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Lieutenant Colonel Raashid Wali Janjua
Some where ages and ages hence
Two roads diverged in a wood and I
Took the one less traveled by
And that has made all the dierence
!Robert "rost#
symmetric warare is the new bu$$word being bandied about by think tanks and
military institutions in the west% The venerated status being currently accorded
to this conce&t in the &antheon o strategic ideas in the west &artly owes itsel
to a need to come to terms with a martial ennui born out o com&lete global military
domination o 'SA and &artly out o a need to &arry all kinds o unconventional military
threats to dominant world &owers% Although asymmetric warare is not a new conce&t as
will be indicated in the subse(uent &arts o this article) still there is an element o
reshness about the conce&t% "resh vignettes on an old conce&t have been thrown u&
by a new reality% That reality is technology) i%e) develo&ments in nuclear) biological and
chemical wea&ons and their easy accessibility to state and non*state belligerents%
Wea&ons o mass destruction have assumed the status o deu+ e+ machina in
contem&orary warare% These have given weak states and non*state actors a hitherto
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unknown &ower to inlict grievous damage on stronger adversaries% The a&otheosis o
this new conlict scenario is the Se&tember ,, attack on the Twin Towers% The
denouement o the new &henomenon is the airmation o the &ower o asymmetry% The
&ower o asymmetry) which has cata&ulted this conce&t on centre stage) is derived rom
wea&ons o mass destruction !W-.# and the astounding advances in technology
es&ecially inormation warare%
Asymmetric warare is a ascinating subject which needs to be studied and
understood by all armies in order to enable themselves to meet the emerging
challenges% An attem&t will be made in this article to e+&lore all dimensions o
asymmetric warare and to clariy or the beneit o readers the subtle dierences
between low intensity conlict) revolution in military aairs and asymmetric warare%
Asymmetric warare is a historical act% It was always eective% /ut what has made it so
im&ortant now0 The sim&le answer is that W-. and R-A have made it lethal now%
W-. and R-A are the new strains o a virulent bacteria against which there is no
antidote% The global menagerie o conlict showcases rightening &redators brandishing
W-.s% There are guerrilla bands e(ui&&ed with chemical1 biological wea&ons) terrorists
&ossessing dirty bombs and rogue 1 ailed states armed with nuclear wea&ons%
To analyse the conce&t o asymmetric warare in all its dimensions%
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Anatomy of Asymmetric Warfare
Asymmetric warare is neither an esoteric idea nor an inscrutable stratagem% It is
an intelligent act) which relies on a common sense a&&roach% Its range varies rom
&rosaic to sublime% An a&t e+am&le is that o the amous heavy weight bo+ing clash
between 2eorge "oreman and -uhammad Ali in Congo &o&ularly known as the
3Rumble in the Jungle4% A cheeky challenger was u& against 2eorge "oreman) none o
whose o&&onents had lasted more than three minutes in the ring% When the ight
commenced a steamed u& 2eorge "oreman charged against a cowering -uhammad
Ali who instead o trading &unch or &unch leaned against the ro&es mouthing
&rovocative whis&ers in oreman5s ears) 32eorge you6re not hittin4 and 32eorge) you
disa&&oint me4% "oreman got urious and started unleashing a lurry o wild &unches% Ali
sim&ly let him attack) absorbing the weight o &unches by the hel& o the ro&es% 7aving
unleashed his ury 2eorge oreman was a s&ent orce by the ith round% In eighth round
Ali knocked him down with a lightening hook% 2eorge "oreman did not understand what
had hit him% An a&&arently weaker Ali had turned "oreman6s strength into his weakness
by cleverly diverting the orce o his &unches onto the ro&es% It was a (uintessential
asymmetric tactic
Definition and Brief History of te Conce!t% Asymmetric warare is deined as
acting) organi$ing and thinking dierently rom o&&onents to ma+imi$e relative
strengths) e+&loit o&&onents6 weaknesses or gain greater reedom o action% It can be
&olitical) strategic1o&erational entailing dierent methods) technologies) values)
organi$ations or time &ers&ectives% It can be short term) long term) deliberate or by
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% Another deinition is that asymmetric warare is a conlict in which the relatively
even strength o two conventional military orces are not evenly matched% It occurs
when a weaker combatant uses non traditional wea&ons and strategy to obtain a
ighting advantage over a stronger o&&onent
% The history o warare abounds with
e+am&les o asymmetric warare% Some e+am&les include the S&artan attack on a
coalition o Athens) Corinth and Argos in 9;: /.) <yrrhus6 attack on Italy in 8=> /C) and
the 2ermanic tribes6 invasions o the Roman ?m&ire in the third century A. in ancient
times% In recent times the Chinese civil war) @ietnam conlict) Russo*Aghan conlict and
Russo Chechen conlict can be cited as e+am&les
% A classic e+am&le is that o the
Roman legate <ublius Auinctilius @arrus in ; A%. who led his three legions into north
2ermany or a &eace enorcement mission% 7is nemesis &roved to be a 2ermanic
chietain Arminius who had served in the Roman army% Arminius knew that his light
irregular orces had no chance against a &ro&erly organi$ed Roman legion% 7e)
thereore) lulled the Romans into a alse belie that he was their ally% The Romans
bought the bait and set out on hostile territory on an administrative march destroying the
tactical integrity o the legion) which was the bedrock o Roman battleield success% The
2ermans attacked and the three legions were e+terminated to a man% Arminius knew
that i his orces could attack a ragmented Roman tactical ormation they could beat it
and he achieved that asymmetric advantage through a ruse
The conce&t o asymmetric warare was &resent during the cold War years albeit
in a muted orm% -atching Soviet (uantitative advantages in ?uro&e was central to 'S
strategy% The 'S Army .e&artment o .eence began to recogni$e the &otential or
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asymmetric threats in ,;;Cs as a conse(uence o &ost Cold War security environment%
The e+&licit mention o asymmetry irst a&&eared in the ,;;> joint &ublication, !Joint
Warare# o the armed orces o the 'nited States% In ,;;= asymmetric threats began to
receive greater attention% The Congressional Dational .eence <anel !D.<# outlines the
conce&t most e+&licitly) 3We can assume that our enemies and uture adversaries have
learned rom the 2ul war% They are unlikely to conront us conventionally with mass
armour ormations) air su&eriority orces and dee& water naval leets o their own) all
areas o overwhelming 'S strength today% Instead they may ind new ways to attack our
interests) our orces and our citi$ens% They will look or ways to match their strengths
against our weaknesses4
% There were ollow u& studies culminating in the Secretary o
.eence6s annual re&ort to congress in ,;;; noting that 'S conventional military
dominance would encourage adversaries to seek asymmetric means o attacking 'S
military orces) 'S interests and 'S citi$ens%
A S"e!tical #ie$ of Te Conce!t% .es&ite the current im&ortance o the
conce&t there are analysts who (uestion the undue attention being given to it% Ene o
these ske&tics is <roessor .r Colin 2ray who argues that in the history o strategic
ideas the contem&orary American ascination with asymmetry com&rises rediscovery o
the stunningly obvious% Since asymmetrical merely means dierent) it is little hard to
understand (uite why the notion has been elevated as the latest ashionable /ig idea%
According to him all o America6s wars have been asymmetrical contests% 7e cautions
against seeing too much into the strategic dimension o the conce&t by stating that
asymmetry essentially is a hollow conce&t% 7e believes that there is nothing inherently
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strategically magical about the asymmetrical behaviour as all tactical) o&erational and
strategic behaviour is asymmetrical% 7e avers that because all warare is asymmetrical
!there being no sets o identical belligerents# we should not categorise a &articular
conlict as distinctly asymmetric
% Since the conce&t in its &resent etymological and
e&istemological sense is in its inancy we have to treat the views o the learned
&roessor with res&ectul ske&ticism%
Low Intensity Conlict !LIC# and Asymmetric Warare !AW#% Low Intensity Conlict
is in act one o the strategies in the re&ertoire o asymmetric warare% Still the ollowing
com&arison will illustrate the subordinate nature and limited sco&e o LIC as com&ared
to AW%
!,# Initiated and waged by non*
state actors) i%e) guerilla bands1
resistance movements%
Can be initiated by state as well as non*state
!8# E&erates within a well*deined
geogra&hical setting) hence
local1 regional in nature%
Conducted within or without geogra&hic
constraints) hence global in nature%
!9# .eliberate control on the scale
o o&erations by o&erating
below nuclear threshold%
While control can be e+ercised by states but
the actions o non state actors are not so
constrained due to absence o ear o re&risals
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owing to their concealed location%
!:# Wea&ons o -ass .estruction
and R-A technologies not
Wea&ons o -ass .estruction and R-A
technologies &art o asymmetrical warare
!># Dormally ollows a se(uential
.oes not ollow a se(uential &attern% Relies
on sur&rise to dislocate1disru&t the mental)
moral and &hysical e(uilibrium o target%
!B# Dormally challenges
conventional deterrence%
Challenges both conventional and nuclear
Conducted mostly by weaker adversaries as a &reerred mode o warare against
stronger o&&onents%
Terrorism may be em&loyed by both as a tactic to achieve &olitical and military
Re'ol(tion in Military Affairs )RMA). /eore establishing a linkage between the
two conce&ts it is &ertinent to understand the conce&t o R-A% Dew technologies o
waging war) like inormation warareG network centric warare and integrated command
and control !C
ISR# systems have led to the revolution in military aairs
% 'S Army had
identiied our &otential new warare areas) i%e) long*range &recision strike) inormation
warare) dominating manoeuvre and s&ace warare% E the our &otential new warare
areas) conce&tually &recision strike is the most develo&ed% -uch work has been done
in the ield o inormation warare yet it remains a &oorly understood conce&t% Analysis o
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dominant manoeuvre and s&ace warare has just begun
% "ollowing are the elements o
the &resent R-AH*
Precision Stri"e% It is ability to locate high value1time sensitive targets and to
destroy them with a high degree o conidence within o&erationally and strategically
signiicant time lines while minimi$ing collateral damage) riendly ire casualties and
enemy counter strikes
% In ,;:9 'S ?ighth Air "orce targeted only >C strategic
targets during one year while in irst 8: hours o .esert Storm the allied air orce
struck ,>C strategic targets) a thousand*old increase over ,;:9 ca&ability%
Information Warfare )IW*% It is deined as a struggle between two or more
o&&onents or control o inormation battle s&ace% Ene o the key issues in IW is the
vulnerability o command) control) communications and intelligence systems% The
inesse lies in attacking the enemy6s systems while &rotecting own%
Dominatin+ Manoe('re% -anoeuvre has always been an im&ortant element in
warare but R-A oers the ability to conduct manoeuvre on a global scale in a much
more com&ressed time scale and with greatly reduced orces
% .ominating
manoeuvre is deined as the &ositioning o orces) integrated with &recision strike)
s&ace warare and IW o&erations to attack decisive &oints and deeat the enemy6s
centre o gravity% While &recision strike and inormation warare destroy the enemy6s
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situational awareness) dominating manoeuvre strikes at the enemy6s centre o
gravity to &ut him in an untenable &osition% To achieve manoeuvre dominance an
army would re(uire advanced orms o mobility not &ossessed by the enemy%
Foc(sed &o+istics% There will be a re(uirement o ocused logistics) which means
reducing the logistics load to only the essential re(uirement) in the shortest &ossible
time) at the astest s&eed and in the correct (uantity% R-A also enables a user to
calculate &recisely what is re(uired) how much is re(uired and where it is re(uired
S!ace Warfare% It is the e+&loitation o the s&ace environment to conduct ull
s&ectrum) real time global military o&erations% S&ace o&erations can revolutioni$e
su&&ort to ground orces in the ields o communications) intelligence gathering)
navigation and &recision strike% Some uture s&ace systems !su&&orting s&ace
o&erations# include trans atmos&heric vehicles) single stage orbit launch vehicles)
s&ace based directed energy wea&ons) and s&ace based ballistic missile deence1
satellite deence systems%
Im!act of RMA on AW% R-A like W-.s is now &art o the tool kit o asymmetric
warriors% It aords a hitherto unknown ca&ability to &urveyors o AW to target both
the orces and civilian targets o advanced countries% R-A cuts both waysG while
investing modern armies o industriali$ed countries with increased ability to attack
and deend it aords an almost similar ca&ability to weaker armies and non*state
actors% The most interesting conclusion is the reali$ation that a su&erior adversary
will have to rely on the ma+imum elements o R-A to achieve tactical1 o&erational
objectives whereas a weaker adversary may re(uire one or two elements o R-A in
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conjunction with wea&ons o mass destruction to inlict unacce&table damage% Then
there are ske&tics who view the whole conce&t o R-A a &i&e dream% According to
"ranklin S&inney the e+ 'S .eence Secretary Robert -cDamara &ro&osed the
conce&t o an electronic line in @ietnam% The idea was to sow robotic sensors in the
jungle that were to be linked via airborne relays to a com&uter centre in Thailand
rom where the air strikes were to be directed% The idea obviously came a cro&&er
The writer regards the current idea o R-A as the ailed dream o -cDamara
dressed in new clothes% The reliance on R-A by advanced countries has also
increased their vulnerability to low technology attacks on their critical nodes o
command) communication and control by globalised and dis&ersed networks o
terrorists that e+&loit modern communications
% "or e+am&le) a ty&ical AW
deensive res&onse by a weak army against the R-A led &recision strike ca&ability
o a stronger army can be to widely dis&erse the critical assets including orces in an
urban labyrinth while retaining ability to mount attacks through miniaturi$ed
communication and control e(ui&ment% A classic case o .avid slaying 2oliath%
Profiles of Asymmetric Warfare
Ty!es of C(rrent Asymmetric Treats% The ty&e o uture threats that
asymmetric actors may &ose are H*
'se o Wea&ons o -ass .estruction along with means o delivery like Long Range
/allistic or Cruise -issiles% Their &rolieration and means o de&loyment are a
dangerous asymmetric threat% They inlict mass casualties) cause terror and degrade
morale% These may be em&loyed by individuals or a weak state against stronger
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state!s#% There is a&&arently no deence against this kind o threat s&ecially i
em&loyed by non*state actors% The means o delivery include traditional delivery
&latorms and non*traditional ones like suitcases commercial 1 &rivate vehicles and
suicide human carriers%
Em!loyment of Cyber Based Warfare% Cyber wea&ons and tools could be used
to disru&t the inormation technology ca&ability o military and civilian systems o
advanced nations by weaker state1non state actors% The threat is com&ounded by
the ac(uisition o high tech sensor) communications and wea&ons systems) by rogue
states and non*state actors such as transnational organi$ed crime syndicates% The
e+&loitation o civilian sources such as the Internet and commercial satellite imagery
results in o&erational &lanning1targeting and greater damage by the asymmetric
Em!loyment of %on Con'entional ,!erations% !DCEs#% DCEs can involve the
use o com&le+ terrain) novel tactics and technology to degrade the modern
military6s ca&acity to ind and attack militarily signiicant targets% The DCEs also
include terrorism) which links such o&erations with transnational crime syndicates
dabbling in drug1 gun trade and smuggling o Duclear1 Chemical1 /iological
Dimensions of Asymmetry% Strategic asymmetry can be &ositive or
negative% <ositive asymmetry uses su&erior ca&ability to gain an advantage while
negative asymmetry involves deensive res&onse against an o&&onent6s threats to
one6s vulnerabilities% Strategic asymmetry can also be short term or long term% Short
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term asymmetry is e+em&liied by blit$krieg6s e+am&le during World War II% "or a
year or two it &roved eective until the Soviets ound ways to counter it
% Strategic
asymmetry can be deliberate or by deault% I an adversary sim&ly uses the best
known techni(ue to ight and achieves an asymmetric advantage unknowingly) it is
asymmetry by deault% Ene must understand whether the asymmetry is deliberate or
by deault) in order to counter the enemy reactions% Strategic asymmetry can be low
risk or high risk% Terrorism is low cost and high risk action whereas use o a
conventional army is high cost and low risk action% Strategic asymmetry can also be
discrete or integrated with asymmetric techni(ues% 2enerally only the most
des&erate antagonists would rely solely on discrete asymmetric methods
&e'els of Asymmetry
,!erational &e'el% It is the most common orm o asymmetry and its historical
e+am&les include the 2ermans6 use o submarine warare to counterbalance the
/ritish advantage in ca&ital shi&s and E&eration bodyguard the o&erational level
dece&tion &lan to su&&ort the Dormandy invasion%
Military - strate+ic Asymmetry% It is an integrated military strategy based on
asymmetry and e+am&les include the -aoist <eo&le6s War) /lit$krieg and -assive
retaliation !the strategic conce&t to counter Warsaw <act aggression with a nuclear
Politico - Strate+ic Asymmetry% It is em&loyment o non*military means to gain a
military advantage% ?+am&les include @ietnam) 2ul war and /alkan crisisG whereas
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the Dorth @ietnamese were able to gain the moral high ground against 'SA)
Saddam 7ussain and Slobodan -ilosevic ailed in their attem&ts
Forms of Asymmetry
Asymmetry of ,!erational Conce!ts% It is e+em&liied by guerrilla war and other
nonlinear conce&ts% A latest e+am&le is the 'S Army6s new conce&t o vertical
envelo&ment with mobile) &rotected orces as o&&osed to air assault by oot mobile
Asymmetry of Tecnolo+y% 7illaire /elloc ca&tured the essence o this orm by
stating) whatever ha&&ens we have got the -a+im gun and they have not%
Asymmetric technologies however can be countered by unorthodo+ strategies%
@ietnam war and Chechen conlict &rovide clear e+am&les o this orm%
Asymmetry of Will% It &roves eective when one antagonist views its survival at
stake while the other &ursues less than a vital interest% ?+am&les include @ietnam)
Somalia and Russo*Aghan conlict% An asymmetry o will hel&s the antagonist with
the higher stake to bear greater cost1risk and undertake actions untrammeled by
legal1moral grounds
Asymmetry of ,r+anisation% The e+am&les include the -acedonian <halan+)
Swiss &ike ormations) "rench levee en masse and the system o inde&endent but
mutually su&&orting cor&s by Da&oleon% In uture armies are likely to ace non*state
adversaries organi$ed in networks rather than hierarchies
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AW Initiation and Conflict ,(tcome Teories
Initiation of Asymmetric Wars by Wea"er Po$ers% An e+amination o all the
wars between ,FCC to ,;;F indicates that weak actors were victorious in 9CI o all
% According to the theory &ro&ounded by T%@ <aul the weak states initiate
asymmetric conlicts against su&erior adversaries based u&on our actors) i%e%) strategic
calculations o cost1beneit) alliance relationshi& with global &owers) ac(uisition o
oensive wea&ons and domestic &olitical &ower changes% The author cites several
e+am&les rom military history to &rove his theory% Ene o the e+am&les cited is that o
Arab Israel war o ,;=9 in which ?gy&tians calculated that their initial tactical gains
would com&el Israel to come to bargaining terms without escalating the war to a nuclear
level due to 'S intervention% The Russian su&&lied aircrat tanks and SA- missiles had
induced in ?gy&tians an oensive s&irit while the covert Russian di&lomatic su&&ort
gave them the re(uisite conidence% The domination o ?gy&tian decision making
hierarchy by hawkish elements also encouraged the oensive% The theory interestingly
is successully a&&lied to asymmetric conlicts like Russo Ja&anese war o ,;C:)
Ja&anese attack on <earl 7arbour in ,;:,) Chinese intervention in Jorea in ,;>C) The
<akistani oensive in Jashmir in ,;B> and the Argentinean invasion o the "alklands in
,;F8% The &robability o asymmetric war initiation by weaker side is higher at a time
when the stronger side6s short term window o vulnerability is about to close
Strate+ic Interaction Teory of Conflict ,(tcome
% According to this theory
the outcome o asymmetric conlicts can be &redicted with the hel& o strategic
interaction between the deensive and oensive strategies o two antagonists in the
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asymmetric conlict% There are two deensive strategies or a weaker side) i%e%) direct
deence and guerrilla warare and the two oensive strategies or a stronger adversary
are direct attack and barbarism% The interaction between these strategies yield ollowing
Hy!otesis 01 When strong actors attack using a direct strategy and weak actors
deend using a direct strategy strong actor should win%
Hy!otesis .% When strong actors attack with a direct strategy and weak actors
deend using indirect strategy weak actors should win%
Hy!otesis 2% When strong actors attack using an indirect strategy and weak actors
deend using a direct strategy strong actors should lose%
Hy!otesis /% When strong actors em&loy barbarism to attack weak actors
deending with guerrilla war strong actor should win%
Hy!otesis 3% Strong actors are more likely to win same approach interactions
and lose opposite-approach interactions%
Emer+in+ Trends% "rom ,FCC to ,F:;) 314 &ercent o interactions in 2/ asymmetric
conlicts were o&&osite a&&roach% "rom ,F>C to ,F;;) 056 o interactions in B;
asymmetric conlicts were o&&osite a&&roach% "rom ,;CC to ,;:;) 0710I o thirty one
asymmetric conlicts were o&&osite and rom ,;>C to ,;FF) ..1. I o 9B asymmetric
conlicts were o&&osite a&&roach% The above acts indicate the increase in the
re(uency o o&&osite a&&roach interactions along with an increased incidence o victory
by weak actors in asymmetric conlicts%
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8S Res!onse to Asymmetric Warfare
The global asymmetric threats have &rom&ted 'SA to (uestion some o the sel
im&osed legal1moral bindings) which hamstring its ability to bring the ull range o its
coercive &ower against asymmetric threats
% There is a serious debate going in 'S to
conigure its armed orces or a more eicacious countering o asymmetric threats%
Some o the measures being &ro&osed include increased ocus on ****** regions with
decreased need or large standing orces) des&ite need or heavy naval orces to
creased ocus on maintaining control o littoral regions in su&&ort o military
interventions and an em&hasis on high s&eed lighter orces conigured or autonomous
o&erations in hostile regions% The rise o asymmetric threats armed with R-A
technologies have also led 'S to ocus shar&ly on inormation war o&erations) s&ecial
orces o&erations) &olitical military o&erations) counter terrorist o&erations and e+&ertise
in urban warare
Asymmetric Treats to Pa"istan% Asymmetric threats to <akistan emanate rom
ethnic) sectarian) and narco terrorism% All the above mentioned elements are e+&loited
by oreign unded saboteurs% The indiscriminate targeting o innocent civilians and vital
national assets o <akistan are the grim maniestations o the asymmetric war being
waged against <akistan by Indian intelligence agencies% Indians have their own
&roblems with asymmetric war in Jashmir where reedom ighters are conronting seven
hundred thousand strong Indian Army and <aramilitary orces% India considers LIC in
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Jashmir as an asymmetric war against it by <akistan in order to bridge the ga& between
conventional orces o two countries
% Indians have started res&onding by s&onsoring
suicide bombers who are trying to hijack the Jashmiris6 reedom struggle% All KKKKKKK
threatens stability in <akistan
% The current massive Indian build u& on our eastern
borders is also a kind o asymmetric threat aimed at economic strangulation and
di&lomatic isolation o <akistan with the ultimate aim o tilting the scales in asymmetric
conlict in Jashmir in India6s avours
Res!onse ,!tions for Pa"istan
<akistan6s oreign &olicy needs to be crated as the irst line o deence by kee&ing
the security im&eratives and economic interests o the country as its chie
An im&roved intelligence gathering ca&ability should be ac(uired making ull use o
inormation age technologies in order to detect the terrorist threats as a &ro&hylactic
A &ortion o the conventional orce structure to be reconigured into ra&id reaction
orces to tackle the non*traditional asymmetric threats%
Armed orces to ensure hardening o sot command) control and communication
means to avoid being targeted by saboteurs%
.evelo&ment o indigenous satellite based communication and surveillance means
to be able to detect and track the activities o transnational criminal organi$ations%
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A conce&t o ull dimensional &rotection both at armed orces and national level to be
conceived to counter eects o W-.s%
A strict im&lementation o the laws o land to all &arts o the country in order to deny
sae havens to &urveyors o violence like transnational criminal) ethnic1religious
terrorists and saboteurs acting at the behest o oreign intelligence agencies%
Asymmetric warare is not a new conce&t% "resh im&etus has been given to the
conce&t due to some interesting develo&ments including increased asymmetry between
the economic and military &otential o states in a uni&olar world% Without delving into the
etiology o terrorism it is necessary to understand why it has graduated in the &antheon
o asymmetric threats rom a &uny idol to an e+alted icon% It is its marriage with
inormation age warare tools and W-.s that makes it synonymous with asymmetric
warare% An eort has been made in this article to e+&lore all the dimensions o
asymmetric warare both in its historical and contem&orary conte+t% A small menu o
res&onse o&tions has also been suggested to counter its baleul eects% It is a truth
nevertheless that conventional deterrence nowadays has been subsumed in a new
security architecture that must guard against both conventional and unconventional
asymmetric threats in e(ual measure%
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,% Clark L Staten) Asymmetric Warare) the ?volution and .evolution o Terrorism)
?mergency Res&onse L Research Institute) 'SA%
8% Ivan Arreguin M Tot) 7ow the Weak Win War0 A theory o Asymmetric Conlict) J
7' <ress) 8CC,%
9% Steven -et$) Strategic Asymmetry% -ilitary Review) July August 8CC,%
:% Jason -oll) CSIS re&ortG Do end or mid east violence) '<I) August ;)8CC,%
>% T%@ <aul) Asymmetric ConlictsG War Initiation by weaker <owers% Cambridge
'niversity <ress) ,;;:) <age 9,%
B% @incent J 2oulding) /ack to the "uture with Asymmetric Warare) <arameters
Winter) 8CCC*C,) <ages 8,*9C%
=% Re&ort o the Dational .eence <anel) Transorming .eenceG Dational security in
the 8,
Century) Washington .C ,;;=%
F% .r Colin 2% 2rey) Thinking Asymmetrically in Times o Terror) <arameters) S&ring
;% Sharjeel Ri$wan) Revolution in -ilitary Aairs) .eence Journal Se&tember 8CCC%
,C% Jeerey -ckitrick) James /lackwell) "red Little <age) 2eorge Jraus) Richard
/lanch ield and .ale 7ill) /attle ield o the "uture% 8,
Century warare issues) cha&ter
9% The Revolution in -ilitary Aairs%
,,% Ibid%
,8% Ibid% Serial ,C%
The Citadel No.2/2002
,9% Ibid% Serial ;%
,:% "ranklin) S&iny) What Revolution in -ilitary Aairs0 .eence Week) A&ril 89)
8CC,) <age 8%
,>% Andrew Rathmell) Terrorism and asymmetric Conlict in south West Asia% Re&ort
o a 2eneva Centre or security <olicy1Rand Worksho&s) worksho& on terrorism and
Asymmetric conlict in Southwest Asia) 2CS<) 89*8> Jun 8CC8%
,B% Jevin E /rien) Intelligence gathering asymmetric threats) Jane6s security Dews)
Ectober 8CCC%
,=% Steven -et$) Strategic Asymmetry) -ilitary review) July*August 8CC,%
,F% Ibid%
,;% Ibid% &%8=%
8C% Andrew J% R% -ack) Why /ig Dations Lose Small Wars0 The <olitics o
Asymmetric Conlict) World <olitics) volume 8=) January ,;=>%
8,% Joint Task "orcesH E&tions to Train) Erganise and ?(ui&) Dational Security
Studies Auarterly) Winter ,;;;) <ages 9,*:F%
88% Ibid%) serial 8%
89% Ibid%) serial >) &%9,%
8:% Ibid%) serial 8%
8>% Roger W) /arnett) Asymmetrical Warare) Today6s Challenge to 'S -ilitary
<owers) Inc) /rassey6s%
8B% "ranklin S&inney) John Sayen and .onald @ander gri) S&irit% /lood and
Treasure9 <residio <ress) 8CC,%
The Citadel No.2/2002
8=% .r Ayesha Siddi(ue Agha) <olitics o Asymmetrical Warare in South Asia% "riday
Times ,9*,; Se&tember 8CC8%
8F% Air -arshal !Retired# Aya$ Ahmed Jhan) Terrorism and Asymmetrical Warare)
International and Regional Im&lications) .eence Journal%
8;% Shahid Shciek) Identiying India6s Ebjectives) .awn) ,8 Ectober 8CC8%
Lieutenant Colonel Raashid Wali Janjua was commissioned in
,;F8% 7e is a graduate o -ilitary College o ?ngineering)
Risal&ur) Command and Sta College) Auetta and College o
?lectrical and -echanical ?ngineer) Rawal&indi% 7e has served
as general sta oicer grade*III in an inantry brigade besides an
instructional stint in <akistan -ilitary Academy as a &latoon
commander% 7e has also served in -ilitary Secretary6s /ranch as
a .A-S1A-S% 7e commanded an engineer battalion in "CDA beore joining his &resent
assignment as a .irecting Sta in Command and Sta College) Auetta%
The Citadel No.2/2002