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Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements

For the award of deree of
!a"helor of Te"hnolo#
Computer S"ien"e Enineerin
(r) Ra*esh Ra*ori#a
ITT(+ (TN, NE- &E,HI
Shadipur Telephone E."hane
NE- &elhi)
/SHISH 0%(/R 1234556237558
Our gratitude, first of all goes to !9COE+ New &elhi for providing us with a chance to
undergo a 6-weeks of industrial training at ITTM MTNL (Mahanagar Telephone Nigam
Limited, !elhi, one of India"s most prestigious and respected telecommunications
%e are e&tremel# thankful to (r) Ra*esh Ra*ori#a+ S&E1Tr8 and (r) ()0) (ishra
&E1Tr8 for their valua'le guidance and support without which, the completion of this
work would have 'een impossi'le$ Their profound knowledge and sound advice helped
us complete this pro(ect report to the 'est of our a'ilities$

!ate) *+,-.,+/ Name of student)
/SHISH 0%(/R 1234556237558


3) Important Information
0$+ 1rief 2istor# of MTNL
0$0 Infrastructure 3rowth
0$* 4ision of MTNL
0$/ Organi5ation 6tructure
:) Networ;in Con"ept
*$+ Network !efinition
*$0 Network 7haracterstics
*$* T#pes of Network
*$/ !evices 8sed to make Network
<) !rief &es"ription about Pro*e"t
/$+ Network !iagram of 9ro(ect
/$0 9ro(ect Implementation
/$* 9ro(ect 7onfiguration
/$*$+ 7onfiguring :outing
/$*$0 7onfiguring ;7L
/$*$* 7onfiguring N;T
/$*$/ 7onfiguring 9;T
/$*$< 7onfiguring 4L;N
/$*$6 7onfiguring Trunk
/$*$= 7onfiguring 4T9
6) Con"lusion
<$+ 7onclusion

+$ 2istorical !evelopment at
0$ Network Infrastructure


+$ 9ro(ect Network >igure
0$ :outer 7onfig >igure
*$ :outer O69> >igure
/$ :outer ?I3:9 >igure
<$ 9;T Implementation >igure
6$ 4L;N >igure

36M 3LO1;L 6@6T?M MO1IL?
7!M; 7O!? !I4I6ION M8LTI9L? ;77?66
O69> O9?N 62O:T?6T 9;T2 >I:6T
?I3:9 ?N2;N72?! INT?:IO: 3;T?%;@ :O8T?:
;1: ;:?; 1O:!?: :O8T?:
;61: ;8TONOMO86 6@6T?M 1O8N!;:@ :O8T?:
4L6M 4;:I;1L? L?N3T2 681N?T M;6A
L;N LO7;L ;:?; N?T%O:A
%;N %I!? ;:?; N?T%O:A
I6! INT?:N;TION;L 68167:I1?: !I;LLIN3
M;7 M?!I; ;77?66 7ONT:OL
4L;N 4I:T8;L L;N
;7L ;77?66 LI6T
6T! 6T;N!;:! T:8NA !I;LIN3
I6!N INT?3:;T?! 6?:4I7? !I3IT;L N?T%O:A
I94/ INT?:N?T 9:OTO7OL 4?:6ION /
I946 INT?:N?T 9:OTO7OL 4?:6ION 6
M;N M?T:O9OLITI;N ;:?; N?T%O:A
O'(ective of IITM is to impart induction training short duration training to its officers
and emplo#ees in the field of
7omputers s#stems
Management to enhance their knowledge ,skills ,attitude to perform in
'etter and professional wa#$
Histori"al &e=elopment of (TN,
5>4? 7reation of Mahanagar Telephones Nigam Limited
5>4? >irst digital e&change world technolog# 'rought to India
5>47 Largle 6cale introduction of push 'utton telephone made dialling easier$
5>44 9hone 9lus services multiplied 'enefits to telephone users$
5>>3 4oice Mail 6ervice Introduced
5>>? I6!N services introduced
5>>7 %ireless in Local loop introduced
5>>> Internet services introduced$
3222 Millennium Telecom Limited, a wholl# owned su'sidar# of MTNL is 'orn
3225 Launched 36M 7ellular Mo'ile service under the 'rand name !olphin
Launched %LL Mo'ile services under the 'rand name 3aruda$
The compan# listed at New @ork stock e&change(N@6?
8nited telecom ltd$,MTNL Boint venture in Nepal,for providing %LL 'ased services
in Nepal 'ecame operational$
7LI 'ased Internet e&press services introduced$
3223 Launched pre-paid 36M Mo'ile services under the 'rand name Trump$?mail on
96TN lines introduced under the 'rand name mtnlmail$
322: Introduced 7!M; +& 0--- Technolog# under the 'rand name 3aruda +-
&$Introduced pilot pro(ect of ;!6L 'ased 1road'and services$Introduced 4irtual
9hone services$Mahanagar Telephone Mauritius Ltd$ 'agged second operator license
in Mauritius$
322< ?&panded 36M C 7!M; capacit# '# .--,--- lines each (total +$6 million lines
e&panded 6T!,I6! rates slashed '# almost 6-D$ MTNL su'sidiar# MTML
o'tained license to provide fi&ed, mo'ile C IL! services in Mauritius$ Launched %i-
>i C digital certification services$ 6tate of the art training centre E7?TTMF
3226 Leading market in 36M customer additions$ Launched 'road'and services under the
'rand name ET:I 1;N!F$ >loated tender for + million *3 36M lines$
Network Infrastructure Network Infrastructure
1986 2006
+$No of e&changes ++/ <0G
0$?Huipped capacit# (Million -$.. .$//
*$6u'scri'er 'ase (Million -$=< <$G0
i 1asic %ireline C 7!M; >i&ed -$=< *$..
ii 7!M;-Mo'ile - -$+-
iii 36M 7ellular - +$G/
/$Internet - +,+..,0-/
<$1road'and - 0++,G*<
6$9u'lic 7all Offices (Local and Long
+-,<G* 0=G,-/+
=$No of stations on Long !istance Network 06/ *G,*-*
.$No of countries connected overseas on I6! ++ 0*G
G$!igitali5ation of e&change network Nil +--D
(ission (ission
To remain market leader in providing world class Telecom and IT related services at
afforda'le prices and to 'ecome a glo'al pla#er
9ision 9ision
1ecome a total solution provider compan# and to provide world class telecom
services at afforda'le prices$
1ecome a glo'al telecom compan# and to find a place in the I>ortune <--"
1ecome the largest provider of private networks and leased lines$
4enture into other areas in India and a'road on the strength of our core
Networ; Stru"ture Networ; Stru"ture
19 Years of Growth
\MTNL as a compan#, over last nineteen #ears, grew rapidl# '# modernising the network,
incorporating the 6tate-of-the-art technologies and a customer friendl# approach$

&efinition of Networ;
Network descri'es two or more connected computers that can share resources
such as data, a printer , an internet connection , application or a com'ination of
Chara"teristi"s of a networ; are
T#pes of networ;
a$ !epending on geographical coverage like L;N ,M;N,%;N
'$ !epending on the architecture of the network like 9??:,6?:4?:-
c$ Network on the 'asis access like Intranet , ?&tranet , Internet
&e=i"es used to ma;e our networ;
Swit"hes J ; switches can read the destination M;7 (media access control from
the data frame$ It operate on the O6I Model !ata Link La#er 0$
Routers - ; router is used to route data packets 'etween two networks$
; router is a communication device that is used to connect two
logicall# and ph#sicall# different networks, two L;Ns, two %;Ns
and a L;N with %;N$ %orks on
O6I la#er *$
&etails of routers @@@@@@
o ;rea - - (core J7oreKrouter
o 1order :outer ---- :outerKospf-+ , :outerKospf -0
o ;rea -+ ---a J :uterKospf-+
'$- :outerKospfKeigrp
;rea - 0 ----a$routerKospf -0
'$ :outerKospfKsta
?igrp ----- :outerKospfKeigrp, :outerKeigrp , :outerKeigrp
6tatis routing ----- :outerKospfKsta , :outerKstaKdef
!efault routing - :outerKstaKdef , :outerKinternet
N;T is implemented on router :outerKstaKdef
4L;N J on 6%+
T#pe of routin @@@@
!irectl# connected) :outer attaches to this network
6tatic routing) ?ntered manuall# '# a s#stem administrator
!#namic routing) Learned '# e&change of routing information
!efault route) 6taticall# or d#namicall# learnedL used when no e&plicit
route to network is known
Stati" Routes @@@In our network, it is implemented 'etween routers
7onfigure unidirectional static routes to and from a stu' network to allow
communications to occur$
Confiuration of stati" Routin @@@@
:outerM(configN ip route network OmaskP Qaddress R interfaceS
!efines a path to an I9 destination network or su'net or host
;ddress T I9 address of the ne&t hop router
Interface T out'ound interface of the local router $
E.ample from abo=e networ; fiure @5
:outerKospfKsta(configNip route +G0$+6.$+$- 0<<$0<<$0<<$- +=0$+6$0$+-
:outerKstaKdefKnat(configNip route +=0$+6$-$- 0<<$0<<$-$- =0$+6$0$G
:outerKstaKdefKnat(configNip route -$-$-$- -$-$-$- +0$+0$+0$0 (default routing
&efault Routes A In our network ,it is used 'etween routers
Routin proto"ol
:outing protocol is used to allow routers to d#namicall# learn routes from other
routers and to advertise routes to other routers
T#pe of routing protocol
o !istance vector routing
o Link state routing

%e implemented O69> routing protocol 'etween routers
:outerKospf-+ ,
:outerKospf -0,
link-state (O69> router keeps a record of)
o O69> router keeps track of the state of all the various network
"onne"tions 1links 'etween itself and a network it is tr#ing to send data
o Its immediate neigh'or routers$
o The 'est paths to each destination
o ;ll the other routers in the network, or in its area of the network, and their
attached networks$
o 6end periodic updates (link-state refresh, at long intervals, such as ever#
*- minutes$
There are 0 versionsL O69>v0 is for I9v/ and O69>v* is for I9v6
O69> features include)
o >ast convergence
o 6upports 4L6M
o ?fficient use of 'andwidth - 6end triggered updates when a network
change occurs$ (no periodic updates J incremental changes(Minimi5es
routing ta'le entries
o 6upports large network si5e$
o :outing 'ased on 'est path selection
o it onl# supports I9 routing 2as unlimited hop count
o ;llows multi-vendor deplo#ment (open standard
o :eHuires a hierarchical network design
o Load 1alancing with O69> --- 9aths must 'e eHual cost
OSPF /reas
To minimi5e processing and memor# reHuirements, O69> can divide the routing
topolog# into a two-la#er hierarch# called areas
;n area is a set of routers that will share routing information (details a'out one
or more networks$
;rea s are logical 'oundaries$
!a";bone /rea
o :eferred to as ;rea -
o ;lso known as the Transit ;rea$
Reular 1Standard8 /reas
;lso known as a non-'ack'one areas$
OSPF databases B tables
O69> ad(acenc# data'ase T Neigh'or ta'le J
7ommand - sh ip ospf neigh'or
Information - List of all neigh'ors routers to which a router has
esta'lished 'idirectional communication$
O69> link-state data'ase T Topolog# ta'le J
7ommand - sh ip ospf data'ase
7ommand to see the information sended '# a router
6h ip ospf data'ase router

Routin table ---
o O69> forwarding data'ase T :outing ta'le
o 7ommand - sh ip route
o ?ach router"s routing ta'le is uniHue and contains information
on how and where to send packets to other routers
2ow O69> routers e&change information is 'ased on)
The function of the router$
The t#pe of L6;s it can forward$
The t#pe of area it resides in$
O69> routers ma# function as either)
Internal router
1ack'one router
;rea 1order :outer (;1:
;utonomous 6#stem 1oundar# :outer (;61:
; router can e&ist as more than one router t#pe$
O69> Metric calculation J Metric of O69> is cost$
This value ma# 'e overridden '# using the command$
ip ospf "ost
The cost of the entire path is the sum of costs of the outgoing interfaces along the
7ost is an ar'itrar# value as defined in :>7 0**.,
7isco uses a simple eHuation of 7ost T +-U. , 'andwidth$
7ost T ref-'andwidth,'andwidth
To change the ref-'anwidth J
config-routerNauto-cost reference-'andwidth
Confiurin Sinle@/rea OSPF
:outerM(configN router ospf process-id
:outerM(config-routerN network address wildcard-mask area area-id
Example from above said network figure - 1
router ospf +--
network +=0$+6$+$- -$-$-$* area -
network +=0$+6$+$/ -$-$-$* area +
router ospf +--
network -$-$-$- 0<<$0<<$0<<$0<< area -
router ospf +--
network +=0$+6$0$- -$-$-$* area -
network +=0$+6$0$/ -$-$-$* area 0
9erif#in the OSPF Confiuration
:outerMN show ip protocols
:outerMN show ip route
:outerMN show ip ospf
:outerMN show ip ospf interface
:outerMN show ip ospf neigh'or
;nother d#namic routing protocol named ?I3:9 is used 'etween routers in our
network (figure-+
o :outerKospfKeigrp
o :outerKeigrp
o :outerKeigrp
:eferred to as a h#'rid routing protocol as it has characteristics of 'oth distance-
vector and link-state protocols$
sends traditional distance-vector updates containing information a'out networks
plus the cost of reaching them
link-state characteristics Vit s#nchroni5es routing ta'les 'etween neigh'ors at
startup, and then sends specific updates onl# when topolog# changes occur$
o 6upport for I9, I9M, and ;ppleTalk via protocol-dependent modules
?I3:9 supports different Network la#er protocols through the use of protocol-
dependent modules (9!Ms
?ach ?I3:9 9!M maintains a separate series of ta'les containing the routing
information that applies to a specific protocol$
?I3:9 routers must 'ecome neigh'ors 'efore e&changing routes with each other$
three conditions for neigh'orship esta'lishment)
o 2ello or ;7A received
o ;6 num'ers match
o Identical metrics (A values W
o To maintain the neigh'orship relationship, ?I3:9 routers must continue
receiving 2ellos from their neigh'ors
The neigh'orship ta'le ( neigh'or ta'le records information a'out routers with
whom neigh'orship relationships have 'een formed$
The topolog# ta'le stores the route advertisements a'out ever# route in the
internetwork received from each neigh'or$
The route ta'le stores the routes that are currentl# used to make routing decisions$
Feasible distan"e
This is the 'est metric along all paths to a remote network, including the metric to
the neigh'or that is advertising that remote network$
This is the route in the routing ta'le, 'ecause it is considered the 'est path$
Reported distan"e
This is the metric of a remote network, as reported '# a neigh'or$
o ; successor route is the 'est route to a remote network
Feasible su""essor
; feasi'le successor is a path whose reported distance is less than the feasi'le
distance, and it is considered a 'ackup route$
EI$RP Confiuration
:outerM(configN router eigrp autonomous-s#stem
:outerM(config-routerN network network-num'er
?&ample from a'ove network figure - +
router eigrp +-- router eigrp +-- router eigrp +--
network +=0$+6$-$- network +=0$+6$-$- network +=0$+6$-$-
network +G0$+6.$0$-
network +G0$+6.$*$-
9erif#in the EI$RP Confiuration
:outerMN show ip route eigrp
:outerMN show ip protocols
:outerMN show ip eigrp interfaces
>or securit# ,;7L is implemented on core router and servers$
;n access list is essentiall# a list of conditions that categori5e packets$
;7L is filtering unwanted packets when implementing securit# policies$
>or e&ample - onl# certain hosts to access we' resources on the Internet while
restricting others$
7reating access lists is reall# a lot like programming a series of if@then statements
Vif a given condition is met, then a given action is taken$
Once the lists are 'uilt, the# can 'e applied to either in'ound or out'ound traffic
on an# interface$
;ppl#ing an access list causes the router to anal#5e ever# packet crossing that
interface in the specified direction and take the appropriate action$
Two methods used to identif#'
Standard /C,s J
Num'er standard---- Num'ered standard I9v/ lists (+JGG test conditions
of all I9 packets for source addresses$ ?&panded range (+*--J+GGG$
Name standard
E.tended /C,s -
Num'er e&tended---- Num'ered e&tended I9v/ lists (+--J+GG test
conditions of source and destination addresses, specific T79,I9 protocols,
and destination
ports$ ?&panded range (0---J06GG$
Name ?&tended ;7Ls
:outerM(config N access-list access-list-num'er Qpermit R den# R
remarkS source OmaskP
:outerM(config-ifN ip access-group access-list-num'er Qin R outS
E.ample of /C, implemented in networ; shown in fiure +
coreKroute(configrNaccess-list +- permit host +G0$+6.$+$0 (;7L t#pe is standard
access-list ++- permit tcp host +G0$+6.$+$0 an# eH telnet(;7L t#pe is e&tended
coreKroute(configrNline vt# - /
coreKroute(config-linerNaccess-class +- in --------- to allow the access of
and stop others$
?&tended I9 access list ++-
den# icmp an# host +G0$+6.$+$0 echo
den# icmp an# host +G0$+6.$+$* echo
den# tcp an# host +G0$+6.$+$* eH telnet
den# tcp an# host +G0$+6.$+$0 eH telnet
permit icmp an# an#
permit tcp an# an#
N/T@Networ; address Translation@
;ddress translation is a method '# which we can translate pu'lic address to
private and vise-versa$
There are two 'enefits of N;T ---
6ecurit# J we a'le to hide our actual configuration where as translated
information will 'e appeared$
6haring - One 9u'lic I9 address can 'e translate into man# private I9
T#pes of Networ; /ddress Translation
6tatic N;T
P/T A1 port address Translation8 @
It is implemented to access internet in our network$
O=erloadin @ This is the most popular t#pe of N;T configuration$
8nderstand that overloading reall# is a form of d#namic N;T that maps multiple
unregistered I9 addresses to a single registered I9 addressVman#-to-oneV'#
using different ports$ it"s also known as 9ort ;ddress Translation (9;T$
:outerM(configNaccess-list access-list-num'er permit source source-wildcard
:outerM(configNip nat inside source list access-list-num'er interface interface
On the interfa"e for whi"h IP is lo"al inside
:outerM(config-ifN ip nat inside
On the interface for which I9 is glo'al inside
:outerM(config-ifN ip nat outside
E.ample of P/T implementation in Fiure @5
a""ess@list 52 permit 5>3)5?4)5)2 2)2)2)366
ip nat inside sour"e list 52 interfa"e FastEthernet2B5 o=erload
interfa"e FastEthernet2B2
ip address 5>3)5?4)5)5 366)366)366)2
ip nat inside
interfa"e FastEthernet2B5
ip address 53)53)53)5 366)366)366)363
ip nat outside
9,/N---------9irtual ,/N
; 4L;N is a logical grouping of network users and resources connected to
administrativel# defined ports on a switch$
; 4L;N is treated like its own su'net or 'roadcast domain
1# default, inter 4lan communication is not availa'le
>or inter-4L;N communication, the router is reHuired
In static 4L;Ns an administrator creates 4L;Ns and assigns switch ports to each
6tatic 4L;Ns are the usual wa# of creating 4L;Ns, and the#"re also the most
6tatic 4L;N configuration is comparativel# eas# to set up and monitor,
6tatic 4L;N works well in a network where the movement of users within the
network is controlled$
:outers allow 'roadcasts onl# within the originating network, 'ut switches
forward 'roadcasts to all segments$
/d=antaes of 9,/N'@
4L;Ns simplif# network management)
Network adds, moves, and changes are achieved easil#$
?nhances 8ser 6ecurit#
4L;Ns can 'e considered independent from their ph#sical or geographic
?nhance network securit#$
4L;Ns increase the num'er of 'roadcast domains while decreasing their si5e$
Stati" 9lans'@
In static 4L;Ns an administrator creates 4L;Ns and assigns switch ports to each
6tatic 4L;Ns are the usual wa# of creating 4L;Ns, and the#"re also the most
6tatic 4L;N configuration is comparativel# eas# to set up and monitor,
6tatic 4L;N works well in a network where the movement of users within the
network is controlled$
&#nami" 9lans'@
In !#namic 4L;Ns, administrator assign all the host devices" hardware addresses
into a data'ase,and the switches are configured to assign 4L;Ns d#namicall#
whenever a host is plugged into a switch$
; d#namic 4L;N determines a node"s 4L;N assignment automaticall#$
4L;N assignments can 'e 'ased on hardware (M;7 addresses, protocols, or
applications to create d#namic 4L;Ns$
; d#namic 4L;N makes management and configuration easier 'ecause if a user
moves, the switch will assign them to the correct 4L;N automaticall#$
a lot more work is reHuired initiall# setting up the data'ase$
7isco administrators can use the 4L;N Management 9olic# 6erver (4M96
service to set up a data'ase of M;7 addresses that can 'e used for d#namic
addressing of 4L;Ns$
; 4M96 data'ase maps M;7 addresses to 4L;Ns$
9lan Identifi"ation (ethods'@
6witches use 4L;N identification to keep track of all those frames as the#"re
traversing a switch fa'ric$
Trunking methods)
o Inter@Swit"h ,in; 1IS,8
o IEEE 423)5C
I6L is proprietar# to 7isco switches, and it"s used for >ast ?thernet and 3iga'it
?thernet links onl#$
I! routing can 'e used on a switch port, router interfaces, and server interface
cards to trunk a server$
There are two different t#pes of links in a switched environment)
/""ess lin;s
Trun; lin;s
9,/N "onfiuration on swit"hes
6witchN"onfi t
6witch(configN=lan 3
6witch(config-vlanNname Sales
Port assinment to a 9,/n
6witch(config-ifNint f2B3
6witch(config-ifNswit"hport a""ess =lan 3
6witch(config-ifNint f2B:
6witch(config-ifNswit"hport a""ess =lan :
6witch(config-ifNint f2B<
6witch(config-ifNswit"hport a""ess =lan <
6witchNsh =lan brief
Confiurin Trun;@@@
6witchNconfig t
6witch(configNint f2B53
6witch(config-ifNswit"hport mode trun;
?&ample of 4L;N
interface >ast?thernet-,-$0
encapsulation dot+X 0
ip address +G0$+6.$0$+ 0<<$0<<$0<<$-
interface >ast?thernet-,-$*
encapsulation dot+X *
ip address +G0$+6.$*$+ 0<<$0<<$0<<$-
interface >ast?thernet-,+
switchport access vlan 0
interface >ast?thernet-,+/
switchport access vlan *
interface 3iga'it?thernet+,+
switchport mode trunk
9lan Trun;in Proto"ol19TP8'@
4L;N Trunking 9rotocol (4T9 manages all configured 4L;Ns across a
switched internetwork and maintains consistenc# throughout that network$
4T9 allows an administrator to add, delete, and rename 4L;Ns and this
information is then propagated to all other switches in the 4T9 domain$
!enefits Of 9TP'@
7onsistent 4L;N configuration across all switches in the network
4L;N trunking over mi&ed networks, such as ?thernet to ;TM L;N? or even
;ccurate tracking and monitoring of 4L;Ns
!#namic reporting of added 4L;Ns to all switches in the 4T9 domain
9lug-and-9la# 4L;N adding
9TP Requirements'@
create a 4T9 server$
;ll servers that need to share 4L;N information must use the same domain
a switch can 'e in onl# one domain at a time$
a switch can onl# share 4T9 domain information with other switches if the#"re
configured into the same 4T9 domain$
use a 4T9 domain if more than one switch is connected in a network,
if all switches are in onl# one 4L;N, there is no need to use 4T9$
4T9 information is sent 'etween switches via a trunk port$
9TP Operation'@
6witches advertise 4T9-management domain information, a configuration
revision num'er and all known 4L;Ns with an# specific parameters$
8pdates are sent out as revision num'ers that are the notification plus +$
;n# time a switch sees a higher revision num'er, it knows the information that
it"s receiving is more current, and it will overwrite the current data'ase with that
new information
9TP (odes of Operation'@
Three different modes of operation within a 4T9 domain$
Confiurin 9TP'@
6witch(configNvtp mode W
client 6et the device to client mode$
server 6et the device to server mode$
transparent 6et the device to transparent mode$
6witch(configNvtp mode server
6witch(configNvtp domain W
6witch(configNvtp domain routersim
Routin !etween 9lans'@
2osts in a 4L;N live in their own 'roadcast domain and can communicate freel#$
4L;Ns create network partitioning and traffic separation at la#er 0 of the O6I
>or inter-vlan communication, a la#er * device is a'solutel# necessar#$
8se a router that has an interface for each 4L;N or a router that supports I6L
Class / /ddresses'
7lass ; I9 addresses use the +
. 'its (+
Octet to designate the Network address$
The +
'it which is alwa#s a -, is used to indicate the address as a 7lass ; address
C the remaining = 'its are used to designate the Network$
The other * octets contain the 2ost address$
There are +0. 7lass ; Network ;ddresses, 'ut 'ecause addresses with all 5eros
aren"t used C address +0= is a special purpose address, +06 7lass ; Networks are
There are +6,===,0+/ 2ost addresses availa'le in a 7lass ; address$
:ather than remem'ering this num'er e&actl#, #ou can use the following formula
to compute the num'er of hosts availa'le in an# of the class addresses, where E
represents the num'er of 'its in the host portion)
A 38 F Number of a=ailable hosts
>or a 7lass ; network, there are)
J 0 or +6,===,0+/ hosts$
2alf of all I9 addresses are 7lass ; addresses$
@ou can use the same formula to determine the num'er of Networks in an address
?g$, a 7lass ; address uses = 'its to designate the network, so (0
J 0 T +06 or
there can 'e +06 7lass ; Networks$
Class ! /ddresses'
7lass 1 addresses use the +
+6 'its (two octets for the Network address$
The last 0 octets are used for the 2ost address$
The +
0 'it, which are alwa#s +-, designate the address as a 7lass 1 address C
+/ 'its are used to designate the Network$ This leaves +6 'its (two octets to
designate the 2osts$
6o how man# 7lass 1 Networks can there 'eW
8sing our formula, (0
J 0, there can 'e +6,*.0 7lass 1 Networks C each
Network can have (0
J 0 2osts, or 6<,<*/ 2osts$
Class C /ddresses'
7lass 7 addresses use the +
0/ 'its (three octets for the Network address C onl#
the last octet for 2ost addresses$the +
* 'its of all class 7 addresses are set to
++-, leaving 0+ 'its for the Network address, which means there can 'e 0,-G=,+<-
J 0 7lass 7 Networks, 'ut onl# 0</ (0
J 0 2osts per Network$
; few addresses are set aside for specific purposes$
Network addresses that are all 'inar# 5eros, all 'inar# ones C Network addresses
'eginning with +0= are special Network addresses$
%ithin each address class is a set of addresses that are set aside for use in local
networks sitting 'ehind a firewall or N;T (Network ;ddress Translation device
or Networks not connected to the Internet$
; list of these addresses for each I9 address class)
%e have developed a network 'ased on the methodologies of routing, 4lans, ;ccess
7ontol List$ The Network is used to transfer the resources from one computer to another$
!ifferent routers have different routing protocols$ The Network diagram is shown 'elow)