1.

Against urban cultural setting for relaxed atmosphere
2. Has rural setting and small town atmosphere
3. To attract newcomers, keep out chain stores, fast food etc – everything abt urban life

1. No statistics about what kind of people come to Springfield – working class, old people
2. No data to support if it is the view of the people who are settling down here if they are here for
rural atmosphere
3. City might be already overcrowded and not much space to live – Settling here might be safer
option
4. Crime rate might be low and hence safer
5. Springfield might be only relaxing option for some on weekends and not permanent dwelling
6. No data on whether when the survey stating the facts where conducted – Newcomers might
have different taste and not suited to having no urban design

Springfield might be a great to live but the author makes claims to various factor without producing
many statistical and substantiated facts to support them. Various factors seems unwarranted to
necessitate keeping Springfield aloof from any urban designs.
It is mentioned that Springfield is being preferred for its relaxed atmosphere. However, there are no
supporting stats about the type of people coming over to dwell here. Middle aged working class people
might prefer the place as it allows them to relax while being away from work. Old aged people might
prefer to spend a more serene life style than they have been leading on the urban side of the city. In
both the cases, it might not be the strictly rural structure of Springfield but the calm and serenity that it
offers.
There is seems to be lack of survey to find out the reasons newcomers might be opting for Springfield
than an urban city life. It can be argued, that the city is already too over crowded for people to settle
there with enough space. Finding an alternate location would be the immediate choice for the
newcomers. And with Springfield wanting to expand, there seems no dearth to accommodate these
people. One need not bar all kinds of urban setting in order to attract such newcomers. Instead,
introducing the urban characterization like the chain stores, fast food establishments, bars etc. might
add to its variety attracting more newcomers.
The administrator should survey the people opting to choose Springfield if their safety is major reason
for choosing the place over an urban city life. City life is normally filled with crime rate. People prefer to
live in crime free environment for their own safety. Springfield might still be providing that safer option
for the newcomers to choose.
There is no proof for whether the data provided is taken from existing people at Springfield or from the
newcomers. Existing dwellers might be dwelling from years and might have gone on to a liking for the
place. Asking their view might not provide an unbiased view of the place. Newcomers might not
necessarily favor the same taste as the existing people would.
More surveys should be conducted to find out the actual requirements of the newcomers from city life
as to what their requirement is when they are searching for new place. The author doesn’t provide
enough evidence to substantiate his claims to keep all urban standards away from Springfield to attract
the newcomers.

1. Disciplinary problems, drop out rate higher
2. Uniform policy adopted 3 yrs ago
3. Suspensions and expulsions in Ash lake reduced, GPA increased
4. Hence, Shadow valley to have uniform policy to improve discipline and academic performance

1. Suspensions and expulsions don’t commensurate to disciplinary or drop out
2. Uniform policy has no mandate or stake to reduce disciplinary or improve academics
3. Ash Lake has different type of students going than Shadow Valley – Geographically different
position
4. Teaching quality might have also improved in the same period for better academics
5. More civilized parenting enabling students to be more discipline
6. Students realizing the importance of education through various other programs – More stress of
studies – better academics

The author states problems that both the schools have faced providing a common solution for
both. However, there is no mentioning of any other factors and substantiating a factor that
favored one school to be good enough for another school needs a thorough introspection.

Although disciplinary problems can commensurate to suspensions and expulsions, but drop outs
can have various other factors governing them. There is no mentioning of the earning
capabilities of the inhabitants of district. The school fees might be too high for indigent families
to support the studies of the children and hence resulting in high drop out rates. Hence,
implementing uniform policy and reducing suspensions or expulsions cannot directly mean a cut
off in drop out rate.

Secondly, uniform policy doesn’t reflect any validity to reduce suspensions and increase grades.
Uniforms for the students can make a school appear more disciplined visually, however, it has to
be the habits and behavior imparted to the students that would define their conduct. A better
grade has no contribution from the extant of uniform policies. The author provides no statistical
data or survey among the people that warrant such assumption.

As we know the two schools are geographically different, there are good chances of the quality
of students attending each school to be different and varied. Any policy applicable to one school
need not necessarily produce same results in another. There might be different reasons
governing the high disciplinary problems in Shadow valley than in Ash Lake. For example, the
reason for increased disciplinary problems might be bad teaching and controlling in Shadow
Valley. Improved parenting and implementation of righteousness in behaviors might eventually
solve Shadow valley’s problem instead of just looking at the solution which might have favored
Ash Lake’s problem.

No other factors apart from the uniform policy has been mentioned which might have been
incorporated in Ash Lake School in the same time period. As already mentioned earlier, Ash Lake
might have recruited better teachers, improved the standards of teaching as well as the
infrastructure of the school. There might be better interaction between teachers, students and
their parents, resulting in more thorough and continuous evaluation of the students. Those can
affect a student’s results positively both on his/her disciplines as well as academics. However,
the author did not provide any such details.

Hence, the uniform policy neither seems to have any direct relation to the improvements in Ash
Lake School’s student problems nor does its blind implementation on Shadow Valley seems
justified. Thorough analysis of other factors which might result in curbing the similar problems
Shadow Valley is facing, is necessary to come up to a conclusion for its betterment.

Technology is addictive as most people will agree. With the advancement of technology, our daily lives
has mostly been simplified if not made more safer. The simplicity it brings hinders a lot of other
activities, we had been more proficient, before science's current level of advancements. One such
cropped up concern is the ability to think.
Technology has a charm to make one its slave. However, in this case, with slavery, laziness begins to
creep up. People start using technology in every aspect of life. We save time, and lot of efforts with the
usage of technology. At times, we tend to use technology without using our thinking power - had we
used our mind, we might have completed the job without taking technology's aid. Using vehicles to
move when you could have easily walked down till the place. It would have been good for your health to
have the walk. But we drive to our destination and later use the gym facilities to lose those extra calories
we gain in daily life.
Furthermore, one particular device we are most tempted to use whenever we are confronted with a
mathematical calculation is the calculator. Human mind is designed to make calculations to pretty
higher orders. However, with more reliance on this device, we inadvertently use a calculator to
accomplish the calculation. A little stress on the mind and ability to count would have sufficed for the
same. We, instead, rely on technology more than necessary, forgetting our own skillsets.
Technology has reached a height where robotics has developed into interfering our daily lives on regular
basis. Robotics can handle, at present, nearly all household activities. At such speeds, we might even
consider being carefree towards how our households are maintained regularly. Robots can do that for us
while we just sit around.
Artificial Intelligence is on boom like never before. This technology simply overtakes the human mind.
Various artificial intelligences, such as Speech recognition, are becoming part of our lives now. Our
dependance on mobiles phones had already paralysed us on many aspect of our lives. With speech
recognition systems on place in mobiles, we even are reduced to just ordering the device to act without
bothering how the data one seek will be delivered to him.
On the contrary, technology needs human intervention to grow. It is afterall a product of human mind
itself. We might grow to be dependant on them without using our own thinking power at times,
however, for technology to grow will need the thinking power to aid it. It is human mind which decides
which technological advancement is suited to carry out some particular work. And it is the human mind
which will define how to improve upon that.
Technological advancement is a result of human mind and is developed to aid human life. It does
shorten our thinking power when we are relying on it more than necessary. However, as already stated,
it is the human mind which needs to bolster the technology for it to survive.

The Mason City residents are fond of water sports for their recreration. It is plausible that there might
be some other nearby waterbody source, where the Mason inhabitants resort to enjoy the water sports.
The survey does not mention about the alternate source for recreation that the Mason residents could
be having. In such possibility, the city governement should also conduct a survey as to how much
feasible would it be for the Mason river renovation to attract the same people to itself for the water
sport recreations. There would be a competition with the other water sport locations and proper
information need to be gathered as to how well maintained the Mason River recreation facilities could
be to compete with them.
There are chances, that residents do not consider Mason River safe enough for any kind of swimming,
boating or fishing. Afterall, we have no information regarding the water level, the tides and the type of
aquatic animals present in the river body. Cleaning up the river might be futile if the residents are
unwilling to move to Mason River for water sports considering unsafe conditions.
We are not informed about the geographical location of the Mason city either. We do not know if the
city's periphery is surrounded by any industrial zones which might be using the river to dispose its waste
products. As we are told the river is not clean, the author doesnt states the reason for the uncleanliness.
In such case, even cleaning the river and devoting money to the riverside recreational facilities will not
fetch any outcome unless it is ensured that the sources that pollute the river are stopped from doing
them.
Nonetheless, if the residents are resistent to using the river for water sports, only because of its
uncleanliness, which is the only factor mentioned by the author, it can be fruitful for the city
government to invest in its renovations. Cleaning the river and improving upon the facilities can bring
about an attraction among the residents to use the facilities more often.
However, as pointed out earlier, the author does not present adequate information regarding the
Mason city and river, to strongly justify the city government's decision. It is uncertain but plausible, with
the data provided to be sure about the use of the river for water sports to increase if City government
invests more on its renovation


1. Positive actions need praise for inspiration
2. Negative actions need to be pointed for improvement
3. Ignoring negative ones will never make one improve upon them
4. Not praising positive can make someone disheartened
5. Praising only positives can make one complacent and take things for granted
6. There should be a balance
7. Pointing negatives more important than praising positives
8. Knowing negatives, one can know the importance of positives

It is true; one needs to be praised for positive actions. As positive actions are the building blocks for
motivation. One needs positive appraisal for all the good he or she does. However, on the other hand, it
would be thoroughly improper to neglect the negative aspects of one’s actions.
In order to improve upon oneself on a continuous basis, one needs to assess his or hers negative as well
as positive aspects as they both contribute to the growth of the person and into making one a better
human. Improvement is a step to getting rid of any negative impact of an activity. In order to facilitate a
growth and development in an individual or a group, it is the negative aspects which are to be given
importance.
Let us take an example of a child who is very good in academics and always scored the best throughout
his scholastic career. However, he is ill behaved and rude. It is true he deserves the praise for the good
academics he has maintained. This will help the child grow well in his field of choice. But, the other
factors that will always drag him down would be his ill manners and bad behaviors. A person cannot
grow academically only with the aid of good academics. One needs to have good and positive
environment for him around him. There should be positive vibe around him as well. People will tend to
ignore him if he is not kind enough to others. Good academics would be presented with a bad conduct,
undoing all he achieves professionally. He would thoroughly deserve to take his positive attitude
towards learning, by working on the negative aspect and improve upon them. He needs to be pointed
out his negativities in order for him to become a complete human and compete righteously.
Furthermore, praising only positive actions will also bring about complacency in a person. He can take
things for granted and never care enough to improve further. If he is aware of the points he needs to
improve upon as well, along with the positives he already has, only then will he be able to add on to his
positive attitude.
However, we must also take care that we don’t demean a person by always pointing out his negatives.
Human behavior learns best when he knows his negatives, either by self-analysis or by being told by
others, and he is praised for the good he does as well. Human nature is susceptible to being
disheartened and demotivated, if he is not praised and appraised for his positive deeds. The recognition
of his good work will keep him motivated. However, it would be the negative aspects, that when known
to him, will bring about an improvement.
We must also take care that when a negative aspect of a person is informed to him, it should always be
presented as a point which can add up to his strength if attempted to improve upon. Utilising a negative
aspect in a positive way is the best way to learn. It cannot be attained by praising the positives alone,
but by striking a balance between praising the positives and realizing the negatives.

1. Reared by villagers doesn’t mean they are not reared by their biological parents at all
2. The usage of “entire village” can mean their contributions to the rearing of a child
3. Dr. Field’s observation is only about Tertia, while Dr. Karp’s view includes a group of islands –
both are not same
4. Talking more of biological parents doesn’t denote the other villagers did not help in rearing the
child – They are just fond of their own parents more which is normal
5. Interview centered method is more accurate only if most people are interviewed while
observation centered one can be more accurate then
6. May be child is reared by entire villager, that’s why they miss being reared by their biological
parents alone and hence they talk of them more
7. The answers by the children will depend on the questions asked too

The author presents two different methods to analyze the child-rearing traditions in a culture and
presents his conclusion based on them. However, the author doesn’t substantiate enough reasons and
facts to come to the conclusion he does. He also fails to take into considerations various other
possibilities in concluding.
Firstly, as Dr. Field’s observation mentions that a child is reared by entire village; it does not refer as to
no contribution from the biological parents at all. It can very well mean that the child is primarily reared
by its biological parents with good contributions from the other villagers as well, which might not be so
common in other places. The usage of the phrase “entire villagers” would mean a good level of
contribution from the villagers in the child’s rearing.
Furthermore, as Dr. Karp mentions, he had applied his method to a group of islands and not to Tertia
alone while Mr. Field’s observations were based only on the villagers at Tertia. A survey based on a
group of islands can never be termed at par with the results from individual villages. A group in total can
denote varying degree of observations compared to an individual. It is thoroughly irrelevant to use the
data based on all the islands to be true for Tertia. There might be many other islands where the
biological parents are solely responsible for the rearing of the child with no contribution from other
villagers, thus leading to a common viewpoint to be as such.
Additionally, a method that can bear better results need not have the same impact at different places.
The author generalizes adopting the same interview based method to bear best results in all the islands.
One needs to survey the islands to find out first, which method would fetch best results at different
islands. The result of such survey should be analyzed and thereafter should be applied to the different
islands. It is wrong to generalize an aspect to all the islands.
The interview based method utilizes data acquired from individuals for analysis. However, observation
based method utilizes all the individuals as a group for analysis. Hence, in case of interview based
methods, maximum number of individuals should be interviewed for a stronger and effective result. The
author doesn’t specify about how many children he is interviewing in his method. This can seriously
hamper the reliability of his method and the results based on that.
Moreover, Dr. Karp’s interviews reveal that the children spend more time talking about their biological
parents. It might be a case that children are more prone to spend time with the entire villagers and
hence, get very little time to spend with their biological parents. It can lead to the children missing
spending time with their biological parents and hence they like to talk about them more. The author
fails to grasp the possibility of this.
Adding to the previous point, the author doesn’t specify the questions they ask to the children during
their interviews. It is probable that the questions are more oriented towards information regarding their
biological parents. They are bound to answer them with respect to their biological parents only. Hence,
generalizing based on the answers is unsubstantiated. We need more information to come to a
conclusion based on this point.
Hence, the author needs to present more thorough data along with a better perception of the data
already available to him to come to a strong conclusion.

To understand the most important characteristics of a society, one must study its major cities.
1. Major cities represent one kind of society – true
2. Rural areas represent different set of characteristics
3. Important characteristics needs to be defined – Social, Cultural, Economic, Political, History,
Needs
4. Human behavior is different in rural and urban civilization
It is true that study of one of the major cities can reveal a lot of information regarding the characteristics
of a society. However, it would be prudent to take into account the various other factors which are more
prominently emphasized and characterized by other semi-urban and rural inhabitants.
Before we start describing the importance of studying the major cities to find out the important
characteristics of a society, we must first define what these importance characteristics are. The society is
defined by its social, cultural, economic, political and historical parameters. The needs of a society
depends on these factors which actually are the showcase reflecting their features. All these points are
cognizant of defining the society.
Major cities lead an urban life; mainly constituting a fast paced and more luxurious life. The facilities are
thorough for a good lifestyle. People are more probable to get good return for the effort put by them.
The economy is normally the best in the major cities. The influence of history is less evident as there are
mixtures of different cultures due to more employment opportunities. The social life is defined by the
aid of internet or phones. Man to man social contacts is less motivating here. Political influence is more
superficial as people are educated and require less influence to study the political scenario better. The
working class mainly constitutes the corporate level office going people. The lower level works are
mainly supported by rural people who migrate to cities for employment.
A rural lifestyle, however, represents a different picture. The social life is more defined by close contacts
between humans. The use of technological advancement is less prominent here. The effects of local
cultural practices are visible as they are less vulnerable to be affected by foreign cultures. Human need
here is different than that of any urban life. Political practices are more to ground level than
advertisement based. Due to poorer economic conditions as compared to the urban population, the
employment structure is sharply different. People from rural background are more prone to be
employed into working for industries or agriculture.
The historical background of any society can be variedly distributed. For example, in India, one can find
significant characterization of the history of a society through a major city as well as a remote area. One
can find the old Red Fort being built in New Delhi and trace back to its Mughal rules. On the other hand,
there are Forts being built in small towns of Golkonda as well to depict its particular historical
background.
Hence, it is important to study as many aspects of a society as possible to get a good purview of a
society’s characteristics. It is not only the major cities which can denote a society’s view, but the rural
population also provides enormous information for a correct analysis.

Woven baskets characterized by a particular distinctive pattern have previously been found only in the
immediate vicinity of the prehistoric village of Palea and therefore were believed to have been made
only by the Palean people. Recently, however, archaeologists discovered such a "Palean" basket in
Lithos, an ancient village across the Brim River from Palea. The Brim River is very deep and broad, and so
the ancient Paleans could have crossed it only by boat, and no Palean boats have been found. Thus it
follows that the so-called Palean baskets were not uniquely Palean.

1. The belief that only Palean People made the baskets look bleak
2. May be Other places who made woven baskets were not discovered like it has been now
3. Lithos is close to Palea – Paleans may not be able to go to Lithos but no proof lithos cannot
come to Palea
4. Boats were not found for Palea; but nothing informed about boats from Lithos
5. A “Palean” basket was discovered in Lithos – No proof provided if it was woven in Lithos or
Palea

The author presents various arguments to come up with a conclusion that the so-called Palean baskets
were not uniquely Palean. It might be or might not be true as the conclusion is not substantiated by
proper reasoning that the author claims.

The possibility of Palean people being the only makers of woven baskets look bleak. It is argued that the
reason for such belief is that such distinctive pattern on the woven baskets was found only in the
immediate vicinity of Palea. We do not know about how good an analysis was done so as to
substantiate that it is impossible for any other village to have made similar woven baskets. An extensive
research might reveal more similar woven baskets from different villages. This can easily argue in favor
of the claim the Palean baskets were not uniquely Palean.

However, the other arguments do not visibly argue in favor of the statement. It is mentioned that Lithos
is close to Palea separated by deep and broad river. The only way to cross would be a boat and that no
Palean boats have been found. Since Lithos is also on the bank of the same river, we do not know if
Lithos had boats capable to crossing the river. It is very much possible that Lithos might have migrated a
few Paleans from Palea to their land and those Paleans were actually behind the woven baskets found
at Lithos. The author does not provide any information whether the woven basket found in Lithos was
actually woven by a Litho.

Additionally, when a village is settled across a river, it is very unlikely that the inhabitants of the village
never found a way to use the river or cross it to certain extent. Though no Palean boats were
discovered, it does not certify they never had any boating means to cross the river. And if they actually
had which could not be discovered later, it is well and good possible to transport baskets from Palea to
Lithos

Moreover, due to Lithos and Palea being separated only by a river, there are good chances of the two
places being good mutual trading locations. Lithos could come down to Palea to trade woven baskets
from Paleans and import it to their land or vice versa.

Unless the claim is substantiated with proper information, it is unguaranteed of the author to assume
the conclusion he did. As per the information provided, we cannot conclude if Palean baskets are not
uniquely Palean. More relevant details pertaining to the Lithos civilization and woven baskets found in
Lithos need to be presented to conclude appropriately.
Educational institutions have a responsibility to dissuade students from pursuing fields of study in which
they are unlikely to succeed.

1. A student might show different interest in childhood and adopt other things later
2. People are affected by environment – Students interest can change with time
3. It would be unwise to judge a student’s future by the interest he shares at childhood
4. Rather than having a negative connotation – We should promote students into pursuing their
field of study
5. If there affection and interest change, we should guide them onto pursuing that would make
them good rather than look for fields they will not succeed

Scandals are useful because they focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer
ever could.

1. Scandals for money, property, business,
2. Scandals in private organizations, in public sector
3. Scandals can be small scale or large scale
4. Scandals in movies – petty issues involving various famed personalities
5. When the scandal affects large mass, its effect can be big – Such scandals are to be evaded from
its root
6. Such large scale scandals are normally involving political influence - Measures to have such
scandals evaded. Not to learn from them
7. Scandals involving famed individuals whose personal lives are involved – Have little impact and
hence nothing to learn from them


Claim: Governments must ensure that their major cities receive the financial support they need in order
to thrive.
Reason: It is primarily in cities that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved and generated.

1. Cities are financial hubs of any economy
2. Development of city will reflect in the development of nation and its economy
3. However, the reason provided does not necessarily substantiate the claim
4. Cultural traditions do not represent a nation’s growth in all respect
5. A city rich in cultural traditions might be poor in economical aspect
6. Improving cultural tradition can bring about tourism
7. But that is not the only criteria for a nation to thrive
8. Kolkata is culturally held very high for retaining them
9. However, from other factors, as sanitary, road conditions, housings etc – it is far from providing
the best
10. Financial support to be distributed as per requirement to all sectors – in rural as well as urban
locations

A nation’s economy is funded mainly by the growth and development of its cities, for cities represents
the economic hubs of the country. The growth and development of a nation can be judged to some
extent by the condition of its major cities. However, cultural traditions are not the sole criteria to scale
any location’s growth and capacity to thrive. One needs to divulge further onto various other factors
that can regulate a nation’s prosperity

As the arguments claims that cities primarily preserve the nation’s cultural traditions is not strong
enough a reason. For example, India is a huge country, both area wise as well as population wise. There
are numerous large cities, medium sized cities and towns. Varanasi is a small town in India, however, is
preserving great deal of cultural varieties of its state. There are numerous such towns in India which
despite their small size preserve the cultural beauty of its people and it is not only the major cities which
hold the cultural superiority. It is improper to claim such argument as to major cities should be preferred
for financial support reasoning its cultural superiority.

Moreover, a nation’s growth does not depend on its cultural impacts only. There are various other
aspects that need to be well studied and planned for a well-paced development plans. A city rich with
cultural traditions and values might still be economically backwards. For example, Kolkata, a
metropolitan city in India, has very well adhered and stick with its age-old cultural belongings. However,
the basic facilities for a safe and clean water supply, housing standards, pollution level, road conditions
etc are far from comparison with even other cities in India. Proper planned investments should be made
to improve upon these areas as well.

Adding to the above point, articulate cultural traditions can undoubtedly improve a lot of tourism to the
place. Off course, that will boost the economy in its limitations. This would be a way to bring about an
improvement if the cultural traditions are that strong to attract tourism. For example, Agra, which has
the famous Taj Mahal, is a town but thrives solely on the tourism it gets every year. Providing financial
aids to cities like them would be totally based on cultural refinements to it to thrive.

Consequently, a nation’s growth story is not bounded only by its cities. The rural programs to improve
living standard in rural areas are equally necessary, whether they are culturally strong or not. A
developed nation is one which has unequivocal advancements and basic necessities provided to both
rural and urban population.

To conclude, a government needs to identity the aspects that govern the prosperity of any place. The
claim to provide financial support to cities for a nation to thrive solely on its cultural background is
unwarranted. Proper planning with immaculate implementation of the plans on all the aspects can bring
about a positive change.

"A recent study of eighteen rhesus monkeys provides clues as to the effects of birth order on an
individual's levels of stimulation. The study showed that in stimulating situations (such as an encounter
with an unfamiliar monkey), firstborn infant monkeys produce up to twice as much of the hormone
cortisol, which primes the body for increased activity levels, as do their younger siblings. Firstborn
humans also produce relatively high levels of cortisol in stimulating situations (such as the return of a
parent after an absence). The study also found that during pregnancy, first-time mother monkeys had
higher levels of cortisol than did those who had had several offspring."

1. Study of only 18 rhesus monkeys don’t denote the whole race
2. No clarification as to why only firstborn infant monkeys have higher cortisol hormones, even if
the situation is stimulating for next monkey to be born
3. If situation is stimulating, all infant monkeys should be born with higher hormone level
4. There might be many other reasons for high level of cortisol as the extensive of survey with
respect to humans are not presented


"Over the past two years, the number of shoppers in Central Plaza has been steadily decreasing while
the popularity of skateboarding has increased dramatically. Many Central Plaza store owners believe
that the decrease in their business is due to the number of skateboard users in the plaza. There has also
been a dramatic increase in the amount of litter and vandalism throughout the plaza. Thus, we
recommend that the city prohibit skateboarding in Central Plaza. If skateboarding is prohibited here, we
predict that business in Central Plaza will return to its previously high levels."

Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide
whether the recommendation is likely to have the predicted result. Be sure to explain how the answers
to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation.

1. Many factors can regulate the decrease in no. of shoppers in Central Plaza e.g. bad marketing,
not enough good shops, bad salesmanship etc.
2. There is seems no appropriate commensuration between skateboarding and no. of shoppers –
Appears more of an assumption than any fact
3. No appropriate survey – The recommendation is based on just store owner’s beliefs
4. Dramatic increase in litter and vandalism do not directly reflect on skateboarders.
5. Increase in litters and vandalism can be attributed to the shoppers as well – Better security and
cleaning staff to be provided to lesson such effects
6. Increase in skateboarding popularity can be due to recent trends among the youth who like to
skateboard.
7. Appropriate study needs to be conducted to find out the reasons for decrease in shoppers
rather than just blaming skateboarding without any substance
8. There might be better malls opened that has reduced the attraction to Central Plaza – It might
not have kept in track with the advancements

The author presents one of the events noticed by store owners to come up with a recommendation
without analyzing various other aspects that might actually be the reason behind the claim.
Skateboarding has been pin-pointed as the sole reason for a decrease in shoppers to Central Plaza.
However, there are many other factors that needs a thorough study before we can come up with any
conclusion and recommend upon that

The Central Plaza had been witnessing gradual decrease in shoppers over last 2 years. The author
straight away commensurate the gradual decrease with increase in skateboarding in the Plaza. After all,
why should skateboarding affect the shoppers from shopping? Skateboarding is in a way an attraction
and can add up to the value of the shopping center. Nevertheless, it can also hinder shopping
experience if the skateboarders are more of vandalizing and harassing mentality. However, the author
does not state as such being the case. May be a proper study can reveal so and strengthen or weaken
the author’s argument.

Furthermore, the decrease in the mall’s popularity can be attributed to various other factors. For
example, bad marketing, not enough good shops that the consumer demands nowadays, bad
salesmanship, or growth of better malls nearby. All these factors will directly and adversely affect the
shopper’s tendency to visit the Plaza. The author does not present any data pertaining to these factors.
The author’s claim is drastically affected by the absence of all these aspects being analyzed.

The author presents the arguments on the basis of the observations of the store owners. Store owners
are not supposed to be great analysts or surveyor. One cannot rely solely on the facts produced by the
store owners only. We don’t even know if all store owners had been asked that led to such claims. If the
store owners are only to be interviewed to come up to a conclusion, they should also be questioned on
all the factors already mentioned above. A thorough survey covering all the points would still be a better
analysis than just presuming the skateboarding to be a singled out reason for the fall in popularity of the
shopping experience.

It is mentioned that there have been increase in activities of littering and vandalism. Even this factor
does not directly blame the skateboarders. The littering and vandalism could well be by the shoppers
themselves. Proper security should be appointed to lessen the vandalism and improper littering. More
cleaning staff should be appointed to clear the litters on regular basis. Off course, vandalism and litters
can be a glitch to the image of an institution and can affect the shopper’s interest. Though this can
directly affect the popularity of the place but the reason as attributed to the skateboarding sounds
implausible.

Moreover, the increase in skateboarding can be due to a change in trends among the youth. It is
observed that the youth mainly skateboard. And there might be an increased popularity of
skateboarding all throughout the place that obviously got reflected in increase in skateboarding in the
mall as well. It might well have nothing to do with the decrease in shoppers.

To conclude, the author needs to clarify and assess various other factors, as mentioned, before
evaluating a recommendation to reinstate Central Plaza’s initial popularity.

Some people believe that government funding of the arts is necessary to ensure that the arts can
flourish and be available to all people. Others believe that government funding of the arts threatens the
integrity of the arts.
Write a response in which you discuss which view more closely aligns with your own position and
explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should
address both of the views presented.

1. Art to be defined – painters, sculpture makers, music, movies
2. Availability to people can be seen as resources available for the artisans to make artistry of
different type
3. Also the artistry is easily available to its appreciators
4. Flourishing of art will result in welfare of this sector which is a big field
5. Government intervention can aid a declining field
6. Some countries like India have good platform for mainstream movie and music to flourish but
ground level artists find it difficult to thrive as artists due to lack of infrastructure in this field
7. Government backing can make such artists flourish and present their artistry to the world and
earn
8. In fields like Bollywood, they are already well developed and have high money value with
respect to viewership – Government intervention is such art fields are not necessary – In fact
can threaten the freedom of the artistry
9. But artists who do not have the platform or financial support to sustain their artistry should get
government backup – That will enable their art to flourish

Arctic deer live on islands in Canada's arctic regions. They search for food by moving over ice from island
to island during the course of the year. Their habitat is limited to areas warm enough to sustain the
plants on which they feed and cold enough, at least some of the year, for the ice to cover the sea
separating the islands, allowing the deer to travel over it. Unfortunately, according to reports from local
hunters, the deer populations are declining. Since these reports coincide with recent global warming
trends that have caused the sea ice to melt, we can conclude that the purported decline in deer
populations is the result of the deer's being unable to follow their age-old migration patterns across the
frozen sea.
Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and
explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

1. Global warming causes deer’s living habitat to change as well – Deer gets different environment
to live than his normal requirement
2. Local hunters might be hunting deer now
3. How can local hunters view be taken as a consensus on the fact?
4. More survey by genuine survey makers
5. Deer might already be living in the areas warm enough for plants they eat and don’t need to
migrate
6. There might be deadly diseases spreading killing the deer
7. No data about since when is the decline in population witnessed
8. Plants might not be getting appropriate temperature to grow
9. It is not mentioned if due to global warming, ice covering the sea is not present at all even for
some time of the year – as deer need only some of the year with ice covered as mentioned

A nation should require all its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college.

1. basic education should be common
2. inspires competition
3. gives same platform for all
4. allows one to choose career path with higher uniformity
5. but a nation with varied culture - should have flexibility in emphasising local culture, history studies
6. india - diverse country - different culture - hence difference in particular curriculums
7. specialization comes in college - till then a common curriculum to be followed

Education and knowledge are the basis which shapes the future anf growth of a student. With proper
education, comes the chances for a better future. Hence, emphasis on a proper curridulum to the
students is of utmost importance for any nation. One needs to thoroughly analyse the curriculum that
should be taught to a student.

Basic education that is imparted to a primary student should contain all the factors that is going to help
him take judicial decisions in every step of life. It is a period for a student when he is averse to the
requirement of this world and needs to be given a strong base and foundation to face the challenges life
upholds. Primary education should be made common for all the students due to this reason so that
every individual gets equal share of knowledge and wisdom during this phase. It provides a common
platform for every student to excel in his own way. It boils down to the student thereafter how he/she
takes the education forward and utilises it.

Furthermore, a common curriculum will instill fair competition. Competition is essential to thrive in this
present world. And the best method to judge is to be provide every student with same platform and let
them make the most out of it. The effort involved in providing the common platform might vary but it is
only then that a student would be ready to face the competitive world outside.

However, we must take into account another scenario where implementing common curriculum in
every field will not be judicious. Let us take an example of a widely diverse country, India. India has
many states and each state has its own culture and history that vary vastly from one another. With such
wide habits and traditions, it would be advisable to provide fields of study indigenous to every state and
location so that students get to learn about themselves, their culture and their forefathers more
strongly. A student from North eastern states would be having different necessities and outlook to life
than one from Mumbai as they thrive in totally different environment and habits. Primary education
itself carries different taste altogether with difference in geographical locations. One must take into
account such prevailing variety before making up a curriculum for its students.

As we understand, a common curriculum to students is mostly inspiring for the betterment of the
nation, however, large countries with varied taste and color should also implement subjects pertaining
to the student'ss specific needs as well.