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Trong ng php ting Anh c rt nhiu loi t m bn phi nh.

C th chng
ging nhau v t loi, ng ngha nhng khi p dng li mang ngha khc bit. Trong
chuyn ny cng tm hiu cch s dng mo t trong ting Anh nh th no nh!
Chng ta dng "the" khi danh t ch i tng c c ngi ni ln ngi nghe bit
r i tng no . Ngc li, khi dng mo t bt nh a, an; ngi ni cp n
mt i tng chung hoc cha xc nh c
The l mo t xc nh dng cho c danh t m c (s t ln s nhiu) v danh
t khng m c.
V d:
- The truth (s tht)
- The time (thi gian)
- The bicycle (mt chic xe p)
- The bicycles (nhng chic xe p)
1. Dng mo t xc nh trong ng php Ting Anh
a. Khi vt th hay nhm vt th l duy nht hoc c xem l duy nht
V d:
- The sun (mt tri); the sea (bin c)
- The world (th gii); the earth (qu t)

b. Trc mt danh t, vi iu kin danh t ny va mi c cp trc .
V d:
- I saw a beggar.The beggar looked curiously at me.
(Ti thy mt ngi n xin. Ngi n xin y nhn ti vi v t m)
c. Trc mt danh t, vi iu kin danh t ny c xc nh bng mt cm t
hoc mt mnh .
V d:
- The girl in uniform (C gi mc ng phc)
- The mechanic that I met (Ngi th my m ti gp)
- The place where I waited for him (Ni m ti i anh ta)
d. Trc mt danh t ch mt vt ring bit
V d:
- My father is working in the garden
- (Cha ti ang lm vic trong vn) [Vn nh ti]
- Please pass the dictionary (Lm n a quyn t in) [T in trn bn]
e. Trc so snh cc cp, Trc first (th nht), second (th nh), only (duy
nht).... khi cc t ny c dng nh tnh t hay i t.
V d:
- The first day (ngy u tin)
- The best time (thi gian thun tin nht)
- The only way (cch duy nht)
- The first to discover this accident (ngi u tin pht hin tai nn ny)
f. The + Danh t s t tng trng cho mt nhm th vt hoc vt
V d:
- The whale is in danger of becoming extinct (C voi ang trong nguy c tuyt chng)
- The fast food has made life easier for housewives.(Thc n nhanh lm cho cc b
ni tr c cuc sng d dng hn)
g. The c th dng Trc mt thnh vin ca mt nhm ngi nht nh
V d:
- The small shopkeeper is finding business increasingly difficult (Gii ch tim nh
thy vic bun bn ngy cng kh khn)
h. The + Danh t s tdng Trc mt ng t s t. i t l He / She /It
V d:
- The first-class passenger pays more so that he enjoys some comfort.
(Hnh khch i v hng nht tr tin nhiu hn hng tin nghi thoi mi)
i. The + Tnh ttng trng cho mt nhm ngi
V d:
-The old (ngi gi); the rich and the poor (ngi giu v ngi ngho)
j. The dng Trc nhng danh t ring ch bin, sng, qun o, dy ni, tn gi
s nhiu ca cc nc, sa mc, min
V d:
- The Pacific (Thi Bnh Dng);The Netherlands (H Lan)
- The Crimea (Vng Crim); The Alps (dy Alps)
k. The cng ng Trc nhng tn gi gm Danh t + of + danh t
V d:
- The Gulf of Mexico (Vnh Mhic)
- The United States of America (Hip chng quc Hoa K).
Nhng ngi ta li ni:
- South Africa (Nam Phi), North America (Bc M), West Germany (Ty c),mc
d The north of Spain (Bc Ty Ban Nha), The Middle East (Trung ng); The West
(Ty Phng)
l. The + h ( s nhiu)ngha l Gia nh ...
V d:The Smiths = Gia nh Smith (v chng Smith v cc con)
2. Khng dng mo t xc nh trong trng hp no?
a. Trc tn quc gia, tn chu lc, tn ni, tn h, tn ng.
V d:
Europe (Chu u), South America (Nam M), France (Php quc), Downing Street
(Ph Downing)
b. Khi danh t khng m c hoc danh t s nhiu dng theo ngha chung
nht, ch khng ch ring trng hp no.
V d:
- I don't like French beer (Ti chng thch bia ca Php)
- I don't like Mondays (Ti chng thch ngy th hai)
c. Trc danh t tru tng, tr phi danh t ch mt trng hp c bit.
V d:
- Men fear death (Con ngi s ci cht)
Nhng:
- The death of the President made his country acephalous (ci cht ca v tng thng
khin cho t nc ng khng c ngi lnh o).
d. Sau s hu tnh t (possessive adjective) hoc sau danh t s hu cch
(possessive case).
V d:
- My friend, ch khng ni My the friend
- The girl's mother = the mother of the girl (M ca c gi)
e. Trc tn gi cc ba n.
V d
-They invited some friends to dinner.
(H mi vi ngi bn n n ti)
Nhng:
- The wedding breakfast was held in a beautiful garden
(Ba tic ci c t chc trong mt khu vn xinh p)
f. Trc cc tc hiu.
V d
- President Roosevelt (Tng thng Roosevelt)
- King Louis XIV of France (Vua Louis XIV ca Php)
g. Trong cc trng hp sau y
- Women are always fond of music (Ph n lun thch m nhc)
- Come by car/by bus (n bng xe t/xe byt)
- In spring/in autumn (Vo ma xun/ma thu), last night (m qua), next year(nm
ti), from beginning to end (t u ti cui), from left to right (t tri sang phi).
- To play golf/chess/cards (chi gn/ nh c/nh bi)
Lu
- Nature mang ngha "T nhin , thin nhin " th khng dng the.
V d:
- According to the laws of nature (Theo quy lut t nhin)
- They couldn't tolerate city life anymore and went back to nature(H khng chu ni
i sng thnh th na v tr v vi thin nhin)
- He listened to the radio(Anh ta nghe rai), nhng He watchedtelevision(Anh ta
xem TV) ; hoc He heard it on the radio(Anh ta nghe c vic trn rai), nhng
He saw it on TV(Anh ta thy vic trn TV).
- Go home/get home (i v nh), be at home ( nh), nhng They returned to the
brideg room's home(H tr li nh ch r).Go to bed/hospital/church/school/
work/prison (i ng/i nm bnh vin/i l/i hc/i lm/ i t), nhng They went to
the school to see their children's teacher(H n trng gp thy ca con h) &
Thepriest goes to the jail topray for the two dying prisoners(Linh mc n nh t
cu nguyn cho hai ngi t ang hp hi) & She will get a bus at the church (C ta
s n xe byt ch nh th).Ni chung, khng th thiu The nu n trng khng
phi hc, n nh t khng phi t hoc n nh th khng phi cu
nguyn.
3. Mo t bt nh trong ting Anh
a. A ng trc mt ph m hoc mt nguyn m c m l ph m.
V d:
- a game (mt tr chi); a boat (mt chic tu thy)
- a university (mt trng i hc);a year (mt nm)
- a European (mt ngi u); a one-legged man (mt ngi tht chn)
b. An ng trc mt nguyn m hoc mt m cm
V d:
- an egg (mt qu trng);an ant (mt con kin)
- an honour (mt nim vinh d); an hour (mt gi ng h)
c. An cng ng trc cc mu t c bit c nh mt nguyn m.
V d:
- an SOS (mt tn hiu cp cu); an MSc (mt thc s khoa hc), an X-ray (mt tia X)
d. A/An c hnh thc ging nhau tt c cc ging, loi
V d:
- a tiger (mt con cp);a tigress (mt con cp ci)
- an uncle (mt ng ch);an aunt (mt b d)
4. Cch dng mo t bt nh
a. Trc mt danh t s t m c.
V d:
- We need a microcomputer (Chng ti cn mt my vi tnh)
- He eats an ice-cream (Anh ta n mt cy kem)
b. Trc mt danh t lm b tc t (k c danh t ch ngh nghip)
V d:
- It was a tempest( l mt trn bo d di)
- She'll be a musician (C ta s l mt nhc s)
- Peter is an actor (Peter l mt din vin)
c. Trong cc thnh ng ch s lng nht nh
V d:
- a lot (nhiu); a couple (mt cp/i); a third (mt phn ba)
- a dozen (mt t); a hundred (mt trm); a quarter (mt phn t)
Lu
a cng c dng trc half(na, ri), khi half theo sau mt snguyn vn. Chng
hn, 2 1/2 kilos = two and half kilos hoc two kilos and a half (hai k ri), nhng1/2
Kg = half a kilo(na k) [khng c a trc half].i khi ngi ta vn dng a + half +
danh t, chng hn nh a half-dozen (na t), a half-length (bc nh chp na ngi);
a half-hour (na gi).
5. Khng dng mo t bt nh trong trng hp no?
a. Trc danh t s nhiu
A/An khng c hnh thc s nhiu. V vy, s nhiu ca a cat l cats v ca an apple
l apples .
b. Trc danh t khng m c
V d:
- He gave us good advice (ng ta cho chng ti nhng li khuyn hay)
- I write on paper (Ti ghi trn giy)
c. Trc tn gi cc ba n, tr phi c tnh t ng trc cc tn gi .
V d:
- They have lunch at eleven (h dng cm tra lc 11 gi)
- You gave me an appetizing dinner (bn cho ti mt ba n ti tht ngon ming).
Tuy nhin, nu l ba n c bit nhn dp no , ngi ta vn dng mo t bt nh.
V d:
- I was invited to breakfast (ba im tm bnh thng)
(Ti c mi n im tm).
- We were invited to a dinner given to welcome the new director.
(Chng ti c mi d ba n ti cho mng v gim c mi).


Ngun: Ti y!