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This chapter presents the discussion about (1) Background of the study, (2) Statement
of the problem, (3) Objective of the study, (4) Scope and limitation of the study (5)
Assumption of the study, (6) Hypothesis of the study, (7) The definition of key term and (8)
Significance of the study.

1.1. Background of the Study
In teaching English, teachers are obliged to choose any suitable teaching media in
order to achieve the teaching objective easily, so that the student will be motivated to learn
more. Teacher who area able to presents the material easily will be students idol. In applying
teaching media, the teacher should consider many things like teaching material, students
level, classroom management and many other aspects, because the use in appropriate
technique could cause many difficulty or the students and the teachers fail in teaching them
and would also be burden for.
In this study, the teacher would like to show a simple and interesting teaching media
in presenting vocabulary items to the fifth year student, which is called Flannel Board. As
one of language teaching media such as Flannel Board have very significance role to make
the teaching and learning activity more interesting. Many example of language teaching and
learning English that dont make the students bored.
Starting from this point, the writer is interested in investigating the using of song in
teaching English vocabulary, a study of teaching media at the fifth year student of
Elementary School.

1.2. Statement of the Problem
The following problems need to be found out its answer through this particular
1. Are the Flannel Board effective in teaching English vocabulary?
2. To what extent is the effectiveness of using Flannel Board in teaching English vocabulary?

1.3. Objective of the Study
Based on the research statements this research is aimed at finding out:
1. Whether Flannel Board are effective to teach English vocabulary for the fifth year students in
Elementary School
2. The effectiveness of using Flannel Board in teaching English vocabulary for the fifth year
students of Elementary School.

1.4. Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope and limitation of the study are limited to the subject and object of research.
1. The research subject is limited to fifth year students of SDN 3 Tetebatu.
2. The research object is limited on using Flannel Board in teaching English Vocabulary.

1.5. Assumption of the Study
In illustrating above, can be attracts the assumption of the study as follows:
1. The fifth year students of Elementary School are interested in Flannel Board, and Flannel
Board media can be motivated the students to master English.
2. By using Flannel Board, the student will be easier in memorizing new vocabulary.

1.6. Hypothesis of the Study
The hypothesis of the recent study is formulated as follows:
1. The students who are thought by using Flannel Board have greater achievement than those
who are not thought by using Flannel Board.

1.7. Definition of Key Terms
To avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation among the readers, it is necessary to
clarify some of the terms used in this study.
1. Flannel Board : is a board which is the faced of the board covered by flannel-cloth
2. Vocabulary : is a list of word phrasal usually arrange alphabetically and defined or
translated as a lexical or glossary.
3. Effective : having an effect producing the intended result.
4. Mastering : complete knowledge, great skill.

1.8. The Significance of the Study
The significance of the study can be seen from theoretically and practically.
1. Theoretically
The result of the study may give some information in acquiring new vocabulary by using
Flannel Board, this research also inform the English teacher that there are many ways of
teaching vocabulary and those can be applied to students as well.
2. Practically
To ask the students to take part more actively in teaching and learning process and give
precious experience to the researcher in writing this study for developing creativity either in
writing or teaching in the classroom.


After formulating the problem of the study the researcher arrives at one important
process finding some related information.
This chapter discusses (1) Media, (2) Flannel Board, (3) Relevant of the Study and (4)
Theoretical Frame Work.
Media is means of expressing massage and information. Hamalik (1986: 23) states
that: media is a tool or method and technique used to make the communication and
interaction between the teacher and the student in teaching learning process to be more
effective. Based on the definition above, it can be concluded that the media relates to
technique, method in teaching and learning process.
By media we mean all aids which may be used by teacher and learner to attain certain
education objectives. We shall restrict ourselves in some respect in our treatment of media
which may be used in FLT, only those media which have a direct contribution to make to
teaching/learning process will be discussed. We shall also restrict ourselves to the use of
media in the classroom.
Various consideration have traditionally led people to advocate the use of media in
FLT, as Schilder in Edward (1977) point out in his study of the history of media use, there
was and still is a consensus as the usefulness of media. The developments that have taken
place have changed little in the respect. These developments can be attributed on the one
hand to the technological innovation which continued to expand the range of reliable and
accessible media and on the other hand to change in linguistic, psychological and didactic
insight: another important factors is constituted by the changes in educational itself, e.g. with
respect to objectives and curricula and the role played by FLT in them.
Given the above definition, media can be specified in different ways, Erdemengerin
Edward (1979: 24) list a number of points of view from which media can be considered:
1. The nature of information conveyed by the media (i.e. linguistic and non linguistic
2. The channel of information (auditory, visual, or audiovisual media).
3. The phrases in the process of teaching, and testing (are they used for the presentation and
exploitation of learning material of for testing).
4. The didactic function (are they used to motivate learners to convey information or to
stimulate free language use)
5. The degree of accessibility and adaptability (Mindt, 1978, Macht and Sctolossbaer, 1978,
Heaton, 1979: 39).
6. The possibilities for supporting, supplementing or replacing the teacher (Ahrens, 1980).
7. The use of media by individual or groups.

The General Principle in Using Media
There are some general principles in using media; the first principle is that the media
and the method should complete each other, they can not stand by it self. Media supports the
application of one method, and the method needs a media to convey the method. This is
accordance with the second principle that a certain media is more appropriate to be used in
conveying a unit of lesson, a lesson may be running well, when a particular media is applied,
while the same media might not be used to teach other lesson unit. In fact, not all media is
appropriate, which could be used in all teaching learning process. (Rahmatullah, 1998: 12)

The Importance of Using Media
Media for teaching is a media that can be used to help the students in their study, in
order to make the teaching learning process more effective and efficient. By using media, the
material is more interesting concrete and easier to understand.
One of the roles of media is to attract the students attention and to deliver the
information. There are various kinds of media, but visual are the appropriate media for young
learner. According to Wright (1989) states that, in making decision to use the media, the
teacher need to ask three out five basic questions: 1) is it easy for us to prepare? 2) Is it easy
to organize in the classroom? 3) Is it interesting to the students? The three criteria can be
applied by any teacher including teachers for beginners.

There are various kinds of visual which can be effectively used by the EFL teacher in
their classroom. Teacher of young learner have to use some visual in their teaching activities
to facilitate their teaching. In general, some of the visuals are: 1) still pictures, 2) reality, 3)
drawing or teacher drawing, 4) chart, poster, cartoons, and 5) real objects.
Some school have already equipped with modern media, such as radio video tape
material. In this case, songs, stories, poems and dialogue are invaluable in teaching foreign
language. Many kinds of supplementary material can be place in media. EFL teacher use
media in their English class learning, so in SMP/SMA students will be learning the foreign
language through the concept example of things found in the real world, and the advantages
of using media instructional media for EFL classes:
- It is arouses students interest
- It gives more opportunity for the students to use the language.
- It attracts students attention.
- It adds a pleasure variety to English learning.

Flannel Board
Flannel board is a board which is the one faced of board covered by flannel-cloth and
in this face we can touch many kind of picture and give the students some contributions to
rich the vocabulary mastery.

Flannel Board as Media in Teaching Vocabulary
One of media in teaching English is Flannel Board. The effort of the linguist has
strong basic because the learner entertained with their everyday life, give chances to the
student to more creatively because Flannel Board as media in teaching English vocabulary is
very effective and more interested because the students will be memorized the vocabulary
without any because the enjoying the picture in the flannel. So that using Flannel
Board in teaching vocabulary will give achievement acquiring English.
Flannel Board can increase motivation to learn the English for the students. They also
have to add advantage of being memorable the words much less likely that the students will
forget the words, and therefore the language practice in it, whereas language practice in even
well constructed drill is usually very quickly forgotten and finally, Flannel Board which helps
to bring the students memorize more words.

The Function of Flannel Board
There are many functions of puzzle in the teaching of vocabulary given by linguists.
The function of Flannel Board could be divided into four kinds, such as:
a. To enlarge vocabulary
b. To increase vocabulary
c. To deepen vocabulary
d. To ice break vocabulary

Relevant of the Study
The research that has relation to this study is the research conducted by Nurhaji
(1998). He investigates on the effectiveness of using Flannel Board in increase the
vocabulary in motivate speaking achievement, in the school MA NW Pancor 1997/1998.
The problem of this study is to what extent is the effectiveness of using Flannel Board in
teaching vocabulary?
The result of the analysis shoed the mean score of the experimental group was 6,95
and the control group was 4,25. It can be concluded that the main score of experimental
groups is higher than the main score of control group. It means that the Flannel Board
significance in teaching English vocabulary. The similarities of this research it the research
dealing with vocabulary that have been conducted by some researcher.

Theoretical Framework
This study investigates the use of Flannel Board in teaching English vocabularies. The
theoretical framework applied deal with the concept of Flannel Board in teaching
vocabularies. Moreover English media like Flannel Board supports the students ability in
memorizing vocabulary. Flannel Board can stimulate the learner to practice his language
Based on the statement above, since Flannel Board may help the teacher and student
to get new vocabularies likewise, the writer wants to investigates the effectiveness of using
Flannel Board in mastering vocabulary for the fifth year students of Elementary School in the
school year 2006-2007.


This chapter deals with research design, population and sample, data collection and
data analysis.

3.1. Research Design
Concerning with the object of this research The Effectiveness of Using Flannel
Board in Mastering Vocabulary for the Fifth Year Student of Elementary School in the
School Year 2006-2007 this research categorized as experimental research because this
research appeared the symptoms a purposely, as Arikunto (1998) states that meted
experiment adalah metode dengan sengaja mengusahakan timbulnya variable-variabel dan
selanjutnya dikontrol untuk dilihat pengaruhnya terhadap prestasi belajar. Furthermore the
aim of this research is to know the effectiveness of using Flannel Board in mastering
vocabulary, so this research has hypothesis. The writer will use the experimental and control
group, where the experimental group will be treated by using Flannel Board and control
group will be treated without media. The writer also has written the instructional design and
prepared test for pre-test and post-test. The instructional will be given to the two groups, they
will be given pre-test and post-test after four meetings instruction the students will be given
post-test by sing the same tests. The designs of two groups are as follow:
Table: 3.1. The pre-test and post-test design
Group Pre-test Independent variable Post-Test




E: Experimental group
C: Control group
: Pre-test
: Post-test
X: Treatment toward experimental group with using songs.

3.1.1. Population and Sample
The population of the study is the whole classes of the fifth year students of
Elementary School in SDN 1 Tetebatu and SDN 3 Tetebatu in the school year 2006-2007.
Population as stated by Arikunto (1998: 115) that the whole of the subject research is called
population research. It is in line with encyclopedia of educational evaluation and he (1998:
115) also states that a population is a set of all elements possessing one or more attributes of
Based on the last definition about the population, can be taken the conclusion that the
subject at all the study is all of the student which have the same characteristic and will be
investigated through this research. The population of this study is al of students at fifth year
student that is divided into two groups.
The Member of Population
No Class Number of Subject
SDN 1 Tetebatu
SDN 3 Tetebatu

To determine the sample of the study, the writer will take what Arikunto (1998: 107)
suggested that sample is a part of representative of population that are examined or
investigated. Furthermore, she also states that if the population less than 100, the whole
numbers of population must be taken. But if the populations are more than 100, it can be
taken between 10-15%, 20-25% or more than it.
Then the researcher referred to this theory by taking all of the students in the fifth year
students are the sample of the study, because both of each, so, the sample
3.2. Data Collection
To find data of this study, the writer will apply regularly instruction to the subject for
three months, where the experimental groups will be treated by using songs and control group
will be treated without using media in teaching English vocabulary. The steps will be used to
find out the data are follows:
1. The researcher will give the test for students.
2. The researcher will ask the students to do the test individually and carefully on certain given

3. The students paper-sheet will be submitted.
4. The students result is treated as the data of study.

3.3. Data Analysis
To analyze the data obtained, the writer will process the scores by the following. The
steps: the writer will calculate deviation between pre-test and post-test of experimental and
control group.
The mean deviation score of experimental group:
The mean deviation score of control group:
regarding to the table of computation of students deviation of experimental group and
control group, the writer finally find out the correlate of two scores by using t-test as follows:
M: Mean deviation of each group
N: Number of subject (the experimental group)
X: Deviation between pre-test and post-test (the control group)
a b. Nx + Ny = 2 (Degree freedom) (Suharsimi Arikunto, 1998: 306)
And then, the criterion will be used is as follow:
1. If t-test (tt) > t-table (to) in significant rank of 0,05, Ho (null hypothesis) is accepted. It
means that the rates of Mean Score of the experimental group is higher than the control
2. If t-test (tt) < t-table (to) significant rank of 0,05, Ho (the null hypothesis) is rejected, it
means that the rates of the Mean Score of the experimental group is lower than the control


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