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You are on page 1of 10

Chapter ( 2 ) / Kinetics .

Akram M. Mahmoud .

--- Kinetics

1 Force - Acceleration

2 Energy - Work

3 Impulse - Momentum

Kinetics

CH 2 / Kinetics __________________________________________________ 2

( 1 ) Force - Acceleration

Use Newton’s second law to study un equilibrium cases .

=

Net force N

Mass kg

Acceleration

( 2 ) Energy - Work

CH 2 / Kinetics __________________________________________________ 3

Use energy and works laws to study un equilibrium cases .

= . =

Work ≡ .

Force N

Distance m

Angle between force and distance Deg. °

The work is The force acts a displacement .

CH 2 / Kinetics __________________________________________________ 4

=

=

The energy is the ability to do work . Such as : Kinetic energy ,

potential energy , Thermal energy …etc.

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion .

Potential energy is the energy of an object because of its position

from the center of gravity of Earth .

Conservation of energy principle : Mechanical energy is the

summation of kinetic and potential and equal to constant .

= + =

+

=

+

Power is the rate at which work is done . =

Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy

Mechanical Energy

Mass

Velocity

Height

Power ≡

( 3 ) Impulse - Momentum

Momentum is the product of mass and velocity

=

Impulse is the product of force and time . = ∆

Newton’s second law : It is the rate of momentum .

Impulse momentum theorem : A force acting on a mass during a time

causes the mass to change its momentum .

∆ = ∆ ∆ = ∆

∆ =

−

**Conservation of momentum : If net force is not exist , the total
**

momentum will remain constant . ( other form of Newton’s first law )

CH 2 / Kinetics __________________________________________________ 5

=

∆

∆

Use impulse and momentum to study un equilibrium cases .

Momentum

≡

Impulse

≡

Exercises

1 . What is net force is required to accelerate a 1500 kg race car to

?

2 . An astronaut with mass 75 kg travels to Mars . What is his weight :

A ) On Earth ?

B ) On Mars where = .

?

C ) What is the value of g on top of a mountain if the astronaut

weighs 683 N ?

3 . A student a box of books that weighs 185 N . The box is lifted

0.8 m . How much work does the student do ?

4 . A sailor pulls a boat along a dock using a rope at an angle

°

with

the horizontal . How much work is done by the sailor if he exerts a

force of 255 N on the rope and pulls the boat 30 m ?

5 . An electric motor lifts an elevator that weighs . ×

N a

distance of 9 m in 15 s . Calculate :

A ) Work . B ) Power .

CH 2 / Kinetics __________________________________________________ 6

6 . You throw a 0.145 kg baseball straight up in the air , giving it an

initial upward velocity of magnitude 20

**. Find how high it goes ,
**

ignoring air resistance .

7 . A baseball of mass 0.14 kg is moving at +

. Calculate :

A ) The momentum of baseball .

B ) The velocity at which a bowling ball , mass 7.26 kg , would have

the same momentum as the baseball .

CH 2 / Kinetics __________________________________________________ 7

Givens = , =

Required

Solution = = × =

--- Givens Solution

A = .

= ×

= × . =

B = .

= ×

= × . =

C =

=

=

= .

Givens = , = .

Required

Solution = = × . =

Givens =

°

, = , =

Required

Solution = cos = × cos 60

°

=

CH 2 / Kinetics __________________________________________________ 8

Givens = . ,

=

Required

Solution

+

=

+

=

=

× . ×

=

= ,

=

∴ + = +

⇒

= =

∴ =

=

. × .

= .

CH 2 / Kinetics __________________________________________________ 9

Givens

= . ×

=

=

Required ) . )

Solution

=

= . ×

×

=

=

=

= .

Givens

= . ,

=

,

= .

Required )

)

Solution

) =

= . × = .

)

=

=

.

.

= .

CH 2 / Kinetics __________________________________________________ 10

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