(1) 3(1) 10(0) 0(0) 3(0) 10(0) 0(1)

1(3) 0(0) 2(0) 1(1) 0(0) 2(1)

+ + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + +

+ + + + 1(1) 0(0) 2(0) 1(0) 0(0) 2(1)

12 2 4 2

9 3 3 0

3 3 1 2

+ + + +

=

25.

1 5 2 1

[1 2 5] 0 0 2 1

1 0 1 3

[1 0 5 5 0 0 2 4 5 1 2 15]

[ 4 5 1 18]

= + + + +

=

26. The first matrix is 1 2 and the second is 3 2, so the product is not defined.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.3

187

27. [ ]

2 2(2) 2(3) 2( 2) 2(3)

3 3(2) 3(3) 3( 2) 3(3)

2 3 2 3

4 4(2) 4(3) 4( 2) 4(3)

1 1(2) 1(3) 1( 2) 1(3)

=

4 6 4 6

6 9 6 9

8 12 8 12

2 3 2 3

=

28.

0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1

2 3 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 3 1 1 1

+ =

0(1) 1(1) 0(1) 1(1) 0(1) 1(1) 1 1 1

2(1) 3(1) 2(1) 3(1) 2(1) 3(1) 5 5 5

+ + +

= =

+ + +

29.

1 2

2 0 2 1 0 2

3 2 3 4

3 1 1 1 1 2

5 6

+

1 2

2 0 2 2 0 4

3 3 4

3 1 1 2 2 4

5 6

= +

1 2 1 2

4 0 6 12 0 18

3 3 4 3 4

5 1 3 15 3 9

5 6 5 6

= =

12(1) 0(3) 18(5) 12(2) 0(4) 18(6) 78 84

15(1) 3(3) ( 9)(5) 15(2) 3(4) ( 9)(6) 21 12

+ + + +

= =

+ + + +

30.

1 1 1 0 1 0 0

0 3 2 1 2 1 1

1( 1) ( 1)(2) 1(0) ( 1)(1) 1( 1) ( 1)(2) 1(0) ( 1)(1) 1(0) ( 1)(1)

0( 1) 3(2) 0(0) 3(1) 0( 1) 3(2) 0(0) 3(1) 0(0) 3(1)

3 1 3 1 1

6 3 6 3 3

+ + + + +

=

+ + + + +

=

31.

1 2

1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2 0 3 4 0 0

2 1

3 4 1 0 2 3 4 1 0 6 2 0 0

3 0

+ + + +

=

+ + +

1 2 5 4 5 10 4 4 5 8

3 4 5 2 15 20 12 8 5 20

= = =

32.

1 2 1 0 2 4 3 6 2 4

3 4 4 I

1 4 0 1 6 1 3 12 6 1

=

3 6 2 4 3 6 8 16 11 10

4

3 12 6 1 3 12 24 4 27 8

= = =

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

188

33.

0 0 1 0 0 1

0 1 0 0 1 0

1 0 0 1 0 0

x x y z z

y x y z y

z x y z x

+ +

= + + =

+ +

34.

11 12 1 11 1 12 2

21 22 2 21 1 22 2

a a x a x a x

a a x a x a x

+

=

+

35.

1

1 2 3

2

1 2 3

3

2 3 2 1 3

4 9 7 4 9 7

x

x x x

x

x x x

x

+ +

=

+ +

36.

1 2

1

2

2

1 2

2 3 2 3

0 1

2 1 2

x x

x

x

x

x x

=

+

37.

1 0 0 3 0 0

1 1 1

0 1 1 0 6 0

3 3 3

1 2 1 0 0 3

= =

D EI D E

1 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 1 0 2 0

1 2 1 0 0 1

=

0 0 0

0 1 1

1 2 0

=

38.

1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 1 1 3 2

1 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 2 2 0 2 1 2 4 3

+ + + + + +

= = + + + + + + =

+ + + + + +

DD

39.

1 1

1 2 2 3 0

3 2 3 2 0 3

0 3 1 4 1

2 4

=

A BC

3 6 2 0 0 2 9 0

2

0 9 1 0 2 1 12 4

+ + + +

=

+ + +

3 6 4 14 1 20

0 9 2 14 2 23

= =

40.

4 0 0

2 3 0 8 0 0 0 21 0 0 3 0

( ) 0 7 1

1 4 1 4 0 1 0 28 2 0 4 4

1 2 4

+ + + + + +

+ = =

+ + + +

B D E

8 21 3

5 26 0

=

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.3

189

41.

1

3

1

6

1

3

1

3

1

6

1

3

7 2

3 3

2

3

2

3

0 0

3 0 0

2 2

3 3 0 0 0 6 0

3 3

0 0 3

0 0

3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2

3 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0

3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3

0 0 0

1 0 0 3 0 0

2

3 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0

3

0 0 1 0 0 3

0 0

=

+ + + + + +

= + + + + +

+ + + + + +

= = =

I FE I

I

I

7

3

7

3

0

0 0

0 0

42.

1

3

1

6

1

3

0 0

3 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

( ) 0 0 0 6 0 0 1 1 0 1 0

0 0 3 1 2 1 0 0 1

0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 1 2 0

0 0 0

0 0 1

1 2 0

=

=

=

FE D I

43.

1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0

( ) 0 1 1 0 3 0 0 2 0 3 4

1 2 1 2 4 1 0 2 1 6 4

+ + + +

= = + + + +

+ + + +

DC A A A

1 1 1 0 2 3 1 5

1 2

2 7 2 0 4 21 2 17

0 3

1 11 1 0 2 33 1 31

+ +

= = + + =

+ +

44.

1 1

2 3 0 2 0 0 2 9 0 1 2 2 7

( ) 0 3

1 4 1 1 0 2 1 12 4 0 3 1 7

2 4

2 2 7 14 0 21

0 3 0 21 3 21

+ + + +

= = =

+ + +

+

= =

+

A BC A A

45. Impossible: A is not a square matrix, so

2

A is not defined.

46.

T

1 0 1 1 0

1 1 0

1 1 1 2 1

0 1 1

0 1 0 1 1

= =

A A

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

190

47.

( )

2

3 2

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0

0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2

= = =

B B B B B

0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 4

2 1 2 2 1 0 2 1 2

0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 8

= =

48.

T 2

0 2 0 0 2 0

( ) 0 1 0 0 1 0

1 0 2 1 0 2

0 2 0

0 1 0

2 2 4

0 2 0

1 1 0

0 1 0

0 1 1

2 2 4

1 0

0 3 0

2 1

2 1 4

0 1

6 3

4 5

=

=

=

=

=

A B C A C

A C

C

49.

T

T

T

T

1 0 0 1 0

1 1 0

( ) 0 1 0 2 1

0 1 1

0 0 1 0 1

1 0

1 1 0

2 1

0 1 1

0 1

1 1

2 0

1 2

1 0

=

=

=

=

AIC

50.

( )

T T

1 0 2 4 0

2 4 0

2 1 1 2 6 2

0 2 2

0 1 0 2 2

= =

A C

51.

( )

T

T

T

T

0 0 1 1 0 0 1

0 3 0

2 1 0 1 1 3 1

1 1 2

0 0 2 0 1 0 2

= = =

BA

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.3

191

52.

T

T

T

0 0 1 0 0 2 0 4 0

(2 ) 2 2 1 0 4 2 0 0 2 0

0 0 2 0 0 4 2 0 4

= = =

B

53.

2

2 2 2

2 0 0 2 0 0

(2 ) 2 (2 ) 2 0 2 0 0 2 0

0 0 2 0 0 2

= =

I I I I

2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0

0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0

0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2

=

4 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0

0 4 0 0 2 0 0 2 0

0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 2

= =

54.

T

A is 3 2,

T

C is 2 3, and B is 3 3, so

T T

A C B is 3 3 and

T T 0

1 0 0

( ) 0 1 0 .

0 0 1

= =

A C B I

55. A(I O) = A(I) = AI. Since I is 3 3 and A has three columns, AI = A. Thus

1 1 0

( )

0 1 1

= =

A I O A .

56.

T

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

= = =

I O IO O

57.

T T T

0 0 1

1 1 0 2 1 1

( )( ) 2 1 0 ( ) ( )

0 1 1 2 1 2

0 0 2

= =

AB AB AB AB

2 2

2 1 1 6 7

1 1

2 1 2 7 9

1 2

= =

58.

2

3 2 + B B I

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

2 1 0 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 2 0 1 0

0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 1

= +

0 0 2 0 0 3 2 0 0

2 1 2 6 3 0 0 2 0

0 0 4 0 0 6 0 0 2

= +

0 0 1 2 0 0

8 4 2 0 2 0

0 0 2 0 0 2

= +

2 0 1

8 6 2

0 0 0

=

59. AX = B

3 1

2 9

=

A

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

192

x

y

=

X

6

5

=

B

The system is represented by

3 1 6

2 9 5

x

y

=

.

60. AX = B

3 1 1

1 1 1

5 1 2

=

A

x

y

z

=

X

2

4

12

=

B

The system is represented by

3 1 1 2

1 1 1 4 .

5 1 2 12

x

y

z

=

61. AX = B

2 1 3

5 1 2

3 2 2

=

A

r

s

t

=

X

9

5

11

=

B

The system is represented by

2 1 3 9

5 1 2 5 .

3 2 2 11

r

s

t

=

62. the/falcon/has/landed converted to corresponding numbers and slashes is 20, 8, 5/ 6, 1, 12, 3, 15, 14/ 8, 1, 19/

12, 1, 14, 4, 5, 4. Taking the numbers two at a time as 2 1 matrices and multiplying them by E gives:

1 3 20 1 20 3 8 20 24 44

2 4 8 2 20 4 8 40 32 72

+ +

= = =

+ +

1 3 5 1 5 3 6 5 18 23

=

2 4 6 2 5 4 6 10 24 34

+ +

= =

+ +

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.3

193

1 3 1 11 3 12 1 36 37

2 4 12 2 1 4 12 2 48 50

+ +

= = =

+ +

1 3 3 1 3 3 15 3 45 48

2 4 15 2 3 4 15 6 60 66

+ +

= = =

+ +

1 3 14 114 3 8 14 24 38

2 4 8 2 14 4 8 28 32 60

+ +

= = =

+ +

1 3 1 11 3 19 1 57 58

2 4 19 2 1 4 19 2 76 78

+ +

= = =

+ +

1 3 12 112 3 1 12 3 15

2 4 1 2 12 4 1 24 4 28

+ +

= = =

+ +

1 3 14 114 3 4 14 12 26

2 4 4 2 14 4 4 28 16 44

+ +

= = =

+ +

1 3 5 1 5 3 4 5 12 17

2 4 4 2 5 4 4 10 16 26

+ +

= = =

+ +

The encoded message is

44, 72, 23/ 34, 37, 50, 48, 66, 38/ 60, 58, 78/ 15, 28, 26, 44, 17, 26.

63. [ ]

55

6 10 7 150 [6 55 10 150 7 35]

35

= + +

= [330 + 1500 + 245]

= [2075]

The value of the inventory is $2075.

64. [ ]

100

150

200 300 500 250 [240,000]

200

300

=

The total cost of the stocks is $240,000.

65. Q = [5 2 4]

5 20 16 7 17

7 18 12 9 21

6 25 8 5 13

=

R

2500

1200

800

150

1500

=

C

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

194

[ ]

5 2500 20 1200 16 800 7 150 17 1500

( ) 7 2500 18 1200 12 800 9 150 211500

6 2500 25 1200 8 800 5 150 13 1500

75,850

5 2 4 81,550

71,650

[5(75,850) 2(81,550) 4(71,650)]

[828,950]

+ + + +

= = + + + +

+ + + +

=

= + +

=

QRC Q RC Q

The total cost of raw materials is $828,950.

66. a.

3500 50

5 20 16 7 17 1500 50

7 18 12 9 21 1000 100

6 25 8 5 13 250 10

3500 0

17,500 30,000 16,000 1750 59,500 250 1000 1600 70 0

24,500 27,000 12,000 2250 73,500 350 900 1200 90 0

21,000 37,500 8000

=

+ + + + + + + +

= + + + + + + + +

+ + +

RC

1250 45,500 300 1250 800 50 0

124,750 2920

139,250 2540

113,250 2400

+ + + + +

=

b. [ ]

124,750 2920

( ) 5 7 12 139,250 2540

113,250 2400

= =

QRC Q RC

[ ] 623,750 974,750 1,359,000 14,600 17,780 28,800 = + + + +

[ ] 2,957,500 61,180 =

c. [ ]

1

( ) 2,957,500 61,180

1

= =

QRCZ QRC Z

= [2,957,500 + 61,180] = [3,018,680]

67. a. Amount spent on goods:

coal industry: [ ]

C

10,000

0 1 4 20,000 [180,000]

40,000

= =

D P

elec. industry: [ ]

E

10,000

20 0 8 20,000 [520,000]

40,000

= =

D P

steel industry: [ ]

S

10,000

30 5 0 20,000 [400,000]

40,000

= =

D P

The coal industry spends $180,000, the electric industry spends $520,000, and the steel industry spends

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.3

195

$400,000.

consumer 1: [ ]

1

10,000

3 2 5 20,000 [270,000]

40,000

= =

D P

consumer 2: [ ]

2

10,000

0 17 1 20,000 [380,000]

40,000

= =

D P

consumer 3: [ ]

3

10,000

4 6 12 20,000 [640,000]

40,000

= =

D P

Consumer 1 pays $270,000, consumer 2 pays $380,000, and consumer 3 pays $640,000.

b. From Example 3 of Sec. 6.2, the number of units sold of coal, electricity, and steel are 57, 31, and 30,

respectively. Thus the profit for coal is 10,000(57) 180,000 = $390,000, the profit for elec. is

20,000(31) 520,000 = $100,000, and the profit for steel is 40,000(30) 400,000 = $800,000.

c. From (a), the total amount of money that is paid out by all the industries and consumers is

180,000 + 520,000 + 400,000 + 270,000 + 380,000 + 640,000 = $2,390,000.

d. The proportion of the total amount in (c) paid out by the industries is

180,000 520,000 400,000 110

.

2,390,000 239

+ +

=

The proportion of the total amount in (c) paid by consumers is

270,000 380,000 640,000 129

.

2,390,000 239

+ +

=

68. (A + B)(A B) = A(A B) + B(A B) [dist. prop.]

2 2

= + A AB BA B [dist prop.]

2 2

= + A BA BA B [AB = BA, given]

2 2

= A B

69.

( )

( )

3

2

3

3

2

2

1(2) (2)( 1) 1( 3) 2

2 3

1 2 0 0

1 1 2 0 0

1(2) 2( 1) 1( 3) 2

+ +

= =

+ +

70. Let

1

0 0

0 0

0 0

a

b

c

=

D and

2

0 0

0 0

0 0

d

e

f

=

D .

a.

1 2

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

a d ad

b e be

c f cf

= =

D D

2 1

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

d a ad

e b be

f c cf

= =

D D

Both

1 2

D D and

2 1

D D are diagonal matrices.

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

196

b. From part (a),

1 2 2 1

= D D D D . Thus

1

D and

2

D commute. [In fact, all n n diagonal

matrices commute.]

71.

72.82 9.8

51.32 36.32

72.

23.994 20.832 12.648

26.164 7.44 168.64

73.

15.606 64.08

739.428 373.056

74.

11.952 54.06

86.496 278.648

Principles in Practice 6.4

1. The corresponding system is

6 3 35

3 2 3 22

5 3 18

A B C

A B C

A B C

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

Reduce the augmented coefficient matrix of the

system.

6 1 3 35

3 2 3 22

1 5 3 18

1 3

1 5 3 18

3 2 3 22

6 1 3 35

>

R R

1 2

1 3

1 5 3 18

3

0 13 6 32

6

0 29 15 73

+

>

+

R R

R R

1

2

13 6 32

13 13

1 5 3 18

0 1

0 29 15 73

>

R

9 74

13 13

2 1 6 32

13 13

2 3

21 21

13 13

1 0

5

0 1

29

0 0

+

>

+

R R

R R

9 74

13 13

13

3

21 6 32

13 13

1 0

0 1

0 0 1 1

>

R

9

3 1

13

6

3 2

13

1 0 0 5

0 1 0 2

0 0 1 1

+

>

+

R R

R R

Thus there should be 5 blocks of A, 2 blocks of

B, and 1 block of C suggested.

2. Let x be the number of tablets of X, y be the

number of tablets of Y, and z be the number of

tablets of Z. The system is

40x + 10y + 10z = 180

20x + 10y + 50z = 200

10x + 30y + 20z = 190

Reduce the augmented coefficient matrix of the

system.

40 10 10 180

20 10 50 200

10 30 20 190

1 3

10 30 20 190

20 10 50 200

40 10 10 180

>

R R

1

1

10

1

2

10

1

3

10

1 3 2 19

2 1 5 20

4 1 1 18

>

R

R

R

1 2

1 3

1 3 2 19

2

0 5 1 18

4

0 11 7 58

+

>

+

R R

R R

1

2

5 18 1

5 5

1 3 2 19

0 1

0 11 7 58

>

R

13 41

5 5

2 1 18 1

5 5

2 3

46 92

5 5

1 0

3

0 1

11

0 0

+

>

+

R R

R R

13 41

5 5

5

3

46 18 1

5 5

1 0

0 1

0 0 1 2

>

R

13

3 1

5

1

3 2

5

1 0 0 3

0 1 0 4

0 0 1 2

+

>

+

R R

R R

She should take 3 tablets of X, 4 tablets of Y,

and 2 tablets of Z.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.4

197

3. Let a, b, c, and d be the number of bags of foods

A, B, C, and D, respectively. The corresponding

system is

5 5 10 5 10,000

10 5 30 10 20,000

5 15 10 25 20,000

a b c d

a b c d

a b c d

+ + + =

+ + + =

+ + + =

Reduce the augmented coefficient matrix of the

system.

5 5 10 5 10,000

10 5 30 10 20,000

5 15 10 25 20,000

1

1 1 2 1 2000

10 5 30 10 20,000

5 15 10 25 20,000

>

1

5

R

1 2

1 3

1 1 2 1 2000

10

0 5 10 0 0

5R R

0 10 0 20 10,000

+

>

+

R R

1

2

5

1 1 2 1 2000

0 1 2 0 0

0 10 0 20 10,000

>

R

2 1

2 3

1 0 4 1 2000

0 1 2 0 0

10R R

0 0 20 20 10,000

+

>

+

R R

3

0 0 4 0 2000

0 1 2 0 0

0 0 1 1 500

>

1

20

R

3 1

3 2

1 0 0 3 0

4

0 1 0 2 1000

2R R

0 0 1 1 500

+

>

+

R R

This reduced matrix corresponds to the system

3 0

2 1000

500

a d

b d

c d

=

+ =

+ =

Letting d = r, we get the general solution of the

system:

a = 3r

b = 2r + 1000

c = r + 500

d = r

Note that a, b, c, and d cannot be negative, given

the context, hence 0 r 500. One specific

solution is when r = 250, then a = 750, b = 500,

c = 250, and d = 250.

Problems 6.4

1. The first nonzero entry in row 2 is not to the

right of the first nonzero entry in row 1, hence

not reduced.

2. Reduced.

3. Reduced.

4. In row 2, the first nonzero entry is in column 2,

but not all other entries in column 2 are zeros,

hence not reduced.

5. The first row consists entirely of zeros and is not

below each row containing a nonzero entry,

hence not reduced.

6. The first nonzero entry of row 2 is to the left of

the first nonzero entry of row 1, hence not

reduced.

7.

1 2

1 3 1 3 4

4 0 0 12

+

>

R R

1

2

12

1 3

0 1

>

R

2 1

1 0 3

0 1

+

>

R R

8.

1 2

R R 0 3 0 2 1 5 0 2

1 5 0 2 0 3 0 2

2

2

3

1

R

1 5 0 2

3

0 1 0

16

3 2 1

2

3

1 0 0

5R R

0 1 0

+

9.

1 3

2 4 6 1 2 3

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 3 2 4 6

>

R R

1 2

1 3

1 2 3

R R

0 0 0

2R R

0 0 0

+

>

+

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

198

10.

1 2 2 1

2

1 3 2 3 1 2

1 4 2 4

2 3 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 0

2R R 6R R

1 6 2 3 0 15 0 1 0 1 4R R 32R R R R

4 8 4 8 0 32 0 32 0 0 R R 13R R

1 7 1 7 0 13 0 13 0 0

+ +

+ +

> > > >

+ +

1

15

R

11.

1 2

2 0 3 1 1 4 2 2

1 4 2 2 2 0 3 1

1 3 1 4 1 3 1 4

0 2 1 0 0 2 1 0

>

R R

1 3 1

2

8 1 2

8 8

1 3

1 4 2 2

1 4 2 2

0 1 0 8 1 3 2

0 7 3 6

0 7 3 6

0 2 1 0

0 2 1 0

+

> >

+

R

R R

R R

3 3 1 1

2 2 2 2

2 1

3 3 1 1

8

3

8 8 8 8

2 3 17

17 27 27

2 4

8 8 17

3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4

1 0 1 0

4R R

0 1 0 1

7

2

0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0

+

+

> >

+

R

R R

R R

32

17

3 1

3

3 2

17

27

3 4

17

33

17

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

0 0 0

+

+

>

+

3

2

1

8

3

4

R R

R R

R R

32

4 1 17

3

4 4 2

17

27

4 3

17

1 0 0

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 1

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1

+

+

>

+

32

17

17 3

33 17

27

17

R R

R R R

R R

12.

3 3

2 2

1

2 3 1 2

1 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 3

2 0 3 0 0 2

0 0 2 0 1 0

0 1 0 0 1 0

0 1 0 0 0 2

0 4 1 0 4 1

0 4 1 0 4 1

> > >

1

2

R

R R R R

3 3 3

2 2 2

3

3 3 1

2 2 4 2

3 4

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0

R R R

0 1 0 R 4R R

0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 R R

0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 1

0 0 0

0 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

+

+

> > > >

+

1

2

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.4

199

13.

30

13

220

13

30

13

2 7 50 1 3 10

1 3 10 2 7 50

1 3 10

1 3 10

0 1 0 13 30

1 0

0 1

Thus

220

13

x = and

30

.

13

y =

14.

2

5

53

53

15

15

1 0 1 3 11

1 3 11 1 3 11

0 1 4 3 9 0 15 53

0 1

Thus

2 53

,

5 15

x y = = .

15.

1 4

3 3

1 3 1 4 3 1 4

12 4 2 0 0 14

0 0 14

1 4 1

3 3 3

1 1 0

0 0 1 0 0 1

The last row indicates 0 = 1, which is never true, so there is no solution.

16.

1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0

2 4 6 1 0 0 0 1

The last row indicates that 0 = 1, which is never true. There is no solution.

17.

7 1

6 6

1 2 1 4

1 2 1 4 1 2 1 4

0 1 3 0 2 5 0 6 1 7

5 2

3 3

7 1

6 6

1 0

0 1

,

which gives

5 2

3 3

7 1

6 6

.

x z

y z

+ =

+ =

Thus,

2 5

3 3

x r = + ,

1 7

6 6

y r = + , z = r, where r is any real number.

18.

13 29

2 2

3 9

3 9

2 2

2 2

1 0 1 3 2 1

1 3 2 1 1 3 2 1

0 1 1 1 5 10 0 2 3 9

0 1

Thus

13 29 3 9

, ,

2 2 2 2

x r y r = + = z = r, where r is any real number.

19.

9

8

3 3

8 8

17

4

1 0

1 3 0

1 3 0 1 3 0

2 2 3 0 8 3 0 1 0 1

5 1 1 0 14 1

0 14 1

0 0

From the third row,

17

0

4

= , which is never true, so there is no solution.

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

200

20.

33

13

21 21

13 13

14

13

33

13

21

13

1 4 9 1 4 9

3 1 6 0 13 21

1 1 2 0 5 7

1 0

1 4 9

0 1 0 1

0 5 7

0 0

1 0

1 0 0

0 1 0 1 0

0 0 1

0 0 1

The last row indicates that 0 = 1, which is never true. There is no solution.

21.

1 1 3 5 1 1 3 5 1 0 1 3

2 1 4 8 0 1 2 2 0 1 2 2

1 1 1 1 0 2 2 4 0 0 2 0

1 0 1 3 1 0 0 3

0 1 2 2 0 1 0 2

0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

Thus, x = 3, y = 2, z = 0.

22.

1 1 1 7 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 7

2 3 2 4 0 5 0 10 0 1 0 2

1 1 5 23 0 2 4 16 0 2 4 16

1 0 1 5 1 0 1 5 1 0 0 0

0 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 2

0 0 4 20 0 0 1 5 0 0 1 5

Thus x = 0, y = 2, z = 5.

23.

2 0 4 8 1 0 2 4 1 0 2 4

1 2 2 14 1 2 2 14 0 2 0 10

1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 0 5

3 1 1 0 3 1 1 0 0 1 7 12

1 0 2 4 1 0 2 4

0 1 0 5 0 1 0 5

0 2 0 10 0 0 0 0

0 1 7 12 0 0 7 7

1 0 2 4 1 0 0 2

0 1 0 5 0 1 0 5

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Thus x = 2, y = 5, z = 1.

24.

1 0 3 1 1 0 3 1 1 0 3 1 1 0 3 1

3 2 11 1 0 2 2 4 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2

1 1 4 1 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0

2 3 3 8 0 3 3 6 0 3 3 6 0 0 0 0

Thus x = 3r 1, y = r + 2, z = r, where r is any real number.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.4

201

25.

1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 2 2 2 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0

0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0

1 0 1 1 1 0

0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 2 2 0 0

1 0 0 1 1 0

0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 2 0 0

1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

Thus,

1

, x r =

2 3 4

0, 0, 0, x x x = = = and

5

, x r = where r is any number.

26.

1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

Thus

1 2 3 4

0, 0, 0, 0. x x x x = = = =

27. Let x = federal tax and y = state tax. Then x = 0.25(312,000 y) and y = 0.10(312,000 x). Equivalently,

0.25 78,000

0.10 31,200.

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

1 0.25 78,000 1 0.25 78,000

0.10 1 31,200 0 0.975 23,400

1 0.25 78,000 1 0 72,000

0 1 24,000 0 1 24,000

.

Thus x = 72,000 and y = 24,000, so the federal tax is $72,000 and the state tax is $24,000.

28. x = no. of units of A to be sold and y = no. of units of B to be sold. Then x = 1.25y and 8x + 11y = 42,000.

Equivalently,

1.25 0,

8 11 42,000.

x y

x y

=

+ =

1 1.25 0 1 1.25 0

8 11 42,000 0 21 42,000

1 1.25 0 1 0 2500

0 1 2000 0 1 2000

.

Thus x = 2500 and y = 2000, so 2500 units of A and 2000 units of B must be sold.

29. Let x = number of units of A produced, y = number of units of B produced, and z = number of units of C

produced. Then

no. of units: x + y + z = 11,000

total cost: 4x + 5y + 7z + 17,000 = 80,000

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

202

total profit: x + 2y + 3z = 25,000

Equivalently,

11,000

4 5 7 63,000

2 3 25,000

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

1 1 1 11,000 1 1 1 11,000

4 5 7 63,000 0 1 3 19,000

1 2 3 25,000 0 1 2 14,000

1 0 2 8,000 1 0 2 8,000

0 1 3 19,000 0 1 3 19,000

0 0 1 5,000 0 0 1 5,000

1 0 0 2000

0 1 0 4000

0 0 1 5000

Thus x = 2000, y = 4000, and z = 5000, so 2000 units of A, 4000 units of B and 5000 units of C should be

produced.

30. Let x = number of desks to be produced at the East Coast plant and y = number of desks to be produced at the

West Coast plant. Then x + y = 800 and 90x +20,000 = 95y + 18,000.

Equivalently,

800

90 95 2000.

x y

x y

+ =

1 1 800 1 1 800 1 1 800 1 0 400

90 95 2000 0 185 74,000 0 1 400 0 1 400

x = 400 and y = 400

Thus the production order is 400 units at the East Coast plant and 400 units at the West Coast plant.

31. Let x = number of brand X pills, y = number of brand Y pills, and z = number of brand Z pills. Considering the

unit requirements gives the system

2 1 1 10 (vitamin A)

3 3 0 9 (vitamin D)

5 4 1 19 (vitamin E)

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

1 1

1 1

2 2

2 2

3 3

2 2

3 3

2 2

1 5

1 5

2 1 1 10

3 3 0 9 3 3 0 9 0 6

5 4 1 19 5 4 1 19

0 6

1 1

2 2

1 5

1 0 1 7

0 1 1 4 0 1 1 4

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Thus

7

4

x r

y r

z r

=

where r = 4, 5, 6, 7.

The only solutions for the problem are z = 4, x = 3, and y = 0; z = 5, x = 2, and y = 1; z = 6, x = 1, and y = 2; z = 7,

x = 0, and y = 3. Their respective costs (in cents) are 15, 23, 31, and 39.

a. The possible combinations are 3 of X, 4 of Z; 2 of X, 1 of Y, 5 of Z; 1 of X, 2 of Y, 6 of Z; 3 of Y, 7 of Z.

b. The combination 3 of X, 4 of Z costs 15 cents a day.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.4

203

c. The least expensive combination is 3 of X, 4 of Z; the most expensive is 3 of Y, 7 of Z.

32. Let x, y, and z be the numbers of units of A, B, and C, respectively.

3 1 2 490 (machine I)

1 2 1 310 (machine (II)

2 4 1 560 (machine III)

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

1

5

3 3

5 5

1 1

5 5

3 1 2 490 1 2 1 310

1 2 1 310 3 1 2 490

2 4 1 560 2 4 1 560

1 2 1 310

1 2 1 310

0 5 1 440 0 1 88

0 0 1 60

0 0 1 60

1 0 134 1 0 134

0 1 88 0 1 88

0 0 1 60 0 0 1 60

1 0 0 98

0 1 0 76

0 0 1 60

x = 98, y = 76, z = 60

Thus, 98 units of A, 76 units of B, and 60 units of C should be produced.

33. a. Let s, d, and g represent the number of units of S, D, and G, respectively. Then

12 20 32 220 (stock A)

16 12 28 176 (stock B)

8 28 36 264 (stock C)

s d g

s d g

s d g

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

( )

( )

( )

1

1

4

1

2

7 9 4

2 2

1

3

8

12 20 32 220 3 5 8 55

16 12 28 176 4 3 7 44

8 28 36 264

1 33

>

R

R

R

7 9

2 2

1 3

1 33

4 3 7 44

3 5 8 55

>

R R

7 9

2 2

1 2

1 3

11 11

2 2

1 33

4

0 11 11 88

3

0 44

+

>

+

R R

R R

7 9

2 2

2

11 11

2 2

1 33

0 1 1 8

0 44

>

1

11

R

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

204

2 1

2 3

1 0 1 5

0 1 1 8

0 0 0 0

+

>

+

7

2

11

2

R R

R R

Thus s = 5 r, d = 8 r, and g = r, where r = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

The six possible combinations are given by

COMBINATION

r 0 1 2 3 4 5

S 5 4 3 2 1 0

D 8 7 6 5 4 3

G 0 1 2 3 4 5

b. Computing the cost of each combination, we find that they are 4700, 4600, 4500, 4400, 4300, and 4200

dollars, respectively. Buying 3 units of Deluxe and 5 units of Gold Star (s = 0, d = 3, g = 5) minimizes the

cost.

Principles in Practice 6.5

1. Write the coefficients matrix and reduce.

3 4

3 4

5 5

5 5 1

1

5 1 2 22 11

5 5

1 3

4 2

5 5

1

1

5 3 4

6

6 8 7 6 8 7 0

3

3 1 2 3 1 2

0

+

> >

+

R

R R

R R

3 4 1

5 5 2

3 5

2 1 2

5 22 1 1

2 2 4

2 3

5

4 2

5 5

1 1 0

0 1 0 1

0 0 0

0

+

> >

+

R R R

R R

The system has infinitely many solutions since there are two nonzero rows in the reduced coefficient matrix.

1

0

2

x z + =

1

0

2

y z + =

Let z = r, so

1

2

x r = and

1

2

y r = , where r is any real number.

Problems 6.5

1.

1 1 1 9 3 1 1 1 9 3 1 1 1 9 3 1 1 1 9 3

2 3 2 15 12 0 1 4 33 18 0 1 4 33 18 0 1 4 33 18

2 1 2 5 8 0 1 4 23 14 0 0 8 56 32 0 0 1 7 4

1 1 0 2 1 1 0 0 7 1

0 1 0 5 2 0 1 0 5 2

0 0 1 7 4 0 0 1 7 4

Thus w = 1 + 7r, x = 2 5r, y = 4 7r, z = r (where r is any real number).

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.5

205

2.

6 15 15

11 11 11

52 90 35 52

11 11 11 1

6 15 15

11 11 11

8 57 119

11 11 11

2 1 10 15 5 1 5 2 15 10

1 5 2 15 10 2 1 10 15 5

1 1 6 12 9 1 1 6 12 9

1 5 2 15 10

1 5 2 15 10

0 11 6 15 15 0 1

0 6 4 3 19

0 6 4 3 19

1 0 1 0

0 1

0 0

90 35

1 11 11

6 15 15

11 11 11

57 119

8 8

51 147

2 2

27 21

4 4

57 119

8 8

0 1

0 0 1

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

Thus,

51 147

,

2 2

w r =

21 27

,

4 4

x r =

57 119

,

8 8

y r = + z = r (where r is any real number).

3.

1 1 2

3 3 3

1 1 3 1 3 1 2

2 2 6 6 4

2 2 6 6 4

2 1 3 2 2

2 1 3 2 2

3 1 3 7 2

3 1 3 7 2

1 1 2

1 1 2

3 3 3

3 3 3

16 8 4

3 3 3

1 4 2

1 4 2

3 3 3

3 3 3

1 1

1 1

0 4 0 1 3 4 2

0 1

0 1

0 2 6 8 4

0 2 6 8 4

1 0 0 1 0

0 1 3 4 2

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

Thus, w = s, x = 3r 4s + 2, y = r, z = s (where r and s are any real numbers).

4.

1 1 0 5 1 1 1 0 5 1

1 0 1 2 1 0 1 1 3 0

1 3 4 7 1 0 4 4 12 0

0 1 1 3 0 0 1 1 3 0

1 1 0 5 1 1 0 1 2 1

0 1 1 3 0 0 1 1 3 0

0 4 4 12 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0

Thus, w = r 2s + 1, x = r 3s, y = r, z = s (where r and s are any real numbers).

5.

1 1 3 1 2 1 1 3 1 2

2 1 5 2 0 0 1 1 0 4

2 1 3 2 8 0 3 3 0 12

3 2 8 3 2 0 1 1 0 4

1 0 2 1 2 0 1 1 0 4

1 1 3 1 2 1 0 2 1 2

0 1 1 0 4 0 1 1 0 4

0 3 3 0 12 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 4 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 4 0 0 0 0 0

Thus, w = 2r + s 2, x = r + 4, y = r, z = s (where r and s are any real numbers).

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

206

6.

1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 2 4

2 1 2 2 7 0 1 0 2 1

1 2 1 4 5 0 1 0 2 1

3 2 3 4 7 0 5 0 10 5

4 3 4 6 9 0 7 0 14 7

1 1 1 2 4 1 0 1 0 3

0 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 2 1

0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 5 0 10 5 0 0 0 0 0

0 7 0 14 7 0 0 0 0 0

Thus, w = r + 3, x = 2s + 1, y = r, z = s (where r and s are any real numbers).

7.

4 3 5 10 11 8 0 5 5 10 5 20

2 1 5 0 3 6 2 1 5 0 3 6

2 1 5 0 3 6 2 1 5 0 3 6

0 5 5 10 5 20 0 1 1 2 1 4

2 0 4 2 4 2 1 0 2 1 2 1

0 1 1 2 1 4 0 1 1 2 1 4

Thus,

1

2 2 1, x r s t = + +

2

2 4, x r s t = + +

3

, x r =

4

, x s =

5

x t = (where r, s, and t are any real numbers).

8.

12 12

7 7

32

1 0 3 1 4 1 1 0 3 1 4 1 1 0 3 1 4 1

0 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0

2 2 3 10 15 10 0 2 3 8 7 8 0 0 1 4 7 8

1 2 3 2 2 2 0 2 0 3 2 3 0 0 2 1 2 3

1 0 3 0

0 1 1 0

1 0 3 1 4 1

0 1 1 2 0 0

0 0 1 4 7 8

0 0 0 7 16 19

33 72

7 7

38 17 18

7 7 7 7

15 20 15 20

7 7 7 7

16 19 16 19

7 7 7 7

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

Thus

1 2 3 4

72 33 18 17 20 15 19 16

, , , ,

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

x r x r x r x r = + = = = and

5

, x r = where r is any real number.

9. The system is homogeneous with fewer equations than unknowns (2 < 3), so there are infinitely many solutions.

10. The system is homogeneous with fewer equations than unknowns (2 < 4), so there are infinitely many solutions.

11.

3 4 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 0

1 5 3 4 0 19 0 1 0 1

4 1 4 1 0 21 0 21 0 0

=

A

A has k = 2 nonzero rows. Number of unknowns is n = 2. Thus k = n, so the system has the trivial solution only.

12.

3

3

2

2

13

2

1 6

1 6

2 3 12

3 2 5 3 2 5 0 13

4 1 14 4 1 14

0 5 10

3

2

1 6

1 0 3

0 1 2 0 1 2

0 5 10 0 0 0

=

A

A has k = 2 nonzero rows. Number of unknowns is n = 3. Thus k < n, so the system has infinitely many solutions.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.5

207

13.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1

1 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2

1 2 5 0 3 6 0 3 6 0 0 0

=

A

A has k = 2 nonzero rows. Number of unknowns is n = 3. Thus k < n, so the system has infinitely many solutions.

14.

2 2

2 2

3 3

3 3

2 2

3 3

1 0 0

2 2 2 0 0 1 0

0 4 5 0 0 1

0 4 5

1

1

3 2 2 1 0 0

2 2 2 0 1 1 =

0 4 5 0 0 1

A

A has k = 3 nonzero rows. Number of unknowns is n = 3. Thus k = n, so the system has the trivial solution only.

15.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

3 4 0 7 0 1 0 1

The solution is x = 0, y = 0.

16.

5

2

1 2 5 2 5

8 20 0 0

0 0

The solution is

5

2

x r = , y = r.

17.

8

15

1 6 2

1 6 2 1 6 2

0 1 2 3 4 0 15 8

6

5

8

15

1 0

0 1

The solution is

6

5

x r = ,

8

15

y r = , z = r.

18.

7

7 7

4

4 4

1

2

1

1 1 4 7 1 0

2 3 0 1

0 2 3 0 1

The solution is x = 0, y = 0.

19.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

3 4 0 7 0 1 0 1

5 8 0 13 0 13 0 0

The solution is x = 0, y = 0.

20.

2 3 1 0 5 1 1 1 1 1 0 3 1 0 3 1 0 1

1 2 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 0 5 1 0 0 11 0 0 1 0 0 1

The solution is x = 0, y = 0, z = 0.

21.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1

0 7 14 0 1 2 0 1 2

0 2 4 0 2 4 0 0 0

0 5 10 0 5 10 0 0 0

The solution is x = r, y = 2r, z = r.

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

208

22.

1 1 7 1 1 7 1 1 7 1 0 3

1 1 1 0 2 8 0 1 4 0 1 4

2 3 6 0 5 20 0 5 20 0 0 0

3 1 13 0 2 8 0 2 8 0 0 0

The solution is x = 3r, y = 4r, z = r.

23.

1 1 1 4 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 4

1 1 0 5 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 4

2 1 3 4 0 1 1 4 0 0 1 1

1 3 2 9 0 4 1 13 0 4 1 13

1 1 1 4 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 0

0 1 1 4 0 1 1 4 0 1 1 4

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

0 4 1 13 0 0 3 3 0 0 3 3

1 0 0 2

0 1 0 3

0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0

The solution is w = 2r, x = 3r, y = r, z = r.

24.

1 1 2 7 1 1 2 7 1 1 2 7

1 2 1 1 0 3 3 6 0 1 1 2

1 2 3 9 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2

2 3 1 4 0 5 5 10 0 5 5 10

1 0 1 5

0 1 1 2

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

The solution is w = r 5s, x = r 2s, y = r, z = s.

Principles in Practice 6.6

1.

1 3 2 1.5 1 0

2 4 1 0.5 0 1

=

Yes, they are inverses.

2.

2 1.5 28 13 M

1 0.5 46 5 E

= =

2 1.5 65 5 E

1 0.5 90 20 T

= =

2 1.5 61 1 A

1 0.5 82 20 T

= =

2 1.5 59 14 N

1 0.5 88 15 O

= =

2 1.5 57 15 O

1 0.5 86 14 N

= =

2 1.5 60 6 F

1 0.5 84 18 R

= =

2 1.5 21 9 I

1 0.5 34 4 D

= =

2 1.5 76 1 A

1 0.5 102 25 Y

= =

The message is MEET AT NOON FRIDAY.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.6

209

3.

3 1 2 1 0 0

2 2 2 0 1 0

2 1 3 0 0 1

=

E I

1 2

2 2 2 0 1 0

3 1 2 1 0 0

2 1 3 0 0 1

>

R R

1

2 1

1

2

1 1 1 0 0

3 1 2 1 0 0

2 1 3 0 0 1

>

R

1

2

1 2 3

2

1 3

1 1 1 0 0

3

0 2 1 1 0

2

0 1 1 0 1 1

+

>

+

R R

R R

1

2

2 3

3

2

1 1 1 0 0

0 1 1 0 1 1

0 2 1 1 0

>

R R

1

2

2

3

2

1 1 1 0 0

0 1 1 0 1 1

0 2 1 1 0

>

R

1

2

2 1

2 3

1

2

1 0 2 0 1

0 1 1 0 1 1

2

0 0 3 1 2

+

>

+

R R

R R

1

2 1

3

3

1 1 2

3 6 3

1 0 2 0 1

0 1 1 0 1 1

0 0 1

>

R

2 1 1

3 6 3

3 1 5 1 1

3 6 3

3 2

1 1 2

3 6 3

1 0 0

2

0 1 0

0 0 1

+

>

+

R R

R R

2 1 1

3 6 3

1 5 1 1

3 6 3

1 1 2

3 6 3

=

E

2 1 2 1 0 0

3 2 3 0 1 0

4 3 4 0 0 1

=

F I

1 1

2 2 1

1

2

1 1 0 0

3 2 3 0 1 0

4 3 4 0 0 1

>

R

1 1

2 2

1 2 3 1

2 2

1 3

1 1 0 0

3

0 0 1 0

4

0 1 0 2 0 1

+

>

+

R R

R R

1 1

2 2

2

1 1 0 0

2

0 1 0 3 2 0

0 1 0 2 0 1

>

R

1

2 1

2

2 3

1 0 1 2 1 0

0 1 0 3 2 0

0 0 0 1 2 1

+

>

+

R R

R R

F does not reduce to I so F is not invertible.

4. Let x be the number of shares of A, y be the

number of shares of B, and z be the number of

shares of C. We get the following equations

from the given conditions.

50x + 20y + 80z = 500,000

x = 2z

0.13(50x) + 0.15(20y) + 0.10(80z)

= 0.12(50x + 20y + 80z)

Simplify the first equation.

5x + 2y + 8z = 50,000

Simplify the second equation.

x 2z = 0

Simplify the third equation.

6.5x + 3y + 8z = 6x + 2.4y + 9.6z

0.5x + 0.6y 1.6z = 0

5x + 6y 16z = 0

Thus, we solve the following system of

equations.

x 2z = 0

5x + 6y 16z = 0

5x + 2y + 8z = 50,000

The coefficient matrix is

1 0 2

5 6 16

5 2 8

=

A .

1 0 2 1 0 0

5 6 16 0 1 0

5 2 8 0 0 1

=

A I

1 2

1 3

1 0 2 1 0 0

5

0 6 6 5 1 0

5

0 2 18 5 0 1

+

>

+

R R

R R

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

210

1

2

6 5 1

6 6

1 0 2 1 0 0

0 1 1 0

0 2 18 5 0 1

>

R

2 3 5 1

6 6

10 1

3 3

1 0 2 1 0 0

2

0 1 1 0

0 0 20 1

+

>

R R

1

3

20 5 1

6 6

1 1 1

6 60 20

1 0 2 1 0 0

0 1 1 0

0 0 1

>

R

2 1 1

3 30 10

3 1 3 1

20 20

3 2

1 1 1

6 60 20

1 0 0

2

0 1 0 1

0 0 1

+

>

+

R R

R R

2 1 1

3 30 10

1 3 1

20 20

1 1 1

6 60 20

1

=

A

2 1 1

3 30 10

3 1

20 20

1 1 1

6 60 20

0 5000

1 0 2500

50,000 2500

x

y

z

= =

They should buy 5000 shares of Company A, 2500 shares of Company B, and 2500 shares of Company C.

Problems 6.6

1.

1 1

1 1

6 6

6 6

7 1

6 6

1 0

1 0 6 1 1 0

7 1 0 1

0 1 7 1 0 1

7 1

6 6

1 0 1 1

1 0 1 1

0 1 0 1 7 6

The inverse is

1 1

7 6

.

2.

1 1

2 2

1 1 1

3 2 3

1 2 0 1 2 0

2 4 1 0

3 6 0 1

1 2 0 0 0

The given matrix is not invertible.

3.

1

2

1 1 0 2 2 1 0 2 2 1 0

2 2 0 1 0 0 1 1

0 0 1 1

The given matrix is not invertible.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.6

211

4.

3 1

3

4 8

2

1

6

1 0

1 4 0 1 0 4 9

0 1 0 6

0 0 1 0 1 0 6

The inverse is

4 9

0 6

.

5.

1

3

1

4

1 0 0 1 0 0

1 0 0 1 0 0

0 3 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 4 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 0

The inverse is

1

3

1

4

1 0 0

0 0

0 0

.

6.

1

2

1 0 4 0 0

2 0 8 1 0 0

1 4 0 0 1 0 1 4 0 0 1 0

2 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 1

1 1

2 2

1 1 1

2 8 4

1 0 4 0 0 1 0 4 0 0

0 4 4 1 0 0 1 1 0

0 1 8 1 0 1 0 1 8 1 0 1

1 1

2 2

1 1 1 1

8 4 8 4

9 1 1 1 1

8 36 9 8 4

1 0 4 0 0 1 0 4 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

0 0 1 0 0 9 1

1 4

9 9

2 1

9 9

1 1 1

8 36 9

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1

The inverse is

1 4

9 9

2 1

9 9

1 1 1

8 36 9

0

0

.

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

212

7.

1

4

1 2 3 1 0 0

1 2 3 1 0 0

0 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 5 0 0 1

0 0 5 0 0 1

3

4

1

4

5

4

1 2 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 1

The given matrix is not invertible.

8.

1

2

1

4

1 0 0 0 0

2 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 4 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 1 0

The given matrix is not invertible.

9. The matrix is not square, so it is not invertible.

10. For any 3 3 matrix B,

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 .

0 0 0 0 0 0

=

B I

Thus the matrix is not invertible.

11.

1 2 3 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 0

0 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

1 0 0 1 2 1

0 1 0 0 1 2

0 0 1 0 0 1

The inverse is

1 2 1

0 1 2 .

0 0 1

12.

1 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0

0 1 4 0 1 0 0 1 4 0 1 0

1 1 2 0 0 1 0 3 3 1 0 1

1 1 1

15 5 15

1 0 9 1 2 0 1 0 9 1 2 0

0 1 4 0 1 0 0 1 4 0 1 0

0 0 15 1 3 1

0 0 1

3 2 1

5 5 5

4 1 4

15 5 15

1 1 1

15 5 15

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

The inverse is

3 2 1

5 5 5

4 1 4

15 5 15

1 1 1

15 5 15

.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.6

213

13.

2 1

7 7

1 0 0 0

7 0 2 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

3 0 1 0 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 1

2 1

7 7

3 3 1 1

7 7 7 7

1 0 0 0

1 0 0 1 0 2

0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

1 0 0 1 0 2

0 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 3 0 7

The inverse is

1 0 2

0 1 0

3 0 7

.

14.

2 3 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 0

1 2 1 0 1 0 1 1 3 0 0 1 0 1 4 0 1 1

1 1 3 0 0 1 2 3 1 1 0 0 0 1 3 1 2 0

1 2 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 7

0 1 4 0 1 1 0 1 4 0 1 1 0 1 0 4 5 3

0 1 3 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1

8 5

0 1 0 4 5 3

0 0 1 1 1 1

The inverse is

7 8 5

4 5 3 .

1 1 1

15.

2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 1

4 1 5 0 1 0 4 1 5 0 1 0

1 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 0

1 4

3 3

1 1 2 0 0 1

1 1 2 0 0 1

0 3 3 0 1 4 0 1 1 0

0 3 4 1 0 2

0 3 4 1 0 2

1 1 1 1

3 3 3 3

1 4 1 4

3 3 3 3

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

0 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 2

5 2

3 3

10 4

3 3

1 0 0 1

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1 1 2

.

The inverse is

5 2

3 3

10 4

3 3

1

1

1 1 2

.

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

214

16.

6 2 1

5 5 5

3 3 1 2 1 2

5 5 5 5 5 5

6 6 2 1 2 1

5 5 5 5 5 5

8 6 1

5 5 5

1 2 3 1 0 0 1 2 3 1 0 0

2 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 0

4 2 5 0 0 1 4 2 5 0 0 1

1 2 3 1 0 0

1 2 3 1 0 0

0 5 6 2 1 0 0 1 0

0 6 7 4 0 1

0 6 7 4 0 1

1 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 8 6 5

0 0 1

1 0 0 5 4 3

0 1 0 10 7 6

0 0 1 8 6 5

The inverse is

5 4 3

10 7 6 .

8 6 5

17.

1 2 3 1 0 0 1 2 3 1 0 0

1 3 5 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 0

1 5 12 0 0 1 0 3 9 1 0 1

2 1

3 3

1 0 1 3 2 0 1 0 1 3 2 0

0 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 0

0 0 3 2 3 1

0 0 1 1

11 1

3 3

7 2

3 3

2 1

3 3

1 0 0 3

0 1 0 3

0 0 1 1

The inverse is

11 1

3 3

7 2

3 3

2 1

3 3

3

3

1

.

18.

2 1 3 1 0 0 2 1 3 1 0 0

0 2 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 0

2 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 0 1

3 3 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 4

1 1

2 2

1 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 1

3 3 1 1 1 1

2 2 4 4 2 4

1 1

2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 1

The inverse is

3 1 1

4 2 4

1

2

1 1 1

2 2 2

0 0

.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.6

215

19.

1 1

1 2

2

1 2 2 10

10, 20

8 1 4 20

x

x x

x

= = = = = =

X A B

20.

1 1

1 2 3

2

1 0 1 10 9

0 3 0 2 6 9, 6, 16

2 0 4 1 16

x

x x x

x

= = = = = = =

X A B

21.

6 5 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1

1 1 0 1 6 5 1 0 0 1 1 6

1 1 0 1 1 0 1 5

0 1 1 6 0 1 1 6

1

1 5 2 17

17, 20

1 6 3 20

x

x y

y

= = = = =

A B

22.

3 2 1

1

10 5 2

2

1 1 1

2 10 5

1 0 1 2 0

1 2 0 2 4 1 0

1 3 0 1

0 5 1 0 1 1 3 0 1

3 23 2

10 5 10 1

1 1 1

10 5 10

5 23 1

,

2 10 10

x

x y

y

= = = = =

A B

23.

1 1

1 1 1 1

3 3

3 3 3 3

1 1

2 2

1 1

6 6

1 1

2 2

1 0

1 0 1 0 3 1 1 0

3 1 0 1

0 1 3 1 0 1 0 2 1 1

1 0

0 1

1 1

1 6 6

1 1

2 2

5 2

2, 1

7 1

x

x y

y

= = = = =

A B

24.

2 1

2 1

3 3

3 3

1 4

3 3

1 0

1 0 3 2 1 0

4 3 0 1

0 1 4 3 0 1

1 4

3 3

1 0 3 2

1 0 3 2

0 1 0 1 4 3

1

3 2 26 4

4, 7

4 3 37 7

x

x y

y

= = = = =

A B

25. The coefficient matrix is not invertible. The method of reduction yields

2 6 2 1 3 1 1 3 1

3 9 3 3 9 3 0 0 0

.

Thus x = 3r + 1, y = r.

26. The coefficient matrix is not invertible. The method of reduction yields

2 6 8 1 3 4 1 3 4

.

3 9 7 3 9 7 0 0 5

Second row indicates 0 = 5, which is never true, so there is no solution.

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

216

27.

1 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0

3 0 1 0 1 0 0 6 2 3 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 1

1 1

3 3

1 1 1 1 1 1

3 2 6 3 2 6

1 1

2 2

1 0 0 0

1 2 1 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 1 0

0 3 0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

1 1 1

6 2 3

1 1

3 3

1 1

2 2

1 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 1

1 1 1

6 2 3

1 1 1

3 3

1 1

2 2

4 0

0 2 1

1 2

1

x

y

z

= = =

A B

Thus, x = 0, y = 1, z = 2.

28.

1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 0 1

1 1

2 2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 0 1 0

1 1 1 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

1 1

2 2

1 7 1 1

2 2 2

1 1 5

2 2 2

0

5

6

0 1

4

0

x

y

z

= = =

A B

Thus,

7 5

5, , .

2 2

x y z = = =

29.

1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 0 1

1 1

2 2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 0 1 0

1 1 1 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.6

217

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

1 1

2 2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

2 2 2

0

1

2

0 1

0

0

x

y

z

= = =

A B

Thus, x = 1,

1 1

, .

2 2

y z = =

30.

2 0 8 1 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 0

1 4 0 0 1 0 2 0 8 1 0 0

2 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 1

1 1

8 4

1 4 0 0 1 0

1 4 0 0 1 0

0 8 8 1 2 0 0 1 1 0

0 9 0 0 2 1

0 9 0 0 2 1

1 1

2 2

1 1 1 1

8 4 8 4

9 1 1 1 1

8 36 9 8 4

1 0 4 0 0 1 0 4 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

0 0 1 0 0 9 1

1 4

9 9

2 1

9 9

1 1 1

8 36 9

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1

1 4

9 9

1 2 1

9 9

1 1 1

8 36 9

0

8 0

0 36 9

9 1

x

y

z

= =

A B

Thus, x = 0, y = 9, z = 1.

31. The coefficient matrix is not invertible. The method of reduction yields

1 3 3 7 1 3 3 7 1 3 3 7

2 1 1 4 0 5 5 10 0 1 1 2

1 1 1 4 0 2 2 3 0 2 2 3

1 0 0 1

0 1 1 2

0 0 0 1

.

The third row indicates that 0 = 1, which is never true, so there is no solution.

32. The coefficient matrix is not invertible. The method of reduction yields

1 3 3 7 1 3 3 7 1 3 3 7

2 1 1 4 0 5 5 10 0 1 1 2

1 1 1 3 0 2 2 4 0 2 2 4

1 0 0 1

0 1 1 2

0 0 0 0

.

Thus, x = 1, y = r + 2, z = r.

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

218

33.

1 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 0 0 0

1 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 0

2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 4 1 2 0 1 0

1 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 1

1 0 2 1 1 0 0 0

0 1 2 1 1 1 0 0

0 0 6 0 3 1 1 0

0 0 5 2 3 2 0 1

1 1 1

2 6 6

1 0 2 1 1 0 0 0

0 1 2 1 1 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 5 2 3 2 0 1

1 1

3 3

2 1

3 3

1 1 1

2 6 6

7 5 1

2 6 6

1 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 2 1

1 1

3 3

2 1

3 3

1 1 1

2 6 6

7 5 1 1

4 12 12 2

1 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

3 1 1 1

4 4 4 2

1 1 1 1

4 12 12 2

1 1 1

2 6 6

7 5 1 1

4 12 12 2

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

3 1 1 1

4 4 4 2

1 1 1 1

4 12 12 2 1

1 1 1

2 6 6

7 5 1 1

4 12 12 2

4 1

12 3

12 2

0

12 7

w

x

y

z

= = =

A B

Thus, w = 1, x = 3, y = 2, z = 7.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.6

219

34.

1 1

2 2

1 1

2 2

1 1

2 2

1 1

2 2

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0

1 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 2 1 0 0 1

0 1 0 1 0 0

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 1 1 0

0 0 1 2 1 0

1 1

2 2

1 1

2 2

1 1

2 2

1 1

1 1

2 2

2 2

1 1

1 1

2 2

2 2

1 1

2

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 1 1 0

0 0 1 2 1 0

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 1 1 0

0 0 1 0 1 1

0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0

1 1 0 0 1 1

3 1

2 2 2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 0 0 0 0 1

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

3 1

2 2

1 1

2 2 1

1 1

2 2

1 1

2 2

0 1

1 2

0 0

0 1

1 2

1 1

1 1

0 0

w

x

y

z

= = =

A B

Thus, w = 2, x = 1, y = 2, z = 1.

35.

1 0 5 2 4 2

0 1 1 2 1 1

= =

I A

1 1

6 3

1 2

1 2

6 3

6 3

4 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1

1 1 0 1 4 2 1 0 4 2 1 0 0 6 1 4

1 0 1 1 0 1

0 1

0 1

Thus,

1 1

1 6 3

1 2

6 3

( ) .

=

I A

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

220

36.

1 0 3 2 4 2

0 1 4 3 4 2

= =

I A

1 1

2 4

1 0 4 2 1 0

4 2 0 1

4 2 0 1

1 1

1 1

2 4

2 4

1 1

4 4

1 0

1 0

0 1 0 4 1 1

1 1

8 8

1 1

4 4

1 0

0 1

Thus

1 1

8 8 1

1 1

4 4

( )

=

I A

37. Let x = number of model A and y = number of model B.

a. The system is

1

2

100

80

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

(painting)

(polishing)

Let

1

2

1 1

.

1

=

A

1 1 1

2 2 2

1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

1 0 1 0 1

1 1 1 0 1 0 2 2

0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2

1

100 2 2 100 40

80 1 2 80 60

x

y

= = =

A

Thus 40 of model A and 60 of model B can be produced.

b. The system is

10 7 800

14 10 1130

x y

x y

+ =

+ =

(widgets)

(shims)

Let

10 7

14 10

=

A .

7 1

10 10

1 0 10 7 1 0

14 10 0 1

14 10 0 1

7 1

7 1

10 10

10 10

7 1

5 5

1 0

1 0

0 1 0 1 7 5

7

2

1 0 5

0 1 7 5

7

1

2

5 800 800 45

1130 1130 50

7 5

x

y

= = =

A

Thus 45 of model A and 50 of model B can be produced.

38.

1

1

1

0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

0 0

a

b

c

a

b

c

= =

I

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.6

221

39. a.

( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 1 1

( )

= = = = B A AB B A A B B IB B B I

Since an invertible matrix has exactly one inverse,

1 1

B A is the inverse of AB.

b. From Part (a),

1 1 1

1 1 1 2 4 6

( )

1 2 3 4 7 10

= = =

AB B A

40. Left side:

T

1 1

.

0 2

=

A We find that

1

2 T 1

1

2

1

( ) .

0

=

A

Right side:

1

1 1

2 2

1 0

,

A so

1

2 1 T

1

2

1

( ) .

0

=

A

Thus

T 1 1 T

( ) ( ) .

= A A

41.

3 3 4 4

5 5 5 5 T

3 3 4 4

5 5 5 5

1 0

,

0 1

= = =

P P I so

T 1

= P P . Yes, P is orthogonal.

42. a.

1

14 2 9

6 1 4

1 0 1

=

A

[ ] [ ]

1

1

14 2 9

33 87 70 6 1 4 10 21 19

1 0 1

= =

R A

[ ] [ ]

1

2

14 2 9

57 133 20 6 1 4 20 19 1

1 0 1

= =

R A

[ ] [ ]

1

3

14 2 9

38 90 33 6 1 4 25 14 15

1 0 1

= =

R A

b. Just say no.

43. Let x be the number of shares of D, y be the number of shares of E, and z be the number of shares of F. We get the

following equations.

60x + 80y + 30z = 500,000

0.16(60x) + 0.12(80y) + 0.09(30z) = 0.1368(60x + 80y + 30z)

z = 4y

Simplify the first equation.

6x + 8y + 3z = 50,000

Simplify the second equation.

9.6x + 9.6y + 2.7z = 8.208x + 10.944y + 4.104z

1.392x 1.344y 1.404z = 0

1392x 1344y 1404z = 0

116x 112y 117z = 0

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

222

Simplify the third equation.

4y z = 0

Thus we solve the following system of equations.

6x + 8y + 3z = 50,000

116x 112y 117z = 0

4y z = 0

The coefficient matrix is

6 8 3

116 112 117

0 4 1

=

A .

6 8 3 1 0 0

116 112 117 0 1 0

0 4 1 0 0 1

=

A I

4 1 1

3 2 6 1

1

6

1 0 0

116 112 117 0 1 0

0 4 1 0 0 1

>

R

4 1 1

3 2 6

1 2 800 58

3 3

1 0 0

116

0 175 1 0

0 4 1 0 0 1

+

>

R R

4 1 1

3 2 6

3

2

800 29 3 21

32 400 800 1

3

4

1 1

4 4

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 1 0 0

>

R

R

4 1 1

3 2 6

2 3 29 3 21

32 400 800

29 29 3 1

32 400 800 4

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0

+

>

R R

4 1 1

3 2 6

32

3

29 29 3 21

32 400 800

3 8 2

25 725 29

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

>

R

19 3 4 4

3 150 1450 29

1

3 1

2 3 1 21

50 2900 116 21

3 2

32

3 8 2

25 725 29

1 0

R R

0 1 0

R R

0 0 1

+

>

+

3 1 1

10 290 29

4

2 1

3 3 1 21

50 2900 116

3 8 2

25 725 29

1 0 0

R

0 1 0

0 0 1

+

>

R

3 1 1

10 290 29

3 1 21

50 2900 116

3 8 2

25 725 29

50,000 5000

0 1000

0 4000

x

y

z

= =

They should buy 5000 shares of company D, 1000

shares of company E, and 4000 shares of company F.

44. Let x be the number of shares of D, y be the number

of shares of E, and z be the number of shares of F.

We get the following conditions.

60x + 80y + 30z = 500,000

0.16(60x) + 0.12(80y) + 0.09(30z) = 0.1452(60x +

80y + 30z)

z = 2y

Simplify the first equation.

6x + 8x + 3z = 50,000

Simplify the second equation.

9.6x + 9.6y + 2.7z = 8.712x + 11.616y + 4.356z

0.888x 2.016y 1.656z = 0

888x 2016y 1656z = 0

111x 252y 207z = 0

Simplify the third equation.

2y z = 0

Thus we solve the following system of equations.

6x + 8y + 3z = 50,000

111x 252y 207z = 0

2y z = 0

The coefficient matrix is

6 8 3

111 252 207

0 2 1

=

A .

6 8 3 1 0 0

111 252 207 0 1 0

0 2 1 0 0 1

=

A I

4 1 1

3 2 6 1

1

6

1 0 0

111 252 207 0 1 0

0 2 1 0 0 1

>

R

4 1 1

3 2 6

1 2 525 37

2 2

1 0 0

111

0 400 1 0

0 2 1 0 0 1

+

>

R R

4 1 1

3 2 6

1

2

400 37 21 1

32 800 400 1

3

2

1 1

2 2

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 1 0 0

>

R

R

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 6.7

223

4 1 1

3 2 6

2 3 37 21 1

32 800 400

37 37 1 1

32 800 400 2

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0

+

>

R R

4 1 1

3 2 6

32

3

37 37 21 1

32 800 400

16 1 2

25 925 37

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

>

R

8 4 11 1

3 75 925 37

1

3 1

2 1 1 21

50 925 74 21

3 2

32

16 1 2

25 925 37

1 0

R R

0 1 0

R R

0 0 1

+

>

+

3 7 6

25 2775 37

4

2 1

3 1 1 21

50 925 74

16 1 2

25 925 37

1 0 0

R

0 1 0

0 0 1

+

>

R

3 7 6

25 2775 37

1 1 21

50 925 74

16 1 2

25 925 37

50,000 6000

0 1000

0 2000

x

y

z

= =

They should buy 6000 shares of company D, 1000

shares of company E, and 2000 shares of company

F.

45. a.

2.05 1.28

0.73 1.71

b.

84 105

41 82

30 70

41 41

46. a.

0.03 0.06 0.12

0.13 0.02 0.05

0.10 0.07 0.01

b.

18 39 11

323 323 323

83 15 11

646 646 323

32 23 4

323 323 323

47.

2.75 1.59 1.11

0.48 1.43 0.00

1.22 0.32 2.22

48.

1

0.9 3 4.7 13 4.78

2 0.4 2 4.7 1.33

1 0.8 0.5 7.2 2.70

x

y

z

= =

x = 4.78, y = 1.33, z = 2.70

49.

1

3 2 1

14

5 2 7

13

5 2

7

9 3

8

5 4

9 6

4

1 1

7

2 3

4

14.44

4 1

0.03

0.80

0 1 9

10.33

0 4

w

x

y

z

= =

w = 14.44, x = 0.03, y = 0.80, z = 10.33

Problems 6.7

1.

200 500

1200 1500

400 200

1200 1500

=

A

600

805

=

D

1

1290

( )

1425

= =

X I A D

The total value of other production costs is

A B

600 800

(1290) (1425) 1405

1200 1500

+ = + = P P

2.

40 120

200 300

120 90

200 300

=

A

a.

200

300

=

D

1

812.5

( )

1125

= =

X I A D

b.

64

64

=

D

1

220

( )

280

= =

X I A D

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

224

3.

15 30 45

100 120 180

25 30 60

100 120 180

50 40 60

100 120 180

=

A

a.

1

15

10

35

134.29

( ) 162.25

234.35

=

= =

D

X I A D

b.

1

10

10

10

68.59

( ) 84.50

108.69

=

= =

D

X I A D

4.

100 400 240

1000 800 1200

100 80 480

1000 800 1200

300 160 240

1000 800 1200

=

A

500

150

700

=

D

1

1559.81

( ) 1112.44

1738.04

= =

X I A D

5.

400 200 200

1000 1000 1000

200 400 100

1000 1000 1000

200 100 300

1000 1000 1000

=

A

300

350

450

=

D

1

1301

( ) 1215

1188

= =

X I A D

6.

400 200 200

1000 1000 1000

200 400 100

1000 1000 1000

200 100 300

1000 1000 1000

=

A

250

300

350

=

D

1

1073

( ) 1016

952

= =

X I A D

7.

400 200 200

1000 1000 1000

200 400 100

1000 1000 1000

200 100 300

1000 1000 1000

=

A

300

400

500

=

D

1

1382

( ) 1344

1301

= =

X I A D

8.

3 1

3 4

1

4

0

=

A

300

500

=

D

(I A)X = D

Reducing

3 2

3 4

1

4

300

1 500

with a calculator

results in

1 0 1408.70

.

0 1 852.17

Thus 1408.70 units of agriculture and 852.17

units of milling need to be produced.

9.

1 1 1

10 3 4

1 1 1

10 10 3

1 1 1

10 10 10

=

A

300

200

500

=

D

(I A)X = D

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 6 Review

225

Reducing

9 1 1

10 3 4

9 1 1

10 10 3

9 1 1

10 10 10

300

200

500

with a calculator results in

1 0 0 736.39

0 1 0 563.29 .

0 0 1 699.96

Thus 736.39 units of coal, 563.29 units of steel, and 699.96 units of railroad services need to be produced.

Chapter 6 Review Problems

1.

3 4 1 0 6 8 3 0 3 8

2 3

5 1 2 4 10 2 6 12 16 10

= =

2.

1 2 1 0 8 16 2 0 6 16

8 2

7 0 0 1 56 0 0 2 56 2

= =

3.

1 7 1 0 0 42 2 7 1 42 5

1 0 2

2 3 2 0 0 18 4 3 2 18 7

0 6 1

1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 2

+ + +

= + =

+ + +

4.

2 3

[2 3 7] 0 1 [2(2) 3(0) 7(5) 2(3) 3( 1) 7(2)] [39 17]

5 2

= + + + + =

5.

2 3 2 3 1 8 2 3 1 5 11 4

1 3 7 6 4 4 1 3 3 2 8 11

= =

6.

2 0 0 5 2 0 0 10

2

7 8 6 4 7 8 12 8

+ = +

2 10 2 10

19 0 19 0

= =

7. [ ]

2

T

1 2 5 4 1 3 6

2 1 2 2 2

3 1 6 5 2 16 32

= = =

8.

2

T 2

3 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 4 1 4 1

3 6 1 3 1 2 0 3 1 2 0 9 1 22 3

= = =

9.

T 2 T

1 1 3 0

(2 ) 3 2 3 2

1 2 0 3

= =

A I A I

2 2 3 0 1 2

2 4 0 3 2 1

= =

10.

T

2 2

(2 ) 2( ) 2 2

2 4

= = = =

A I AO AI AO A O A

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

226

11.

3 5

3 5

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 0

0 2 0 1 0 8 0 1 0 9

+ = + = + =

B I

12.

T T T T T T T T T T

0 0

( )

0 0

= = =

ABA A B A A B A A B A O

13.

5 15

7

x

x y

=

5x = 15, or x = 3

7x = y, 7 3 = y, or y = 21

14.

2

3 4

2 1 3

3

4 2 3

x x

y

xy y

+ +

=

+ +

2 + 3y = y, 2y = 2, or y = 1

1 + 3x = 4, 3x = 3, or x = 1

For these values of x and y,

2

2 3 x + = is true, and 4 + xy = 3 is true. Thus x = 1, y = 1.

15.

1 4 1 4 1 4 1 0

5 8 0 12 0 1 0 1

16.

9

5

0 1 0 0 7 0 5 9 0 1 0

0 5 9 0 0 7 0 0 1

0 0 1

17.

2 4 7 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 2 4

1 2 4 2 4 7 0 0 1 0 2 18

5 8 2 5 8 2 0 2 18 0 0 1

1 2 4 1 0 14 1 0 14 1 0 0

0 1 9 0 1 9 0 1 9 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

18.

0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

19.

5

2

1 0 2 5 0 2 5 0 1 0 0

4 3 0 0 13 0 0 1 0

0 1 0

Thus x = 0, y = 0.

20.

3

4

5

5

4

4

1 0 2 1 1 2 3

1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3

0 1 1 3 1 1 5 0 4 5 4

0 1 1

Thus

3

2

4

x r = + ,

5

1

4

y r = , z = r.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 6 Review

227

21.

1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1

3 2 4 7 0 5 10 10 0 1 2 2

2 1 2 2 0 3 6 0 0 3 6 0

1 0 0 1

0 1 2 2

0 0 0 6

Row three indicates that 0 = 6, which is never true, so there is no solution.

22.

1 3

2 2

3 3 11

2 2 2

1 0 1 1 0 0

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 2 3 0 2 3 4 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 0

2 0 2 7 0 2 4 9

0 2 4 9 0 0 1 5 0 0 1 5

Thus

3 11

, ,

2 2

x y = = z = 5.

23.

1 1

2 6

1 5 1 0

1 5 1 0 1 5 1 0

0 1 3 9 0 1 0 6 3 1

3 5 3 5

2 6 2 6 1

1 1 1 1

2 6 2 6

1 0

0 1

=

A

24.

1

0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

=

A

25.

1 3 2 1 0 0 1 3 2 1 0 0

4 1 0 0 1 0 0 11 8 4 1 0

3 2 2 0 0 1 0 11 8 3 0 1

8 4 1

11 11 11

1 3 2 1 0 0

1 3 2 1 0 0

0 11 8 4 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 1 1

0 0 0 1 1 1

3 2 1

11 11 11

8 4 1

11 11 11

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 0 1 1 1

no inverse exists

26.

1

5

1 1 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

5 5 5

1 3 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 1

2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5

5 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2

2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5

1 0 0 0 0

5 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 0

5 2 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 0

5 1 3 0 0 1 0 1 3 1 0 1

0 1 3 1 0 1

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0 1

=

A .

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

228

27.

3 1 4 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1 0 3 1 4 1 0 0

0 2 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 1

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

0 1 1 1 3 0 0 1 1 1 3 0

0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 6 1

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 7 1

0 1 1 1 3 0 0 1 0 1 3 1

0 0 1 2 6 1 0 0 1 2 6 1

1

2 7 1 1 0

1 3 1 0 1

2 6 1 2 0

x

y

z

= = =

A B

Thus x = 0, y = 1, z = 0.

28. We found

1

A in Exercise 26, so

1 3

5 5

1 3 2 1 4

5 5 5 5

1 1 2 7

5 5 5 5

0 0

3

0

2

x

y

z

= = =

A B

29.

2

0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

= = =

A AA

3 2

0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

= = = =

A A A O

Since

3

, = A O every higher power of A is also O, so

1000

. = A O

Looking at

0 1 1 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 0 ,

0 0 0 0 0 1

it is clear that there is no way of transforming the left side into

3

, I since there

is no way to get a nonzero entry in the first column. Thus A does not have an inverse.

30.

T

2 0

0 4

=

A

( )

1

1

2 T

1

4

0

0

=

A

1

2 1

1

4

0

0

=

A

( )

1

T

2 1

1

4

0

0

=

A

Thus

T 1 1 T

( ) ( ) .

= A A

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 6 Review

229

31. a. Let x, y, and z represent the weekly doses of capsules of brand I, II, and III, respectively. Then

4 13

2 7 22

3 10 31

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

(vitamin A)

(vitamin B)

(vitamin C)

1 2

1 3

1 1 4 13 1 1 4 13

R R

1 2 7 22 0 1 3 9

R R

1 3 10 31 0 2 6 18

+

>

+

2 1

2 3

1 0 1 4

R R

0 1 3 9

2R R

0 0 0 0

+

>

+

Thus x = 4 r, y = 9 3r, and z = r, where r = 0, 1, 2, 3.

The four possible combinations are

Combination x y z

1 4 9 0

2 3 6 1

3 2 3 2

4 1 0 3

b. Computing the cost of each combination, we find that they are 83, 77, 71, and 65 cents, respectively. Thus

combination 4, namely x = 1, y = 0, z = 3, minimizes weekly cost.

32. a.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

3 2 2 2

1 3 1 1 2 1 2 1 2

= = = A A A A A A A IA A A

( )

1 1 1 1

= = = = A A A A A IA A A I

Thus

3

A is invertible.

b. AB = AC. Thus

1 1

( ) ( )

= A AB A AC ,

( ) ( )

1 1

= A A B A A C, IB = IC, B = C.

c.

1 1

= = AA A A AA A A, IA = I, A = I. Thus

n

= A I .

33.

215 87

89 141

34.

1

7.9 4.3 2.7 11.1 1.57

3.4 5.8 7.6 10.8 0.30

4.5 6.2 7.4 15.9 0.95

x

y

z

= =

Thus x = 1.57, y = 0.30, z = 0.95.

35.

10 20

34 39 1

15 14

34 39

10 39.7

; ; ( )

5 35.1

= = = =

A D X I A D

Chapter 6: Matrix Algebra ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

230

Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 6

1.

20 40 30 10

30 0 10 10

10 0 30 50

=

A

7

10

7

5

=

T

9

8

10

=

C

T T T

7

20 40 30 10 800

10

( ) 30 0 10 10 330

7

10 0 30 50 530

5

= =

C AT C C

[ ] [ ]

800

9 8 10 330 15,140

530

= =

The cost is $151.40.

2. To the linear system, add x

1

+ x

2

+ x

3

+ x

4

= 52.

20 40 30 10

30 0 10 10

10 0 30 50

1 1 1 1

=

A

1180

580

1500

52

=

B

1

8

10

14

20

= =

T A B

Guest 1: 8 days; guest 2: 10 days;

guest 3: 14 days; guest 4: 20 days

3. It is not possible. Different combinations of lengths of stays can cost the same. For example, guest 1 staying for

20 days and guest 3 staying for 17 days costs the same as guest 1 staying for 15 days and guest 3 staying for 21

days (each costs $214.50).

231

Chapter 7

Principles in Practice 7.1

1. Let x = the number of type A magnets and

y = the number of type B magnets.

The cost for producing x type A magnets and y

type B magnets is 50 + 0.90x + 0.70y. The

revenue for selling x type A magnets and y type

B magnets is 2.00x + 1.50y.

Revenue is greater than cost when

2x + 1.5y > 50 + 0.9x + 0.7y.

0.8y > 1.1x + 50

y > 1.375x + 62.5

Sketch the dashed line y = 1.375x + 62.5 and

shade the half plane above the line. In order to

make a profit, the number of magnets of types A

and B must correspond to an ordered pair in the

shaded region. Also, to take reality into account,

both x and y must be positive (negative numbers

of magnets are not feasible).

2. Since negative numbers of cameras cannot be

sold, x 0 and y 0. Selling at least 50

cameras per week corresponds to x + y 50.

Selling twice as many of type I as of type II

corresponds to

x 2y. The system of inequalities is

50,

2 ,

0,

0.

x y

x y

x

y

+

The region consists of points on or above the

x-axis and on or to the right of the y-axis. In

addition, the points must be on or above the line

x + y = 50 and on or below the line x = 2y.

Problems 7.1

1.

y

5

x

5

2.

y

10

x

10

3.

y

10

x

10

4.

y

10

x

10

5.

y

5

x

4

6.

y

10

x

10

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

232

7.

y

5

x

5

8.

y

5

x

5

9.

y

5

x

5

10.

y

10

x

10

11.

y

5

x

5

12.

y

5

x

5

13.

y

6

x

5

14.

y

5

x

5

15.

y

5

x

5

16.

y

5

x

5

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.1

233

17.

y

5

x

5

18.

y

5

x

5

19.

y

5

x

5

20.

y

8

x

5

21.

y

10

x

10

22.

y

10

x

10

23.

y

10

x

10

24.

y

20

x

20

25. 6x + 4y 20

y

7

x

5

26. 7x + 3y 25

y

2

x

10

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

234

27. Let x be the amount purchased from supplier A,

and y the amount purchased from B. The system

of inequalities is

x + y 100,

x 0,

y 0.

y

100

x

100

28. Since negative numbers of computers cannot be

produced, x 0 and y 0. Producing at most

650 computers per week corresponds to x + y

650. The system of inequalities is

650,

0,

0.

x y

x

y

+

29. Since negative numbers of chairs cannot be

produced, x 0 and y 0. The inequality for

assembly time is 3x + 2y 240. The inequality

for painting time is

1

80

2

x y + . The system of

inequalities is

3 2 240,

1

80,

2

0,

0.

x y

x y

x

y

+

The region consists of points on or above the

x-axis and on or to the right of the y-axis. In

addition, the points must be on or below the line

3x + 2y = 240 and on or below the line

1

80

2

x y + = (or, equivalently x + 2y = 160).

Problems 7.2

1. The feasible region appears below. The corner

points are (2, 0),

47 41

, ,

3 9

45

, 0 .

2

Evaluating P at each corner point, we find that P

has a maximum value of

1

112

2

when

45

2

x =

and y = 0.

y

25

x

25 (2, 0)

x 3y =2

47

3

41

9

,

P =112

1

2

2. The feasible region appears below. The corner

points are (0, 0),

1

0, 83 ,

3

1

62 , 0 .

2

Evaluating P at each corner point, we find that P

has a maximum value of

2

416

3

when x = 0 and

1

83 .

3

y =

y

100

x

100

4x + 3y = 250

x + 2y = 225

x + y = 90

0 83

1

3

,

62

1

2

0 ,

P = 416

2

3

3. The feasible region appears below. The corner

points are (2, 3), (0, 5), (0, 7) and

10

,7

3

.

Evaluating Z at each point, we find that Z has a

maximum value of 10 when x = 2 and y = 3.

y

10

x

10

3x y = 3

Z = 10

(2, 3)

x + y = 5

y = 7

4. The feasible region appears below. The corner

points are (8, 0), (3, 0),

12 12

,

7 7

,

99 99

,

20 20

and

27

8,

11

. Evaluating Z at each point, we find

that Z has a minimum value of 3 when x = 3 and

y = 0.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.2

235

y

10

x

10

9x + 11y = 99

4x + 3y = 12

Z = 3

(3, 0)

x y = 0

x = 8

5. The feasible region is empty, so there is no

optimum solution.

y

10

x

10

2x y = 2

x 4y = 4

6. The feasible region is empty, so there is no

optimum solution.

y

10

x

10

3x + 4y = 24

8x + 7y = 56

2x + y = 10

7. The feasible region is a line segment. The corner

points are (0, 1) and (4, 5). Z has a minimum

value of 3 when x = 0 and y = 1.

y

5

x

5

(4, 5)

(0, 1)

Z = 3

8. The feasible region is a line segment. The corner

points are (2, 0) and

27 21

, .

17 17

Z has a maximum value of 0.8 for x = 2 and

y = 0.

y

10

x

10 (2, 0)

Z =0.8

9. The feasible region is unbounded with 3 corner

points. The member (see dashed line) of the

family of lines C = 3x + 2y which gives a

minimum value of C, subject to the constraints,

intersects the feasible region at corner point

7 1

,

3 3

where

23

3

C = Thus C has a minimum

value of

23

3

when

7

3

x = and

1

.

3

y = [Note:

Here we chose the member of the family

1

( 3 )

2

y x C = + whose y-intercept was closest

to the origin and which had at least one point in

common with the feasible region.]

y

5

x

5

x + 2y = 3

3x + y = 4

2x + y = 5

7

3

1

3

,

C =

23

3

(3, 0)

(0, 5)

10. The feasible region is unbounded with 4 corner

points. The member (see dashed line) of the

family of lines

2

C

y x = + which gives a

minimum value of C, subject to the constraints,

intersects the feasible region at corner point

(40, 20) where C = 120. Thus C has a minimum

value of 120 when x = 40 and y = 20.

y

100

x

100

x + 2y = 80

3x + 2y = 160

5x + 2y = 200

C = 120

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

236

11. The feasible region is unbounded with 2 corner

points. The family of lines given by Z = 10x + 2y

has members (see dashed lines for two sample

members) that have arbitrarily large values of Z

and that also intersect the feasible region. Thus

no optimum solution exists.

y

10

x

10

x + 2y = 4

x 2y = 0

Z = 50

Z = 70

12. The feasible region is unbounded with 3 corner

points. The family of lines given by Z = y x has

members (see dashed lines for sample members)

that have arbitrarily small values for Z and also

intersect the feasible region. Thus no optimum

solution exists.

y

10

x

10

x + 3y = 6

x = 3

x 3y = 6

Z = 1

Z = 7

13. Let x and y be the number of trucks and spinning

tops made per week, respectively. Then we are

to maximize P = 7x + 2y where

0

0

2 80 (for machine A)

3 50 (for machine B)

5 70 (for finishing)

x

y

x y

x y

x y

The feasible region is bounded. The corner

points are (0, 50), (14, 0) and (10, 20).

Evaluating P at each corner point, we find that P

is maximized at corner point (10, 20), where its

value is 110. Thus10 trucks and 20 spinning tops

should be made each week to give a maximum

profit of $110.

y

50

x

50

5x +y =70

3x +y =50

(10, 20)

MaximumProfit Line

14. Let x and y be the numbers of Vista and Xtreme

models made each day. Then we are to

maximize

P = 50x + 80y, where

0

0

3 24 (for machine A)

2 2 24 (for machine B)

x

y

x y

x y

The feasible region is bounded. The corner

points are (0, 0), (0, 8), (6, 6), and (12, 0).

Evaluating P at each corner point, we find that P

is maximized at corner point (6, 6) where its

value is 780. Thus 6 of each model should be

made each day in order to give a maximum

profit of $780.

y

25

x

25

2x 2y =24

(6, 6)

x +3y =24

15. Let x and y be the numbers of units of Food A

and Food B, respectively, that are purchased.

Then we are to minimize C = 1.20x + 0.80y,

where

0,

0,

2 2 16

4 20

x

y

x y

x y

(for carbohydrates),

(for protein).

The feasible region is unbounded. The corner

points are (8, 0), (4, 4) and (0, 20). C is

minimized at corner point (4, 4) where C = 8

(see the minimum cost line). Thus 4 units of

Food A and 4 units of Food B gives a minimum

cost of $8.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.2

237

y

30

x

30

Minimum

Cost Line

2x + 2y = 16

4x + y = 20

16. Let x and y be the numbers of units of Blend I

and Blend II, respectively, that are bought each

week. Then we are to minimize C = 8x + 10y

where

0,

0,

2 2 80

6 2 120

4 12 240

x

y

x y

x y

x y

(for Nutrient B),

(for Nutrient C).

The feasible region is unbounded with 4 corner

points. C is minimized at the corner point

(30, 10) where C = 340 (see the minimum cost

line). thus each week the grower should buy 30

bags of Blend I and 10 bags of Blend II.

y

100

x

100

4x + 12y = 240

2x + 2y = 80

Minimum

Cost Line

6x + 2y = 120

17. Let x and y be the numbers of tons of ores I and

II, respectively, that are processed. Then we are

to minimize C = 50x + 60y, where

0,

0,

100 200 3000

200 50 2500

x

y

x y

x y

(for mineral B).

The feasible region is unbounded with 3 corner

points. C is minimized at the corner point

(10, 10) where C = 1100 (see the minimum cost

line). Thus 10 tons of ore I and 10 tons of ore II

give a minimum cost of $1100.

y

50

x

50

Minimum

Cost Line

200x + 50y = 2500

100x + 200y = 3000

18. Let x and y be the number of days Refinery I and

Refinery II are operated, respectively. Then we

are to minimize C = 25,000x + 20,000y where

0,

0,

2000 1000 8000

3000 2000 14,000

1000 1000 5000

x

y

x y

x y

x y

(for medium grade),

(for high grade).

The feasible region is unbounded with 4 corner

points. Evaluating C at each corner point, we

find that C is minimized at corner point (4, 1)

where C = 120,000. Thus, operate Refinery I for

4 days and Refinery II for 1 day for a minimum

cost of $120,000.

y

10

x

10

2000x + 1000y = 8000

3000x + 2000y = 14,000

1000x + 1000y = 5000

19. Let x and y be the number of chambers of type A

and B, respectively. Then we are to minimize

C = 600,000x + 300,000y, where

4,

4,

10 4 100

20 30 420

x

y

x y

x y

1

2

(for polymer P ),

(for polymer P ).

The feasible region is unbounded with 3 corner

points. Evaluating C at each corner point, we

find C is minimized at corner point

(6, 10) where C = 6,600,000. Thus the solution

is 6 chambers of type A and 10 chambers of

type B.

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

238

y

20

x

20

20x + 30y = 420

10x + 4y = 100

y = 4

x = 4

20. Let x and y be the number of liters produced by

the old and new processes, respectively. We

want to maximize P = 0.4x + 0.15y, where

0

0

25 15 12,525 (for carbon dioxide)

50 40 20,000 (for particulate matter)

x

y

x y

x y

The feasible region is bounded with three corner

points. Evaluating P at each corner point, we

find that P is maximized at the corner point

(400, 0), where P = 160. Thus daily production

of 400 liters by only the old process maximizes

daily profit at $160.

y

x

1000

1000

50x +40y =20,000

25x +15y =12,525

21. a. A builds x km of highway and y km of

expressway, so B builds (300 x) km of

highway and (200 y) km of expressway.

Thus

D = 2x + 6y + 3(300 x) + 5(200 y)

= 1900 x + y.

b. The first constraint is company As

construction limit.

The second constraint is company Bs

construction limit, which arises as follows:

(300 ) (200 ) 300,

500 300,

200,

200.

x y

x y

x y

x y

+

+

The third constraint is the minimum contract

for A.

The fourth constraint is the minimum

contract for B, which arises as follows:

2(300 ) 8(200 ) 300,

2200 2 8 300,

2 8 1900,

2 8 1900.

x y

x y

x y

x y

+

+

The fifth constraint reflects the fact that

company A will not build more than 300 km

of highway, since 300 km is the total being

built; the sixth constraint is the

corresponding constraint for the amount of

expressway.

c. The feasible region (see below) is bounded.

The corner points are (0, 200), (150, 200),

650 550

, ,

3 3

(300, 100), (300, 0), and

(200, 0).

Evaluating D at each corner point, we find

that D is maximized at point (0, 200), where

D = 2100. That is, D is maximized when

x = 0, y = 200.

y

500

x

500

x + y = 200

x + y = 400

2x + 8y = 1900

x = 300

y = 200

22. Z = 2.71 when x = 1.14, y = 1.43

23. Z = 15.54 when x = 2.56, y = 6.74

24. The feasible region is empty, so there is no

optimum solution.

25. Z = 75.98 when x = 9.48, y = 16.67

Principles in Practice 7.3

1. Using the hint, the cost of shipping the TV sets

is Z = 18x + 24(25 x) + 9y + 15(30 y)

= 1050 6x 6y.

Since negative numbers of TV sets cannot be

shipped, x 0, y 0, 25 x 0, and

30 y 0. Since warehouse C has only 45 TV

sets,

x + y 45. Similarly, since warehouse D has

only 40 TV sets, 25 x + 30 y 45 or

x + y 10.

We need to minimize Z = 1050 6x 6y subject

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.3

239

to the constraints

45,

10,

25,

30,

0, 0.

x y

x y

x

y

x y

+

+

y

50

x

E F

A

B

C

D

50

x = 25

x + y = 45

x + y = 10

y = 30

The feasible region shown has corners

A = (0, 10), B = (0, 30), C = (15, 30),

D = (25, 20), E = (25, 0), and F = (10, 0).

Evaluating the cost function at the corners gives

Z(A) = 1050 6(0) 6(10) = 990

Z(B) = 1050 6(0) 6(30) = 870

Z(C) = 1050 6(15) 6(30) = 780

Z(D) = 1050 6(25) 6(20) = 780

Z(E) = 1050 6(25) 6(0) = 900

Z(F) = 1050 6(10) 6(0) = 990

The minimum value of Z is 780 which occurs at

all points on the line segment joining C and D.

This is x = (1 t)(15) + t(25) = 15 + 10t and

y = (1 t)(30) + t(20) = 30 10t for 0 t 1.

Thus, ship 10t + 15 TV sets from C to A,

10t + 30 TV sets from C to B,

25 (10t + 15) = 10t + 10 TV sets from D to A,

and 30 (10t + 30) = 10t TV sets from D to B,

for 0 t 1. The minimum cost is $780.

Problems 7.3

1. The feasible region is unbounded. Z is

minimized at corner points (2, 3) and (5, 2),

where its value is 33. Z is also minimized at all

points on the line segment joining (2, 3) and

(5, 2), so the solution is Z = 33 when

x = (1 t)(2) + 5t = 2 + 3t

y = (1 t)(3) + 2t = 3 t and 0 t 1.

y

10

x

10

(5, 2)

y =x 3

(2, 3)

1

3

11

3

y = x +

3

2

y = x +6

2. The feasible region is a line segment. The corner

points are

2 16

,

3 3

and

16 2

, .

3 3

At each of

these points Z = 12. Thus Z is maximized at both

corner points, as well as at all points on the line

segment. Thus the solution is Z = 12 when

2 16 2 14

(1 ) ,

3 3 3 3

x t t t

= + = +

16 2 16 14

(1 ) ,

3 3 3 3

x t t t

= + =

and 0 t 1.

y

5

x

5

(

2

3

,

16

3

)

(

2

3

,

16

3

)

3. The feasible region appears below. The corner

points are (0, 0),

8 36 4

0, , ,

5 7 7

and (6, 0). Z

is maximized at

36 4

,

7 7

and (6, 0), where its

value is 84. Thus Z is also maximized at all

points on the line segment joining

36 4

,

7 7

and

(6, 0). The solution is Z = 84 when

36 6 36

(1 ) 6 ,

7 7 7

x t t t

= + = +

4 4 4

(1 ) 0

7 7 7

y t t t

= + =

and 0 t 1.

y

10

x

10

2x +3y =12

x +5y =8

36

7

4

7

,

4. Using the hint, the cost of delivering the cars is

Z = 60x + 45y + 50(7 x) + 35(4 y)

= 490 + 10x + 10y.

Since negative numbers of cars is not possible,

x 0, y 0, 7 x 0, and 4 y 0. Since

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

240

the warehouse in Concord has only 6 cars,

x + y 6.

Similarly, since the Dublin warehouse has only 8

cars, 7 x + 4 y 8 or 3 x + y.

We need to minimize Z = 490 + 10x + 10y

subject to the constraints

x + y 6,

x + y 3,

x 7,

y 4,

x 0, y 0.

y

10

x

E

A

B

C

D 10

x = 7

x + y = 6

x + y = 3

y = 4

The feasible region shown has corners A = (0, 3),

B = (0, 4), C = (2, 4), D = (6, 0), and E = (3, 0).

Evaluating the cost function at the corners gives

Z(A) = 490 + 10(0) + 10(3) = 520

Z(B) = 490 + 10(0) + 10(4) = 530

Z(C) = 490 + 10(2) + 10(4) = 550

Z(D) = 490 + 10(6) + 10(0) = 550

Z(E) = 490 + 10(3) + 10(0) = 520

The minimum value of Z is 520 which occurs at

all points on the line segment joining A and E.

This is x = (1 t)(0) + t(3) = 3t and

y = (1 t)(3) + t(0) = 3t + 3 for 0 t 1.

Thus have 3t cars delivered from Concord to

Atherton, 3t + 3 delivered from Concord to

Berkeley, 7 3t delivered from Dublin to

Atherton, and 4 (3t + 3) = 3t + 1 delivered

from Dublin to Berkeley, for 0 t 1. The

minimum cost is $520.

Principles in Practice 7.4

In these problems, the pivot entry is underlined.

1. Let

1 2 3

, , and x x x be the numbers of Type 1,

Type 2, and Type 3 players, respectively, that

the company produces. The situation is to

maximize the profit

1 2 3

150 250 200 P x x x = + + , subject to the

constraints

1 2 3

300 300 400 30,000 x x x + +

1 2 3

15 15 10 1200 x x x + +

1 2 3

2 2 3 180 x x x + +

1 2 3

, , 0 x x x

The constraint inequalities can be simplified by

dividing by the greatest common factor of the

numbers involved. Thus, we will use

1 2 3

3 3 4 300 x x x + +

1 2 3

3 3 2 240 x x x + +

1 2 3

2 2 3 180 x x x + +

1 2 3

, , 0 x x x

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

3

3 3 4 1 0 0 0 300

3 3 2 0 1 0 0 240

2 2 3 0 0 1 0 180

150 250 200 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s P b

s

s

s

P

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2 1

2

3 3

5 2

3

3 3

100 250

3 3

0 0 2 1 1 0 0 60

1 1 0 0 0 80

0 0 0 1 0 20

100 0 0 0 1 20,000

x x x s s s P b

s

x

s

P

1 2 3 1 2 3

6 1

1

5 5

3 2

2

5 5

3 2

3 5 5

0 0 0 1 0 36

1 1 0 0 0 72

0 0 1 0 0 12

100 0 0 0 70 20 1 20,400

x x x s s s P b

s

x

x

P

The maximum value of P is 20,400 when

1 2 3

0, 72, and 12 x x x = = = . The maximum

profit is $20,400 when 72 Type 2 players and

12 Type 3 players are produced and sold.

Problems 7.4

In these problems, the pivot entry is underlined.

1.

1 2 1 2

1

2

2 1 1 0 0 8 8

2 3 0 1 0 12 4

1 2 0 0 1 0

x x s s Z

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2

4 1

3 3

1

2 1

2

3 3

1 2

3 3

0 1 0 4

1 0 0 4

0 0 1 8

x x s s Z

s

x

Z

The solution is Z = 8 when

1 2

0, 4 x x = = .

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.4

241

2.

1 2 1 2

1

2

1 1 1 0 0 4

1 1 0 1 0 6 6

2 1 0 0 1 0

x x s s Z

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2

1

1

0 2 1 1 0 10

1 1 0 1 0 6

0 1 0 2 1 12

x x s s Z

s

x

Z

The solution is Z = 12 when

1 2

6, 0 x x = = .

3.

1 2 1 2

5

2 1

2

3 2 1 0 0 5

1 3 0 1 0 3 1

1 2 0 0 1 0

x x s s Z

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2

11 2

1

3 3

1 1

2

3 3

1 2

3 3

0 1 0 3

1 0 0 1

0 0 1 2

x x s s Z

s

x

Z

The solution is Z = 2 when

1 2

0, 1. x x = =

4.

1 2 1 2

1

2

2 3 1 0 0 9 3

1 5 0 1 0 10 2

4 7 0 0 1 0

x x s s Z

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2

15 7 3

7 5 5

1

1 1

2

5 5

13 7

5 5

0 1 0 3

1 0 0 2 10

0 0 1 14

x x s s Z

s

x

Z

1 2 1 2

5 3 15

1

7 7 7

1 2 11

2

7 7 7

13 137 2

7 7 7

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

x x s s Z

x

x

Z

The solution is

137

7

Z = when

1 2

15 11

, .

7 7

x x = =

5.

1 2 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 0 0 0 1

1

1 2 0 1 0 0 8

8

1 1 0 0 1 0 5

5

8 2 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s Z

s

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2 3

1

7

2

3

3

1 1 1 0 0 0 1

0 3 1 1 0 0 7

0 2 1 0 1 0 4

2

0 10 8 0 0 1 8

x x s s s Z

x

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2 3

1 1

1

2 2

3 1

2

2 2

1 1

2 2 2

1 0 0 0 3

0 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 0 2

0 0 3 0 5 1 28

x x s s s Z

x

s

x

Z

The solution is Z = 28 when

1 2

3, 2 x x = = .

6.

1 2 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 0 0 0 4

4

1 1 0 1 0 0 4

1 1 0 0 1 0 6

6

2 6 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s Z

s

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 0 0 0 4

0 0 1 1 0 0 8

0 2 1 0 1 0 2

0 4 2 0 0 1 8

x x s s s Z

x

s

s

Z

The solution is Z = 8 when

1 2

4, 0 x x = =

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

242

7.

1 2 3 1 2

1

2

3

2

1 2 0 1 0 0 10 5

2 2 1 0 1 0 10 5

3 4 0 0 1 0

x x x s s Z

s

s

Z

2

choosing as departing variable s

1 2 3 1 2

1

1 1

2

2 2

1

2

1 0 1 1 1 0 0

1 1 0 0 5

1 0 0 2 1 20

x x x s s Z

s

x

Z

The solution is Z = 20 when

1 2 3

0, 5, 0 x x x = = =

8. If

1

s is the departing variable, then

1 2 3 1 2

1

2

2 1 1 1 0 0 4 2

1 1 1 0 1 0 2 2

2 1 1 0 0 1 0

x x x s s Z

s

s

Z

1 2 3 1 2

1 1 1

2 2 2

1

3 1 1

2

2 2 2

1 0 0 2

0 1 0 0 0

0 2 2 1 0 1 4

x x x s s Z

x

s

Z

1 2 3 1 2

2 1 1

1

3 3 3

3 1 1 2

3 3 3

8 1 4

3 3 3

1 0 0 2

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 4

x x x s s Z

x

x

Z

The solution is Z = 4 when

1 2 3

2, 0, 0 x x x = = = .

2

Choosing as the departing variable s

1 2 3 1 2

1

2

2 1 1 1 0 0 4 2

1 1 1 0 1 0 2 2

2 1 1 0 0 1 0

x x x s s Z

s

s

Z

1 2 3 1 2

1

1

0 1 3 1 2 0 0

1 1 1 0 1 0 2

0 3 1 0 2 1 4

x x x s s Z

s

x

Z

Thus the maximum value of Z is 4, when

1 2 3

2, 0, 0 x x x = = = .

9. To obtain a standard linear programming

problem, we write the second constraint as

1 2 3

2 2 x x x + + .

1 2 3 1 2

1

2

1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1

1 2 1 0 1 0 2

2 1 1 0 0 1 0

x x x s s Z

s

s

Z

1 2 3 1 2

1

2

1 1 0 1 0 0 1

0 3 1 1 1 0 3

0 1 1 2 0 1 2

x x x s s Z

x

s

Z

The solution is Z = 2 when

1 2 3

1, 0, 0 x x x = = = .

10. To obtain a standard linear programming

problem, we write the third constraint as

1 2

3. x x +

1 2 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1

1 1 0 1 0 0 0 2

3 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 3

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 5

2 3 0 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s s Z

s

s

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2 3 4

2

2

3

4

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1

2 0 1 1 0 0 0 3

2 0 1 0 1 0 0 2

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 5

5 0 3 0 0 0 1 3

x x s s s s Z

x

s

s

s

Z

The solution is Z = 3 when

1 2

0, 1 x x = = .

11.

1 2 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

2 1 1 0 0 0 0 4

2

1 2 0 1 0 0 0 6

5 3 0 0 1 0 0 20 4

2 1 0 0 0 1 0 10 5

1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s s Z

s

s

s

s

Z

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.4

243

1

choosing as entering variable x

1 2 1 2 3 4

1 1

2 2 1

16

3 1

2

3

2 2

20

5 11

3 11

2 2

4

3 1

2 2

1 0 0 0 0 2

0 1 0 0 0 8

0 0 1 0 0 10

0 2 1 0 0 1 0 6 3

0 0 0 0 1 2

x x s s s s Z

x

s

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2 3 4

3 32 1 32

1

11 11 11 3

58 13 3 58

2

13 11 11 11

5 20 2

2

11 11 11

26 1 4

4

11 11 11

3 52 2

11 11 11

1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

x x s s s s Z

x

s

x

s

Z

1 2 1 2 3 4

3 2 22

1

13 13 13

3 58 11

1

13 13 13

5 50 1

2

13 13 13

5 36 1

4

13 13 13

3 72 2

13 13 13

1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

x x s s s s Z

x

s

x

s

Z

Thus the maximum value of Z is

72

,

13

when

1

22

13

x = ,

2

50

.

13

x = If we choose

2

x as the

entering variable, then we have:

1 2 1 2 3 4

1

2

20

3

3

4

2 1 1 0 0 0 0 4

1 2 0 1 0 0 0 6 3

5 3 0 0 1 0 0 20

2 1 0 0 0 1 0 10

10

1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s s Z

s

s

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2 3 4

14

3 1

1

3

2 2

1 1 2

2 2

22 13 3

3

13 2 2

5 1 14

4

2 2 5

3 1

2 2

0 1 0 0 0 7

1 0 0 0 0 3

0 0 1 0 0 11

0 0 0 1 0 7

0 0 0 0 1 3

x x s s s s Z

s

x

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2 3 4

3 58 11

1

13 13 13

5 50 1

2

13 13 13

3 2 22

1

13 13 13

5 36 1

4

13 13 13

3 72 2

13 13 13

0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

x x s s s s Z

s

x

x

s

Z

The solution is

72

13

Z = when

1

22

,

13

x =

2

50

.

13

x =

12. To obtain a standard linear programming

problem, we write the first constraint as

1 2 3

2 2 x x x .

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

3

2 1 1 1 0 0 0 2

1

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 4

4

1 1 2 0 0 1 0 6

6

2 1 2 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s W

s

s

s

W

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 1 1

1

2 2 2

3 1 1

2

2 2 2

10

3 5 1

3

2 2 2

3

1 0 0 0 1

0 1 0 0 3

0 0 1 0 5

0 2 1 1 0 0 1 2

x x x s s s W

x

s

s

W

1 2 3 1 2 3

8 1 1 1

1 3 3 3 3

7 2 1 14

2

3 3 3 3

5 10 1 2

3 3 3 3

2

13 26 1 4

3 3 3 3

1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

x x x s s s W

x

s

x

W

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

244

The solution is W =

26

3

when

1 2 3

8 10

, , 0

3 3

x x x = = = .

13. To obtain a standard linear programming problem, we write the second constraint as

1 2 3

2 x x x + and the

third constraint as

1 2 3

1 x x x .

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

3

4 3 1 1 0 0 0 1

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 2

2

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1

1 12 4 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s W

s

s

s

W

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

3

3

3 2 0 1 1 0 0 3

1

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 2

0 2 0 0 1 1 0 3

5 8 0 0 4 0 1 8

x x x s s s W

s

x

s

W

1 2 3 1 2 3

2 1 1

1

3 3 3

1 1 4

3

3 3 3

3

34 5 17

3 3 3

1 0 0 0 1

0 1 0 0 3

0 2 0 0 1 1 0 3

0 0 0 1 13

x x x s s s W

x

x

s

W

The solution is W = 13 when

1 2 3

1, 0, 3 x x x = = = .

14.

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 6

6

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 10

10

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 4

4

4 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s W

s

s

s

W

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

1

0 2 2 1 0 1 0 2

1

0 0 2 0 1 1 0 6

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 4

0 4 3 0 0 4 1 16

x x x s s s W

s

s

x

W

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 1

2 2

2

2

1 1

1

2 2

0 1 1 0 0 1

0 0 2 0 1 1 0 6

1 0 0 0 0 5

0 0 1 2 0 2 1 20

x x x s s s W

x

s

x

W

The solution is W = 20 when

1 2 3

5, 1, 0 x x x = = = .

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.4

245

15.

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2

1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4

4

0 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 7

7

60 0 90 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

x x x x s s s s Z

s

s

s

s

Z

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2

2

1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5

5

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4

0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 3

60 0 0 90 0 0 90 0 1 360

x x x x s s s s Z

s

s

x

s

Z

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2

0 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 3

1

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4

0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 3

0 120 0 90 60 0 90 0 1 480

x x x x s s s s Z

x

s

x

s

Z

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1 2

1

3 3

1 1

2

3 3

3

4

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4

0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 3

0 0 0 90 20 40 90 0 1 600

x x x x s s s s Z

x

x

x

s

Z

The solution is Z = 600 for

1 2 3 4

4, 1, 4, 0 x x x x = = = = .

16.

1 2 3 4 1 2 3

1

2

3

3 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 3

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 6 6

5 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 5

3 2 2 1 0 0 0 1 0

x x x x s s s Z

s

s

s

Z

1 2 3 4 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 3

0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 3

0 1 2 2 1 0 1 0 2

2

0 2 5 2 3 0 0 1 9

x x x x s s s Z

x

s

s

Z

choosing

2

x as the entering variable.

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

246

1 2 3 4 1 2 3

1

2

2

1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 3

0 0 3 4 2 1 1 0 5

0 1 2 2 1 0 1 0 2

0 0 1 2 1 0 2 1 13

x x x x s s s Z

x

s

x

Z

Choosing

4

x as the entering variable in the

second table, we have:

1 2 3 4 1 2 3

1

3

2

2

3

1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 3

0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 3

0 1 2 2 1 0 1 0 2 1

0 2 5 2 3 0 0 1 9

x x x x s s s Z

x

s

s

Z

1 2 3 4 1 2 3

1 1 1

1

2 2 2

2

1 1 1

4

2 2 2

1 0 0 0 0 4 8

0 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1

0 1 1 0 0 1 2

0 1 3 0 2 0 1 1 11

x x x x s s s Z

x

s

x

Z

1 2 3 4 1 2 3

1

2

2

1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 3

0 0 3 4 2 1 1 0 5

0 1 2 2 1 0 1 0 2

0 0 1 2 1 0 2 1 13

x x x x s s s Z

x

s

x

Z

The solution is Z = 13 when

1 2 3 4

3, 2, 0, 0. x x x x = = = =

17. Let

1 2

and x x denote the numbers of boxes

transported from A and B, respectively. The

revenue received is

1 2

0.75 0.50 R x x = + . We

want to maximize R subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

2 2400

3 5 36,800

, 0.

x x

x x

x x

+

+

(volume),

(weight),

1 2 1 2

1

2

2

3

3 1

4 2

1200

2 1 1 0 0 2400

3 5 0 1 0 36,800 12,266

0 0 1 0

x x s s R

s

s

R

1 2 1 2

1 1

1 2 2

7 3 5

2

2 2 7

3 1

8 8

1 0 0 1200

2400

0 1 0 33,200 9485

0 0 1 900

x x s s R

x

s

R

1 2 1 2

2

2

1 1

4 2

2 1 1 0 0 2400

7 0 5 1 0 24,800

0 0 1 1200

x x s s R

x

s

R

Thus 0 boxes from A and 2400 from B give a

maximum revenue of $1200.

18. Let x, y, and z denote the numbers of units of X,

Y, and Z produced, respectively. We want to

maximize P = 6x + 8y + 12z subject to

2 3 900,

4 4 8 5000,

, , 0.

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ +

+ +

1 2

1

2

1 2 3 1 0 0 900 300

4 4 8 0 1 0 5000 625

6 8 12 0 0 1 0

x y z s s P

s

s

P

1 2

1 2 1

3 3 3

8 4 4

2

3 3 3

1 0 0 300 900

0 1 0 2600 1950

2 0 0 4 0 1 3600

x y z s s P

z

s

P

1 2

2

1 2 3 1 0 0 900

0 4 4 4 1 0 1400

0 4 6 6 0 1 5400

x y z s s P

x

s

P

P is maximum when x = 900, y = 0, z = 0.

This maximum profit is $5400.

19. Let

1 2 3

, ,and x x x denote the numbers of chairs,

rockers, and chaise lounges produced,

respectively. We want to maximize

1 2 3

21 24 36 R x x x = + + subject to

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

400,

2 500,

2 3 5 1450,

, , 0.

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

+ +

+ +

+ +

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 400

400

1 1 2 0 1 0 0 500

250

2 3 5 0 0 1 0 1450

290

21 24 36 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s R

s

s

s

R

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.5

247

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 1 1

2 2 2

1

1 1 1

2 2 2

3

5 1 1

3

2 2 2

300 0 1 0 0 150

1 0 0 0 250 500

0 0 1 0 200 400

3 6 0 0 18 0 1 9000

x x x s s s R

s

x

s

R

1 2 3 1 2 3

2

3

3

1 1 0 2 1 0 0 300

0 0 1 1 1 0 0 100

1 0 0 1 2 1 0 50

3 0 0 12 12 0 1 10,800

x x x s s s R

x

x

s

R

The production of 0 chairs, 300 rockers, and

100 chaise lounges gives the maximum revenue

of $10,800.

Principles in Practice 7.5

1. Let

1 2 3

, , x x x be the numbers of device 1,

device 2, and device 3, respectively, that the

company produces. The situation is to maximize

the profit

1 2 3

50 50 50 P x x x = + + subject to the

constraints

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

5.5 5.5 6.5 190,

3.5 6.5 7.5 180,

4.5 6.0 6.5 165,

x x x

x x x

x x x

+ +

+ +

+ +

and

1 2 3

, , 0 x x x .

The matrices are shown rounded to 2 decimal

places, although the exact values are used in the

row operations.

Since the indicators are equal, we choose the

first column as the pivot column.

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

3

5.5 5.5 6.5 1 0 0 0 190

3.5 6.5 7.5 0 1 0 0 180

4.5 6.0 6.5 0 0 1 0 165

50 50 50 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s P b

s

s

s

P

1 2 2 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1.18 0.18 0 0 0 34.55

0 3 3.36 0.64 1 0 0 59.09

0 1.50 1.18 0.82 0 1 0 9.55

0 0 9.09 9.09 0 0 1 1727.27

x x x s s s P b

x

s

s

P

An optimum solution is

1 2 3

35, 0, 0, and 1727. x x x P = = = = However,

2

x is a nonbasic variable and its indicator is 0,

so we check for multiple solutions. Treating

2

x

as an entering variable, the following table is

obtained:

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

2

1 0 0.39 0.73 0 0.67 0 28.18

0 0 1.00 1.00 1 2.00 0 40.00

0 1 0.79 0.55 0 0.67 0 6.36

0 0 9.09 9.09 0 0 1 1727.27

x x x s s s P b

x

s

x

P

Another optimum solution is

1 2 3

28, 6, 0, and 1727. x x x P = = = =

Thus, the optimum solution is for the company

to produce (1 t)35 + 28t = 35 7t of device 1,

(1 t)0 + 6t = 6t of device 2, and none of device

3, for 0 t 1.

Problems 7.5

1. Yes; for the table,

2

x is the entering variable

and the quotients

6

2

and

3

1

tie for being the

smallest.

2. Yes; the B.F.S. corresponding to the given table

has the basic variable

2

x equal to 0.

3.

1 2 1 2 3

1

2

3

4 3 1 0 0 0 4

3 1 0 1 0 0 6

5 0 0 0 1 0 8

2 7 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s Z

s

s

s

Z

The entering variable is

2

x . Since no quotients

exist, the problem has an unbounded solution.

Thus, no optimum solution (unbounded).

4.

1 2 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 7

7

1 1 0 1 0 0 0 5

8 5 0 0 1 0 0 40

5

2 1 0 0 0 1 0 6

3

2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s s Z

s

s

s

s

Z

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

248

1 2 1 2 3 4

3 1

1

2 2

3 1

16

2

2 2

3

3

1 1

1

2 2

0 1 0 0 0 4

0 0 1 0 0 8

0 1 0 0 1 4 0 16 16

1 0 0 0 0 3 6

0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6

x x s s s s Z

s

s

s

x

Z

The maximum value of Z is 6 when

1

3 x = and

2

0. x = Since

2

x is nonbasic for the last table

and its indicator is 0, there may be multiple

optimum solutions. Treating

2

x as an entering

variable and continuing, we have

1 2 1 2 3 4

1

16 2 1

2

3 3 3

13 32 2

3

3 3 3

1 1 1

1

3 3 3

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 12

0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6

x x s s s s Z

s

x

s

x

Z

Here Z = 6 when

1

1

3

x = and

2

16

.

3

x = Thus

multiple optimum solutions exist. Hence Z is a

maximum when

1

1 8

(1 )(3) 3 ,

3 3

x t t t = + =

2

16 16

(1 )(0) ,

3 3

x t t t = + = and 0 t 1. For the

last table,

2

s is nonbasic and its indicator is 0. If

we continue the process for determining other

optimum solutions, we return to the second

table.

5.

1 2 1 2 3

1

2

3

2 2 1 0 0 0 4

2 1 2 0 1 0 0 4

3 1 0 0 1 0 6 6

4 8 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s Z

s

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2 3

1

1 1

2

2 2

7 8 1

3

2 2 7

1 0 1 1 0 0 8 8

1 0 0 0 2

0 0 1 0 4

0 0 0 4 0 1 16

x x s s s Z

s

x

s

Z

Z has a maximum of 16 when

1

0, x =

2

2. x =

Since

1

x is nonbasic for the last table and its

indicator is 0, there may be multiple optimum

solutions. Treating

1

x as an entering variable,

we have

1 2 1 2 3

8 48 2

1

7 7 7

3 18 1

2

7 7 7

8 1 2

1

7 7 7

0 0 1 0

0 1 0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 4 0 1 16

x x s s s Z

s

x

x

Z

Here Z = 16 when

1 2

8 18

, .

7 7

x x = = Thus

multiple optimum solutions exist. Hence Z is

maximum when

1

8 8

(1 )(0) ,

7 7

x t t t = + =

2

18 4

(1 )(2) 2 ,

7 7

x t t t = + = + and 0 t 1. For

the last table

3

s is nonbasic and its indicator is 0.

If we continue the process for determining other

optimum solutions, we return to the second

table.

6. To obtain a standard linear programming

problem, we write the second constraint as

1 2 3

4. x x x + +

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 4 1 0 0 0 6

6

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 4

1 6 1 0 0 1 0 8

8

8 2 4 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s Z

s

s

s

Z

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 4 1 0 0 0 6

0 0 5 1 1 0 0 10

0 5 3 1 0 1 0 2

0 10 28 8 0 0 1 48

x x x s s s Z

x

s

s

Z

For the last table,

2

x is the entering variable.

Since no quotients exist, the problem has an

unbounded solution.

Thus, no optimum solution (unbounded).

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.5

249

7.

1 2 3 1 2 3

5

1

3

2

3

9 3 2 1 0 0 0 5

4 2 1 0 1 0 0 2

1

1 4 1 0 0 1 0 3

5 6 1 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s Z

s

s

s

Z

1 2 3 1 2 3

3 1

2 2

1

1 1

2

2 2

3

3 0 1 0 0 2

2 1 0 0 0 1

9 0 1 0 2 1 0 7

7 0 4 0 3 0 1 6

x x x s s s Z

s

x

s

Z

For the last table,

3

x is the entering variable.

Since no quotients exist, the problem has an

unbounded solution.

Thus, no optimum solution (unbounded).

8.

1 2 3 1 2 3

5

1 3

2

3

6 3 3 1 0 0 0 10

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

6 2 1 2 0 0 1 0 12

2 1 4 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s Z

s

s

s

Z

1 2 3 1 2 3

4

1

9

1

3

0 9 9 1 6 0 0 4

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

0 1 0 0 2 1 0 10

10

0 3 6 0 2 0 1 2

x x x s s s Z

s

x

s

Z

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 4

9 3 9

2

13 1 1

13 1

9 3 9

3

86 1 4

9 3 9

3

10 1

3 3

0 1 1 0 0

1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0

0 0 3 0 0 1

x x x s s s Z

x

x

s

Z

Z has a maximum value of

10

3

when

1 2 3

13 4

, , 0.

9 9

x x x = = = Since

2

s is nonbasic

for the last table and its indicator is 0, there may

be multiple optimum solutions. Treating

2

s as

an entering variable, we have

1 2 3 1 2 3

10 1

2 3 3

13 1

2

3 3

46 1

3 3

3

10 1

3 3

2 1 1 0 0 0

3 0 0 1 0 0

4 0 1 0 1 0

0 0 3 0 0 1

x x x s s s Z

x

s

s

Z

Here Z =

10

3

when

1 2 3

10

0, , 0.

3

x x x = = =

Thus multiple optimum solutions exist. Hence Z

is maximum when

1

13 13 13

(1 ) 0 ,

9 9 9

x t t t

= + =

2

4 10 4 26

(1 ) ,

9 3 9 9

x t t t

= + = +

3

(1 )(0) 0 0, x t t = + =

and 0 t 1. For the last table,

1

x is nonbasic

and its indicator is 0. if we continue the process

for determining other optimum solutions, we

return to the third table.

9. To obtain a standard linear programming

problem, we write the second constraint as

2

1

4 6 x x + .

1 2 3 1 2

7

1

2

3

2

2

2 1 1 1 0 0 7

4 1 0 0 1 0 6

6 2 1 0 0 1 0

x x x s s Z

s

s

Z

1 2 3 1 2

1 1

1

2 2

3 1 1

1

4 4 2

3 1

2 2

4

0 1 1 0 4

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 9

x x x s s Z

s

x

Z

1 2 3 1 2

1 1 3

2 2

3 1 1

1

4 4 2

0 1 1 0 4

8

1 0 0 0 6

0 0 0 1 1 1 13

x x x s s Z

x

x

Z

Z has a maximum value of 13 when

1 2 3

3

, 0, 4.

2

x x x = = = Since

2

x is nonbasic for

the last table and its indicator is 0, there may be

multiple optimum solutions. Treating

2

x as an

entering variable, we have

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

250

1 2 3 1 2

3

2

2 0 1 1 1 0 1

4 1 0 0 1 0 6

0 0 0 1 1 1 13

x x x s s Z

x

x

Z

Here Z = 13 when

1 2 3

0, 6, 1. x x x = = = Thus

multiple optimum solutions exist. Hence Z is

maximum when

1

3 3 3

(1 ) 0 ,

2 2 2

x t t t

= + =

2

(1 )(0) 6 6, x t t t = + =

3

(1 )(4) (1) 4 3, x t t t = + = and 0 t 1. For

the last table,

1

x is nonbasic and its indicator is

0. If we continue the process for determining

other optimum solutions, we return to the third

table.

10.

1 2 3 4 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 3

3

0 1 3 1 0 0 1 0 4

4

1 2 1 2 0 0 0 1 0

x x x x s s s P

s

s

s

P

1 2 3 4 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 5

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 3

0 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 1

1 0 3 2 0 2 0 1 6

x x x x s s s P

s

x

s

P

Now

3

x is the entering variable but no quotients

exist. Thus, the feasible region is unbounded

and, hence, there is no optimum solution.

11. Let

1 2 3

, , and x x x denote the numbers of chairs,

rockers, and chaise lounges produced,

respectively. We want to maximize

1 2 3

24 32 48 R x x x = + + subject to

1 2 3

400, x x x + +

1 2 3

2 600, x x x + +

1 2 3

2 3 5 1500, x x x + +

1 2 3

, , 0. x x x

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 400

400

1 1 2 0 1 0 0 600

300

2 3 5 0 0 1 0 1500

300

24 32 48 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s R

s

s

s

R

choosing

3

s as departing variable

1 2 3 1 2 3

3 2 1

500

5 5 5

1

3

1 1 2

2 5 5 5

3 2 1

5 5 5

3

16 48 24

5 5 5

0 1 0 0 100

0 0 1 0 0

0

1 0 0 0 300

750

0 0 0 1 14,400

x x x s s s R

s

s

x

R

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

1

3

0 1 0 1 3 1 0 100

100

1 1 0 0 5 2 0 0

0

0 1 1 0 2 1 0 300

300

0 8 0 0 24 0 1 14,400

x x x s s s R

s

x

x

R

1 2 3 1 2 3

2

1

3

0 1 0 1 3 1 0 100

1 0 0 1 2 1 0 100

50

0 0 1 1 1 0 0 200

200

0 0 0 8 0 8 1 15,200

x x x s s s R

x

x

x

R

The maximum value of R is 15,200 when

1 2 3

100, 100, 200. x x x = = = Since

2

s is

nonbasic for the last table and its indicator is 0,

there may be multiple optimum solutions.

Treating

2

s as an entering variable, we have

1 2 3 1 2 3

3 5 1

2 2 2 2

1 1 1

2

2 2 2

3 1 1

2 2 2 3

1 0 0 0 250

0 0 1 0 50

0 1 0 0 150

0 0 0 8 0 8 1 15,200

x x x s s s R

x

s

x

R

Here R = 15,200 when

1 2 3

0, 250, 150. x x x = = =

Thus multiple optimum solutions exist.

Hence R is maximum when

1

(1 )(100) 0 100100, x t t t = + =

2

(1 )(100) 250 100 150 x t t t = + = +

3

(1 )(200) 150 200 50, x t t t = + = and

0 t 1. For the last table,

1

x is nonbasic and

its indicator is 0. If we continue the process for

determining other optimum solutions, we return

to the fourth table. If we were to initially choose

2

s as the departing variable, then

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.6

251

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 400

400

1 1 2 0 1 0 0 600

300

2 3 5 0 0 1 0 1500

300

24 32 48 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s R

s

s

s

R

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 1 1

1

2 2 2

1 1 1

3

2 2 2

5 1 1

3

2 2 2

0 1 0 0 100 200

600 1 0 0 0 300

0 0 1 0 0 0

0 8 0 0 24 0 1 14,400

x x x s s s R

s

x

s

R

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

3

2

1 0 0 1 2 1 0 100

50

1 0 1 0 3 1 0 300

100

1 1 0 0 5 2 0 0

8 0 0 0 16 16 1 14,400

x x x s s s R

s

x

x

R

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 1 1

2 2 2

2

3 1 1

2 2 2 3

3 5 1

500

2

2 2 2

3

0 0 1 0 50

100

0 1 0 0 150

1 0 0 0 250

0 0 0 8 0 8 1 15,200

x x x s s s R

s

x

x

R

the maximum value of R is 15,200 when

1 2 3

0, 250, 150. x x x = = = For the last table,

1

x is nonbasic and its

indicator is 0. Treating

1

x as an entering variable, we have

1 2 3 1 2 3

1

3

2

1 0 0 1 2 1 0 100

0 0 1 1 1 0 0 200

0 1 0 1 3 1 0 100

0 0 0 8 0 8 1 15,200

x x x s s s R

x

x

x

R

Here R = 15,200 when

1 2 3

100, 100, 200. x x x = = = For the last table,

2

s is nonbasic and its indicator is 0. If we

continue the process of determining other optimum solutions, we return to the table corresponding to the solution

1 2 3

0, 250, 150. x x x = = =

Thus, the maximum revenue is $15,200 when

1

100100, x t =

2

100 150, x t = +

3

200 50, x t = and 0 t 1

Principles in Practice 7.6

1. Using the hint,

1

1000 x standard and

2

800 x deluxe snowboards must be manufactured at plant II. The

constraints for plant I are

1 2

1200 x x + and

2 1

200. x x The constraints for plant II are

1 2

(1000 ) (800 ) 1000 x x + or

1 2

800. x x + The quantity to be maximized is the profit

1 2 1 2

40 60 45(1000 ) 50(800 ) P x x x x = + + +

1 2

5 10 85,000 x x = + + subject to the constraints

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

252

1 2

1200, x x +

1 2

200, x x +

1 2

800, x x +

and

1 2

, 0 x x .

Note that maximizing

1 2

5 10 Z x x = + also maximizes the profit. The corresponding equations are:

1 2 1

1 2 2

1 2 3

1200,

200,

800.

x x s

x x s

x x s t

+ + =

+ + =

+ + =

The artificial objective equation is

1 2

5 10 . W x x Mt = +

The augmented coefficient matrix is:

1 2 1 2 3

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1200

1 1 0 1 0 0 0 200

1 1 0 0 1 1 0 800

5 10 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s t W

M

The simplex tables follow.

1 2 1 2 3

1

2

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1200

1 1 0 1 0 0 0 200

1 1 0 0 1 1 0 800

5 10 0 0 0 1 800

x x s s s t W

s

s

t

M M M M

W

1 2 1 2 3

1

2

2 0 1 1 0 0 0 1000

1 1 0 1 0 0 0 200

2 0 0 1 1 1 0 600

5 2 0 0 10 0 1 2000 600

x x s s s t W

s

x

t

M M M M

W

+

1 2 1 2 3

1

1 1 1

2

2 2 2

1 1 1

1

2 2 2

15 5 5

2 2 2

0 0 1 0 1 1 0 400

0 1 0 0 500

1 0 0 0 300

0 0 0 1 3500

x x s s s t W

s

x

x

M W

+

Delete the t-column since t = 0 and return to Z.

1 2 1 2 3

3

1 1

2

2 2

1 1

1 2 2

5 15

2 2

0 0 1 0 1 0 400

0 1 0 0 700

1 0 0 0 500

0 0 0 0 4500

x x s s s Z

s

x

x

Z

Thus,

1 2

500, 700, and 4500. x x Z = = = Plant I should manufacture 500 standard and 700 deluxe snowboards.

Plant II should manufacture 1000 500 = 500 standard and 800 700 = 100 deluxe snowboards. The maximum

profit is P = 5(500) + 10(700) + 85,000 = $89,500.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.6

253

Problems 7.6

1.

1 2 1 2 2

1 1 1 0 0 0 6

1 1 0 1 1 0 4

2 1 0 0 1 0

x x s s t W

M

1 2 1 2 2

1

2

1 1 1 0 0 0 6 6

1 1 0 1 1 0 4 4

2 1 0 0 1 4

x x s s t W

s

t

W M M M M

+

1 2 1 2 2

1

2

2 0 1 1 1 0 2 1

1 1 0 1 1 0 4

3 0 0 1 1 1 4

x x s s t W

s

x

W M

+

1 2 1 2

1 1

1

2 2

1 1

2

2 2

3 1

2 2

1 0 0 1

0 1 0 5

0 0 1 7

x x s s Z

x

x

Z

The maximum is Z = 7 when

1 2

1, 5 x x = = .

2.

1 2 1 2 2

1 2 1 0 0 0 8

1 6 0 1 1 0 12

3 4 0 0 1 0

x x s s t W

M

1 2 1 2 2

1

2

1 2 1 0 0 0 8 4

1 6 0 1 1 0 12 2

3 4 6 0 0 1 12

x x s s t W

s

t

W M M M M

1 2 1 2 2

2 1 1

1

3 3 3

1 1 1

2

6 6 6

7 2 2

3 3 3

0 1 0 4 6

1 0 0 2 12

0 0 1 8

x x s s t W

s

x

M

W

+

1 2 1 2

3 1

1

2 2

1 1

2

4 4

7 1

2 2

1 0 0 6

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 22

x x s s Z

x

x

Z

The maximum is Z = 22 when

1 2

6, 1 x x = = .

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

254

3.

1 2 3 1 2 2

1 2 1 1 0 0 0 5

1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1

2 1 1 0 0 1 0

x x x s s t W

M

1 2 3 1 2 2

5

1

2

2

1 2 1 1 0 0 0 5

1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1

2 1 1 0 0 1

x x x s s t W

s

t

W M M M M M

+

1 2 3 1 2 2

1

2

3 0 1 1 2 2 0 3 1

1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1

3 0 2 0 1 1 1 1

x x x s s t W

s

x

W M

+

1 2 3 1 2

1 1 2

1

3 3 3

2 1 1

2

3 3 3

1 0 0 1

0 1 0 2

0 0 1 1 1 1 4

x x x s s Z

x

x

Z

The maximum is Z = 4 when

1 2 3

1, 2, 0 x x x = = = .

4.

1 2 3 1 2 2

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 9

1 2 1 0 1 1 0 6

1 1 4 0 0 1 0

x x x s s t W

M

1 2 3 1 2 2

1

2

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 9 9

1 2 1 0 1 1 0 6 6

1 1 2 4 0 0 1 6

x x x s s t W

s

t

W M M M M M

+

1 2 3 1 2 2

1

3

0 3 0 1 1 1 0 3 1

1 2 1 0 1 1 0 6

3 7 0 0 4 4 1 24

x x x s s t W

s

x

W M

+

1 2 3 1 2

1 1

2

3 3

3 2 1

3 3

7 5

3 3

3 0 1 0 0 1

1 0 1 0 8

3 0 0 1 31

x x x s s Z

x

x

Z

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.6

255

1 2 3 1 2

2

3

0 3 0 1 1 0 3

1 1 1 1 0 0 9

3 5 0 4 0 1 36

x x x s s Z

s

x

Z

The maximum is Z = 36 when

1 2 3

0, 0, 9 x x x = = = .

5.

1 2 3 1 2

1 1 1 1 0 0 10

1 1 1 0 1 0 6

3 2 1 0 1 0

x x x s t W

M

1 2 3 1 2

1

2

1 1 1 1 0 0 10 10

1 1 1 0 1 0 6 6

3 2 1 0 0 1 6

x x x s t W

s

t

W M M M M

+ +

1 2 3 1 2

1

1

0 2 2 1 1 0 4 2

1 1 1 0 1 0 6

0 5 4 0 3 1 18

x x x s t W

s

x

W M

+

1 2 3 1

1

2

2

1

1

2

5

2

0 1 1 0 2

1 0 0 0 8

0 0 1 1 28

x x x s W

x

x

Z

The maximum is Z = 28 when

1 2

8, 2, x x = = and

3

0. x =

6.

1 2 3 1 1 2

0 1 2 1 1 0 0 5

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 7

2 1 3 0 1 0

x x x s t t W

M M

1 2 3 1 1 2

1

2

0 1 2 1 1 0 0 5 5

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 7 7

2 1 2 3 0 0 1 12

x x x s t t W

t

t

W M M M M M

+

1 2 3 1 1 2

2

2

2

3

0 1 2 1 1 0 0 5

1 0 3 1 1 1 0 2

2 0 5 3 1 1 2 0 1 5 2

x x x s t t W

x

t

W M M M M M

+

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

256

1 2 3 1 1 2

19 2 1 1 2

19

2

3 3 3 3 3

2

1 1 1 1

3

3 3 3 3

5 25 1 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

1 0 0

0 1 0 2 6

0 0 1

x x x s t t W

x

x

M M

W

+ +

1 2 3 1

2

1

0 1 2 1 0 5

1 0 3 1 0 2

0 0 1 1 1 9

x x x s Z

x

x

W

The maximum is Z = 9 when

1 2 3

2, 5, 0. x x x = = =

7.

1 2 1 2 3 3

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1

1 2 0 1 0 0 0 8

1 1 0 0 1 1 0 5

1 10 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s t W

M

1 2 1 2 3 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1

8 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 8

5 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 5

1 10 0 0 0 1 5

x x s s s t W

s

s

t

M M M M

W

1 2 1 2 3 3

1

7

2 3

3

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1

0 3 1 1 0 0 0 7

2 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 4

0 9 2 1 0 0 1 1 4

x x s s s t W

x

s

t

M M M M

W

+

1 2 1 2 3 3

1 1 1

1 2 2 2

3 3 1

2

2 2 2

1 1 1

2

2 2 2

9 9 11

2 2 2

1 0 0 0 3

0 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 0 2

0 0 0 1 17

x x s s s t W

x

s

x

M W

+

For the above table,

3

0. t = Thus W = Z.

The maximum is Z = 17 when

1 2

3, 2 x x = = .

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.6

257

8.

1 2 3 1 2 1 3

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 5

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 3

1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 7

1 4 1 0 0 1 0

x x x s s t t W

M M

1 2 3 1 2 1 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 5

5

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 3

3

1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 7

7

1 2 4 1 0 0 0 1 12

x x x s s t t W

t

s

t

M M M

W

1 2 3 1 2 1 3

1

1

3

0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 2

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 3

0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 4

0 3 2 2 2 1 2 0 0 1 3 6

x x x s s t t W

t

x

t

M M M M M

W

+ + +

There is no solution (empty feasible region).

9. We write the third constraint as

1 2 3

6. x x x + +

1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1

1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 2

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 6

3 2 1 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s t t W

M M

1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1

1

1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 2

2

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 6

6

3 2 1 2 0 0 0 1 8

x x x s s s t t W

s

t

t

M M M M

W

1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3

3

2

3

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

2 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 5

2 2 3 2 0 1 2 0 0 1 1 6

x x x s s s t t W

x

t

t

M M M M M M

W

+ + +

There is no solution (empty feasible region).

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

258

10.

1 2 1 2 3 2 3

1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 8

1 6 0 1 0 1 0 0 12

0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 2

1 4 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s t t W

M M

1 2 1 2 3 2 3

1

2

3

1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 8

4

1 6 0 1 0 1 0 0 12

2

0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 2

2

1 4 7 0 0 0 1 14

x x s s s t t W

s

t

t

M M M M M

W

Here we choose

3

t as the departing variable.

1 2 1 2 3 2 3

1

2

2

1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 4

2

1 0 0 1 6 1 6 0 0

0

0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 2

1 0 0 4 6 0 4 7 1 8

x x s s s t t W

s

t

x

M M M M

W

+

1 2 1 2 3 2 3

2 1 1

3 3 3 1

1 1 1

3

6 6 6

1 1 1

6 6 6

2

1 2 2

3 3 3

0 1 0 0 0 4

12

0 0 1 1 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 2

0 0 0 1 8

x x s s s t t W

s

s

x

W M M

+

1 2 1 2 3

2

1 1

2 2

3

1 1

2

2 2

2 0 3 1 0 0 12

0 0 1 0 2

1 0 0 0 4

1 0 2 0 0 1 16

x x s s s Z

s

s

x

Z

Thus the maximum value of Z is 16, when

1 2

0, 4. x x = =

If we choose

2

t as the original departing variable, then

1 2 1 2 3 2 3

1

2

3

1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 8

4

1 6 0 1 0 1 0 0 12

2

0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 2

2

1 4 7 0 0 0 1 14

x x s s s t t W

s

t

t

M M M M M

W

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.6

259

1 2 1 2 3 2 3

2 1 1

3 3 3

1

1 1 1

2

6 6 6

1 1 1

6 6 6

3

7 1 1 2 1 2

3 6 3 6 3 6

0 1 0 0 0 4

12

1 0 0 0 0 2

0 0 1 1 0 0

0

0 0 0 1 8

x x s s s t t W

s

x

t

W M M M M

+ +

1 2 1 2 3 2 3

1

2

2

1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 4

2

0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 2

1 0 0 1 6 1 6 0 0

1 0 0 0 4 4 1 8

x x s s s t t W

s

x

s

M M

W

+

1 2 1 2 3

1 1

3

2 2

1 1

2

2 2

2

0 0 1 0 2

1 0 0 0 4

2 0 3 1 0 0 12

1 0 2 0 0 1 16

x x s s s Z

s

x

s

Z

The maximum is Z = 16 when

1 2

0, 4 x x = = .

11.

1 2 1 3 2 3

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 4

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 6

3 2 0 0 1 0

x x s s t t W

M M

1 2 1 3 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 4

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4

4

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 6

3 2 0 0 0 1 10

x x s s t t W

s

t

t

M M M

W

1 2 1 3 2 3

1

2

3

0 0 1 0 1 0 0 8

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 4

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 6

6

1 0 0 2 0 1 8 6

x x s s t t W

s

x

t

M M M M

W

+

1 2 1 3 2 3

1

2

1

0 0 1 0 1 0 0 8

0 1 0 1 1 1 0 10

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 6

0 0 0 1 2 1 1 2

x x s s t t W

s

x

x

M M

W

+ +

For the above table,

2 3

0. t t = = Thus W = Z.

The maximum is Z = 2 when

1 2

6, 10 x x = = .

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

260

12. We write the first constraint as

1 2

2 12. x x +

1 2 1 2 3 2 3

1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 12

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 2

1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 10

2 8 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s t t W

M M

1 2 1 2 3 2 3

1

2

3

1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 12 6

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 2

1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 10 10

2 8 2 0 0 0 1 12

x x s s s t t W

s

t

t

M M M M

W

1 2 1 2 3 2 3

1

2

3

1 0 1 2 0 2 0 0 8

8

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 2

2 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 8

4

6 2 0 0 8 8 2 0 1 16 8

x x s s s t t W

s

x

t

M M M M M

W

+

1 2 1 2 3 2 3

3 3 1 1

1

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

2

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

1

2 2 2 2

0 0 1 0 4

0 1 0 0 6

1 0 0 0 4

0 0 0 5 3 5 3 1 40

x x s s s t t W

s

x

x

W M M

+ +

For the above table,

2 3

0. t t = = Thus W = Z. The maximum is Z = 40 when

1

4 x = and

2

6. x =

13. Let

1 2

and x x denote the numbers of Standard and Executive bookcases produced, respectively, each week. We

want to maximize the profit function

1 2

35 40 P x x = + subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

2 3 400,

3 4 500,

3 4 250,

, 0.

x x

x x

x x

x x

+

+

+

The artificial objective function is

3

. W P Mt =

1 2 1 2 3 3

2 3 1 0 0 0 0 400

3 4 0 1 0 0 0 500

3 4 0 0 1 1 0 250

35 40 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s t W

M

1 2 1 2 3 3

400

1 3

2

125

3 2

2 3 1 0 0 0 0 400

3 4 0 1 0 0 0 500 125

3 4 0 0 1 1 0 250

35 3 40 4 0 0 0 1 250

x x s s s t W

s

s

t

M M M M

W

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.6

261

1 2 1 2 3 3

850 3 3 425 1

1

3 4 4 4 2

2

3 125 1 1

2

4 4 4 2

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1 1 1 0 250 250

1 0 0 0

5 0 0 0 10 10 1 2500

x x s s s t W

s

s

x

W M

+

2 1 2 3 1

3 1

1

4 4

3

3 500 1

2

4 4 3

0 1 0 0 25

0 0 0 1 1 0 250

1 0 0 0 125

5 0 0 10 0 1 5000

x s s s P x

s

s

x

P

1 2 1 2 3

200 1 2

1

3 3 3

3

500 4 1

1

3 3 3

17,500

20 35

3 3 3

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1 1 0 250

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1

x x s s s P

s

s

x

P

This table indicates that, to maximize profit, the company should produce

500 2

166

3 3

= Standard and 0 Executive

bookcases. Since an integer answer is preferable, note that

1 2

167, 0 x x = = does not satisfy the constraint

1 2

3 4 500, x x + while

1 2

166, 0 x x = = satisfies all of the constraints. Thus the company should produce

166 Standard and 0 Executive bookcases each week.

14. Let x, y and z denote the numbers of units of products X, Y, and Z produced each week, respectively. We want to

maximize the profit function P = 50x + 60y + 75z subject to

2 2 40,

2 30,

5,

, , 0.

x y z

x y z

z

x y z

+ +

+ +

The artificial objective function is

3

. W P Mt =

1 2 3 3

1 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 40

1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 30

0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 5

50 60 75 0 0 0 1 0

x y z s s s t W

M

1 2 3 3

1

2

3

1 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 40

20

1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 30

15

0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 5

5

50 60 75 0 0 0 1 5

x y z s s s t W

s

s

t

M M M

W

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

262

1 2 3 3

1

2

1 2 0 1 0 2 2 0 30

15

1 1 0 0 1 2 2 0 20

10

0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 5

50 60 0 0 0 75 75 1 375

x y z s s s t W

s

s

z

M

W

+

1 2 3

1

1 1 1

2 2 2

3

1 1 1

2 2 2

25 45 75

2 2 2

0 1 0 1 1 0 0 10

10

0 0 1 0 10 20

30 1 0 0 0 15

0 0 0 1 1125

x y z s s s P

s

s

z

P

1 2 3

1 1

3

2 2

1 1

2 2

25 45

2 2

0 1 0 1 1 0 0 10

10 0 0 1 1 0 5

0 1 1 0 0 10 20

0 0 15 0 1 1350

x y z s s s P

y

s

z

P

1 2 3

0 1 0 1 1 0 0 10

1 0 0 1 2 2 0 10

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 5

0 0 0 10 40 25 1 1475

x y z s s s P

y

x

z

P

The production order should be 10 units of X, 10 units of Y, and 5 units of Z for a maximum profit of $1475

15. Suppose I is the total investment. Let

1 2 3

, , and x x x be the proportions invested in A, AA, and AAA bonds,

respectively. If Z is the total annual yield expressed as a proportion of I, then

1 2 3

0.08 0.07 0.06 ZI x I x I x I = + + ,

or equivalently,

1 2 3

0.08 0.07 0.06 . Z x x x = + + We want to maximize Z subject to

1 2 3

2 3

1 2

1 2 3

1,

0.50,

0.30,

, , 0.

x x x

x x

x x

x x x

+ + =

+

+

The artificial objective function is

1 2

. W Z Mt Mt =

1 2 3 2 3 1 2

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0.5

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.3

0.08 0.07 0.06 0 0 1 0

x x x s s t t W

M M

1 2 3 2 3 1 2

1

2

3

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

1

0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0.5

0.5

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.3

0.3

0.08 0.07 2 0.06 2 0 0 0 1 1.5

x x x s s t t W

t

t

s

M M M M M

W

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.7

263

1 2 3 2 3 1 2

1

2

2

0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0.7

0.7

1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0.2

0.2

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.3

0.01 0 0.06 2 0.07 2 0 0 1 0.021 0.9

x x x s s t t W

t

t

x

M M M M M

W

+ +

1 2 3 2 3 1 2

1

3

2

1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0.5

0.5

1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0.2

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.3

0.3

0.07 0 0 0.06 0.01 0 0.06 2 1 0.033 0.5

x x x s s t t W

t

x

x

M M M M

W

+

1 2 3 2 3 1 2

1

3

1

0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0.2

0.2

0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0.5

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.3

0 0.07 0 0.06 0.08 0 0.06 2 1 0.054 0.2

x x x s s t t W

t

x

x

M M M M M

W

+ + +

1 2 3 2 3 1 2

2

3

1

0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0.2

0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0.7

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.3

0 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.06 1 0.066

x x x s s t t W

s

x

x

M M

W

+

For the above table,

1 2

0. t t = = Thus W = Z.

The fund should put 30% in A bonds, 0% in AA, and 70% in AAA for a yield of 6.6%.

Problems 7.7

1.

1 2 1 2 1 2

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 7

2 1 0 1 0 1 0 9

2 5 0 0 1 0

x x s s t t W

M M

1 2 1 2 1 2

1

9

2

2

7

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 7

2 1 0 1 0 1 0 9

2 3 5 0 0 1 16

x x s s t t W

t

t

M M M M W

1 2 1 2 1 2

3 5 1 1

1

2 2 2 2

9 1 1 1

1

2 2 2 2

3 3 5 1

2 2 2 2

0 1 1 0 5

1 0 0 0

0 4 1 0 1 1 9

x x s s t t W

t

x

W M M M M M

+ +

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

264

1 2 1 2 1 2

2

1

0 3 2 1 2 1 0 5

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 7

0 7 2 0 2 1 14

x x s s t t W

s

x

W M M

+

The minimum is Z = 14 when

1 2

7, 0. x x = =

2.

1 2 1 2 1 2

2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1

1 3 0 1 0 1 0 2

8 12 0 0 1 0

x x s s t t W

M M

1 2 3 2 3 1 2

1

2

1

2

2

3

2 2 1 0 1 0 0 1

1 3 0 1 0 1 0 2

8 3 12 5 0 0 1 3

x x x s s t t W

t

t

W M M M M M

1 2 1 2 1 2

1 1 1

2 2 2

2

1

3 3 1

2 3

2 2 2

3 5 1

2 2 2

1 1 0 0 0

2 0 1 1 0

4 2 0 6 6 0 1 6

x x s s t t W

x

t

W

M M M M M

+ +

1 2 1 2 1 2

1 1 1 2

3 3 3 3

2

4 2 2 1

1

3 3 3 3

1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0

4 0 0 4 4 1 8

x x s s t t W

x

s

W

M M

+

The minimum is Z = 8 when

1 2

2

0,

3

x x = = .

3.

1 2 3

1 1 1 1 1 0 18

12 6 3 0 1 0

x x x s t W

M

1 2 3

1 1 1 1 1 0 18

18

12 6 3 0 1 18

x x x s t W

t

M M M M M

W

+ +

1 2 3

1

1 1 1 1 1 0 18

0 18 15 12 12 1 216

x x x s t W

x

M

W

+

The minimum is Z = 216 when

1 2 3

18, 0, 0 x x x = = = .

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.7

265

4.

1 2 3

1 2 1 1 1 0 4

1 1 2 0 1 0

x x x s t W

M

1 2 3

1 2 1 1 1 0 4

2

1 1 2 2 0 1 4

x x x s t W

t

M M M M M

W

+

1 1 1 1

2

2 2 2 2

5 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

1 0 2

0 1 2

x

M

W

+

The minimum is Z = 2 when

1 2 3

0, 2, 0 x x x = = = .

5. We write the second constraint as

1 3

4. x x +

1 2 3 1 2 3 2

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 6

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 4

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 5

2 3 1 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s t W

M

1 2 3 1 2 3 2

1

2

3

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 6

6

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 4

4

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 5

5

2 3 1 0 0 0 1 4

x x x s s s t W

s

t

s

M M M M

W

+

1 2 3 1 2 3 2

1

3

3

2 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 2

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 4

1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

3 3 0 0 1 0 1 1 4

x x x s s s t W

s

x

s

M

W

+

The minimum is Z = 4 when

1 2 3

0, 0, 4 x x x = = = .

6.

1 2 3 1 2 3 3

3 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 4

0 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 5

1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 2

5 1 3 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s s t W

M

1 2 3 1 2 3 3

1

5

2 2

3

4

3 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 4

0 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 5

2 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 2

5 1 3 0 0 0 1 2

x x x s s s t W

s

s

t

M M M M M

W

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

266

1 2 3 1 2 3 3

1

2

2

2 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 2

2 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 1

1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 2

4 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 2

x x x s s s t W

s

s

x

M

W

+

The minimum is Z = 2 when

1 2

0, 2, x x = = and

3

0. x =

7.

1 2 3 3 1 2

1 2 1 0 1 0 0 4

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 1 0 0 0 6

1 1 3 0 1 0

x x x s t t W

M M

1 2 3 3 1 2

1

2

3

1 2 1 0 1 0 0 4

2

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1

1

1 1 0 1 0 0 0 6

6

1 1 3 3 2 0 0 0 1 5

x x x s t t W

t

t

s

M M M M

W

1 2 3 3 1 2

1

2

3

1 0 1 0 1 2 0 2

2

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1

1 0 1 1 0 1 0 5

5

1 0 2 0 0 1 3 1 1 2

x x x s t t W

t

x

s

M M M M

W

+ +

1 2 3 3 1 2

1

2

3

1 0 1 0 1 2 0 2

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1

1

0 0 0 1 1 1 0 3

0 0 1 0 1 3 1 1

x x x s t t W

x

x

s

M M

W

+ +

1 2 3 3

1

3

3

1 1 0 0 0 3

0 1 1 0 0 1

0 0 0 1 0 3

0 1 0 0 1 0

x x x s Z

x

x

s

Z

The minimum is Z = 0 when

1 2 3

3, 0, 1 x x x = = = .

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.7

267

8.

1 2 1 1 2

1 1 1 1 0 0 4

1 1 0 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 1 0

x x s t t W

M M

1 2 1 1 2

1

2

1 1 1 1 0 0 4 4

1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1

1 1 2 0 0 1 5

x x s t t W

t

t

W M M M

1 2 1 1 2

1

2

2 0 1 1 1 0 3

1 1 0 0 1 0 1

2 2 0 0 1 2 1 1 3

x x s t t W

t

x

M M M M

W

+ +

Since all of the indicators in the last table are positive, but the artificial variable

1

t is 3, the feasible region is

empty. (This can also be seen graphically.)

9.

1 2 3 1 2 1 2

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 8

1 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 2

1 8 5 0 0 1 0

x x x s s t t W

M M

1 2 3 1 2 1 2

1

2

1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 8 8

1 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 1

1 8 3 5 2 0 0 1 10

x x x s s t t W

t

t

W M M M M M

1 2 3 1 2 1 2

14 3 1 1 1

1

3 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

2

2 2 2 2

3 3 1 1

2 2 2 2

0 1 1 0 7

1 0 0 0 1

5 0 1 4 0 4 1 8 7

x x x s s t t W

t

x

W

M M M M M M

+

1 2 3 1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 14 1

3 3 3 3 3 3

10 2 1 1 1 1

2

3 3 3 3 3 3

10 7 10 7 94 2

3 3 3 3 3 3

1 0 0

14

0 1 0 5

0 0 1

x x x s s t t W

x

x

M M

W

+ +

1 2 3 1 2 1 2

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 1 1 1 1

3

2 2 2 2 2

1 0 0 3

0 1 0 5

0 1 0 3 2 3 2 1 28

x x x s s t t W

x

x

W

M M

+ +

The minimum is Z = 28 when

1 2 3

3, 0, 5 x x x = = = .

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

268

10.

1 2 3 1 2 2

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 3

1 1 1 0 1 1 0 3

4 4 6 0 0 1 0

x x x s s t W

M

1 2 3 1 2 2

1

2

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 3

1 1 1 0 1 1 0 3 3

4 4 6 0 0 1 3

x x x s s t W

s

t

W M M M M M

+

Here we choose

2

t as the departing variable.

1 2 3 1 2 2

1

1

0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0

1 1 1 0 1 1 0 3

0 8 2 0 4 4 1 12

x x x s s t W

s

x

W M

+

Thus Z has a minimum value of 12 when

1 2 3

3, 0, 0. x x x = = =

If we choose

1

s as the departing variable, then

1 2 3 1 2 2

1

2

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 3

1 1 1 0 1 1 0 3 3

4 4 6 0 0 1 3

x x x s s t W

s

t

W M M M M M

+

1 2 3 1 2 2

1

2

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 3

0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0

0 8 10 2 4 0 1 12

x x x s s t W

x

t

W M M M

+

1 2 3 1 2 2

1 1 1

1

2 2 2

1 1 1

3

2 2 2

1 1 0 0 3

0 0 1 0 0

0 8 0 1 5 5 1 12

x x x s s t W

x

x

M

W

+

The minimum is Z = 12 when

1 2 3

3, 0, 0 x x x = = = .

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.7

269

11. Let

1 2 3

, , and x x x denote the annual numbers of barrels of cement produced in kilns that use device A, device B,

and no device, respectively. We want to minimize the annual emission control cost C (C in dollars) where

1 2 3

1 2

0

4 5

C x x x = + + subject to

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

3,300,000,

1 1

2 1,000,000,

2 4

, , 0.

x x x

x x x

x x x

+ + =

+ +

1 2 3 2 1

1 1

2 4

1 2

4 5

1 1 1 0 1 0 3,300,000

2 1 0 0 1,000,000

0 0 1 0

x x x s t W

M

1 2 3 2 1

1

1 1

2

2 4

1 2

4 5

1 1 1 0 1 0 3,300,000

3,300,000

2 1 0 0 1,000,000 500,000

0 0 1 3,300,000

x x x s t W

t

s

W

M M M M

1 2 3 2 1

3 7 1

4 8 2

1

1 1 1

3

4 8 2

3 7 1 2 1

4 4 5 8 2

0 1 0 2,800,000 3,200,000

1 0 0 500,000

4,000,000

0 0 1 2,800,000

x x x s t W

t

x

W

M M M M

1 2 3 2 1

6 8 4 11,200,000

7 7 7

3 2

1 4 1

3

7 7 7

13 8 16

140 35 35

1 0 0 3,200,000

0 1 0 100,000 700,000

0 0 1 1,280,000

x x x s t W

x

x

W

M

+

1 2 3 2

2

1

13 3

20 5

0 1 6 4 0 2,600,000

1 0 7 4 0 700,000

0 0 1 1,215,000

x x x s C

x

x

C

Thus the minimum value of C is 1,215,000 when

1 2 3

700,000, 2,600,000, 0. x x x = = =

The plant should install device A on kilns producing 700,000 barrels annually, and device B on kilns producing

2,600,000 barrels annually.

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

270

12. Let

1

x = number of type A trucks rented,

2

x = number of type B trucks rented.

We want to minimize C = 0.40

1

x + 0.60

2

x subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

2 2 12,

3 12,

, 0.

x x

x x

x x

+

+

1 2 1 2 1 2

2 2 1 0 1 0 0 12

1 3 0 1 0 1 0 12

0.40 0.60 0 0 1 0

x x s s t t W

M M

1 2 1 2 1 2

1

2

3 2

5 5

2 2 1 0 1 0 0 12 6

1 3 0 1 0 1 0 12 4

3 5 0 0 1 24

x x s s t t W

t

t

W

M M M M M

1 2 1 2 1 2

4 2 2

3 3 3

1

1 1 1

2

3 3 3

5 1 4 1 2 1 12

5 3 5 3 5 3 5

0 1 1 0 4 3

1 0 0 0 4 12

0 0 1 4

x x s s t t W

t

x

W

M M M M M

+

1 2 1 2 1 2

3 3 1 1

4 2 4 2

1

1 1 1 1

2

4 2 4 2

3 3 1 1

20 10 20 10

1 0 0 3

0 1 0 3

0 0 1 3

x x s s t t W

x

x

W

M M

+ +

The minimum value of C is 3 when

1 2

3 and 3. x x = = They should rent 3 of type A and 3 of type B. The cost per

mile is $3.00.

13. Let

1

2

3

4

number of DVD players shipped from Akron to Columbus,

number of DVD players shipped from Springfield to Columbus,

number of DVD players shipped from Akron to Dayton,

number of DVD players shi

x

x

x

x

=

=

=

= pped from Springfield to Dayton.

We want to minimize

1 2 3 4

5 3 7 2 C x x x x = + + + subject to

1 2

3 4

1 3

2 4

1 2 3 4

150,

150,

200,

150,

, , , 0.

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x x x

+ =

+ =

+

+

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.7

271

1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2

1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 150

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 150

1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 200

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 150

5 3 7 2 0 0 1 0

x x x x s s t t W

M M

1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2

1

2

3

4

1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 150

150 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 150

1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 200

150 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 150

5 3 7 2 0 0 0 0 1 300

x x x x s s t t W

t

t

s

s

M M M M M W

1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2

1

4

3

4

150 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 150

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 150

1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 200

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0

5 3 5 0 0 0 0 2 1 300 150

x x x x s s t t W

t

x

s

s

M M M M W

+

1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2

1

4

3

2

150 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 150

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 150

1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 200 200

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

5 0 8 0 0 3 0 1 1 300 150

x x x x s s t t W

t

x

s

x

M M M M W

+

1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2

1

4

3

2

1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 150

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 150

0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 50

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

0 0 3 0 0 2 5 4 1 1050

x x x x s s t t W

x

x

s

x

M M

W

+ +

The retailer should ship as follows: to Columbus, 150 from Akron and 0 from Springfield; to Dayton, 0 from

Akron and 150 from Springfield. The transportation cost is $1050.

If

4

s is chosen as the departing variable in the second table, the result is the same, although the final table is

different:

1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2

1

3

3

4

1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 150

0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 50

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 150

0 3 0 0 0 5 5 7 1 1050

x x x x s s t t W

x

x

s

x

W

M M

+ +

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

272

14. Let number of alternators from supplier X toplant A

number of alternators from supplier X toplant B

number of alternators from supplier Y toplant A

number of alternators from supplier Y to pla

A

B

A

B

x

x

y

y

=

=

=

= nt B

We want to minimize 300 320 340 280

A B A B

C x x y y = + + + subject to

7000

5000

3000

5000

7000

, , , 0

A A

B B

A B

A B

A B

A B A B

x y

x y

x x

x x

y y

x x y y

+ =

+ =

+

+

+

3 4 5 1 2 3 5

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 7000

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5000

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3000

1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5000

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 7000

300 320 340 280 0 0 0 1 0

A B A B

x x y y s s s t t t t W

M M M M

3 4 5 1 2 3 5

1

2

3

4

5

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 7000

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5000 5000

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3000

1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5000

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 7000 7000

300 2 320 2 340 2 280 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 22,000

A B A B

x x y y s s s t t t t W

t

t

t

s

t

M M M M M M M W

3 4 5 1 2 3 5

1

3

4

5

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 7000 7000

0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5000

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3000 3000

1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5000 5000

0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2000

300 2 40 340 2 0 0 0 280 2 0 0 1 1,400,000 12,000

A B A B

B

x x y y s s s t t t t W

t

y

t

s

t

M M M M M M W

+

3 4 5 1 2 3 5

1

4

5

0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4000 4000

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5000

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3000

0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2000

0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2000

0 260 2 340 2 0 300 0 0 280 2 300 2 0 1 2,300,000 6000

A B A B

B

A

x x y y s s s t t t t W

t

y

x

s

t

M M M M M M M W

+ + +

2000

3 4 5 1 2 3 5

1

4

0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 2000 2000

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5000

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3000

0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2000 2000

0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2000

0 80 0 0 300 0 340 0 60 300 2 340 2 1 2,980,000 2000

A B A B

B

A

A

x x y y s s s t t t t W

t

y

x

s

y

M M M M M W

+ +

We choose

1

t as the departing variable.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.7

273

3 4 5 1 2 3 5

3

4

0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 2000

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5000

1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 5000

0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2000

0 80 0 0 0 0 40 300 240 40 1 3,580,000

A B A B

B

A

A

x x y y s s s t t t t W

s

y

x

s

y

M M M M W

+ + +

The manufacturer should order 5000 alternators from X to be shipped to A, 2000 from Y to A, and 5000 from Y to

B. The minimum cost is $3,580,000. (Note that the same result is obtained if

4

s is chosen as the departing

variable in the fifth table.)

15. a. Roll width 15"

10"

Trim loss

3 2 1 0

0 1 3 4

3 8 3 8

b. We want to minimize L =

1 2 3 4

3 8 3 8 x x x x + + + subject to

1 2 3

2 3 4

1 2 3 4

3 2 50,

3 4 60,

, , , 0.

x x x

x x x

x x x x

+ +

+ +

1 2 3 4 1 2 1 2

3 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 50

0 1 3 4 0 1 0 1 0 60

3 8 3 8 0 0 1 0

x x x x s s t t W

M M

1 2 3 4 1 2 1 2

1

2

3 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 50 50

0 1 3 4 0 1 0 1 0 60 20

3 3 8 3 3 4 8 4 0 0 1 110

x x x x s s t t W

t

t

W M M M M M M M

1 2 3 4 1 2 1 2

5 4 1 1

3 3 3 3

1

1 4 1 1

3

3 3 3 3

5 4 1 4

3 3 3 3

3 0 1 1 0 30

10

0 1 0 0 0 20

3 3 7 0 4 1 0 1 1 60 30

x x x x s s t t W

t

x

W

M M M M M M M

+ +

1 2 3 4 1 2 1 2

5 4 1 1 1 1

9 9 3 9 3 9

1

1 4 1 1

3

3 3 3 3

16 16 2 2

3 3 3 3

1 0 0 10

0 1 0 0 0 20

0 0 1 1 1 90

x x x x s s t t W

x

x

W

M M

+ +

1 2 3 4

10, 0, 20, 0. x x x x = = = =

c. 90 in.

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

274

Principles in Practice 7.8

1. Let

1 2 3

, , and x x x be the numbers respectively, of Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3 gadgets produced. The original

problem is to maximize

P =

1 2 3

300 200 200 , x x x + + subject to

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

300 220 180 60,000,

20 40 20 2000,

3 2 120,

and , , 0.

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

+ +

+ +

+ +

The dual problem is to minimize

W =

1 2 3

60,000 2000 120 , y y y + +

subject to

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

300 20 3 300,

220 40 200,

180 20 2 200,

and , , 0.

y y y

y y y

y y y

y y y

+ +

+ +

+ +

2. Let

1 2

and x x be the amounts, respectively of supplement 1 and supplement 2. The original problem is to

minimize C =

1 2

6 2 , x x + subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

20 6 98,

8 16 80,

and , 0.

x x

x x

x x

+

+

The dual problem is to maximize

W =

1 2

98 80 , y y + subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

20 8 6,

6 16 2,

and , 0.

y y

y y

y y

+

+

3. Let

1 2

, , x x and

3

x be the numbers, respectively, of devices 1, 2, and 3 produced.

The original problem is to maximize

1 2 3

30 20 20 P x x x = + + , subject to

1 2 3

30 15 10 300, x x x + +

1 2 3

20 30 20 400, x x x + +

1 2 3

40 30 25 600, x x x + + and

1 2 3

, , 0. x x x

The dual problem is to minimize

1 2 3

300 400 600 , W y y y = + + subject to

1 2 3

30 20 40 30, y y y + +

1 2 3

15 30 30 20, y y y + +

1 2 3

10 20 25 20, y y y + +

and

1 2 3

, , 0. y y y

The tablex to maximize

1 2 3

300 400 600 Z W y y y = = follow.

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

30 20 40 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 30

15 30 30 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 20

10 20 25 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 20

300 400 600 0 0 0 1 0

y y y s s s t t t Z

M M M

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.8

275

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

1

2

3

30 20 40 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 30

15 30 30 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 20

10 20 25 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 20

300 55 400 70 600 95 0 0 0 1 70

y y y s s s t t t Z

t

t

t

M M M M M M M

Z

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

10 4 4

3 3 3

1

1 1 1 2

2 30 30 3

3

5 5 5 10

3

2 6 6 3

15 13 19

2 6

10 20 0 1 0 1 0 0

1 1 0 0 0 0 0

5 0 0 1 0 1 0

200 25 0 20 0 20

y y y s s s t t t Z

t

y

t

Z

M M M M M

+ +

20

6 3

0 1 400 M M

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 1 2 1

1

10 15 10 15 3

1 1 1 1 1

20 10 20 10 2 3

7 7 25 1 1

3

4 6 4 6 6

7 3 1

4 6 4

1 2 0 0 0 0

0 2 1 0 0 0

0 10 0 1 1 0

0 200 10 0 20

y y y s s s t t t Z

y

y

t

M M M M Z

+

13 25

6 6

20 0 1 400 M M M

+

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

15 3 3 5

2

2 4 4 2

3 3 1 1 1

4 2 40 40 4

3

35 15 5 5 5

3

4 2 8 8 4

35 15

4 2

15 0 1 0 1 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 0

150 100 0 15

y y y s s s t t t Z

s

y

t

Z M M

+

5 13 5

8 8 4

0 15 0 1 450 M M M M M

+

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

1 1

2

2 2

4 1 1 1 1 2

3 15 15 15 15 3

3

7 1 2 1 2 1

2

6 12 15 12 15 6

100 20 40 20 40 1400

3 3 3 3 3 3

10 0 0 1 2 1 2 0 5

0 1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1

y y y s s s t t t Z

s

y

y

M M M Z

+ +

The

1 2

, , t t and

3

t columns are no longer needed.

1 2 3 1 2 3

15 3

2

2 2

3 1 1 1

1

4 20 20 2

7 3 3 1

2

8 40 40 4

0 0 0 1 0 10

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 25 5 0 15 1 450

y y y s s s Z

s

y

y

Z

From this table, the maximum profit of $450 corresponds to

1

5, x =

2

0, x = and

3

15. x =

The company should produce 5 of device 1 and 15 of device 3.

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

276

Problems 7.8

1. Minimize

1 2

5 3 W y y = +

subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

1

2

, 0

y y

y y

y y

+

2. Minimize W =

1 2

3 5 y y + subject to

1 2

1 2

2

1 2

2 2,

2 4 1,

2 1,

, 0.

y y

y y

y

y y

3. Maximize W =

1 2

8 2 y y + subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

1,

2 8,

5,

, 0.

y y

y y

y y

y y

+

+

4. Maximize W =

1 2

2 y y + subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

2 8,

2 3 12,

, 0.

y y

y y

y y

+

+

5. The second and third constraints can be written

as

1 2

3 x x and

1 2

11. x x Minimize

W =

1 2 3

13 3 11 y y y subject to

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

1,

2 1,

, , 0.

y y y

y y y

y y y

+

6. The second constraint can be written as

1 2 3

2 6. x x x + Minimize W =

1 2

9 6 y y

subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

1,

2 1,

4,

, 0.

y y

y y

y y

y y

7. The first constraint can be written as

1 2 3

3. x x x + + Maximize W =

1 2

3 3 y y +

subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

4,

4,

6,

, 0.

y y

y y

y y

y y

+

8. The second constraint can be written as

1 2

8 10 80. x x +

Maximize

1 2

10 80 W y y =

subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

4 8 5

3 10 4

, 0

y y

y y

y y

+

9. The dual is: Maximize W =

1 2

2 3 y y + subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

2,

2 2,

2 5,

, 0.

y y

y y

y y

y y

+

+

1 2 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 0 0 0 2

1 2 0 1 0 0 2 1

2 1 0 0 1 0 5 5

2 3 0 0 0 1 0

y y s s s W

s

s

s

W

1 2 1 2 3

1 1

1

2 2

1 1

2

2 2

5 1 8

3

2 2 5

7 3

2 2

0 1 0 0 3 6

1 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 4

0 0 0 1 3

y y s s s W

s

y

s

W

1 2 1 2 3

3 1 11

1

5 5 5

9 2 1

2

5 5 5

8 1 2

1

5 5 5

7 43 4

5 5 5

0 0 1 0

0 1 0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1

y y s s s W

s

y

y

W

The minimum is

43

5

Z = when

1

0, x =

2

4

,

5

x =

3

7

.

5

x =

10. The dual is: Maximize W =

1 2 3

28 2 16 y y y + +

subject to

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

2 3 2,

4 8 2,

, , 0.

y y y

y y y

y y y

+

+

1 2 3 1 2

1

1

2

2

2

1 2 3 1 0 0 2

4 1 8 0 1 0 2

28 2 16 0 0 1 0

y y y s s W

s

s

W

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.8

277

1 2 3 1 2

9 3 1 1

2

4 4 2

3

1 1 1

1

4 4 2

0 5 1 0

1 2 0 0

0 9 40 0 7 1 14

y y y s s W

s

y

W

1 2 3 1 2

20 4 1 2 2

9 9 9 3

13 1 2 2

1

9 9 9 3

0 1 0

1 0 0

0 0 20 4 6 1 20

y y y s s W

y

y

W

The minimum is Z = 20 when

1 2

4, 6 x x = = .

11. The dual is: Minimize W =

1 2

8 12 y y + subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

3,

2 6 8,

, 0.

y y

y y

y y

+

+

1 2 1 2 1 2

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 3

2 6 0 1 0 1 0 8

8 12 0 0 1 0

y y s s t t U

M M

1 2 1 2 1 2

1

4

2

3

3

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 3

2 6 0 1 0 1 0 8

8 3 12 7 0 0 1 11

y y s s t t U

t

t

U M M M M M

1 2 1 2 1 2

5 5 2 1 1

2 3 6 6 3

1

1 1 1 4

2

3 6 6 3

7 5 2 1

3 6 6 3

0 1 1 0

4

1 0 0 0

4 0 2 0 2 1 16

y y s s t t U

t

y

U

M M M M M

+

1 2 1 2 1 2

3 3 5 1 1 1

2 4 2 4 2

1 1 1 1 1

2

2 4 2 4 2

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 6 1 6 1 1 26

y y s s t t U

y

y

U

M M

+ +

The maximum is Z = 26 when

1 2

6, 1 x x = = .

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

278

12. The dual is: Minimize W =

1 2

12 8 y y + subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

3 2,

6,

, 0.

y y

y y

y y

+

+

1 2 1 2 1 2

3 1 1 0 1 0 0 2

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 6

12 8 0 0 1 0

y y s s t t U

M M

1 2 1 2 1 2

2

3 1

2

3 1 1 0 1 0 0 2

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 6 6

12 4 8 2 0 0 1 8

y y s s t t U

t

t

U M M M M M

1 2 1 2 1 2

1 1 1 2

1

3 3 3 3

16 2 1 1

2

3 3 3 3

16 2 1 4

3 3 3 3

2 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0

8

0 4 4 4 0 1 8

y y s s t t U

y

t

U

M M M M M

+

1 2 1 2 1 2

2

2

3 1 1 0 1 0 0 2

2 0 1 1 1 1 0 4 4

12 2 0 8 8 2 0 1 16 4

y y s s t t U

y

t

U M M M M M

+ +

1 2 1 2 1 2

2

1

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 6

2 0 1 1 1 1 0 4

4 0 0 8 8 1 48

y y s s t t U

y

s

U M M

+

The maximum is Z = 48 when

1 2

0, 8 x x = = .

13. The first constraint can be written as

1 2

1. x x The dual is: Maximize W =

1 2

3 y y + subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

6,

4,

, 0.

y y

y y

y y

+

+

1 2 1 2

1

2

1 1 1 0 0 6 6

1 1 0 1 0 4 4

1 3 0 0 1 0

y y s s W

s

s

W

1 2 1 2

1

2

2 0 1 1 0 2 1

1 1 0 1 0 4

2 0 0 3 1 12

y y s s W

s

y

W

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 7.8

279

1 2 1 2

1 1 1

2 2

1 1

2

2 2

1 0 0 1

0 1 0 5

0 0 1 2 1 14

y y s s W

y

y

W

The minimum is Z = 14 when

1 2

1, 2 x x = = .

14. The first constraint can be written as

1 2 3

2 2. x x x + + The dual is:

Maximize

1 2

2 4 W y y = +

subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

2 2

1

2 1

, 0

y y

y y

y y

y y

+

1 2 1 2 3

1

2

1

3

2

2 1 1 0 0 0 2

1 1 0 1 0 0 1

1 2 0 0 1 0 1

2 4 0 0 0 1 0

y y s s s W

s

s

s

W

1 2 1 2 3

3 5 1

1

2 2 2

3 3 1

2

2 2 2

1 1 1

2

2 2 2

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

1 0 0 0

4 0 0 0 2 1 2

y y s s s W

s

s

y

W

The minimum is Z = 2 when

1

0, x =

2

0, x =

3

2. x =

15. Let

1

x

= amount spent on newspaper

advertising,

2

x = amount spent on radio advertising.

We want to minimize C =

1 2

x x + subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

40 50 80,000,

100 25 60,000,

, 0.

x x

x x

x x

+

+

The dual is: Maximize

W =

1 2

80,000 60,000 y y + subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

40 100 1,

50 25 1,

, 0.

y y

y y

y y

+

+

1 2 1 2

1

40

1

1

2

50

40 100 1 0 0 1

50 25 0 1 0 1

80,000 60,000 0 0 1 0

y y s s W

s

s

W

1 2 1 2

4 1 1

5 5 400

1

1 1 1 1

1

2 50 50 25

0 80 1 0

1 0 0

0 20,000 0 1600 1 1600

y y s s W

s

y

W

1 2 1 2

1 1 1

2

80 100 400

3 1 1

1

160 40 160

0 1 0

1 0 0

0 0 250 1400 1 1650

y y s s W

y

y

W

The firm should spend $250 on newspaper

advertising and $1400 on radio advertising for a

cost of $1650.

16. Let

1

x = number of type A trucks rented,

2

x = number of type B trucks rented.

We want to minimize C =

1 2

0.40 0.60 x x +

subject to

1 2

1 2

1 2

2 2 12,

3 12,

, 0.

x x

x x

x x

+

+

The dual is: Maximize

1 2

12 12 W y y = + subject

to

1 2

1 2

1 2

2 0.40,

2 3 0.60,

, 0.

y y

y y

y y

+

+

1 2 1 2

2 1 1

5 5

3 3

2

5 10

2 1 1 0 0

2 3 0 1 0

12 12 0 0 1 0

y y s s W

s

s

W

Here we choose

1

y as the entering variable.

1 2 1 2

1 1 1 2

2 2 5 5

1

1 1

2

5 10

12

5

1 0 0

0 2 1 1 0

0 6 6 0 1

y y s s W

y

s

W

1 2 1 2

3 3 1 1

4 4 20

1 1 1

2

2 2 10

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 3 3 1 3

y y s s W

y

y

W

Thus the maximum value of W, and hence the

minimum value of C, is 3.

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

280

If we choose

2

y as the entering variable, then

1 2 1 2

2 2

5 5

1

3 1

2

5 5

2 1 1 0 0

2 3 0 1 0

12 12 0 0 1 0

y y s s W

s

s

W

1 2 1 2

4 1 1

3

3 3 5

20

1

3 2 1 1

2

3 3 5 10

12

5

0 1 0

1 0 0

4 0 0 4 1

y y s s W

s

y

W

1 2 1 2

3 3 1

4 4 20

1

1 1 1

2

2 2 10

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 3 3 1 3

y y s s W

y

y

W

The minimum total cost per mile is $3.

17. Let

1

y = number of shipping clerk apprentices,

2

y = number of shipping clerks,

3

y = number of semiskilled workers,

4

y = number of skilled workers.

We want to minimize W =

1 2 3 4

6 9 8 14 y y y y + + + subject to

1 2

1 2

3 4

3 4

1 2 3 4

60,

2 0,

90,

2 0,

, , , 0.

y y

y y

y y

y y

y y y y

+

+

+

The dual is: Maximize Z =

1 2 3 4

60 0 90 0 x x x x + + + subject to

1 2

1 2

3 4

3 4

1 2 3 4

2 6,

9,

8,

2 14,

, , , 0.

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x x x

+

+

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 6

1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 9

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 8

8

0 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 14

14

60 0 90 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

x x x x s s s s Z

s

s

s

s

Z

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281

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 6

6

1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 9

9

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 8

0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 6

60 0 0 90 0 0 90 0 1 720

x x x x s s s s Z

s

s

x

s

Z

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 6

0 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 3

1

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 8

0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 6

0 120 0 90 60 0 90 0 1 1080

x x x x s s s s Z

x

s

x

s

Z

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1 2

3 3

1

1 1

2

3 3

3

4

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 8

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 8

0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 6

0 0 0 90 20 40 90 0 1 1200

x x x x s s s s Z

x

x

x

s

Z

The company should employ 20 shipping clerk apprentices, 40 shipping clerks, 90 semiskilled workers, and

0 skilled workers for a total hourly wage of $1200.

Chapter 7 Review Problems

1.

y

5

x

5

2.

y

10

x

10

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

282

3.

y

5

x

5

5

3

4.

y

5

x

5

5.

y

10

x

10

6.

y

5

x

5

7.

y

5

x

5

8.

y

5

x

5

9.

y

10

x

10

10.

y

10

x

10

11. Feasible region follows. Corner points are (0, 0),

(0, 2), (1, 3), (3, 1), (3, 0). Z is maximized at

(3, 0) where its value is 3.

Thus Z = 3 when x = 3 and y = 0.

y

5

x

5

x = 3

x + y = 4

(3, 0)

y x = 2

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 7 Review

283

12. Feasible region follows. Corner points are (0, 1),

(0, 5), (4, 3), and (4, 1). Z is maximized at (4, 3)

where its value is 22. Thus Z = 22 when

x = 4 and y = 3.

y

10

x

10

(4, 3)

y =1

x =4

x +2y =10

13. Feasible region is unbounded. Z is minimized at

the corner point (0, 2) where its value is 2.

Thus Z = 2 when x = 0 and y = 2.

y

5

x

5

x 2y = 2 x + y = 1

(0, 2)

x y = 2

14. Feasible region follows. Corner points are (0, 0),

10 5

, ,

3 9

and (0, 5). Z is minimized at (0, 0)

where its value is 0. Thus Z = 0 when x = 0 and

y = 0.

y

10

x

10

(0, 5)

x 6y =0

4x +3y =15

(0, 0)

10

3

5

9

,

15. Feasible region follows. Corner points are

20 10

, ,

9 9

(5, 0), and (4, 0). Z is minimized at

20 10

,

9 9

where its value is

70

.

9

Thus

70

9

Z =

when

20

9

x = and

10

.

9

y =

y

10

x

10

5x + 8y = 20

x + y = 5

2x + 5y = 10

(4, 0)

(5, 0)

20

9

10

9

,

16. Feasible region follows. Corner points are (0, 4),

(0, 6), (6, 8), (6, 0), and (4, 0). Z is minimized at

(0, 4) and (4, 0) where its value is 8. Thus Z is

minimized at all points on the line segment

joining (0, 4) and (4, 0). The solution is

Z = 8 when x = (1 t)(0) + 4t = 4t,

y = (1 t)(4) + 0t = 4 4t, and 0 t 1.

y

10

x

10

x + y = 4

x + 3y = 18

x = 6

(0, 6)

(0, 4)

(4, 0)

(6, 0)

(6, 8)

17. Feasible region follows. Corner points are (0, 0),

(0, 4), (2, 3), and (4, 0). Z is maximized at (2, 3)

and (4, 0) where its value is 36. Thus Z is

maximized at all points on the line segment

joining (2, 3) and (4, 0). The solution is

Z = 36 when x = (1 t)(2) + 4t = 2 + 2t,

y = (1 t)(3) + 0t = 3 3t, and 0 t 1.

y

5

x

5

(2, 3)

(0, 4)

(0, 0)

(4, 0)

3x + 2y = 12

x + 2y = 8

18. Feasible region is unbounded. The family of

lines given by Z = 4x + y has members having

arbitrarily large values of Z and that also

intersect the feasible region. Thus no optimum

solution exists.

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

284

y

20

x

20

(0, 12)

3x +2y =24

Z =16

(4, 6)

x +2y =16

Z =40

(16, 0)

19.

1 2 1 2

1

2

1 6 1 0 0 12 2

1 2 0 1 0 8 4

4 5 0 0 1 0

x x s s Z

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2

1 1 2

6 6

2 1

2

3 3

19 5

6 6

1 0 0 2 12

0 1 0 4 6

0 0 1 10

x x s s Z

x

s

Z

1 2 1 2

1 1

2

4 4

3 1

1

2 2

3 19

4 4

0 1 0 1 4

1 0 0 6

0 0 1 29

x x s s Z

x

x

Z

1 2 1 2

1

1

0 4 1 1 0 4

1 2 0 1 0 8

0 3 0 4 1 32

x x s s Z

s

x

Z

Thus Z = 32 when

1

8 x = and

2

x = 0.

20.

1 2 1 2 3

1

2

3

2 3 1 0 0 0 18

6

4 3 0 1 0 0 24

8

0 1 0 0 1 0 5

5

18 20 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s Z

s

s

s

Z

1 2 1 2 3

3

2 1

9

2

4

2

2 0 1 0 3 0 3

4 0 0 1 3 0 9

0 1 0 0 1 0 5

18 0 0 0 20 1 100

x x s s s Z

s

s

x

Z

1 2 1 2 3

3 3 1

1 2 2 2

2

2

1 0 0 0

1

0 0 2 1 3 0 3

5

0 1 0 0 1 0 5

0 0 9 0 7 1 127

x x s s s Z

x

s

x

Z

1 2 1 2 3

1 1

2 2

1

2 1

3

3 3

2 1

3 3

2

13 7

3 3

1 0 0 0 3

0 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 0 4

0 0 0 1 134

x x s s s Z

x

s

x

Z

Thus Z = 134 when

1 2

3 and 4 x x = = .

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 7 Review

285

21.

1 2 3 1 1

1 2 3 1 1 0 5

3 2 1 0 1 0

x x x s t W

M

1 2 3 1 1

5

3 1

1 2 3 1 1 0 5

3 2 2 1 3 0 1 5

x x x s t W

t

M M M M M

W

1 2 3 1 1

5 1 2 1 1

3 3 3 3 3

3

8 5 4 1 1

3 3 3 3 3

1 0

0 1

x x x s t W

x

W M

+

Thus

5

3

Z = when

1 2

0, 0, x x = = and

3

5

.

3

x =

22.

1 2 1 2 1 2

3 5 1 0 1 0 0 20

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 5

1 2 0 0 1 0

x x s s t t W

M M

1 2 1 2 1 2

1

2

3 5 1 0 1 0 0 20 4

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 5

1 4 2 5 0 0 1 25

x x s s t t W

t

t

W M M M M M

1 2 1 2 1 2

3 20 1 1

2

5 5 5 3

2

1 2 2

5 5 5

1 0 0 0 4

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 5

0 0 1 8 5

x x s s t t W

x

t

M M M M W

+

1 2 1 2 1 2

3 3 1 1

5

2

5 5 5 5

3

1

2 1 2 1

5 5 5 5

0 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 5

0 0 1 7

x x s s t t W

x

x

M M W

+ +

1 2 1 2

5 5 1

2

3 3 3

5 20 1

1

3 3 3

20 1 1

3 3 3

0 1 0

1 0 0

0 0 1

x x s s Z

s

x

Z

Thus

20

3

Z = when

1 2

20

, 0.

3

x x = =

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

286

23.

1 2 1 2 3 2

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 12

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 5

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 10

1 2 0 0 0 1 0

x x s s s t W

M

1 2 1 2 3 2

1

2

3

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 12

12

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 5

5

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 10

1 2 0 0 0 1 5

x x s s s t W

s

t

s

M M M M

W

1 2 1 2 3 2

1

2

3

0 0 1 1 0 1 0 7

7

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 5

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 10

1 0 0 2 0 2 1 10

x x s s s t W

s

x

s

M

W

+

1 2 1 2 3

2

2

3

0 0 1 1 0 0 7

1 1 1 0 0 0 12

1 0 0 0 1 0 10

1 0 2 0 0 1 24

x x s s s Z

s

x

s

Z

Thus Z = 24 when

1 2

0 and 12. x x = =

24.

1 2 1 2 2

1 2 1 0 0 0 6

1 1 0 1 1 0 1

2 1 0 0 1 0

x x s s t W

M

1 2 1 2 2

1

2

1 2 1 0 0 0 6 3

1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1

2 1 0 0 1

x x s s t W

s

t

W M M M M

1

2

1 0 1 2 2 0 4

1 1 0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 1 1 1

s

x

W M

+

Thus Z = 1 when

1 2

0 and 1. x x = =

25. We write the first constraint as

1 2 3

1. x x x + +

1 2 3 1 1 2

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1

6 3 2 0 0 1 0 12

1 2 1 0 1 0

x x x s t t W

M M

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 7 Review

287

1 2 3 1 1 2

1

2

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1

6 3 2 0 0 1 0 12 2

1 5 2 4 1 3 0 0 1 13

x x x s t t W

t

t

W M M M M M

1 2 3 1 1 2

3 4 1

1

2 3 6

1 1 1

1

2 3 6

3 3 5 2 4 1

2 2 3 3 6 6

2

0 1 1 0 3

1 0 0 0 2 4

0 0 1 2 3

x x x s t t W

t

x

W

M M M M M

+

1 2 3 1 1 2

9 8 2 2 1

2

4 9 3 3 9

1 1 1 1

1

9 3 3 9

2 1

3 3

0 1 0 2

1 0 0 1

0 0 1 1 1 5

x x x s t t W

x

x

W

M M

+ +

1 2 3 1

9 3 9 3

8 4 4

5 1 1

1

8 4 4

3 7 1

4 2 2

0 1 0

1 0 0

0 0 1

x x x s Z

x

x

Z

Thus Z =

1 2 3

7 5 9

when , 0, and .

2 4 4

x x x = = =

26.

1 2 3 1 2 1

1 1 3 1 0 1 0 5

2 1 4 0 1 0 0 5

2 3 5 0 0 1 0

x x x s s t W

M

1 2 3 1 2 1

5

3

1

5

2

4

1 1 3 1 0 1 0 5

2 1 4 0 1 0 0 5

2 3 5 3 0 0 1 5

x x x s s t W

t

s

W M M M M M

1 2 3 1 2 1

3 5 1 1

2 4 4 4

1

5 1 1 1

3

2 4 4 4

7 5 3 25 5 1 1 1

2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 0 1 1 0

1 0 0 0 5

0 0 1

x x x s s t W

t

x

M M M M M

W

+ +

We choose

1

t as the departing variable.

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

288

1 2 3 1 2 1

2

3

2 1 0 4 3 4 0 5

1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

3 0 0 7 4 7 1 15

x x x s s t W

x

x

W M

+

1 2 3 1 2

2

1

2 1 4 0 1 0 5

1 0 1 1 1 0 0

4 0 7 0 3 1 15

x x x s s Z

x

s

Z

Thus Z = 15 when

1 2

0, 5, x x = = and

3

0. x =

Note that choosing

3

x as the departing variable

results in the same solution.

27.

1 2 3 1 2

1

2

4 1 0 1 0 0 2

8 2 5 0 1 0 2 1

1 4 2 0 0 1 0

x x x s s Z

s

s

Z

1 2 3 1 2

5 1

1

2 2

5 1

2

2 2

0 0 1 0 3

4 1 0 0 1

17 0 8 0 2 1 4

x x x s s Z

s

x

Z

For the last table,

1

x is the entering variable.

Since no quotients exist, the problem has an

unbounded solution. That is, no optimum

solution (unbounded).

28.

1 2 3 1 2 2

1 1 2 1 0 0 0 4

0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s t W

M

1 2 3 1 2 2

1

2

1 1 2 1 0 0 0 4 2

0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1

1 1 0 0 1

x x x s s t W

s

t

W M M M

1 2 3 1 2 2

1

3

1 1 0 1 2 2 0 2 1

0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s t W

s

x

W M

The minimum value of Z is 0 for

1 2 3

0, 0, and 1. x x x = = =

Since

2

s is nonbasic for the last table and its

indicator is 0, there may be multiple optimum

solutions. Treating

2

s as an entering variable,

deleting the

2

t -column, changing W to Z, and

continuing, we have

1 2 3 1 2

1 1 1 2

2 2 2

1 1 1

3

2 2 2

0 1 0 1

1 0 0 2

1 1 0 0 0 1 0

x x x s s Z

s

x

Z

Here Z = 0 when

1 2 3

0, 0, and 2. x x x = = = Thus

multiple optimum solutions exist. Hence Z is

minimum when

1

2

3

(1 )(0) 0 0,

(1 )(0) 0 0,

(1 )(1) 2 1 ,

x t t

x t t

x t t t

= + =

= + =

= + = +

and 0 t 1. For the last table,

1

s is nonbasic

and its indicator is 0. If we continue the process

for determining other optimum solutions, we

return to a table corresponding to the third table.

29. The dual is: Maximize

1 2

35 25 W y y = + subject

to

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

2,

2 7,

3 8,

, 0.

y y

y y

y y

y y

+

+

+

1 2 1 2 3

1

7

2 2

8

3

3

2

1 1 1 0 0 0 2

2 1 0 1 0 0 7

3 1 0 0 1 0 8

35 25 0 0 0 1 0

y y s s s W

s

s

s

W

1 2 1 2 3

1

2

3

1 1 1 0 0 0 2

0 1 2 1 0 0 3

0 2 3 0 1 0 2

0 10 35 0 0 1 70

y y s s s W

y

s

s

W

Thus Z = 70 when

1 2 3

35, 0, and 0. x x x = = =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 7 Review

289

30. We write the third constraint as

1 2

4 2. x x The dual is: Minimize W =

1 2 3

3 4 2 y y y + subject to

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

4 1,

2 2,

, , 0.

y y y

y y y

y y y

+

+

We write the second constraint of the dual as

1 2 3

2 2. y y y +

1 2 3 1 2 1

1 1 4 1 0 1 0 1

1 2 1 0 1 0 0 2

3 4 2 0 0 1 0

y y y s s t U

M

1 2 3 1 2 1

1

2

1 1 4 1 0 1 0 1 1

1 2 1 0 1 0 0 2 2

3 4 2 4 0 0 1

y y y s s t U

t

s

U M M M M M

+

1 2 3 1 2 1

1

2

1 1 4 1 0 1 0 1

0 3 5 1 1 1 0 1

0 1 10 3 0 3 1 3

y y y s s t U

y

s

U M

+

Thus Z = 3 when

1 2

3 and 0. x x = =

31. Let x, y, and z denote the numbers of units of X, Y, and Z produced weekly, respectively. If P is the total profit

obtained, we want to maximize

P = 10x + 15y + 22z subject to

2 2 40,

2 34,

, , 0.

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ +

+ +

1 2

1

2

1 2 2 1 0 0 40 20

1 1 2 0 1 0 34 17

10 15 22 0 0 1 0

x y z s s P

s

s

P

1 2

1

1 1 1

2 2 2

0 1 0 1 1 0 6

6

1 0 0 17 34

1 4 0 0 11 1 374

x y z s s P

s

z

P

1 1

2 2

0 1 0 1 1 0 6

0 1 1 0 14

1 0 0 4 7 1 398

y

z

P

Thus 0 units of X, 6 units of Y, and 14 units of Z give a maximum profit of $398.

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

290

32. We want to maximize P = 10x + 15y + 22z subject to

2 2 40,

2 34,

24,

, , 0.

x y z

x y z

x y z

x y z

+ +

+ +

+ +

1 2 3 3

1 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 40

1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 34

1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 24

10 15 22 0 0 0 1 0

x y z s s s t W

M

1 2 3 3

1

2

3

1 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 40

20

1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 34

17

1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 24

24

10 15 22 0 0 0 1 24

x y z s s s t W

s

s

t

M M M M M

W

1 2 3 3

1

1 1 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

2 2 2

3

2 2 2

0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 6

6

1 0 0 0 0 17 34

14

0 0 1 1 0 7

1 4 0 0 11 0 1 374 7

M M M

x y z s s s t W

s

z

t

M M

W

+

1 2 3 3

1 1

2 2

1 1

2 2

3

2 2

0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 6

0 1 1 0 0 0 14 28

0 0 0 1 1 0 4 8

1 0 0 4 7 0 1 398 4

M M

x y z s s s t W

y

z

t

M M

W

+

1 2 3 3

0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 6

0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 10

1 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 8

0 0 0 5 7 2 2 1 390

x y z s s s t W

y

z

x

M

W

+

The company should produce 8 units of X, 6 units of Y, 10 units of Z, for a profit of $390.

33. Let , , , and

AC AD BC BD

x x x x denote the amounts (in hundreds of thousands of gallons) transported from A to C,

A to D, B to C, and B to D, respectively. If C is the total transportation cost in thousands of dollars, we want to

minimize 2 2 4

AC AD BC BD

C x x x x = + + + subject to

6,

6,

5,

5,

, , , 0.

AC AD

BC BD

AC BC

AD BD

AC AD BC BD

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x x x

+

+

+ =

+ =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 7 Review

291

1 2 3 4

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 6

0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 6

1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 5

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 5

1 2 2 4 0 0 1 0

AC AD BC BD

x x x x s s t t W

M M

1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 6

6

0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 6

1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 5

5

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 5

1 2 2 4 0 0 0 0 1 10

AC AD BC BD

x x x x s s t t W

s

s

t

t

M M M M M

W

1 2 3 4

1

2

4

0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1

1

0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 6

1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 5

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 5

5

0 2 1 4 0 0 1 0 1 5 5

AC AD BC BD

AC

x x x x s s t t W

s

s

x

t

M M M M

W

+

1 2 3 4

2

4

0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1

0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 6

6

1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 5

5

0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 4

4

0 0 3 4 2 0 1 0 1 7 4

AC AD BC BD

AD

AC

x x x x s s t t W

x

s

x

t

M M M M

W

+

1 2 3 4

2

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 5

0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 2

1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 4

0 0 0 1 1 0 2 3 1 19

AC AD BC BD

AD

AC

BC

x x x x s s t t W

x

s

x

x

M M

W

+ +

The minimum value of C is 19, when 1, 5, 4, and 0.

AC AD BC BD

x x x x = = = = Thus 100,000 gal from A to C,

500,000 gal from A to D, and 400,000 gal from B to C give a minimum cost of $19,000.

34. Let x and y be the weekly sales of Space Traders and Green Dwarf, respectively. We want to maximize

P = 5x + 9y subject to the constraints

30 10 300

20 10 200

10 50 500

, 0

x y

x y

x y

x y

+

+

+

The constraints can be written as

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

292

3 30

2 20

5 50

, 0

x y

x y

x y

x y

+

+

+

The feasible region has corner points (0, 0), (0, 10),

50 80

, ,

9 9

and (10, 0). P has a maximum of

970

9

at

50 80 5 8

, 5 , 8 .

9 9 9 9

=

The possible integer values are (5, 8), (5, 9), (6, 8), and (6, 9). However, the point (6, 9)

does not satisfy the second or third constraints. Evaluating P at the other three points gives that Jason should sell

5 copies of Space Trader and 9 copies of Green Dwarf, for a weekly profit of $106.

y

50

x

50

x +5y =50

3x +y =30

(0, 10)

(10, 0)

50

9

80

9

,

2x +y =20

35. Let x and y represent daily consumption of foods A and B in 100-gram units. We want to minimize C = 8x + 22y

subject to the constraints

8 4 176,

16 32 1024,

2 5 200,

0,

0.

x y

x y

x y

x

y

+

+

+

The feasible region is unbounded with corner points (100, 0),

5

, 39

2

and (0, 44). C has a minimum value at

(100, 0). Thus the animals should be fed 100 100 10,000 = grams = 10 kilograms of food A each day.

y

100

x

100

2x + 5y = 200

8x + 4y = 176

36.

20

0

0

50

Z = 0.89 when x = 4.78, y = 9.14

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 7

293

37.

0

10

2

10

Z = 129.83 when x = 9.38, y = 1.63

Mathematical Snapshot Chapter 7

1. CURATIVE

UNITS

TOXIC

UNITS

RELATIVE

DISCOMFORT

Drug (per ounce) 500 400 1

Radiation (per min) 1000 600 1

Requirement 2000

1400

Let

1

x = number of ounces of drug and let

2

x = number of minutes of radiation. We want to minimize the

discomfort D, where D =

1 2

, x x + subject to

1 2

1 2

500 1000 2000,

400 600 1400,

x x

x x

+

+

where

1 2

, 0. x x

x

2

5

x

1

5

(2, 1)

400x

1

+ 600x

2

= 1400

500x

1

+ 1000x

2

= 2000

The corner points are (0, 2),

7

0,

3

, and (2, 1).

At (0, 2), D = 0 + 2 = 2;

at

7

0,

3

, D = 0 +

7 7

;

3 3

=

at (2, 1), D = 2 + 1 = 3.

Thus D is minimum at (0, 2).

The patient should get 0 ounces of drug and 2 minutes of radiation.

Chapter 7: Linear Programming ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

294

2. CURATIVE

UNITS

TOXIC

UNITS

RELATIVE

DISCOMFORT

Drug A (per ounce) 600 500 1

Drug B (per ounce) 500 100 2

Radiation (per min) 1000 1000 1

Requirement 3000 2000

Let

1

x = number of ounces of drug A,

2

x = number of ounces of drug B, and

3

x = number of minutes of radiation.

We want to minimize the discomfort D, where

1 2 3

2 , D x x x = + + subject to

1 2 3

1 2 3

1 2 3

600 500 1000 3000,

500 100 1000 2000,

, , 0

x x x

x x x

x x x

+ +

+ +

To minimize D, we maximize D by considering the artificial objective function

W = D

1

Mt .

1 2 3 1 2 1

600 500 1000 1 0 1 0 3000

500 100 1000 0 1 0 0 2000

1 2 1 0 0 1 0

x x x s s t W

M

1 2 3 1 2 1

1

2

600 500 1000 1 0 1 0 3000 3

500 100 1000 0 1 0 0 2000 2

1 600 2 500 11000 0 0 1 3000

x x x s s t W

t

s

W M M M M M

1 2 3 1 2 1

1

3

100 400 0 1 1 1 0 1000 2.5

0.5 0.1 1 0 0.001 0 0 2 20

0.5100 1.9 400 0 0.001 0 1 2 1000

x x x s s t W

t

x

W M M M M M

+

1 2 3 1 2 1

2

3

0.25 1 0 0.0025 0.0025 0.0025 0 2.5

0.475 0 1 0.00025 0.00125 0.00025 0 1.75

0.025 0 0 0.00475 0.00375 0.00475 1 6.75

x x x s s t W

x

x

W M

The minimum value of D is 6.75 when

1 2 3

0, 2.5, and 1.75. x x x = = =

The patient should get 0 ounces of drug A, 2.5 ounces of drug B, and 1.75 minutes of radiation.

3. Answers may vary.

295

Chapter 8

Problems 8.1

1.

Start

D

A

B

C

E

D

E

D

E

AD

AE

BD

BE

CD

CE

Assembly

Line

Finishing

Line

Production

Route

6 possible production routes

2.

Start

1

6000

8000

10,000

2

1

2

1

2

6000 1

6000 2

8000 1

8000 2

10,000 1

10,000 2

BTU's

Fan

Speeds

Model

Type

6 model types

3.

1

Red

Die

1 1, 1

36 possible results

Green

Die Result

2 1, 2

3 1, 3

4 1, 4

5 1, 5

6 1, 6

2

1 2, 1

2 2, 2

3 2, 3

4 2, 4

5 2, 5

6 2, 6

3

1 3, 1

2 3, 2

3 3, 3

4 3, 4

5 3, 5

6 3, 6

4

1 4, 1

2 4, 2

3 4, 3

4 4, 4

5 4, 5

6 4, 6

5

1 5, 1

2 5, 2

3 5, 3

4 5, 4

5 5, 5

6 5, 6

6

1 6, 1

2 6, 2

3 6, 3

4 6, 4

5 6, 5

6 6, 6

Start

Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

296

4.

H

H

T

H

T

H

T

T

H

T

H

T

H

T

H, H, H, H

H, H, H, T

H, H, T, H

H, H, T, T

H, T, H, H

H, T, H, T

H, T, T, H

H, T, T, T

Toss 2 Toss 3

16 possible results

Toss 4 Result

H

H

T

H

T

H

T

T

H

T

H

T

H

T

T, H, H, H

T, H, H, T

T, H, T, H

T, H, T, T

T, T, H, H

T, T, H, T

T, T, T, H

T, T, T, T

H

T

Start

Toss 1

5. There are 5 science courses and 4 humanities

courses. By the basic counting principle, the

number of selections is 5 4 = 20.

6. a. There are 5 roads from A to B, and 5 roads

from B to A. By the basic counting

principle, the number of possible routes for

a round trip is 5 5 = 25.

b. There are 5 possible roads from A to B.

Since a different road is to be used for the

return trip, there are only 4 possible roads

from B to A. By the basic counting

principle, the number of possible round-trip

routes is 5 4 = 20.

7. There are 2 appetizers, 4 entrees, 4 desserts, and

3 beverages. By the basic counting principle, the

number of possible complete dinners is

2 4 4 3 = 96.

8. For each of the 6 questions, there are 4 choices.

By the basic counting principle, the number of

ways to answer the questions is

4 4 4 4 4 4 =

6

4 4096 = .

9. For each of the 10 questions, there are 2 choices.

By the basic counting principle, the number of

ways to answer the examination is

2 2

...

2 =

10

2 1024 = .

10. Since there are 26 letters, there are 26 choices

for the first, third and fifth symbols. There are 10

possible digits (0 through 9) for the second,

fourth, and sixth symbols. By the basic counting

principle, the number of codes is

26 10 26 10 26 10 = 17,576,000.

11.

6 3

6! 6!

6 5 4 120

(6 3)! 3!

P = = = =

12.

95 1

95! 95!

95

(95 1)! 94!

P = = =

13.

6 6

6! 6! 6 5 4 3 2 1

720

(6 6)! 0! 1

P

= = = =

14.

9 4

9! 9!

9 8 7 6 3024

(9 4)! 5!

P = = = =

15.

4 2 5 3

(4 3)(5 4 3) (12)(60) 720 P P = = =

16.

99 5

99 4

99 98 97 96 95

95

99 98 97 96

P

P

= =

17.

1000! 1000 999!

1000

999! 999!

= =

For most calculators, attempting to evaluate

1000!

999!

results in an error message (because of

the magnitude of the numbers involved).

18.

!

( )! 1

! ! ( )!

n

n r

n r

P

n n n r

= =

19. A name for the firm is an ordered arrangement

of the three last names. Thus the number of

possible firm names is

3 3

3! 3 2 1 6 P = = = .

20. The number of ways to arrange 6 teams in an

order is

6 6

6 5 4 3 2 1 720 P = = .

21. The number of ways of selecting 3 of 8

contestants in an order is

8 3

8 7 6 336 P = = .

22. Six out of eight items in column 2 must be

selected in an order. Thus the number of ways

the matching can be done is

8 6

8 7 6 5 4 3 20,160 P = = .

23. On each roll of a die, there are 6 possible

outcomes. By the basic counting principle, on 4

rolls the number of possible results is

4

6 6 6 6 6 1296. = =

24. On each toss there are 2 possible outcomes. By

the basic counting principle, the number of

possible results on 8 tosses is

8

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 256 = = .

25. The number of ways of selecting 3 of the 12

students in an order is

12 3

12 1110 1320 P = = .

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8.1

297

26. Three of the 26 letters must be selected (without

repetition) in an order. Thus the number of

possible lock combinations is

26 3

15,600 P = .

27. The number of ways a student can choose 4 of

the 6 items in an order is

6 4

6 5 4 3 360. P = =

28. On the second roll, there are 2 possible outcomes

(a 1 or a 2). For each of the other two rolls, there

are 6 possible outcomes. By the basic counting

principle, the number of possible results for the

three rolls is 6 2 6 = 72.

29. The number of ways to select six of the six

different letters in the word MEADOW in an

order is

6 6

6! 6 5 4 3 2 1 720 P = = = .

30. The number of ways to select four of the four

different letters in the word DISC in an order is

4 4

4! 4 3 2 1 24 P = = = .

31. For an arrangement of books, order is important.

The number of ways to arrange 5 of 7 books is

7 5

7 6 5 4 3 2520 P = = .

All 7 books can be arranged in

7 7

7! 5040 P = = ways.

32. a. A student can enter by any of 5 doors. After

a door is chosen, the student can exit by any

of the 4 remaining doors. By the basic

counting principle, the number of ways to

enter by one door and exit by a different

door is 5 4 = 20.

b. There are 5 doors by which to enter and 5

doors by which to exit. By the basic

counting principle, the total number of ways

to enter and exit is 5 5 = 25.

33. After a four of a kind hand is dealt, the cards

can be arranged so that the first four have the

same face value, and order is not important,

There are 13 possibilities for the first four cards

(all 2s, all 3s, ..., all aces). The fifth card can be

any one of the 48 cards that remain. By the basic

counting principle, the number of four of a

kind hands is 13 48 = 624.

34. Five colors are available, and two are selected so

that order is important. Thus the number of ways

of placing an order is

5 2

5 4 20. P = =

35. The number of ways the waitress can place five

of the five different sandwiches (and order is

important) is

5 5

5! 5 4 3 2 1 120. P = = =

36. Because order is important, the number of ways

that the 5 people can line up is

5 5

5! 5 4 3 2 1 120 P = = = .

If a woman is to be at each end, then the number

of ways to place one of the two women on the

left side is

2 1

P . Once a woman is chosen for the

left side, the other woman must be on the right

side. The number of ways to line the three men

in the middle is

3 3

P . By the basic counting

principle, the number of line ups is

2 1 3 3

(2)(3 2 1) 12 P P = = .

37. a. To fill the four offices by different people, 4

of 12 members must be selected, and order

is important. This can be done in

12 4

12 1110 9 11,880 P = = ways.

b. If the president and vice president must be

different members, then there are 12 choices

for president, 11 for vice president, 12 for

secretary, and 12 for treasurer. By the basic

counting principle, the offices can be filled

in 12 11 12 12 = 19,008 ways.

38. a. There are 24 possibilities for each of the

three letters in a name. By the basic

counting principle, the number of names is

24 24 24 =

3

24 13,824 = .

b. Since the order of letters is important and no

letter is used more than one time, the

number of names is

24 3

24 23 22 12,144 P = = .

39. There are 2 choices for the center position. After

that choice is made, to fill the remaining four

positions (and order is important), there are

4 4

P ways. By the basic counting principle, to

assign positions to the five-member team there

are

4 4

2 2(4!) 2(24) 48 P = = = ways.

40. For the first letter there are two possibilities. For

the second and third letters there are 26

possibilities, and for the last letter there are 25

possibilities. By the basic counting principle, the

number of possible identifications is

2 26 26 25 = 33,800.

Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

298

41. There are

3 3

P ways to select the first three

batters (order is important) and there are

6 6

P

ways to select the remaining batters. By the basic

counting principle, the number of possible

batting orders is

3 3 6 6

3! 6! 6 720 4320. P P = = =

42. a. Four of four flags can be arranged (order is

important) in

4 4

4! 24 P = = ways. Thus 24

different signals are possible.

b. If only one of the four flags is used, there

are

4 1

P possible signals. If exactly two

flags are used, there are

4 2

P possible

signals. Similarly, for exactly three and

exactly four flags, there are

3 4

P and

4 4

P

possible signals, respectively. Thus if at

least one flag is used, the number of

possible signals is

4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4

P P P P + + +

= 4 + 4 3 + 4 3 2 + 4 3 2 1

= 4 + 12 + 24 + 24 = 64.

Problems 8.2

1.

6 4

6! 6! 6 5 4! 6 5

15

4!(6 4)! 4! 2! 4!(2 1) 2 1

C

= = = = =

2.

6 2

6! 6! 6 5 4! 6 5

15

2!(6 2)! 2! 4! (2 1)4! 2 1

C

= = = = =

3.

100 100

100! 1 1

1

100!(100100)! 0! 1

C = = = =

4.

1001 1

1001! 1001!

1!(1001 1)! 1!1000!

10011000!

1001

1000!

C = =

= =

5.

5 3 4 2

4!

5 4 3

2!(4 2)!

4 3 2!

5 4 3

2!2!

60 6

360

P C =

=

=

=

6.

4 2 5 3

5!

(4 3)

3!(5 3)!

P C =

5 4 3!

(4 3) (12) 10 120

3! 2!

= = =

7.

!

!( )!

n r

n

C

r n r

=

n n r

C

! !

( )![ ( )]! ( )! !

n n

n r n n r n r r

= =

Thus

n r n n r

C C = .

8.

! 1 1

1

!( )! 0! 1

n n

n

C

n n n

= = = = .

9. The number of ways of selecting 4 of 17 people

so that order is not important is

17 4

17! 17!

4!(17 4)! 4! 13!

C = =

17 16 15 14 13!

2380

4 3 2 1(13!)

= =

10. If horses A, B, and C finish in the money, then it

does not matter if A finishes in first, second, or

third place. Similarly for B and C. Thus order is

not important. The number of ways in which 3

of 8 horses finish in the money is the number of

ways of selecting 3 of the 8 without regard to

order, namely

8 3

8! 8!

3!(8 3)! 3! 5!

C = =

8 7 6 5!

56

3 2 1 5!

= =

.

11. The number of ways of selecting 9 out of 13

questions (without regard to order) is

13 9

13! 13! 13 12 1110 9!

9!(13 9)! 9! 4! 9! 4 3 2 1

715.

C

= = =

=

12. In a deck of 52 cards, 26 of the cards are red. In

a four-card hand, the order is not important.

Thus, the number of four-card hands from the 26

red cards is

26 4

26!

4!(26 4)!

26 25 24 23 22!

4!22!

14,950

C =

=

=

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8.2

299

13. The order of selecting 10 of the 74 dresses is of

no concern. Thus the number of possible

samples

74 10

74! 74!

10! (7410)! 10! 64!

C = =

.

14. This situation can be considered as a two-stage

process. In the first stage, one of the 3 boxes is

selected. In the second stage, 4 of the 7 types of

jelly are selected (and order is not important),

which can be done in

7 4

C ways. By the basic

counting principle, the number of different gift

boxes that are possible is

7 4

7! 7!

3 3 3

4!(7 4)! 4! 3!

C = =

7 6 5 4!

3 3 35 105

4!(3 2 1)

= = =

.

15. To score 80, 90, or 100, exactly 8, 9, or 10

questions must be correct, respectively. The

number of ways in which 8 of 10 questions can

be correct is

10 8

10! 10! 10 9 8!

45

8!(10 8)! 8! 2! 8! 2 1

C

= = = =

.

For 9 of 10 questions, the number of ways is

10 9

10! 10! 10 9!

10

9!(10 9)! 9! 1! 9! 1

C

= = = =

,

and for 10 of 10 questions, it is

10 10

10! 10!

1

10!(1010)! 10! 0!

C = = =

.

Thus the number of ways to score 80 or better is

45 + 10 + 1 = 56.

16. Each of the 11 games can be assigned to one of

three cells: a win cell, a loss cell, or a tie cell.

The number of ways to have 4 wins, 5 losses,

and 3 ties is

11! 1110 9 8 7 6 5!

6930.

4! 5! 2! 4 3 2 1 5! 2 1

= =

17. The word MISSISSAUGA has 11 letters with

repetition: one M, two Is, four Ss, two As, one

U, and one G. Thus the number of

distinguishable arrangements is

11! 1110 9 8 7 6 5 4!

1! 2! 4! 2! 1! 1! (2)4!(2)

415,800.

=

=

18. The word STREETSBORO has 11 letters with

repetition: two Ss, two Ts, two Rs, two Es,

one B, and two Os. Thus the number of

distinguishable arrangements is

11! 11!

1,247,400.

2! 2! 2! 2! 1! 2! 32

= =

19. The number of ways 4 heads and 3 tails can

occur in 7 tosses of a coin is the same as the

number of distinguishable permutations in the

word HHHHTTT, which is

7! 7 6 5 4!

35

4! 3! 4!(6)

= =

.

20. The number of ways for the given outcome to

occur is the number of distinguishable

permutations of six numbers such that two are

2s, three are 3s, and one is 4, which is

6! 6 5 4 3!

60

2! 3! 1! (2)3!

= =

.

21. Since the order in which the calls are made is

important, the number of possible schedules for

the 6 calls is

6 6

6! 720 P = = .

22. The number of ways to place the 12 members in

three specific cars (cells), with 4 members in

each car, is

12!

34,650

4! 4! 4!

=

.

23. The number of ways to assign 9 scientists so 3

work on project A, 3 work on B, and 3 work on

C is

9!

1680

3!3!3!

= .

24. There are 9 holly bushes, 5 of which are female,

and 4 of which are male. Then the number of

possible distinguishable arrangements is

9! 9 8 7 6 5!

126.

5! 4! 5! 4 3 2 1

= =

25. A response to the true-false questions can be

considered an ordered arrangement of 10 letters,

5 of which are Ts and 5 of which are Fs. The

number of different responses is

10! 10 9 8 7 6 5!

252

5! 5! 5!(5 4 3 2 1)

= =

.

Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

300

26. The order in which the 7 food items are placed is

important. However, there are 3 hamburgers

(type 1), 2 cheeseburgers (type 2), and 2 steak

sandwiches (type 3). Then the number of

possible distinguishable ways of placing the

items is

7!

210

3! 2! 2!

=

.

27. The number of ways to assign 15 clients to 3

caseworkers (cells) with 5 clients to each

caseworker is

15!

756,756.

5! 5! 5!

=

28. The number of ways of selecting 5 of the 10

remaining members so that order is important is

10 5

10! 10! 10 9 8 7 6 5!

(10 5)! 5! 5!

30,240.

P

= = =

=

29. a. Seven flags must be arranged: two are red

(type 1), three are green (type 2), and two

are yellow (type 3). Thus the number of

distinguishable arrangements (messages) is

7!

210.

2! 3! 2!

=

b. If exactly two yellow flags are used, then

seven flags are involved and the number of

different messages is

7!

210.

2! 3! 2!

=

If all

three yellow flags are used, then eight flags

are involved and the number of different

messages is

8!

560.

2! 3! 3!

=

Thus if at least

two yellow flags are used, the number of

different messages is 210 + 560 = 770.

30. Of the 10 applicants, 4 will be hired for the

assembly department (cell 1), 2 for the shipping

department (cell 2), and 4 will not be hired

(cell 3). Thus the number of ways to fill the

positions is

10!

3150

4! 2! 4!

=

.

31. The order in which the securities go into the

portfolio is not important. The number of ways

to select 8 of 12 stocks is

12 8

C . The number of

ways to select 4 of 7 bonds is

7 4

C . By the basic

counting principle, the number of ways to create

the portfolio is

12 8 7 4

12! 7!

8!(12 8)! 4!(7 4)!

C C =

12! 7! 12 1110 9 8! 7 6 5 4!

8! 4! 4! 3! 8! 4 3 2 1 4! 3 2 1

= =

495 35 17,325 = = .

32. Suppose the possible games are numbered

1, 2, 3, ..., 7. The order in which four games are

won is not important. The number of ways that 4

of the possible 7 games can be won is

7 4

7! 7!

35

4!(7 4)! 4! 3!

C = = =

.

33. a. Selecting 3 of the 3 males can be done in

only 1 way.

b. Selecting 4 of the 4 females can be done in

only 1 way.

c. Selecting 2 males and 2 females can be

considered as a two-stage process. In the

first stage, 2 of the 3 males are selected (and

order is not important), which can be done

in

3 2

C ways. In the second stage, 2 of the

4 females are selected, which can be done in

4 2

C ways. By the basic counting principle,

the ways of selecting the subcommittee is

3 2 4 2

C C

3! 4!

2!(3 2)! 2!(4 2)!

=

3! 4!

3 6 18

2! 1! 2! 2!

= = =

34. Exactly 2, 3, or 4 females can serve on the

subcommittee. Following the procedure in

Problem 33(c), the number of ways exactly 2

females can serve is

4 2 4 2

C C . The number of

ways exactly 3 females can serve is

4 3 4 1

C C .

The number of ways exactly four females can

serve is 1. Thus the number of ways that at least

2 females can serve on the subcommittee is

4 2 4 2 4 3 4 1

1 C C C C + +

4! 4! 4! 4!

1

2! 2! 2! 2! 3! 1! 1! 3!

= + +

= 6 6 + 4 4 + 1 = 36 + 16 + 1 = 53.

35. There are 4 cards of a given denomination and

the number of ways of selecting 3 cards of that

denomination is

4 3

C .

Since there are 13 denominations, the number of

ways of selecting 3 cards of one denomination is

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8.3

301

4 3

13 C . After that selection is made, the 2 other

cards must be of the same denomination (of

which 12 denominations remain). Thus for the

remaining 2 cards there are

4 2

12 C selections.

By the basic counting principle, the number of

possible full-house hands is

4 3 4 2

4! 4!

13 12 13 12

3! 1! 2! 2!

C C =

= 13 4 12 6 = 3744.

36. There are 13 denominations and four cards of

each denomination. The number of ways to get a

pair of 8s is

4 2

. C For the other pair, there are

12 denominations left to choose from, so

12 1

C

possibilities, with

4 2

C ways to get such a pair.

For the last card there are 11 denominations left,

with 4 cards in each denomination. By the basic

counting principle the number of two-pair hands

where one pair is 8s is

4 2 12 1 4 2

11 4

4! 12! 4!

11 4

2! 2! 1! 11! 2! 2!

19,008.

C C C

=

=

37. This situation can be considered as placing 18

tourists into 3 cells: 7 tourist go to the

7-passenger tram, 8 go to the 8-passenger tram,

and 3 tourists remain at the bottom of the

mountain. This can be done in

18!

7! 8! 3!

= 5,250,960 ways.

38. a. The 10 students are to be placed in 3 groups,

with 4 in group A, 3 in group B, and 3 in

group C. This can be done in

10!

4200

4! 3! 3!

=

ways.

b. For a given assignment of students to the

three groups, the number of ways of

selecting a group leader and a secretary for

group A (order is important) is

4 2

P ; for

group B, it is

3 2

P ; and for group C it is

3 2

P . Thus the number of ways that the

instructor can split the class into 3 groups

and designate a group leader and secretary

in each group is

4 2 3 2 3 2

4200 P P P

4200(4 3)(3 2)(3 2) = = 1,814,400.

Principles in Practice 8.3

1. This is a combination problem because the order

in which the videos are selected is not important.

The number of possible choices is the number of

ways 3 videos can be selected from 400 without

regard to order.

400 3

400! 400!

3!(400 3)! 3!397!

C = =

400 399 398 397!

3!397!

=

400 399 398

3 2

=

= 10,586,800

Problems 8.3

1. {9D, 9H, 9C, 9S]

2. {HHHH, HHHT, HHTH, HHTT, HTHH,

HTHT, HTTH, HTTT, THHH, THHT, THTH,

THTT, TTHH, TTHT, TTTH, TTTT}

3. {1H, 1T, 2H, 2T, 3H, 3T, 4H, 4T, 5H, 5T, 6H,

6T}

4. {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}

5. [64, 69, 60, 61, 46, 49, 40, 41, 96, 94, 90, 91, 06,

04, 09, 01, 16, 14, 19, 10]

6. {BBBB, BBBG, BBGB, BBGG, BGBB, BGBG,

BGGB, BGGG, GBBB, GBBG, GBGB, GBGG,

GGBB, GGBG, GGGB, GGGG}

7. a. {RR, RW, RB, WR, WW, WB, BR, BW,

BB};

b. {RW, RB, WR, WB, BR, BW}

8. {ADF, ADG, AEF, AEG, BDF, BDG, BEF,

BEG, CDF, CDG, CEF, CEG}

9. Sample space consists of ordered sets of six

elements and each element is H or T. Since there

are two possibilities for each toss (H or T), and

there are six tosses, by he basic counting

principle, the number of sample points is

2 2 2 2 2 2 =

6

2 64 = .

10. Sample space consists of ordered sets of five

elements where each element is an integer

between 1 and 6 inclusive. Since there are six

possibilities for each die, and there are 5 dice, by

Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

302

the basic counting principle, the number of

sample points is 6 6 6 6 6 =

5

6 7776 = .

11. Sample space consists of ordered pairs where the

first element indicates the card drawn (52

possibilities) and the second element indicates

the number on the die (6 possibilities). By the

basic counting principle, the number of sample

points is 52 6 = 312.

12. Sample space consists of ordered sets of four

elements where the elements and their position

indicate the rabbit selected on the respective

draw. Since the rabbits are not replaced, for the

first draw there are 9 possibilities, for the second

draw there are 8 possibilities, and for the third

and fourth there are 7 and 6 possibilities,

respectively. By the basic counting principle, the

number of sample points is 9 8 7 6 = 3024.

13. Sample space consists of combinations of

52 cards taken 10 at a time. Thus the number of

sample points is

52 10

. C

14. Sample space consists of all four letter words.

For each of the four letters there are 26

possibilities. By the basic counting principle, the

number of sample points is

26 26 26 26 =

4

26 456,976 = .

15. The sample points that are either in E, or in F, or

in both E and F are 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. Thus

E F = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}.

16. The sample points in S that are not in G are

1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 10. Thus

G = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10}.

17. The sample points in S that are not in E are 2, 4,

6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. Thus {2,4,6,7,8,9,10}. E =

The sample points common to both E and F are

7 and 9. Thus E F = {7, 9}.

18. {1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10} F = and

{1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10}, G = so {1, 10}. F G =

19. The sample points in S that are not in F are

1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10. Thus F = {1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.

20. ( ) {1,3,5,7,9} {2,4,6,8,10} E F = =

21. ( ) F G S = =

22. ( ) E G F

{1,2,3,4,5,6,8} {1,2,4,6,8,10} =

= {1, 2, 4, 6, 8}

23.

1 2

E E ;

1 3

E E ;

1 4

E E = ;

2 3

E E = ;

2 4

E E ;

3 4

E E = .

Thus

1

E and

4 2 3

, and E E E , and

3 4

and E E

are mutually exclusive.

24. If both cards are jacks, then both cards can

neither be clubs nor 3s. Thus

J C

E E = and

3

.

J

E E = If both cards are clubs, then both

cards cannot be 3s. Thus

3

.

C

E E =

J

E and ,

C J

E E and

3

,

C

E E and

3

E are

mutually exclusive.

25. E F , E G = , E H ,

E I , F G , F H

F I = , G H = , G I = ,

H I . Thus E and G, F and I, G and H, and

G and I are mutually exclusive.

26. E F =

,

E G =

,

E H ,

E I , F G , F H ,

F I =

,

G H = , G I = ,

H I = .

Thus E and F, E and G, F and I, G and H,

G and I, H and I are mutually exclusive.

27. a. S = {HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT,

TTH, TTT}

b.

1

E = {HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT,

TTH}

c.

2

E = {HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT, TTH,

TTT}

d.

1 2

E E = {HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH,

THT, TTH, TTT} = S

e.

1 2

E E = {HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT,

TTH}

f.

1 2

( ) E E S = =

g.

1 2

( ) E E = {HHT, HTH, HTT, THH,

THT, TTH} = {HHH, TTT}

28. a. {BB, BG, GB, GG}

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8.4

303

b. {BG, GB, GG}

c. {BB, BG, GB}

d. No; {BG, GB, GG} = {BB} event in (c)

29. a. {ABC, ACB, BAC, BCA, CAB, CBA}

b. {ABC, ACB}

c. {BAC, BCA, CAB, CBA}

30. a. {UUV, UUW, UUX, UUZ, UVV, UVW,

UVX, UVZ, UXV, UXW, UXX, UXZ,

UYV, UYW, UYX, UYZ, VUV, VUW,

VUX, VUZ, VVV, VVW, VVX, VVZ,

VXV, VXW, VXX, VXZ, VYV, VYW,

VYX, VYZ, WUV, WUW, WUX, WUZ,

WVV, WVW, WVX, WVZ, WXV, WXW,

WXX, WXZ, WYV, WYW, WYX, WYZ}

b. {VVV}

c. {UUV, UUW, UUX, UUZ, UVV, UVW,

UVX, UVZ, UXV, UXW, UXX, UXZ,

UYV, UYW, UYX, UYZ, VUV, VUW,

VUX, VUZ, VVW, VVX, VVZ, VXV,

VXW, VXX, VXZ, VYV, VYW, VYX,

VYZ, WUV, WUW, WUX, WUZ, WVV,

WVW, WVX, WVZ, WXV, WXW, WXX,

WXZ, WYV, WYW, WYX, WYZ}

More than one supplier is used.

31. Using the properties in Table 8.1, we have

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

E F E F

E F E F

E E F F

E E F F

E

=

=

=

=

=

[property 15]

[property 11]

[porperty 15]

[property 5]

[property 9]

Thus

( ) ( ) , so and E F E F E F E F =

are mutually exclusive.

32. Using the properties in Table 8.1, we have

( ) ( )

( )

E F E F

E F F

E S

E

=

=

=

[property 16]

[property 4]

[property 7]

Problems 8.4

1. 3000P(E) = 3000(0.25) = 750

2. 3000P(E) = 3000[1 P(E)] = 3000(1 0.45)

= 3000(0.55) = 1650

3. a. P(E) = 1 P(E) = 1 0.2 = 0.8

b. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P E F P E P F P E F = +

= 0.2 + 0.3 0.1 = 0.4

4. a. P(E) = 1 P(E) = 1

1 3

4 4

=

b. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P E F P E P F P E F = +

1 1 1 5

4 2 8 8

= + =

5. If E and F are mutually exclusive, then

E F = .

Thus ( ) ( ) 0 P E F P = = . Since it is given

that ( ) 0.831 0 P E F = , E and F are not

mutually exclusive.

6. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P E F P E P F P E F = +

Thus ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

13 1 1 1

.

20 10 2 4

P F P E F P E F P E = +

= + =

7. a.

8

E = {(2, 6), (3, 5), (4, 4), (5, 3), (6, 2)}

8

8

( ) 5

( )

( ) 36

n E

P E

n S

= =

b.

2 or 3

E = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1)}

2 or 3

2 or 3

( ) 3 1

( )

( ) 36 12

n E

P E

n S

= = =

c.

3,4,or 5

{(1,2),(2,1),(1,3),(2,2),(3,1),

(1,4),(2,3),(3,2),(4,1)}

E =

3,4, or 5

3,4,or 5

( )

9 1

( )

( ) 36 4

n E

P E

n S

= = =

d.

12 or 13 12

E E = , since

13

E is an impossible

event.

12

{(6,6)} E =

12 or 13

( ) P E

12 or 13

( ) 1

( ) 36

n E

n S

= =

Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

304

e.

2

{(1,1)} E =

4

{(1,3),(2,2),(3,1)} E =

6

{(1,5),(2,4),(3,3,),(4,2),(5,1)} E =

8

{(2,6),(3,5),(4,4),(5,3),(6,2)} E =

10

{(4,6),(5,5),(6,4)} E =

12

{(6,6)} E =

even 2 4

( ) ( ) ( ) P E P E P E = +

6 8 10 12

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P E P E P E P E + + + +

1 3 5 5 3 1 18 1

36 36 36 36 36 36 36 2

= + + + + + = =

f.

odd even

1 1

( ) 1 ( ) 1

2 2

P E P E = = =

g.

less than 10 10 11 12

E E E E =

{(4,6),(5,5),(6,4)} {(5,6),(6,5)} {(6,6)} =

{(4,6),(5,5),(6,4),(5,6),(6,5),(6,6)} = .

less than 10 less than 10

( ) 1 ( ) P E P E =

6 30 5

1

36 36 6

= = = .

8.

2 or 3 shows

E = {(2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4),

(2, 5), (2, 6), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3),

(3, 4), (3, 5), (3, 6), (1, 2), (4, 2),

(5, 2), (6, 2), (1, 3), (4, 3), (5, 3),

(6, 3)}

2 or 3 shows

2 or 3 shows

( ) 20 5

( )

( ) 36 9

n E

P E

n S

= = =

9. n(S) = 52.

a. P(king of hearts) =

king of hearts

( )

1

( ) 52

n E

n S

=

b. P(diamond) =

diamond

( ) 13 1

( ) 52 4

n E

n S

= =

c. P(jack) =

jack

( )

4 1

( ) 52 13

n E

n S

= =

d P(red) =

red

( ) 26 1

( ) 52 2

n E

n S

= =

e. Because a heart is not a club,

heart club

E E = .

Thus

heart or club heart club

( ) ( ) P E P E E =

heart club

( ) ( ) P E P E = +

heart club

( ) ( ) 13 13

( ) ( ) 52 52

n E n E

n S n S

= + = +

26 1

52 2

= =

f.

club and 4

{4C} E =

club and 4

club and 4

( ) 1

( )

( ) 52

n E

P E

n S

= =

g. P(club or 4)

= P(club) + P(4) P(club and 4)

13 4 1 16 4

52 52 52 52 13

= + = =

h.

red and king

{KH,KD} E =

red and king

( )

(red and king)=

( )

n E

P

n S

2 1

52 26

= =

i.

spade and heart

E =

Thus P(spade and heart) = 0

10. n(S) = 2 6 = 12

a.

H,5

{H5} E =

P(head and 5) =

H,5

( )

1

( ) 12

n E

n S

=

b.

head

( ) 1 6 6 n E = = .

P(head) =

head

( ) 6 1

( ) 12 2

n E

n S

= =

c.

3

( ) 2 1 2 n E = =

P(3) =

3

( ) 2 1

( ) 12 6

n E

n S

= =

d.

head and even

( ) 1 3 3 n E = =

P(head and even)

=

head and even

( ) 3 1

( ) 12 4

n E

n S

= =

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 8.4

305

11. n(S) = 2 6 52 = 624

a. P(tail, 3, queen of hearts)

=

T,3,QH

( )

111 1

( ) 624 624

n E

n S

= =

b. P(tail, 3, queen)

=

T,3,Q

( )

11 4 1

( ) 624 156

n E

n S

= =

c. P(head, 2 or 3, queen)

=

H,2 or 3,Q

( )

1 2 4 1

( ) 624 78

n E

n S

= =

d. P(head, even, diamond)

=

H,E,D

( )

1 3 13 1

( ) 624 16

n E

n S

= =

12. n(S) = 8

a.

3 heads

{HHH} E =

P(3 heads) =

3 heads

( ) 1

( ) 8

n E

n S

=

b.

1 tail

{HHT,HTH,THH} E = .

P(1 tail) =

1 tail

( ) 3

( ) 8

n E

n S

=

c. P(no more than 2 heads) = 1 P(3 heads)

=

1 7

1

8 8

=

d.

no more than 1 tail 0 tails 1 tail

E E E =

= {HHH} {HHT,HTH,THH}

= {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH}.

P(no more than 1 tail)

=

no more than 1 tail

( )

( )

n E

n S

4 1

8 2

= =

13. n(S) = 52 51 50 = 132,600

a.

4 3 2 1

(all kings)

132,600 5525

P

= =

b.

13 12 11 11

(all hearts)

132,600 850

P

= =

14. n(S) = 52 52 = 2704

a. P(both kings) =

both kings

( )

4 4

( ) 2704

n E

n S

=

1

169

=

b. Number of ways both cards are king of

hearts: 1. Number of ways either first card is

king of hearts and second card is a different

heart, or vice versa: 2(1 12) = 24. Number

of ways either first card is king of diamonds,

clubs, or spades, and second card is a heart,

or vice versa: 2(3 13) = 78. Thus, number

ways one card is a king and the other is a

heart is 1 + 24 + 78 = 103, so probability of

given event is

103

.

2704

15. n(S) = 2 2 2 = 8

a.

3 girls

{GGG} E =

P(3 girls) =

3 girls

( )

1

( ) 8

n E

n S

=

b.

1 boy

{BGG,GBG,GGB} E =

P(1 boy) =

1 boy

( )

3

( ) 8

n E

n S

=

c.

no girl

{BBB} E =

P(no girl) =

no girl

( )

1

( ) 8

n E

n S

=

d. P(at least 1 girl) = 1 P(no girl)

1 7

1

8 8

= =

16. The sample space consists of 18 jelly beans.

Thus n(S) = 18.

a. P(blue) =

blue

( ) 8 4

( ) 18 9

n E

n S

= =

b. P(not red) = 1 P(red)

= 1

red

( ) 7 11

1

( ) 18 18

n E

n S

= =

Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability and Statistics ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

306

c. The events of drawing a red jelly bean and

drawing a white jelly bean are mutually

exclusive. Thus

P(red or white) = P(red) + P(white)

=

7 3 10 5

18 18 18 9

+ = =

d. P(neither red nor blue) = P(white) =

3 1

18 6

=