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TM HIU H THNG MIMO

Gii thiu
MIMO l h thng a anten u pht, u thu, p dng k thut phn tp, m
ha nhm tng dung lng knh truyn, ci thin hiu sut ph m khng phi tng
cng sut pht hay tng bng thng. Do , phn ny, trc ht chng ta tm hiu v
k thut phn tp, tip theo l m hnh ha cu trc MIMO, cch thc truyn d liu
qua knh truyn MIMO, phn loi m ha khng gian thi gian, dung lng ca h
thng MIMO trong cc mi trng fading khc nhau.
3.1 K thut phn tp
Trong truyn thng khng dy di ng, k thut phn tp c s dng rng ri
lm gim nh hng ca fading a ng v ci tin tin cy ca knh truyn m
khng yu cu tng cng sut pht hoc tng bng thng cn thit. K thut tht phn
tp yu cu nhiu bn sao ca tn hiu pht ti ni thu, tt c mang cng mt thng tin
nhng c s tng quan rt nh trong mi trng fading. tng c bn ca phn tp
l nu ni thu nhn hai hay nhiu bn sao ca tn hiu mt cch c lp th nhng mu
ny b suy gim cng c lp vi tn hiu khc c th khng b suy gim. V vy, s
kt hp hp l ca cc phin bn khc nhau s lm gim nh hng ca fading v ci
thin tin cy ca ng truyn.
3.1.1 Cc loi phn tp
C nhiu cch t c phn tp. Phn tp thi gian c th thu c qua m
ha (Coding) v xen knh (Interleaving), phn tp tn s nu c tnh ca knh truyn
l chn lc tn s, phn tp khng gian s dng nhiu anten pht hoc thu t cch
nhau vi khong cch ln.
Trong thc t, k thut phn tp c th ng dng trong min khng gian, s
phn cc ca anten, min tn s v min thi gian.
3.1.1.1 Phn tp khng gian
Phn tp khng gian l phng php phn tp c s dng rng di trong
thng tin v tuyn. Phng php ny s dng nhiu anten my pht, my thu hoc
c my thu v my pht to nn cc nhnh phn tp khng gian khc nhau. Khong
cch cn thit gia cc anten ti thiu l mt na bc sng l/2. Khi s dng nhiu
anten my pht ta c h thng phn tp khng gian pht, v chng ta c h thng phn
tp khng gian thu nu s dng nhiu anten pha thu. Trong trng hp s dng nhiu
anten c pha pht v pha thu chng ta c mt tp hp knh truyn vi nhiu u vo
nhiu u ra. Cc h thng phn tp thu pht khng gian kiu ny c gi l h thng
a u vo, a u ra (MIMO).
u im ca phng php phn tp khng gian l khng lm suy gim hiu sut
bng tn, khng tn ph tn s, d s dng v trn l thuyt khng c s hn ch v s
lng cc nhnh phn tp. Do c cc u im ni trn, phng php phn tp
khng gian c nghin cu t nm 1927 n tn nay. Cc nghin cu v phn
tp khng gian tp chung ch yu vo k thut kt hp tn hiu phn tp.
Phn tp phn cc v phn tp gc l hai v d ca phn tp khng gian. Trong
phn tp phn cc, Cc tn hiu phn cc ng v ngang c truyn bi hai ng-ten
phn cc v c nhn bi hai ng-ten phn cc. Cc phn cc khc nhau m bo
rng hai tn hiu khng tng quan vi nhau m khng cn phi t hai ng ten cch
xa nhau. Phn tp gc thng c p dng cho vic truyn dn vi sng mang c tn
s ln hn 10 GHz. Trong trng hp ny, coi nh l tn hiu pht b tn x mnh
trong khng gian, tn hiu thu t cc hng khc nhau l c lp ln nhau. V th, hai
hoc nhiu hn cc ng-ten nh hng c th c t trong cc hng khc nhau ti
pha my thu cho ta cc bn sao khng tng quan ca cc tn hiu pht.
Ph thuc vo vic s dng nhiu ng ten pha pht hay pha thu, chng ta c
th chia phn tp khng gian thnh: phn tp thu v phn tp pht. Trong phn tp
thu, nhiu ng-ten c dng pha thu thu cc bn sao c lp ca tn hiu pht.
Cc bn sao ca tn hiu pht c kt hp mt cch thch hp lm tng SNR thu
tng th v lm gim nh pha inh a ng. Trong phn tp pht, nhiu ng-ten c
s dng pha pht. Cc bn tin c x l my pht v sau c a ra cc
ng ten.
3.1.1.2 Phn tp tn s
Chng ta s dng mt tp hp cc tn s truyn i cng mt tn hiu, to nn s
phn tp tn s. Khong cch gia cc tn s phi ln, vo khong vi trm ln bng
tn ng b, m bo pha-inh ng vi cc tn s s dng khng tng quan vi
nhau. i vi thng tin di ng, bng tn ng b o c vo khong 500kHz, v vy
khong cch cn thit gia cc nhnh phn tp tn s t nht l 1-2 MHz.
Trong thng tin di ng hin i, phn tp tn s cn c th nhn c thng qua
vic s dng cc k thut iu ch a sng mang hay s dng phng php nhy tn.
Nhc im ca phng php phn tp tn s l tn ph tn s. Ngoi ra, do cc
nhnh phn tp c tn s khc nhau nn mi nhnh cn s dng mt my thu pht cao
tn ring.
3.1.1.3 Phn tp thi gian
Do tnh cht ngu nhin ca pha-inh, bin ca mt tn hiu chu nh hng
pha-inh ngu nhin ti cc thi im ly mu cch xa nhau ln v thi gian s
khng tng quan vi nhau. V vy vic truyn mt tn hiu ti cc thi im cch bit
nhau ln tng ng vi vic truyn mt tn hiu trn nhiu ng c lp, to nn
s phn tp v thi gian. Khong thi gian cn thit m bo thu c tn hiu
pha-inh khng tng quan ti my thu ti thiu l thi gian ng b ca knh truyn.
i vi thng tin di ng th khong thi gian ng b ny l:

/ (2 )
c c
T c vf =
(3.1)
trong :
8
3.10 / c m s =
l tc nh sng.
v
: l vn tc chuyn ng ca my di ng.
c
f
: l tn s sng mang.
Vi cc my di dng lm vic tn s 800 Mhz v di chuyn vi tc 50
Km/h, thi gian ng b l
13.5
c
T ms =
. to ra
d
M
nhnh phn tp, tn hiu cn
c truyn i ti
d
M
khe thi gian. V vy khong thi gian gi chm cn thit
truyn tn hiu trn
d
M
nhnh phn tp l
. / 2
d c
M c vf
. i vi truyn dn tn hiu
thoi, tc ly mu cn thit t nht l
8M
kHz. ng thi, m bo rng
xung truyn nm trong bng truyn dn, chng ta ch s dng ti a
50
d
M =
nhnh
phn tp. Do thi gian cch bit t l nghch vi tc di chuyn nn khc vi cc
phng php phn tp khc, phng php phn tp thi gian khng c ngha trong
trng hp my di ng ng yn.
Gn y, trong h thng thng tin di ng hin i, m sa li c s dng
kt hp vi phng php xen k tn hiu to nn mt phng php phn tp thi
gian mi. Do thi gian xem k di s gy ln chm gi m ln, nn phng php
ny ch thch hp i vi cc knh pha-inh bin ng nhanh.
Nhc im chnh ca phng php phn tp thi gian l lm suy gim hiu sut
bng tn do s d tha trong min thi gian.
3.1.2 Cc phng php kt hp phn tp pha thu
c im then cht ca tt c cc k thut phn tp l xc sut tt c cc
phin bn ca tn hiu b nhiu fading (deep fading) l rt thp. Tng qut, BER ca h
thng dng k tht phn tp ph thuc vo cch m cc phin bn ca tn hiu kt hp
li tai ni thu lm tng SNR. V th, cc dng phn tp c th phn loi theo
phng php kt hp c s dng ti ni thu. Ty thuc vo phc tp v mc
thng tin trng thi knh truyn CSI yu cu bi phng php kt hp ti ni thu, c
bn loi chnh l: kt hp la chn (Selection combining), kt hp chuyn nhnh SC
(Switching combining), kt hp theo cng li EGC (Equal Gain Combining) v kt
hp theo t l ln nht MRC (Maximum Ratio Combining)
3.1.2.1 Kt hp la chn
Kt hp la chn l mt phng php kt hp phn tp n gian. Xt mt h
thng phn tp thu vi
R
n ng-ten thu. S khi ca phng php kt hp la chn
c cho trong Hnh 3.1. Trong mt h thng nh th ny, tn hiu c t s tn trn
tp (SNR) tc thi ln nht ti mi khong thi gian tn ti symbol c chn u
ra, v th SNR u ra bng vi SNR tt nht ca tn hiu u vo. Trong thc t, tn
hiu c tng cng sut tn hiu v tp m ( ) S N + ln nht thng c s dng, v
rt kh o c SNR.

Hnh 3.1 Phng php kt hp la chn
3.1.1.2 Kt hp chuyn nhnh(SC)
Trong mt h thng phn tp kt hp chuyn mch (c cho trong Hnh 3.2),
my thu qut tt c cc nhnh phn tp v chn mt nhnh c SNR ln hn mt
ngng nh trc. Tn hiu ny c chn nh l u ra, ti khi SNR ca n b rt
xung di ngng. Khi iu ny xy ra, my thu bt u qut li v chuyn ti nhnh
khc. Phng php ny cn c gi l phn tp qut.
So snh vi phn tp la chn, phn tp chuyn mch km hn v n khng lin
tc chn tn hiu tc thi tt nht. Tuy nhin n thc hin n gin hn v n khng
yu cu phi theo di lin tc v tc thi cc nhnh phn tp. Vi c hai phng php
phn tp la chn v chuyn mch, tn hiu u ra ch bng mt trong nhng nhnh
phn tp. Hn na, chng khng yu cu phi bit bt k trng thi thng tin knh
no. V vy, hai phng php ny c th c s dng tt vi c hai phng php iu
ch kt hp v khng kt hp.

Hnh 3.2 Phng php kt hp chuyn mch
3.1.1.3 Kt hp t l ti a (MRC)
Kt hp t l ti a l mt phng php kt hp tuyn tnh. Trong x l kt hp
tuyn tnh tng qut, cc tn hiu vo khc nhau c nhn cc trng s khc nhau v
c cng li vi nhau v cho ra mt tn hiu u ra. Cc h s trng s c th c
chn theo vi cch.
Hnh 3.3 cho ta s khi ca mt phng php phn tp kt hp t l ti a. Tn
hiu u ra l kt hp tuyn tnh ca cc bn sao ca tt c cc tn hiu thu nhn
trng s. V c cho bi:

1
R
n
i i
i
r r a
=
=

(3.2)
vi
i
r l tn hiu nhn c ti ng-ten thu th i , v
i
a l trng s cho ng-ten
th i . Trong kt hp t l ti a, trng s ca mi ng ten thu c chn t l vi t s
in p tn hiu trn cng sut tp m ca n. K hiu
i
A v
i
F ln lt l bin v
pha ca tn hiu thu
i
r . Gi s rng mi ng-ten thu c cng sut trung bnh tp m
nh nhau th ta c trng s
i
a :

i
j
i i
Ae a
- F
= (3.3)
Phng php ny c gi l phng php kt hp ti u v n c th ti a ha
c SNR u ra. N cng ch ra rng SNR u ra ln nht bng tng cc SNR tc
thi ca cc tn hiu ring bit.
Trong phng php ny, mi tn hiu ring bit phi c ng pha, nhn trng
s vi bin tng ng ca n sau c tng hp li. Phng php ny yu cu
phi bit bin pha inh ca knh v pha ca tn hiu. V vy, chng c th c s
dng vi b tch sng kt hp nhng trong thc t th chng khng c dng cho
cc b tch sng khng kt hp.

Hnh 3.3 Phng php kt hp t l ti a
3.1.1.4 Kt hp ng li (EGC)
Kt hp ng li l mt phng php gn ti u nhng l phng php kt
hp tuyn tnh n gin. N khng yu cu c lng bin pha inh cho mi nhnh
ring bit. Thay v th, my thu n nh cc bin ca cc trng s nh nhau.

i
j
i
e
f
a
-
= (3.4)
Trong cch ny, tt c cc tn hiu thu c ng pha v sau c cng vi
nhau vi cng mt li. Phng php kt hp ng li ch km hn mt cht so
vi phng php kt hp t l ti a. phc tp ca phng php kt hp ng
li gim i ng k so vi phng php kt hp t l ti a
3.2 Tng quan v h thng MIMO
H thng MIMO s dng cc dy anten c hai u knh truyn: nhiu anten
cho pha thu v nhiu anten cho pha pht. Cc h thng MIMO cho php ng thi
kh nng iu khin trc tip tn hiu pht hoc thu trn mt dy b chuyn i to
chum tia v truyn cng lc nhiu tn hiu, cng nh kh nng trit nhiu.



Dung lng ca h thng thng tin v tuyn c tng ln ng k khi s dng
nhiu anten thu v pht. Vi mt h thng gm nhiu dy anten thu pht v bn thu
bit c c tnh ca knh truyn l fading phng c lp th dung lng h thng s
tng t l vi s anten.
3.2.1 Knh truyn ca h thng MIMO
Truyn d liu v tch sng qua knh truyn MIMO c m t nh sau:



D liu nh phn c a vo khi pht gm cc chc nng m ha iu khin
li, iu ch tn hiu thnh cc k t (QAM, PSK,) v cui cng tch chui k t
thnh n
T
chui con n nh x n n
T
anten pht tng ng. Vic nh x c th bao
gm cc trng s ha tuyn tnh ca cc phn t anten hoc b tin m ha tuyn tnh
khng gian thi gian. Sau c a n b i tn ln, lc v khuch i ri a
n n
T
anten pht. Tn hiu c truyn qua knh truyn v tuyn n ni thu. Ti b
thu, tn hiu thu c trn n
R
anten thu c a vo nh x ngc, gii iu ch v
gii m khi phc li dng d liu ban u.
Hnh 3.4: S nguyn l h thng MIMO
Hnh 3.5: Truyn d liu qua h thng MIMO
Tng qut, vic thit k b m ha knh truyn, iu ch v nh x trong h
thng MIMO s khc nhiu so vi h thng c SISO. S khc nhau chnhs l s xut
hin thm 1 chiu tn hiu mi: khng gian, y l c tnh ca h thng s dng nhiu
anten. V th, k thut truyn d liu qua h thng MIMO g l k thut khng gian
thi gian. S chn la mt k thut c th thay i ty thuc vo bn pht hoc bn
thu bit thng s knh truyn fading CSI. Tuy nhin, pha pht s kh bit c
thng tin knh truyn fading CSI. Ngc li, pha thu c th bit c thng tin
knh truyn bng cch c lng cc thng s knh truyn.
K thut m ha khng gian thi gian ang pht trin v thay i nhanh chng,
c th c phn loi theo 4 hng chnh nh sau:


Kho st h thng MIMO im im vi n
T
anten pht v n
R
anten thu trong
trng hp truyn bng gc tuyn tnh, ri rc theo thi gian. Tn hiu pht x c
biu din bi ma trn ct [n
T
x 1], vi thnh phn th I l x
i
tng ng vi tn hiu
pht ca anten th i.
Xt knh truyn c nhiu AWGN, tn hiu pht s c phn b Gauss. Do ,
cc thnh phn ca x s l cc bin c phn b Gauss c lp, trung bnh bng 0.
Phng sai ca tn hiu pht c tnh bi biu thc
R
xx
= E{XX
H
} (3.5)
Trong , E{.} l php tnh k vng, ton t A
H
l php chuyn v Hermiten
ca ma trn A kt hp php chuyn v v ly lin hip phc ca ma trn A. Tng
cng sut pht c gii hn P khng thay i thoe s anten pht n
T
. Gi tr P c
biu din bi cng thc:
P = tr(R
XX
) (3.6)
Hnh 3.6: Phn loi k thut khng gian - thi gian
Vi tr(A) l php ton ly tng cc phn t trn ng cho ca ma trn A.
Trng hp pha pht khng bit c thng tin ca knh truyn, ta gi s tn hiu
c pht ra t cc anten thnh phn s c cng mc cng sut l P/n
T
. Khi ,
phng sai ca tn hiu pht l:
R
XX
= P/n
t
. I n
t
(3.7)
Vi In
t
l ma trn n v [n
T
x n
T
].
Knh truyn c biu din bi ma trn H [n
T
x n
T
], vi h
ij
l li knh
truyn (cng l thng s fading knh truyn) t anten pht th j n anten thu th i.
n gin trong tnh ton, ta gi s rng cng sut nhn c ti mi anten l bng vi
tng cng sut pht. Ngha l, chugns ta b qua s suy hao v khuch i tn hiu
trong qu trnh truyn, bao gn cc thng s v li anten, suy hao do hiu ng ph
bng,... Khi , ta thu c gii hn ca cc thnh phn trong ma trn H, vi knh
truyn c cc thng s c nh, nh sau :

Khi cc thnh phn ca ma trn knh truyn l ngu nhin th vic chun ha
s p dng vo vic tnh k vng ca biu thc trn.
Ta gi s rng pha thu bit c ma trn knh truyn. Ma trn knh truyn c
th c c lng ti b thu bng cch pht km chui hun luyn. Pha pht cng
c th thc hin c lng knh truyn thng qua knh hi tip.
Cc thnh phn ca ma trn H c th ngu nhin hoc xc nh. Chng ta s tp
trung vo cc v d c lin quan n truyn thng v tuyn, vi cc thnh phn ca ma
trn knh truyn H c phn b Rayleigh hoc Rice. Trong hu ht cc trng hp, ta s
quan tm ch yu n phn b Rayleigh, y l phn b thch hp cho cc ng truyn
khng theo ng thng (NLOS : Non Line Of Sight).
Nhiu ti b thu s c biu din bi tn hiu n l ma trn ct [n
R
x 1].
Cc thnh phn nhiu l cc bin Gauss c lp thng k c trung bnh bng 0, vi cc
thnh phn thc v o l c lp v c cng phng sai. Phng sai ca tn hiu nhiu
c biu din bi biu thc :
R
nn
= E{nn
H
} (3.9)
Nu khng c s tng quan gia cc thnh phn ca tn hiu nhiu th ta c
th biu din phng sai di dng :
R
nn
=
2
I
nR
(3.10)
Mi anten trong s n
R
anten thu s chu cng sut nhiu l
2

Tn hiu thu r c biu din bi ma trn ct [n
R
x 1]. Gi P
r
l cng sut trung
bnh ti mi anten thu. T s tn hiu trn nhiu (SNR) ti mi anten thu c tnh
theo biu thc :
(3.8)
= P
r
/
2
(3.11)
Do chng ta gi s rng tng cng sut thu c ti mi anten l bng vi
tng cng sut pht nn SNR s bng vi t s ca tng cng sut pht v cng sut
nhiu ti mi anten, v th s khng ph thuc vo anten pht n
T
. SNR khi s c
tnh bi :
= P
r
/
2
(3.12)
Tn hiu thu r c biu din theo biu thc sau :
R = Hx + n (3.13)
3.2.2 Dung nng h thng MIMO
Dung nng h thng c nh ngha l tc truyn ln nht c th sao cho
xc sut li nh l ty .
Ban u, ta gi s rng ma trn knh truyn khng bit ti ni pht trong khi n
c bit chnh xc ti ni thu bng c lng knh truyn.
Theo l thuyt phn tch ma trn SVD cho ma trn H (n
R
x n
T
) bt k u c
th vit nh sau:
H = UDV
H
(3.14)
Vi D l ma trn ng cho khng m c kch thc (n
R
x n
T
), U v V l ma trn
vung (n
R
x n
R
) v (n
T
x n
T
). Cc ma trn ny c nhng tnh cht sau:
UU
H
= I
nr
v VV
H
= I
nt
(3.15)
Vi I
nr
v I
nt
l ma trn n v (n
R
x n
R
) v (n
T
x n
T
). Cc phn t ca ma trn
ng cho khng m v bng cn bc hai ca tr ring ca ma trn HH
H
. Gi tr
ring (eigen value) ca HH
H
, c nh ngha nh sau:
HH
H
y = y, y 0 (3.16)
Vi y l vecto ct (n
R
x 1) kt hp vi gi l vecto ring (eigenvector).
Cc phn t ng cho ca D l cc gi tr k k ca H. Hn na, cc ct ca
ma trn U l nhng vecto ring ca HH
H
v cc ct ca ma trn V l nhng vecto
ring ca HH
H
. Phng trnh thu c vit li nh sau:
r = UDV
H
x + n (3.17)
Nhn ma trn U
H
vo c hai v ca phng trnh trn ta c:
U
H
r = U
H
UDV
H
x + U
H
n (3.18)
t r = U
H
r, x = V
H
x, n = U
H
n. Ta thy rng cc ma trn U
H
, V
H
nh l h s
t l. Vecto n c phn thc v phn o l bin ngu nhin Gauss trung bnh bng 0. V
th knh truyn ban u c th vit li di dng nh sau:
r = Dx + n (3.19)
S tr ring khc khng bng hng ca ma trn D, k hiu l u. Vi ma trn H
(n
R
x n
T
), hng ca ma trn m = min(n
R
,n
T
). t l cc gi tr ring khc khng
ca H, vi i = 1,2,,u. Bng cch th vo phng trnh, cc thnh phn tn hiu nhn
c c dng nh sau:
r
i

= x
i
+ n
i
i = 1,2,...,u (3.20)

r
i


= n
i

, i = u + 1, u +2,, m (3.21)
S khi tng ng ca h thng c m t nh sau:

Hnh 3.7: Chuyn i knh truyn MIMO thnh cc knh truyn song song
Phng trnh trn chng t rng cc thnh phn tn hiu nhn c r
i

, i = u + 1,
u +2,, m. khng ph thuc vo tn hiu pht, c ngha l li knh truyn l 0. Ni mt
cch khc, tn hiu nhn c r
i

, i = 1,2,,u ch ph thuc vo tn hiu pht x


i

. V th knh
truyn MIMO c th xem nh gm u knh truyn song song ring r, mi ng truyn th I
c thng s knh tng ng l
Trong trng hp n
T
> n
R
, hng ca ma trn H nh hn n
R
, m hnh tng
ng ca knh truyn MIMO c th m t nh sau:

Hnh 3.8: M hnh knh truyn MIMO khi n
T
> n
R

Hnh 3.9: M hnh knh truyn MIMO khi n
R
> n
T

Lu rng m hnh tng ng nh trn, cc knh truyn khng ghp vi
nhau v dung lng knh truyn ca chng c cng thm vo.
T m hnh h thng MIMO c biu din qua php bin i SVD, ta c th
m t knh truyn MIMO thng qua cu trc SVD nh sau:

Hnh 3.10: Cu trc SVD cho knh truyn MIMO
Gi s rng cng sut pht t mi anten trong m hnh tng ng MIMO l
P/n
T
, chng ta c th c lng dung lng knh truyn tng cng bng cng thc ca
Shannon l:

Vi W l bng thng ca mi knh truyn n v c tnh nh sau:

V th dung lng knh truyn ca h thng MIMO nh sau:

By gi ta s chng minh rng dung lng knh truyn c lin h vi ma trn
knh truyn H. Gi s rng m = min(n
R
, n
T
). Quan h ca tr ring v vecto ring c
th vit nh sau:

Vi Q l ma trn Wishart, c nh ngha nh sau:
(3.22)
(3.23)
(3.24)
(3.25)

Do , chnh l tr ring ca Q nu v ch nu I
m
Q l ma trn k d. V th
det(I
m
- Q) = 0, nghim ca phng trnh ny l cc gi tr
i
. Chng ta xem a thc
p() nh sau:

Vi
i
l nghim ca a thc p() v bng vi tr ring ca ma trn knh truyn.
Ta c th vit li nh sau:

Th = -
n
T

2
P
vo phng trnh trn ta c:

Vy cng thc dung lng knh truyn t cng thc ca Shannon nh sau:

Lu rng nu thng s knh truyn l bin ngu nhin th phng trnh
ca dung lng knh truyn C chnh l dung lng knh truyn tc thi hoc
lng tin tng h. Gi tr trung bnh ca dung lng knh truyn C c th thu
c bng cch ly trung bnh tt c cc gi tr c th c ca thng s knh
truyn.
Dung lng knh truyn do s phn b cng sut mt cch thch nghi:
Khi cc thng s knh truyn (CSI) c bit ti ni pht, dung lng knh
truyn c cho trong cng thc trn c th tng ln bng cch n nh cng sut
pht n cc anten ty thuc vo lut nc. Cp nhiu cng sut khi iu kin
knh truyn l tt v t hoen nu iu kn knh truyn l xu. Cp cng sut cho knh
truyn th i c cho bi:

Vi a
+
k hiu l max(a,0) v c xc nh sao cho:
(3.27)
(3.29)
(3.28)
(3.26)
(3.30)
(3.31)
(3.32)

Cng sut nhn c ti knh truyn th i trong m hnh h thng MIMO c
cho nh sau:

Do dung lng knh truyn MIMO l:

Dung lng ca knh truyn MIMO fading Rayleigh nhanh v fading khi:
Chng ta s rt ra biu thc ca thng s knh truyn MIMO trong mi trng
fading Rayleigh thay i nhanh. Thng s |h|
2
trong biu thc dung lng cho mt
ng truyn n l mt bin ngu nhin c phn phi x
2
. Bin ngu nhin ny c th
biu din nh sau:

Vi z
1
v z
2
l bin Gauss c lp, trc giao, trung bnh 0, phng sai l
r
2
,
trong phn ny c chun ha l . Hm phn b xc sut c dng:

Dung lng ca knh truyn fading thay i nhanh c th thu c bng cch
c lng gi tr trung bnh ca C:

Vi E[.] l k vng ca bin ngu nhin x
2
.
Bng cch s dng phng php SVD, knh truyn MIMO fading nhanh vi
ma trn knh truyn H c th xem nh tng ng nh h tng vi u min(n
I,
n
R
)
knh truyn song song, dung lng knh truyn tng cng l:

Vi ... l gi tr ring ca ma trn knh truyn H. Mt khc, ta c th vit li
dung lng knh truyn MIMO trung bnh trong knh truyn fading thay i nhanh l:

(3.33)
(3.34)
(3.35)
(3.36)
(3.37)
(3.38)
(3.39)
i vi knh truyn fading khi, knh truyn l ergodic, dung lng knh
truyn c th c lng bng a thc Laguerre nh sau:

Vi m = min(n
R
,n
T
), n = max(n
R
,n
T
)
V L
k
n-m
(x) l a thc Laguerre bc k, c nh ngha l:

Dung lng knh truyn phn tp anten pht bo ha khi n 2, tc l t gn
bng ti gi tr dung lng knh truyn ln nht c th (tim cn). Gi tr gii hn ny
c tnh nh sau:

Dung lng knh truyn MIMO Fading Rayleigh chm:
By gi chng ta xem xt knh truyn mIMO khi ma trn H c chn ngu
nhin, theo phn phi Rayleigh, ti bt u thi im truyn v gi khng i trong
mt khi d liu chiu di L. V d nh mt h thng LAN khng dy vi tc d
liu rt cao v tc fading thp, v th mt trng thi fading c th gi khng i qua
mt khi d liu khong mt triu k t. Nh vy gi s t trc, thng s knh
truyn c c lng hon ho ti ni thu v khng bit ti ni pht.
Trong h thng ny, dung lng knh truyn C c tnh bi cng thc (2) l 1
bin ngu nhin. N c th thm ch bng 0, nu c mt xc sut li ty , bt chp
dng loi m g. Trong trng hp ny chng ta c lng dung lng knh truyn
dng lm hm phn phi tch ly b CCDF (Complementary Cumulative Distribution
Function). Hm CCDF nh ngha l xc sut mt mc dung lng c th c
cung cp, k hiu l P
C
. Xc sut ngng hot ng (out tage probability) k hiu l P
out

l xc sut khng t c mc dung lng xc nh v bng 1 P
C
.
Xc sut ngng hot ng: Vi mt tc bt R cho trc v cng sut tn hiu
trn nhiu l SNR hoc , xc sut m dung lng knh truyn khng ng
truyn tin cy:

Hm phn phi tch ly b: vi SNR cho, xc sut dung lng knh
truyn ng truyn tin cy:

(3.40)
(3.41)
(3.42)
(3.43)
(3.44)
3.3 Kt lun:
MIMO l h thng a anten u pht v u thu, h thng MIMO lm tng
li phn tp nh cc k thut nh k thut phn tp khng gian, thi gian, tn s, lm
tng li m ha nh k thut m ha nh m ha khng gian thi gian cng vi k
thut kt hp tn hiu ti my thu nh SC, EGC, MRC lm tng SNR ca h thng.
ng thi h MIMO cng l tng dung nng trong knh truyn MIMO, iu ny c
th chng minh c thng qua vic tnh dung nng knh truyn MIMO bng cch s
dng cu trc SVD bin i knh MIMO thnh nhiu knh SISO. Trong chng tip
theo s tm hiu k thut OFDM kt hp vi MIMO.