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QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND

APPLICATIONS
I. Defnition
A quadratic equation in one variable is
any equation that can be written in the
form
2
0 0 ax bx c a + + · ≠ Standard form
where x is a variable and a, b, and c are
constants.
II. Solving Quadratic Equations by
Factoring
• Solve by factoring:
1.
2
6 19 7 0 x x − − ·
2.
2
6 5 4 x x − + · −
3.
2
2 3 x x ·
1.
2
6 19 7 0 x x − − ·
( ) ( ) 2 7 3 1 0 x x − + · Factor left side
2 7 0 or 3 1 0 x x − · + ·
7 1
or
2 3
x x · · −
The solution set is
1 7
,
3 2
¹ ¹

' ;
¹ ¹
.
2.
2
6 5 4 x x − + · −
2
6 5 4 0 x x − + + ·
2
6 9 0 x x − + · Writeinstandardform
( )
2
3 0 x − · Factor left side
3 x ·
The solution set is { } 3 . The equation has one
root, 3. But since it came from two factors,
we call 3 a double root.
3.
2
2 3 x x ·
2
2 3 0 x x − ·
( ) 2 3 0 x x − ·
0 or 2 3 0 x x · − ·
3
2
x ·
The solution set is
3
0,
2
¹ ¹
' ;
¹ ¹
.
III. Solving Quadratic Eq’ns by
Square Root
• Solve using the square root property:
1.
2
2 3 0 x − ·
2.
2
3 27 0 x + ·
3.
2
1 5
2 4
x
¸ _
+ ·
÷
¸ ,
1.
2
2 3 0 x − ·
2
3
2
x ·
3 6
or
2 2
x · t t
The solution set is
6 6
,
2 2
¹ ¹
− ¹ ¹
' ;
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
.
2.
2
3 27 0 x + ·
2
3 27 x · −
2
9 x · −
9 or 3 x i · t − t
The solution set is { } 3 , 3 i i − .
3.
2
1 5
2 4
x
¸ _
+ ·
÷
¸ ,
1 5
2 4
x + · t
1 5
2 2
x · − t
1 5
2
x
− t
·
Solve by factoring:
1.
2
3 7 20 0 x x + − ·
2.
2
4 12 9 0 x x + + ·
3.
2
4 5 x x ·
Solve using the square root property:
1.
2
3 5 0 x − ·
2.
2
2 8 0 x + ·
3.
2
1 2
3 9
x
¸ _
+ ·
÷
¸ ,
IV.Solving Quadratic Equations by
Co!leting t"e Square
• Solve by completing the square:
1.
2
6 2 0 x x + − ·
2.
2
2 4 3 0 x x − + ·
1.
2
6 2 0 x x + − ·
2
6 2 x x + ·
2
6 2 x x + + · + 9 9
( )
2
3 11 x + ·
3 11 x + · t
3 11 x · − t
2.
2
2 4 3 0 x x − + ·
2
3
2 0
2
x x − + ·
2
3
2
2
x x − · −
2
3
2
2
x x − + · − + 1 1
( )
2 1
1
2
x − · −
1
1
2
x − · t −
1
1
2
x i · t
2
1
2
x i · t
V. Solving Quadratic Equations by
Quadratic Forula

• Solve
2
3
2
2
x x + · by using the quadratic
formula. Leave the answer in simplest
radical form.
2
3
2
2
x x + ·
2
4 3 2 x x + · Multiplybothsidesby.
2
2 4 3 0 x x − − · Write in standard form.
2
4
2, 4, 3
2
b b ac
x a b c
a
− t −
· · · − · −
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
4 4 4 2 3
2 2
− − t − − −
·
4 40 4 2 10 2 10
4 4 2
t t t
· · ·
Solve by completing the square:
1.
2
8 3 0 x x + − ·
2.
2
3 12 13 0 x x − + ·
To complete the square of a quadratic of the
form
2
x bx + , add the square of one!half
the coe"cient of x# that is, add
( )
2
2 b .
Thus,
2
x bx +

2
5 x x +
2 2 2 2
2 2
5 5
5
2 2 2 2
b b
x bx x x x x
¸ _ ¸ _ ¸ _ ¸ _
+ + · + + + · +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,
If
2
0 0 ax bx c a + + · ≠ , then
2
4
2
b b ac
x
a
− t −
·
Solve
2
5
3
2
x x − · − by using the quadratic
formula. Leave the answer in simplest
radical form.
EXERCISES
Solve by any method:
1.
2
12 7 10 x x + ·
2.
( )
2
2 3 5 y − ·
3.
2
3 1 x x · +
#.
2
7 4 n n · −
$.
2
8 4
1
x x
+ ·
%.
2 4 1
2 3 1 x x x
· −
− − +
&.
2
2
2 1
1
3 9 3
x x x
x x x
+ −
− · −
+ − −
APPLICATIONS
1. $f %P are invested at an interest rate r
compounded annually, at the end of
years, the amount will be
( )
2
1 A P r · + . At
what interest rate will %&,''' increase to
%&,((' in years) *+ote, $1, 440 A · and
$1, 000 P · -.
2. $n a certain city, the price!demand and
price!supply equations for ./s are,

75, 000
p
q
·
/emand
equation
0.0005 12.5 p q · + Supply
equation
where p represents the price in dollars
and q represents the quantity.
Find the equilibrium price and equilibrium
quantity.