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# Hope this will help you to prepare

## Good luck on the exam !

By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013 1
Q1: How can we find 1s and 2s compliments of a binary
number ? What is their practical usage? Give example.
The rs compliment: is found by raising the base r to the number of digits in
the number then subtracting the number from this.
Using base 2, the 2s compliment of 1010 is (2
4
)
10
1010 = 10000 1010 = 0110
Another way to find the 2s compliment is to start with the right most digit, if it is a
0 then write 0 until you come to the first 1 then write 1, but for all the digits to the
left of the first one you must reverse (if it is 0 write1 or if it is 1 write 0).
The (r-1)s compliment: is found by raising the base r to the number of digits
in the integer number then subtracting the base r raised to the negative
number of digits in the fraction number and subtracting the number from this.
Using base 2, the 1s compliment of 1010 is (2
4
)
10
1 - 1010 = 1111 1010 = 0101
Another way to find the 1s compliment is to reverse all of the digits (if it is 0
write1 or if it is 1 write 0).
Compliment numbers are used for binary subtraction in computers.
Subtracting with the rs compliment: add the first number to the rs
compliment of the second number.
if a left side carry happens delete it.
if no left side carry happens, then take the rs compliment of the answer and make
it negative.
For example 1001 1010 = 1001 + 0110 = 1111 (no carry) so (10000 1111)
= - 0001
2 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q2: How can you perform number base conversion of
fractions? Give example.
Conversion of integers: divide by the base that you are converting into. Keep the
remainder as a coefficient. Then divide the new result by the base, and keep the
remainder. Do this until you cannot divide any more. The remainders are the new
number in the new base.
Conversion of fractions: multiply by the base that you are converting into. Keep the
integer as a coefficient. Then multiply the new fraction by the base, and keep the
integer. Do this until there is no fraction part or you have enough digits.
if the number has an integer and fraction part, then it is easier to convert them
separately (in two parts). For example 26.625
First convert the integer 26
Integer remainder coefficient
26 / 2 = 13 0 a
0
=0
13 / 2 = 6 1 a
1
=1
6 / 2 = 3 0 a
2
=0
3 / 2 = 1 1 a
3
=1
1 / 2 = 0 1 a
4
=1
so the binary number for 26 = 11010
Second convert 0.625 into binary:
0.625 x 2 = 1.25 1 +0.25 a
-1
=1
0.25 x 2 = 0.5 0 +0.5 a
-2
=0
0.5 x 2 = 1.0 1 +0 a
-3
=1
so the binary number for 0.625 = 0.101
3 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q3: Design a base 6 binary code where the 5s compliment of
the code can be found by replacing 1 with 0 and 0 with 1. Show
in a table the decimal number, its base 6 code, and its 5s
compliment? Also show the calculations to prove the 5s
compliment?
Decimal number Base 6 code 5s compliment
0 000 111
1 001 110
2 010 101
3 101 010
4 110 001
5 111 000
The 5s compliment of 0 is (6
1
)
6
1 0 = 5 0 = 5
The 5s compliment of 1 is (6
1
)
6
1 1 = 5 1 = 4
The 5s compliment of 2 is (6
1
)
6
1 2 = 5 2 = 3
The 5s compliment of 3 is (6
1
)
6
1 3 = 5 3 = 2
The 5s compliment of 4 is (6
1
)
6
1 4 = 5 4 = 1
The 5s compliment of 5 is (6
1
)
6
1 5 = 5 5 = 0
4 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q4: Given circuit 2, write the binary logic operation
(AND, OR, NOT) for A, B and C (where A means switch closed)
to turn on lamp L?
(A OR B) AND C = L
5 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q5: Describe the basic theorems and properties in Boolean
algebra (e.g. Commutative, Distributive, etc.)
For example, Theorem 1 proof:
X + X = X, X + X = X+X 1 = (X+X) (X+X) = X+XX = X+0 = X
X X = X, XX = X(X+0) =XX + XX = X(X+X) = X1 = X
OR equation Dual
Law (postulate) 2 X + 0 = X X 1 = X
Law (postulate) 3 commutative X + Y = Y + X X Y = Y X
Law (postulate) 4 distributive X (Y + Z) = XY + XZ X+(YZ) = (X+Y) (X+Z)
Law (postulate) 5 X + X = 1 X X =0
Theorem 1 X + X = X X X = X
Theorem 2 X + 1 = 1 X 0 = 0
Theorem 3 (X) = X
Theorem 4 Associative X+ (Y + Z) = (X + Y) +Z X (Y Z) = (X Y) Z
Theorem 5 DeMorgan (X+Y) = X Y (XY) = X + Y
Theorem 6 absorption X + XY = X X (X+Y) = X
6 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q6: Which standard forms of boolean expressions do you
know?
Minterms: are also called standard products. These are all of the
combinations of the AND of the variables. So there are 2
n
minterms for n
variables.
Sum of Minterms = a Boolean function can be written as the sum of the
minterms where the function is 1.
Maxterms: are also called standard sums. These are all of the combinations
of the OR of the variables. So there are 2
n
maxterms for n variables.
Product of Maxterms = a Boolean function can be written as the product of the
maxterms where the function is 0.
A B C Minterms designator Maxterms designator
0 0 0 ABC m0 A+B+C M0
0 0 1 ABC m1 A+B+C M1
0 1 0 ABC m2 A+B+C M2
0 1 1 ABC m3 A+B+C M3
1 0 0 ABC m4 A+B+C M4
1 0 1 ABC m5 A+B+C M5
1 1 0 ABC m6 A+B+C M6
1 1 1 ABC m7 A+B+C M7
7 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q7: What are Digital Logic Gates?
8 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q8: What are some of the types of Integrated Circuits for
Digital Gates?
9 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q9: Design a 2 bit comparator that gives a 1 when the first
number is bigger than the second?
Step1: Inputs: two input numbers that are
each 2 bits
Step2: (two binary digits) so X is X1,X0 and
Y is Y1,Y0.
The output is one bit that F= 1 when X>Y.
Step3: Equation: F = X1Y1X0Y0+
X1Y1X0Y0 + X1Y1X0Y0 +
X1Y1X0Y0 + X1Y1X0Y0 +
X1Y1X0Y0
Reducing this:
F = X1Y1 + X1Y1X0Y0 +
X1Y1X0Y0
So this circuit will need 2-OR gates, 7-AND
gates, 3-NOT gates.
Using one reduction: F = X1Y1 + (X1Y1 +
X1Y1)X0Y0
So this circuit will need 2-OR gates, 5-AND
gates, 3-NOT gates.
Step 4 >>>>>>>
X1 X0 Y1 Y0 F
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 0 1
1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 0
Figure 2
X1Y1+X1Y1
Y0
F
X0
Y1
X1
X0Y0
X1Y1
X1Y1
X1Y1
(X1Y1+X1Y1)X0Y0
10 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q10: Design a 4 bit odd parity generator. Inputs: 4 binary bits.
The output is one bit that F= 1 when there are an even number
of 1s or 0 in the input.
Equation: All minterms: F = X1X0Y1Y0
+ X1X0Y1Y0 + X1X0Y1Y0 +
X1X0Y1Y0 + X1X0Y1Y0 +
X1X0Y1Y0 + X1X0Y1Y0 +
X1X0Y1Y0
So this circuit will need 7-OR gates, 24-AND
gates, 4-NOT gates.
Using the distributive function once: F =
X1X0(Y1Y0 + Y1Y0) +
X1X0(Y1Y0 + Y1Y0) + X1X0(Y1Y0 +
Y1Y0) +X1X0(Y1Y0 + Y1Y0)
Using the distributive function again: F =
(X1X0+X1X0)(Y1Y0 + Y1Y0) +
(X1X0+X1X0)(Y1Y0 + Y1Y0)
So this circuit will need 5-OR gates, 8-AND
gates, 4-NOT gates.
Using XOR and XNOR gates:
F = (X1X0)( Y1Y0) + (X1X0)(Y1Y0)
So this circuit will need 1-OR gates, 2-AND
gates, 2-XOR gates, 2-XNOR gates.
X1 X0 Y1 Y0 F
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 1
0 1 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 0 1
1 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1
Figure 3
Y0
F
Y1
X0
X1
(X1X0) (Y1Y0)
Y1Y0
Y1Y0
X1X0
X1X0
(X1X0) (Y1Y0)
11 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q11: Write the truth table for F =
(A+C+D)(A+C+D)(A+C+D)(A+B).
A B C D F2
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 1 1
1 1 0 0 1
1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1
12 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q12: What is the Boolean Map? What types of Boolean Maps
do you know? How can we make an equation smaller using a
Boolean Map? Give example.
13 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q13: Write the functions as the sum of minterms and product
of maxterms:
F(A,B,C,D) = (A+B+C)(A+B)(A+C+D)(A+B+C+D)(B+C+D)
Maxterms = (A+B+C+D)(A+B+C+D)(A+B+C+D)(A+B+C+D)(A+B+C+D)
(A+B+C+D)(A+B+C+D) = ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD +
ABCD + ABCD
Minterms = ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD +
ABCD + ABCD + ABCD
A B C D Minterms designator Maxterms designator
0 0 0 0 ABCD m0 A+B+C+D M0
0 0 0 1 ABCD m1 A+B+C+D M1
0 0 1 0 ABCD m2 A+B+C+D M2
0 0 1 1 ABCD m3 A+B+C+D M3
0 1 0 0 ABCD m4 A+B+C+D M4
0 1 0 1 ABCD m5 A+B+C+D M5
0 1 1 0 ABCD m6 A+B+C+D M6
0 1 1 1 ABCD m7 A+B+C+D M7
1 0 0 0 ABCD m8 A+B+C+D M8
1 0 0 1 ABCD m9 A+B+C+D M9
1 0 1 0 ABCD m10 A+B+C+D M10
1 0 1 1 ABCD m11 A+B+C+D M11
1 1 0 0 ABCD m12 A+B+C+D M12
1 1 0 1 ABCD m13 A+B+C+D M13
1 1 1 0 ABCD m14 A+B+C+D M14
1 1 1 1 ABCD m15 A+B+C+D M15
14 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q14: Using maps, make the following function into a simple
Sum of Products form: F = ABCD + ACD + BCD + ABCD +
BCD
F = BD + ABC + ABD
15 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q15: What is Dont-Care Condition when we work with
Boolean maps or equations?
16 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q16: Design a 4 bit Gray code to binary converter for 0 to 9 decimal? Inputs: 4 Gray
code bits. The output is one bit that is the right side bit for the binary number B1.
17
By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q17: Simplify the following Boolean function and draw the circuit
with only NAND gates? F = AC + ACE + ACE + ACD + ADE
18 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q18: Describe the algorithm for converting a circuit into a NOR only circuit (AND,
OR, NOT, etc. needs to be replaced in a certain way by NOR gates).
19
By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q19: Design a 3-bit full adder circuit. The circuit will take two a
3 bit numbers (X and Y) on the input and make (output) one 3
bit number that is the sum of the two input numbers?
20 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
X1
1
Out1
Y1
X2
Out2
Y2
C
X0
Out0
Y0
3-bit full adder: (below)
Q20: Design a 3-bit full subtractor circuit. The circuit will take two
a 3 bit numbers (X and Y) on the input and make (output) one 3
bit number that is the difference (X-Y) of the two input numbers?
You can use 1s or 2s complement subtraction.
21 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q21: What is 7-segment display? Design a BCD to 7-segment code converter
(start with a truth table).
22 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Using four XOR gates and one 4-bit full adder, design a 4-bit adder / subtractor
circuit? This circuit will have one additional input V. If V=0 then the circuit will add,
but if V=1 then the circuit will subtract. Use the 2s compliment subtraction, BUT if
no left side carry happens, then you do not need to take the 2s compliment of the
answer and make it negative.
23 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q23: Design a binary multiplier that multiplies a 4-bit number B (B3,B2,B1,B0) and a
3-bit number A (A2,A1,A0) and produces the product C (C6,C5,C4,C3,C2,C1,C0)? This
can be done with 12 gates and two 4-bit full adders. The gates are used to make the
partial products, and the full adders are used to add them together
24 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q24: What is a decoder? What is an encoder? Where they can be used?
Provide the corresponding truth tables, examples and figures.
25 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q25:What is a Multiplexer? What is a Demultiplexer? Where
they can be used?
26 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Multiplexer is on the next slide
27 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q26: Design a Full Subtractor using a decoder?
28 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q27: Which flip-flops do you know? What is the difference between a latch and a
flip-flop? Provide the corresponding truth tables, examples and figures.
29 The difference is that latch is level-triggered, whereas flip-flop is edge-triggered
Q28: Why we design master-slave flip-flops? Provide the
design for JK master-slave flip-flop.
One problem of JK flip-flop is that when J=1 and K=1 and CP=1, then the output will keep
changing. The final state will not be known. This is called a toggle output problem.
30 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q29: What is a state equation? Provide example.
31 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013
Q30: Design a 3-Bit Binary Counter. Provide the corresponding
truth tables, examples and figures.
32 By Pakita Shamoi, Spring 2013